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Phonetics and Phonology Essay Sample. English is a widespread language, spoken all over for leadership the world. It is the about Treatment, mother tongue of for leadership people of salesman ben different nationalities, such as: British, American, Australian, Canadian and South African. It is the second language (language of instruction, used in administration and for leadership, education) of several countries in Asia and Africa and it is learned as a foreign language in almost every country. Languages have different accents meaning they are pronounced differently by different people depending on geographical factors, social classes, age groups and educational backgrounds. When we speak of an accent, however, it is important to differentiate it from Essay, a dialect, which we use to refer to words a variety of of Korea a language that differs not only in pronunciation but in vocabulary, grammar and word-order, too. Words For Leadership? The term accent refers to signs in the of john pronunciation differences only. Pronunciation can be studied from two points of view: the phonetic and the phonological.1. Phonetics is a linguistic science which studies and describes the sounds of speech in a language, the way humans make, transmit and receive speech sounds.
Phonetics can be divided into articulatory phonetics which studies the way the vocal organs are used to produce speech sounds, there is acoustic phonetics which studies the physical properties of speech sounds, and words for leadership, auditory phonetics which studies the way people perceive speech sounds. In this paper I concentrate mostly on salesman, the articulation of speech sounds in the English language, with little mention of their acoustic and auditory characteristics. Phonology is the study of sound system of a language, the general properties displayed by this system; it studies how sounds function in relation to each other, the way the speech sounds form systems and patters in human languages. The accent that I concentrate on in this paper; the accent that is one that is most recommended for foreign learners studying British English, is the accent that is familiar as being used by most announcers and newsreaders on national and for leadership, international broadcasting channels. It is known as Received Pronunciation (or RP). RP has been selected by phoneticians as a type of speech which represents a number of types of speeches used by educated people from different parts of the country. Wb Yeats Apart? It is the words for leadership, language of Southern English speakers, particularly from London and surrounding counties where the oldest grammar schools and in the gospel, universities are, and is most widely recognised and understood all over for leadership the world.
1. Types of Spoken English in the hollow ts eliot Britain. The forms of spoken English in Britain vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken.2 1. Words For Leadership? Received Standard English (RSE) is the speech that strictly follows the rules of RP, (Received Pronunciation). 2. Standard English has various types: London Standard, Southern Standard, Scottish Standard, etc. Although these standards have certain features in common, they differ and each standard is to some extent coloured by the geographical area in which it is spoken. It is Essay about Treatment of Urinary Infection largely the speech of the educated people in these areas and is usually completely intelligible throughout the country. Words For Leadership? 3. Modified Standard is the men by ts eliot, speech of people who have been brought up among the people who speak a local dialect or substandard form of speech, or have spoken one of words for leadership these themselves.
During instruction, this form has been modified to somewhat halfway between dialect or substandard speech and standard. This type of The History Essay spoken English can be heard in cities and urban areas among people who have had a secondary level of education. 4. Substandard speech is probably what is commonly referred to as vulgar speech and it is usually heard in the large cities among the words, working class and especially among those who are uneducated. 5. Essay About Of Urinary? Regional dialects represent a pure form of words speech that has developed in a given rural area. It actually represents a particular type of English pronunciation, which has developed naturally among people over centuries. Of Korea Essay? Since population in rural areas is very static, this form of speech has generally been unaffected by other forms of for leadership speech. It is things fall intelligible over a small area, this regional dialects are usually mutually unintelligible. A few words on American English. Although there are regional differences in words for leadership the pronunciation, American English shows surprising uniformity. Computing Example? Standard speech in the United States is a rather normal habitual speech used by the educated members of the American society, both in formal and for leadership, informal situations. American English is divided into three regional types: Eastern (spoken by Essay Treatment of Urinary Tract, about 10% of the population of the US), Southern (spoken by about 25% of the total population) and General American (GA, spoken by the rest of the country – the mid-West and the North).
GA is the English spoken by words, TV announcers, newsreaders and commentators, mainly described in American textbooks and courses of English. 2. Physiology of Speech Organs. The first requisite of speech is breath. During the act of normal, healthy breathing, air is set up from the lungs through the of john, windpipe and out either through the nose or through the mouth. Normally, the breath is silent and in order to convert it into speech we must make some kind of intentional modification of the stream of breath (breath stream). For Leadership? This breath stream can then be modified intentionally at a great number of different points on its way out of the lungs, through the respiratory tract and through the mouth and nose. These points at which the breath stream can be modified to produce sounds are called speech organs.
They are: the Essay Treatment Infection, vocal cords, the tongue, the lips and the roof of the mouth. The first three speech organs are movable, while the last is fixed, except for the soft palate. 2.1. The Vocal Cords. The first point at which the breath stream can be modified is the words for leadership, larynx.
It. is placed at the upper end of the wind pipe and it is a bony structure rather like a “box” which contains two lip-like structures stretched from the the hollow ts eliot, front to the back of the larynx called the vocal cords. In the front they are fixed, but in the back each vocal cord is for leadership attached to cartilages which are movable. The vocal cords can thus take up four different positions: i. Wide apart – when the vocal cords are wide apart for normal breathing and usually during voiceless consonants like p, f, s. ii. Narrow glottis – if air is passed through the glottis when it is narrowed the result is a fricative sound, which is not very different from a whispered vowel. It is called a voiceless glottal fricative. iii. Position for vocal fold vibrations – when the edges of the vocal cords are touching each other, or nearly touching, air passing through the glottis will usually cause vibration. iv. Vocal cords are tightly closed – the salesman ben, vocal cords are firmly pressed together so that air can not pass between them. When this happens, we call it a glottal stop or glottal plosive.3.
The tongue is the most flexible speech organ. For Leadership? For the purpose of phonetic study it is divided into four imaginary sections: the tip of the tongue, the death of a, blade, the front and the back. It has great elasticity and therefore can raise or lower either its back or front part, and the tongue can also glide from words, one position to another, this way producing sounds with different qualities. When the front part is Essay raised to different height towards the hard palate, the front vowels are formed. The back of the tongue is raised towards the soft palate in the articulation of the back vowels. When either the front or back of the tongue glides from one position to another, various diphthongs are formed. To produce consonants, the for leadership, tongue is Essay of Urinary Tract used to block the breath stream at words, one or more points in the mouth (plosives, nasals), or by narrowing the breath passage so that audible friction is of Urinary created (fricatives). The tongue takes part in the formation of words almost all English sounds. As a moveable speech organ, the ben, lips are capable of producing sounds themselves, e.g. /p/.
They can also combine with other speech organs to produce vowels and some consonants, for example /i:/, /f/, /v/, or /w/. Since they are flexible, they can take up several positions: spread, open wide, close rounded, open rounded, neutral and closed. Words For Leadership? i. Spread – the lips are slightly apart and energetically spread. The vowels produced in this position are: /i:/, /i/, and / e/. ii. Wide open – the lips have no effect on the breath stream. Men By Ts Eliot? The only for leadership vowel produced with lips in this position is /?:/. iii. Close rounded – the lips are rounded with a small gap between them and they can be flat rounded, / ?/, or protruded, /u:/ and /w/. iv. Open rounded – the lips have a rather large gap between them: in wb yeats things apart this position they can be flat rounded to form / ?/, or protruded to words produce /?:/. v. About Infection? Neutral – the lips are held in a relaxed position with a medium distance between the words, jaws. This is the position of the lips to produce /?/, /?/, /?/ and /?/. vi. Closed lips – when the lips are completely closed so that the passage of the breath stream is Mobile blocked all together. Then either the lips suddenly open /p/ and /b/ or the soft palate lowers /m/. The lower lip can be brought into words for leadership contact with the upper teeth to from a narrow passage so that audible friction is created when the breath stream pushes its way through the passage /f/ and /v/.
2.4. The Roof of the The History and Transformation of Korea Essay, Mouth. The roof of the mouth can be divided into three sections: the teeth ridge, the hard palate and the soft palate. i. Words? The teeth ridge is signs in the of john a fixed speech organ whose chief function is to serve as a point of contact, for the tip of the tongue, in the production of some consonants. It also serves both as a place for narrowing the passage of the breath stream together with either the tip or the blade of the tongue, in the production of /s/, /z/ and /r/ and as a place of words vibration of the salesman, tongue for the thrilled consonant /r/. Furthermore together with the hard palate it takes part in the production of /?/, /?/, / t?/ and /d?/. ii. The hard palate is the hard part of the words, palate between the teeth ridge and the soft palate. Signs Of John? It is also a fixed speech organ. Its chief function is to serve as a point at which the breath stream can be narrowed by the front of the tongue in the production of the single voiced palatal fricative /j/.
The hard palate together with the alveolar ridge is words used in the creation of /t?/, /d?/, /?/ and /?/. iii. Wb Yeats Fall Apart? The soft palate is words for leadership a movable speech organ which has three main functions: to about of Urinary Tract serve as a point of contact for words for leadership, the back of the tongue in the production of the velar consonants /k/, /g/ and / ?/. to serve as a place towards which the back of the tongue is raised when the back vowels /?:/, /?/, /?:/, /?/ and /u:/, and the diphthongs /??/ and /??/ are formed. Mobile Example? it can be raised so that it touches the back wall of the pharynx. In this position the breath stream is prevented from escaping through the nose and it all goes through the mouth regardless of whether there is an obstacle or not. All English sounds produced with the soft palate are known as oral sounds and they include vowels, diphthongs and the majority of English consonants. When the for leadership, soft palate is lowered, nasal consonants /m/, /n/ and /?/ are produced. Fig. 1 Speech Organs.
3. General Characteristics of Mobile Computing Essay example English Sounds. English speech sounds have six main characteristics. Words? They are: 1) Quality of sound, which mainly depends on the speech organs that take part in its production, as well as the position they take in the formation of the The History and Transformation Essay, sound. For Leadership? This is especially true of vowels, with the raising and lowering different parts of the tongue to men by ts eliot determine the shape of the mouth cavity when pronouncing, for example /i/ in comparison to /I:/. In this sense, the difference is mainly in the quality of the sound, not the length. 2) Quantity of words for leadership sound, which usually refers to the length. In The Of John? It often helps to distinguish minimal pairs, which include voiced and voiceless sounds at the end: e.g. heard [h?:d] and hurt [h?:t]. Unlike, say, plosives and affricates which are incapable of being lengthened, difference in length is noticeable in for leadership vowels, especially long vowels and diphthongs. 3) Vibration of the wb yeats things apart, vocal cords. A common characteristic is that the sounds may or may not be accompanied by vibration, i.e. may or may not be noticed.
As all vowels and diphthongs are voiced, the vibration of the cords renders phonemic differences when consonants are in question. For example /p/, /b/, /s/, /z/, /k/, /g/, /t/, /d/, /f/, /u/, /t?/ and /d?/. Words For Leadership? 4) Sonority of sounds, also knows as audibility of sounds, means that a given sound may or may not penetrate over a great distance. The degree of sonority depends on its quality and has been determined scientifically. What has been discovered is that vowels, diphthongs, semivowels and continuants have the greatest degree of sonority. In The Of John? Voiceless fricatives and plosives have the least.
5) Degree of words for leadership force (stress). Each sound can be pronounced with a varying degree of of Korea Essay force, i.e. a greater or lesser amount of air pressure that is used in the pronunciation. The stronger the stress is, the louder the sound is pronounced. 6) Pitch (intonation). This characteristic is generally applied to voiced sounds. A speech sound may be high or low in words for leadership pitch or may have a pitch which is somewhere between high and Essay Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection, low.
Furthermore, syllables and words connected in speech have their own particular pitch and together produce what is known as the intonation of the sentence. For Leadership? We have already said that the stronger the things fall apart, stress – the louder the sound. It also means that the sound has a higher pitch. When the stress is weaker, the pitch is generally low. Words For Leadership? This shows clearly that the question of intonation is already related to the phenomenon of Essay of Urinary Tract Infection stress. The smallest sound unit in words for leadership a language that is capable of conveying a distinct meaning is called a phoneme. If we compare words such as heat, seat, feet, sheet, cheat, meat and neat, we shall notice that they differ in respect to only one sound: /h/, /s/, /f/, /?/, /t?/, /m/ and /n/ in initial position. These are called minimal pairs. Minimal pairs are pairs of words that differ in only one segment (speech sound) displaying systematic contrasts and consequently exemplifying difference in meaning.
So, an essential property of a phoneme is that it functions contrastively, i.e., it distinguishes one word from the other. Every vowel, diphthong and consonant in the sound system of a language has no meaning in itself, but when contrasted with other vowels, diphthongs or consonants of the same language, they form words which carry meaning. This sound is then called a phoneme of that particular language. A concrete realization of a given phoneme in a language is called an allophone. Mobile Computing Essay Example? Allophones are actual spoken variants of a given phoneme.
Where phonemes are abstract linguistic units, allophones are concrete speech sounds. Conditioned vs. Words For Leadership? Free Variants. Conditioned variants are in fact allophones of wb yeats things a phoneme. They are conditioned because they depend on a particular phonetic environment. Thus, for instance, the English phoneme /l/ has at least three allophones (conditioned variants) that are complementarily distributed: clear [ l ] (in pre-vocalic position and words, before /j/) e.g. lip, flow, will you dark [ l ](in post-vocalic and pre-consonantal position) e.g. tell, cold, film devoiced [ l ](following voiceless plosives) e.g. play, clean.
On the other hand there are cases where there is death of a a choice between two or more allophones of the words for leadership, same phoneme in identical phonetic environments. A good example of this is the death of a, word water: [w?:t ?] or [w?: r ?] (in Australian English). These examples display cases of free variation i.e. free interchange of speech sounds on allophonic level. However, free interchange of speech sounds (without changing meaning) can appear on phonemic level as well. Consider these examples: issue/isju:/ or /i?ju:/ would you/t isju:/ or /t i?ju:/ could you/kudju/ or /kud?u/ the suffix –ed/reitid/ or /reit?d/ Free variants are present in both standard English and its dialects and whether they occur on phonemic or allophonic level, they are perfectly acceptable pronunciations.
The only difference is in personal preference. Therefore, free variants are acceptable pronunciations of one and the same word. 5. Classification of English Speech Sounds. There are two main classes of words speech sounds known as vowels and consonants. A vowel may be defined as a typically voiced sound in the pronunciation of which the breath stream has a free passage through the death of a ben, mouth and/or nose, and for which there is no audible friction. For Leadership? There are two sub-classes of vowels: pure and compound vowels – diphthongs. A pure vowel consists of only one vowel elements, while a diphthong is composed by two vowel elements. A consonant may be defined as a sound, voiced or voiceless, in the pronunciation of which there is either a complete or partial obstruction, or audible friction which prevents the signs in the, breath stream from escaping through the mouth or nose. This distinction is purely physiological. The acoustic distinction is for leadership based on the relative sonority of the death of a salesman ben, speech sounds, vowels being more sonorous than consonants. The third distinction given by linguistic analysis is the pronunciation of the [?i] in front of a vowel and an [?n] in words front of a consonant.
5.1. Mobile Example? Classification and Characteristics of Vowels. Vowels can be classified in four different ways according to: The part of the for leadership, tongue used in their formation, according to which we have front vowels: /i/, /i:/, /e/, /?/ and /?/, as they are formed when the front part of the tongue is raised towards the Computing Essay, hard palate to different heights, back vowels: /a:/, /?/, /?:/, /u/ and /u:/, in the pronunciation of which the back of the words, tongue is raised towards the Mobile Essay, soft palate to different heights, and central vowels: /?:/ and /?/ which are formed by raising the centre of the tongue towards the junctures between the front and the back of the roof of the mouth. The height of the tongue in the mouth, according to which we distinguish closed vowels: /i:/, /i/ and / u:/, /u/, produced with the tongue in a high position in the mouth., half-closed vowels: /?u/ and /ei/ formed when the tongue is raised to a half-closed position in the mouth (but no pure vowels are articulated this way), half-open vowels: /e/, /?/, /?:/, /?:/ and /?/, produced with the tongue raised to a half-open position, and open vowels: /?/, /a:/ and words for leadership, /?/, produced with the tongue in low position. The position of the lips the Essay of Urinary, vowels occupy in for leadership their production, according to which two types of vowels are formed, rounded vowels: /?:/, /?/, / u:/ and /u/, produced with rounding of the lips, and unrounded vowels: /i:/ , /i/, /e/, /?/, /?/, /a:/, /?:/ and The History and Transformation of Korea, /?/ which do not require rounding. The inherent length of the vowel, according to which we distinguish long vowels: /i:/, / u:/, /?:/, /?:/ and words, /a:/ which are normally longer in duration, and short vowels: /i/, /e/, /?/, /?/, /?/, /u/, /?/, which are normally of shorter duration.
5.2. Classification of Diphthongs. A diphthong is defined by Jones as “a sound made by gliding from one vowel to another … represented phonetically by sequence of two letters.” Some are classified in accordance with the movement of the tongue defined in the cardinal vowel system: opening diphthongs are those in which the second element is a more ‘open’ vowel than the first: that is, the tongue ends lower in the mouth, for example /??/ (‘oh’); conversely, closing diphthongs are those in which the second element is a closer vowel than the about of Urinary Tract, first: that is, the tongue ends higher in the mouth, for example /ai/ (‘I’); centring diphthongs are those in which the second element is schwa: that is, the tongue ends in the most ‘neutral’, or central, position in words for leadership the mouth, for example /e?/ (‘air’). The History Essay? A second classification is by the comparative importance of the different elements: rising diphthongs are those in which the second element seems to be the more important, such as ‘view’, in which the /u:/ (‘oo’) sound is dominant over the introductory short /j/ sound which precedes it, falling diphthongs are those in which the first element seems to be the for leadership, more important, such as /??/, in fall which the /?/ is heard as ‘stronger’ than the /?/. Most English diphthongs are falling diphthongs. Diphthongs may also be classified by the extent of the words, movement of the tongue: wide diphthongs show a larger movement, e.g. from an ‘open’ vowel to a ‘close’ one, such as /a?/ (‘I’) and /a?/ (‘ow’); narrow diphthongs show less movement, e.g. from a ‘half-close’ vowel to a ‘close’ one, such as /e?/ (as in ‘day”).
5.3. Signs Gospel? Classification and Characteristics of Consonants. Consonants can be classified in three different ways, according to: The manner of production or articulation: a) plosives: /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/ and /g/, articulated with complete obstruction at words for leadership, the mouth passage entirely blocking the air flow for a moment b) nasals: /m/, /n/ and /?/,where we have a complete obstruction of the mouth passage allowing the air to pass through the nose c) laterals: /l/, where we have partial closure of the breath passage allowing the breath stream to Mobile Computing Essay example escape freely out words of the mouth d) fricatives: /f/, /v/, /s/, /z/, /h/, /r/, /?/, /?/, /?/ and /?/, articulated by and Transformation of Korea Essay, narrowing the mouth passage so as to make the air-flow turbulent, while allowing it to pass continuously e) affricated: / t?/ and words, /d?/, articulated with first a complete obstruction and then a narrowing of the mouth passage f) semivowels: /j/ and /w/, articulatory like vowels, but function like consonants because they are not syllabic An obstruction is formed stopping the breath stream completely at Essay about of Urinary, some particular point so that the breath stream is compressed behind this obstruction to build up air pressure which when released produces plosives. There are four points for air obstruction and they are 1) the lips /p/ and for leadership, /b/ = bilabials, 2) teeth ridge /t/ and /d/ = alveolars, 3) the soft palate /k/ and and Transformation of Korea, /g/ = velars and words, 4) the vocal cords / ? / (glottal stop) = glottal. Closing the mouth passage completely and at the same time lowering the soft palate so that the breath stream escapes through the of Korea, nose is how the nasals are formed. The place of articulation. We distinguish eight main groups according to this classification and they are: a) bilabials /p/, /b/, /m/ and /w/ which are formed at words, the lips. b) labio-dentals /f/ and /v/ which are produced by the conjunction of the lower lip and the upper teeth. Wb Yeats? c) interdentals /?/ and /?/, formed by for leadership, the insertion of the tip of the tongue between the death ben, teeth. d) alveolars /t/, /d/, /n/, /l/, /s/, /z/ and /r/ pronounced with the tip of the words for leadership, blade of the tongue near or against the teeth ridge. The History Essay? e) post alveolar / t?/, /d?/, /?/ /?/, the words, area between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate f) palatal /j/, which is the hard palate or roof of the mouth g) velar /k/, /g/, /?/, pronounced with the back of the Essay example, tongue and the soft palate h) glottal /h/, produced at the space between the vocal cords Classification of consonants according to the vocal cords: a) voiced: /b/, /v/, /?/, /m/, /d/, /z/, /l/, /n/, /j/, /?/, /d?/, /g/, /?/, /w/ and /?/ in the pronunciation of which the vocal cords vibrate. b) voiceless: /p/, /f/, /?/, /t/, /s/, /?/, /t?/, /k/ and /h/ in the pronunciation of which the vocal cords do not vibrate. 6. Syllables and Their Parts. Words can be cut up into units called syllables.
Humans seem to need. syllables as a way of segmenting the stream of speech and giving it a rhythm of strong and weak beats, as we hear in music and they exist only to make speech easier for the brain to words for leadership process. A word contains at least one syllable. Most speakers of English have no trouble dividing a word up into its component syllables. Sometimes how a particular word is divided might vary from one individual to in the another, but a division is always easy and always possible. Syllables have internal structure: they can be divided into parts. The parts are onset and rhyme; within the words for leadership, rhyme we find the nucleus and coda. Not all syllables have all parts; the smallest possible syllable contains a nucleus only. Essay About Treatment? A syllable may or may not have an onset and a coda. Words For Leadership? Onset is the beginning sounds of the syllable; the ones preceding the nucleus. The Hollow Men By Ts Eliot? These are always consonants in English.
The nucleus is a vowel in most cases. If a word contains more than one syllable, each syllable will have the usual syllable parts: e.g. For Leadership? win-dow, to-ma-to, pre-pos-te-rous, fun-da-men-tal. Rhyme (or rime) is the death of a salesman ben, rest of the syllable, after the onset. The rhyme consists of a nucleus and coda. The nucleus, as the term suggests, is the core or essential part of a syllable. For Leadership? A nucleus must be present in order for a syllable to be present. Of Urinary? Syllable nuclei are most often highly ‘sonorant’ or resonant sounds that can be relatively loud and carry a clear pitch level. In English and most other languages, most syllable nuclei are vowels. The English “liquids” [ r , l ] and the nasals [ m , n ] can be the nuclei of syllables under certain conditions. [ r ] can be a nucleus as easily as a vowel, in any position: the words ‘bird’, ‘word’, ‘her’, ‘fur’; there is no vowel in the pronunciation of these syllables, even though they have one in the spelling. [ l ] and the nasals [ m n ] become syllable nuclei when they follow an alveolar consonant in the last syllable of a word. This happens in the relaxed or casual rather than very formal articulation of the word.
Compare casual vs. formal pronunciations of ‘button’, ‘bottle’, ‘bottom’. 7. Stress and Intonation. There are two kinds of stress: words stress and sentence stress. In English, one or more of the syllables in each content word are stressed. For Leadership? In some words, where more than one vowel is stressed, one vowel receives great. stress or accent (primary/main) marked with ? where the other stress vowel gets secondary stress marked with ` e.g. Essay? resignation linguistics stress is contrastive in English and essential in cases where it is used to distinguish between nouns and verbs e.g. subject (noun) subject (verb) When words are combined into phrases and sentences, one of the words for leadership, syllables receives greater stress than all of the others, only one of the vowels in a sentence/phrase receives primary stress (or accent).
All the other stressed vowels receive secondary stress. Primary stress is placed on an adjective followed by a noun when the two are combined in a compound noun, but when they are not joined in this way it is the noun that receives the main stress. e.g. example: tightrope tight rope Intonation Intonation is important because it shows syntactic differences example: Josh is going. (statement) Josh is going? (question) A written sentence which is Mobile example ambiguous may become unambiguous when spoken by words, use of intonation e.g. Josh left direction for things fall, Ana to follow. – if Ana is to follow Josh, the rise in pitch would be on the first syllable of the word “follow”, followed by a fall in pitch follow – if Ana is to follow the directions Josh left, then the pitch comes on the second syllable of the word “directions” di rections. 8. Aspects of Connected Speech. In most of the discussion so far, we have been describing speech sounds separately, in syllables and words as if they are always going to words be pronounces carefully and deliberately. Signs In The Gospel Of John? But normal, every day speech isn’t like that, especially when spoken by words, a native. Most of native speakers’ talk is fast and spontaneous and it requires the articulators to move rapidly from one sound to another without stopping. However, the process of producing “connected speech” affects the pronunciation of certain segments; some segments have a tendency to run together, extra segments may be inserted to ensure smoothness of speech, some segments adopt a less defined phonetic form and some completely disappear.
8.1. Assimilation. When two sound segments occur in sequence and some aspect of one segment is taken by the other, the process is known as assimilation. This process happens because it is quicker, easier and more efficient for our articulators as they do their job. Consonants and vowels alike are subject to assimilation.
The phrase have to, for The History, example, is very often pronounced [h?ft?], informally even written “hafta”, because the adjacent sounds influence each other to become more alike. In the phrase I have to go, the words, sound /v/ is Essay about influenced by the following sound /t/ in a way that in connected speech we produce a voiceless version of /v/ resulting in what sounds more of a /f/, showing the assimilation from a voiced to a voiceless sound. The vowels /i/ and /?/ in words for leadership isolation are pronounced without any nasal quality. However, when we say the word pin or pan in everyday speech, the anticipation of forming a final nasal consonant will make it easier to go into the nasalized articulation in advance and as a result the vowel sounds in these words will be nasalized. Elision is the process of eliminating sounds in normal, rapid pronunciation. About Treatment Tract? Elision mostly occurs where clusters of consonants exist. Take the word government, for example, /g?v?m?nt/, mashed potatoes /m?? p?teit?uz/, next day /neks dei. etc. Who syllables may be elided, in words such as library /laibri:/, and words, some words are simply prone to elision, such as of before consonants in cup o’ tea, lots o’ people, and others such as gonna and wanna, from of Urinary Infection, going to and want to, respectively.
A sound may be introduced between words or syllables to help them run together more smoothly. A primary example of this is the pronunciation of word-final /r/ in RP. For Leadership? RP speakers pronounce /r/ is such words as clear and mother when they are followed by a vowel, e.g. clear answer /kli?r/, but /kli?/ in Essay clear question. The intrusive “r” is for leadership also very present with native speakers of RP, who regularly link adjacent vowels with an “r” even when there is no ‘r’ in the spelling ( example a) as well as with open back vowels (example b). e.g. a) media interest /mi:di?(r)intr?st/ b) law and order /l?:(r)?nd ?:d?/ There are two sub-disciplines in linguistics which deal with sound and example, they are phonetics and phonology and in order to understand the sound system of the English language, its various accents and how these sounds combine and pattern together, we need aspects of both. Phonetics provides objective ways of for leadership describing and men by, analyzing the words, range of sounds humans use in their languages. More specifically, articulatory phonetics identifies precisely which speech organs and muscles are involved in producing the different sounds of the language. Those sounds are then transmitted from the speaker to the hearer, and acoustic and auditory phonetics focus on the physics of speech as it travels through the air in the form of sound waves, and the effect those waves have on a hearer’s ears and brain. While phonetics deals with the production, properties and perception of the speech sounds, phonology, deals with the of Korea, sound patterns of the particular language, and in what speakers and hearers need to know to be speakers of for leadership that language. Phonologists investigate which function a sound has in a language and which sounds can be combined; which sounds can follow each other, and which can not.
Unlike most European languages, English is not a phonetic language: words can have identical vowel letters and be pronounced in signs in the gospel of john different ways, e.g. great, treat, and threat; vice-versa, words with phonologically identical vowels may have different spellings, as in sea, seize, and precede, hence, the importance of teaching both pronunciation and spelling. Nowadays, everyone is expected to words speak a bit of English, but trying to find someone in Italy who can speak it ‘clearly’ – intelligibly -, without mangling it, is no easy task at all. Essay Infection? That is where phonetics and phonology comes in, and it is a fascinating subject and words, essential for any student wanting to Mobile Computing learn (and understand!) a foreign language – especially English! Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Phonetics and Phonology.
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THE WAY WE LIVE NOW: 11-17-02: ESSAY; This Is a Headline For an Essay About Meta. The best jokes in the most recent ''Austin Powers'' sequel -- the ones that aren't about flatulence or Fat Bastard or both -- are the jokes about movies, especially about spy movies and most especially about ''Austin Powers'' movies themselves. There's a scene in which Michael Caine, playing Austin's superspy dad, Nigel, effortlessly fights off a clutch of Dr. Evil's henchmen, the last of whom he persuades to fall over for leadership without even being punched: since the henchman is nameless (to the extent of not even possessing a name tag, as Nigel points out) and Computing Essay, since the entire purpose of nameless henchmen is to words for leadership, topple at the slightest feint from a man like Nigel, why doesn't he just lie down immediately and save them both the trouble? Later, Austin and his comrade Foxxy Cleopatra meet with a Japanese businessman who makes what seems to them a series of death of a salesman, naughty remarks; like the audience, they're following the English subtitles, portions of for leadership, which are washed out because they're printed over death of a salesman a white background. Not quite parody but possibly ironic and for leadership, probably postmodern -- what these jokes are, as the The History, former English majors out there will no doubt recognize, is meta. Words For Leadership. ''Meta'' is a liminal term these days; it's creeping more and more into everyday conversations, even if it's not nearly as widespread as, say, ''irony.'' Some people talk about meta all the time. Recently a friend and I were e-mailing back and forth, trying to sort out our plans to catch an evening movie, when we started to discuss how we were going to make the decision itself -- should we stick to Mobile Computing Essay example, e-mail or switch to instant messaging or the phone? ''This is getting too meta,'' he wrote. ''Just call me.'' Other people, including another movie-steeped friend, may not recognize the term ''meta,'' but they know exactly what it is words for leadership, all the same; on the basis of a quick definition, my friend could instantly list a half-dozen good examples: ''Oh, I get it. 'Beavis and of a ben, Butthead' was a music-video show about watching music videos, and that teen film 'Not Another Teen Movie' had a character whose only name was the Token Black Guy.'' It's easy to come up with examples in other media, too. For Leadership. At the hit Broadway musical ''Urinetown,'' you can hear two characters -- a little girl and death of a salesman, a policeman -- say things like ''Of course she loves him, Little Sally.
He's the hero of the show. She has to love him'' and ''When a little girl has been given as many lines as I have, there's still hope for dreams.'' If, looking for a cheaper thrill, you rent the horror film ''Scream,'' a feast of meta devices, you'll see a scene in which a teenage B-movie buff explains to fellow partygoers that ''there are certain rules one must abide by in order to successfully survive a horror movie. For Leadership. For instance, No. 1: You can never have sex,'' just before the of a, camera cuts to the film's heroine losing her virginity upstairs. Flipping through TV channels, you might stumble across a rerun of ''The Drew Carey Show'' in words which the sitcom's star tells the camera that the cast is miffed about not receiving any Emmy nominations and has put together the following episode in order to fish for some. What follows is a sendup of the kind of ''serious'' TV revered by awards judges -- hospital-bed death scenes, brooding soliloquies and simple-minded efforts to Computing, ''address'' such social issues as gun control and illiteracy -- with the actors zestily hamming it up. An entire season of ''Seinfeld'' concerns Jerry's development of words, a sitcom ''about nothing,'' a sitcom that's clearly ''Seinfeld'' itself. During commercial breaks, you might catch an the hollow ts eliot, ad in which one man sings the praises of an automobile to another. Words. ''You sound like a car commercial,'' his friend jokes. ''Didn't they tell you?'' the The History and Transformation of Korea, first man says significantly. Once an arty experimental theater technique used by people who wrote plays with titles like ''Six Characters in Search of an Author,'' meta is now being used to for leadership, tout antilock brakes. In an increasingly self-conscious culture, the most self-conscious of literary tricks is everywhere. Defining meta, though, can be tricky.
A prefix, it comes from the Greek for ''beside,'' ''after'' or ''change.'' The critic Herbert Kohl, in his 1992 book ''From Archetype to Zeitgeist,'' takes a pretty good shot at explaining it. Meta, he writes, ''when used with the wb yeats things fall apart, name of a discipline, designates a new but related discipline designed to deal critically with the original one.'' Metamathematics, for example, is ''the critical study of the nature of mathematical systems,'' and metapsychology is ''the critical study of psychology as a discipline.'' ''Metaphysics,'' one of the most familiar derivations, is the title of the work by Aristotle that follows his ''Physics'' and that deals with the ultimate nature of the words, universe. How did meta get from statements like ''2+2=4 is the hollow, valid within Frege's formal system'' and speculation about the first principles governing causality to words, a dapper Japanese gentleman inadvertently making potty jokes to Mobile Essay, a kitschy secret agent? It traveled by way of metafiction, a literary school of the 1960's and 70's. Words. Metafiction is of Urinary Tract, fiction that openly admits it's an artificial creation -- as opposed to naturalism, in words which art strives to men by ts eliot, represent real life. (The same idea got tried out even earlier in the theater. Words. The critic Kenneth Tynan summed up the two camps when he wrote: ''You are in a drawing room,' says Stanislavsky to his audience, 'witnessing life.' 'You are in a theater,' says Brecht, 'witnessing actors.''') John Barth, one of metafiction's stars (others include John Hawkes, Donald Barthelme and Robert Coover), wrote a story called ''Lost in the Funhouse'' in which he refers to a character as ''Magda G------'' and then goes on signs gospel to explain: ''Initials, blanks, or both were often substituted for proper names in 19th-century fiction to enhance the illusion of reality. It is as if the for leadership, author felt it necessary to delete the names for wb yeats things, reasons of tact or legal liability.
Interestingly, as with other aspects of realism, it is an illusion that is being enhanced, by purely artificial means.'' The metafictionists liked to point out that people are always telling stories and words for leadership, that stories have their own laws, utterly different from the laws that govern real life. You can see those rules played out in Essay about Infection more than just novels; they prevail in words for leadership everything from fairy tales and the hollow ts eliot, gossip to words for leadership, comic strips, movies and pornography. But whatever mojo makes meta so popular now wasn't working for the metafictionists back then. With the exception of Barth at signs in the, the beginning of his career, they never found a large audience outside of academics and critics; readers complained that the whole enterprise came across as mandarin, aloof and theoretical. Perhaps that's because a lot of metafiction has a whiff of the schoolmaster about it.
The novelist David Foster Wallace captured the queasy subtext of literary metafiction in a short story, ''Octet,'' that is words, a satirical metafiction about Mobile Computing Essay example metafiction itself. The story's ''author,'' voicing his distress through footnotes, frets about his inability to pull off the for leadership, intended ''cycle of very short belletristic pieces'' in the form of pop quizzes. In The Gospel Of John. What he wants to avoid, he says, is the ''now tired'' meta device of ''the dramatist himself coming onstage from the words, wings and reminding you that what's going on is artificial and that the artificer is him (the dramatist) and Mobile Computing example, but that he's at least respectful enough of you as reader/audience to be honest about the for leadership, fact that he's back there pulling the strings, an 'honesty' which personally you've always had the feeling is actually a highly rhetorical sham-honesty that's designed to men by ts eliot, get you to like him and approve of him (i.e., of the for leadership, 'meta'-type writer) and feel flattered that he apparently thinks you're enough of things apart, a grown-up to handle being reminded that what you're in the middle of is artificial (like you didn't know that already, like you needed to be reminded of it over and over again as if you were a myopic child who couldn't see what was right in front of you).'' In other words, metafiction could be pretty patronizing and, what's more, puritanical in words for leadership the particular, medicinal fashion of the gospel of john, American avant-garde, which is so often eager to relieve its audience of the oppression of a good time. By comparison, Wallace's own vamp on the endlessly receding hall of words for leadership, mirrors in which his overly cerebral and self-conscious storyteller has trapped himself is much nimbler. Contemporary writers give ordinary people more credit for knowing the difference between real life and playacting. Zadie Smith, describing the frankly bogus good-versus-evil theatrics of a professional wrestling match in Computing Essay her new novel ''The Autograph Man,'' explains that the fans know the words for leadership, wrestlers ''are not here to men by, express genuine feelings, or to for leadership, fake them and dress them up natural like on TV. . . . This afternoon, these two hulking men are here to demonstrate Justice. The kind Mr. Wb Yeats Things Fall. Gerry Bowen (Block M, Seat 117) can't get from the courts in compensation for his son's accident; the kind Jake (Block T, Seat 59) won't get from words school whether he chooses to squeal on those bastards or not; the in the of john, kind Finn (Block B, Seat 10) can't seem to for leadership, get from girls no matter what changes he makes to his wardrobe or record collection or personal hygiene.''
In other words, we all know it's just a novel, just a movie, just a play, but we want to death ben, throw ourselves into it anyway. We know this isn't like real life -- that's why we're here, and we'd rather not be lectured on the difference. Nobody actually believes in, say, the ludicrously glass-jawed henchmen that cinematic spies mow down by the dozens, but we find them delightful, as the creators of ''Austin Powers'' well know. Meta works best as a joke, not a lesson, when it asks us to laugh in recognition of the discrepancies between fantasy entertainment and the usually banal, frustrating facts of life. Words. One episode of ''The Simpsons'' makes a meta nod in this direction, opening with Homer and Marge sitting on the family couch, looking bored. ''I guess we're not having an adventure this week,'' Marge says. Even cartoon characters can't expect to death of a salesman, have lives as exciting as . . . cartoon characters. Lowbrow entertainment best lends itself to meta; it has the most deeply rooted conventions, reaching back to comedia dell'arte, medieval mystery plays, Punch and Judy shows and folk tales, all forms that were popular long before naturalism came along. We tend to for leadership, forget that the notion that art should be made to resemble real life isn't traditional at Essay, all. It's pitifully arriviste, like the thin crust representing the Age of Man in words for leadership those timelines showing the geological epochs in Earth's history. Indeed, when the artists of modernism and postmodernism decided to play up the artificiality of their work, they weren't doing something new; they were reviving something very, very old.
When Zadie Smith, describing two wrestlers going at Treatment Tract Infection, it, writes, ''All of for leadership, a sudden they run at each other once more and if you have a better phrase than like thundering elephants insert it here [ ],'' she's tipping her hat to Laurence Sterne's ''Tristram Shandy,'' a book written in 1759, before the novel was properly born. In one way, though, Wallace's imaginary metafictional ''dramatist'' misses a point. Meta touches on the stories we, like children, demand to hear over and over gospel of john again, albeit with artful variations. They offer us the satisfactions of ritual rather than the boredom of repetition, and however familiar their devices, they still work. ''Urinetown'' is an extended joke about the words, preposterousness of musicals: Officer Lockstock and Little Sally discuss the importance of avoiding ''too much exposition,'' note the in the of john, discrepancy between the show's ''happy'' music and its grim plot and lament its ''terrible'' title. The musical numbers themselves fall into the usual categories -- love song, anthem, faux gospel -- and though they're hung on a storyline that refuses to plausibly support them, they're a blast nonetheless. The teenagers in ''Scream'' know the conventions of words for leadership, slasher movies so well, they provide a running commentary on them as they unfold. In the film's final sequence, the supposedly dead killer returns to signs of john, announce: ''This is the moment when the supposedly dead killer comes back to words for leadership, life for one last scare.'' And here's the rub: it's still frightening. Wes Craven, the The History Essay, director of ''Scream,'' even made an installment of his ''Nightmare on Elm Street'' series in which the characters use a screenplay of the movie they're in to outwit the series' monster -- and that's scary, too.
Everyone knows that pop genres like horror, mystery, musical comedy and adventure, use formulas, of course -- that's what ''genre'' means. The highbrow ideal says that art should be original and (usually) true to life; those are supposedly the hallmarks of quality. For Leadership. But we now live in a society more steeped in stories than any that has gone before. The History And Transformation Of Korea Essay. In a given week, we may see a movie or two, rent a couple of videos, catch a half-dozen (or more) television programs, listen to the radio, play CD's and for leadership, read newspapers, magazines or a book. Men By Ts Eliot. The more of this we absorb, the more clearly we see that every good story uses some kind of formula. After only a couple of seasons of words for leadership, MTV's ''Real World,'' the show's participants could talk authoritatively about which standardized role -- the naive virgin, the bitch, the gay housemate emerging from the the hollow ts eliot, closet -- each person would assume. Suddenly, everything starts to words, look like a genre. In his book ''American Scenarios: The Uses of Film Genre,'' Joseph W. Reed sorts the movies of Hollywood's classic era into several genres that may not exist as official categories but are still as easy to recognize as old friends. In addition to War, Women's and and Transformation Essay, Westerns, there are Inventor, High School, Jungle, Psychiatrist, Escape and Southern pictures, too. The same can be done with modern movies, where some of the same genres live on, with variations. We could add to Reed's list such genres as the Incurably Ill Child movie, the Ghetto Kid Makes Good movie, the Girlhood Friends Working Out Their Issues movie and the European Food movie, flooding at us in such volume that they can hardly pretend to words for leadership, be unique.
Perhaps that's why teen comedies now mock their own conventions and road movies pay overt homage to old road movies. Then there are artier efforts that get labeled meta even when they don't really hit the mark, like Steven Soderbergh's ''Full Frontal,'' in the hollow men by which scenes of a bunch of loosely connected characters in Los Angeles shot on digital video alternate with scenes from a film that some of those characters will go on to make. Film-within-a-film isn't meta and words for leadership, neither are films about Essay about Treatment of Urinary Infection filmmakers -- otherwise ''Singin' in the Rain'' would be meta and it's not. However, the film-within-the-film in words ''Full Frontal'' is a little bit meta; in it, a black actor tells a white journalist that black male movie stars never get to do real love scenes with white actresses, and when the characters fall in love at the end, they move in to kiss each other and then turn away at the last minute. Wb Yeats. But ''Full Frontal'' itself never jokes about the words, genre it belongs to, the Indie Ensemble picture; after all, the whole point of successful Hollywood filmmakers doing movies about middle-class New Yorkers and Angelenos with career troubles is to feel that at last they are getting to demonstrate their artistic chops by fall apart, depicting real life. A better portrait of the flickering interaction between culture and reality in the belly of the beast is ''Adaptation,'' the most recent film by Spike Jonze and words, Charlie Kaufman. Computing Example. (Making a movie about the movie's own screenwriter recalls the now common postmodern literary stunt of for leadership, including in a novel a character with the novelist's name -- Kaufman's following in the footsteps of apart, Philip Roth and Martin Amis.) It details Kaufman's tortuous efforts to adapt Susan Orlean's nonfiction book ''The Orchid Thief'' for the screen. ''I don't want to ruin it by making it a Hollywood thing, like an words for leadership, orchid-heist movie or something . . . I don't want to cram in sex or guns or car chases,'' he rants early on, but the ordeal of wresting a movie out of a book that has ''no story'' drives him almost mad.
Eventually, mystery and intrigue creep into the plot of ''Adaptation,'' and by the time the film veers into a ludicrous string of Hollywood ''action thriller'' cliches -- a chase through an and Transformation of Korea Essay, alligator-infested swamp and words for leadership, a bogus yet strangely affecting moment of things, insight -- we realize that Kaufman has succumbed to Hollywood's imperatives. ''Adaptation'' curses the contrivances of blockbuster filmmaking so thoroughly that by the time it resorts to them, the results are amusing, clever, even wise. The ingenuity of ''Adaptation'' is that Kaufman manages to mock his cake and eat it, too, but the fact that he doesn't take himself too seriously is key. The more high-minded it is, apparently, the easier it is for meta to annoy. Ian McEwan's novel ''Atonement'' became a best-seller earlier this year, but I keep discovering people who were irritated, as I was, by the ending (which I'm about to discuss -- so jump ahead if you don't want it spoiled). In the words for leadership, book's final pages, it is revealed that the preceding narrative has been one character's fictionalized account of events, which in ''real life'' didn't end quite so satisfyingly.
The novel is an exquisite technical achievement, but the apparent message of signs gospel of john, that ending -- that actual experience rarely offers closure or redemption and that we should always be aware that novels aren't like life (going on about how fiction is a ''lie'' is one of the more irritatingly arch affectations novelists are prone to) -- is exasperating. For Leadership. Anyone smart enough to read an Ian McEwan novel already knows this, and it's hard not to feel, like the writer in Mobile Essay Wallace's ''Octet,'' that you're being talked down to. Words For Leadership. This is Essay about Treatment, meta of the old school, solemn and for leadership, scolding. By contrast, Michael Winterbottom's supple ''24-Hour Party People,'' a biopic about signs in the of john Tony Wilson, an impresario of the Manchester music scene during the 1980's, is meta at its best. The British comedian Steve Coogan, who plays Wilson, breaks character, addresses the camera, tells you that the words, anecdotes he's just related aren't true (or have been denied by the alleged participants), tips us off on what will happen later in of a salesman the film, introduces various extras as the for leadership, real people that the The History and Transformation of Korea, other actors are playing and at words, one point even announces that the man playing Wilson's television producer in the previous scene was ''the real Tony Wilson.'' All this serves to Computing Essay example, undermine Wilson's version of for leadership, events and at the same time to demonstrate that what actually happened doesn't really matter that much. Wilson's gift for enthusiasm, for embellishing the truth, is his great talent, his very life a testimony to the power of The History and Transformation Essay, meta as the falsehood you believe in for leadership anyway. His tireless mythologizing of the scene is what made living in his Manchester (whether or not it was truly like ''Renaissance Florence,'' as he insisted) so much fun.
When meta intends to wb yeats apart, teach us a lesson -- that is, when it's a drag -- it's usually instructing us that we shouldn't confuse fiction with real life. Words For Leadership. But as Wilson's own experience shows, sometimes the right story, well used and passionately espoused however false it at first seems to be, is exactly what real life needs. At its most anarchic and death of a ben, least instructive -- that is, as it flourishes today -- meta suggests that distinguishing between truth and fiction counts for less than knowing a terrific story when you have seen one and relishing it regardless of its authenticity. If to be human is words, partly a matter of believing, as Lewis Carroll's White Queen did, in ''as many as six impossible things before breakfast,'' better that we understand what we're doing when we select those impossible things, knowing not only death of a, how much we may suffer from choosing the wrong ones but also how much joy can be found in embracing the right lie. Manchester may not ever be Florence in the Renaissance (if even Florence in the Renaissance was), but why should that keep us from for leadership dancing all night?
The actor has built a career, and apart, a passionate fan base, playing supporting roles; now, at 60, she has become an unconventional star. How Sarte, cigarette smoke and questions of the self gave way to an obsession with apocalypse. What happens after a defendant is found not guilty by for leadership, reason of ben, insanity? Often the answer is words, involuntary confinement in a state psychiatric hospital — with no end in Mobile Computing sight.
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A Few General Facts about for leadership, How To Write 5 Paragraph Essay ? In general, the Essay Treatment, 5-paragraph essay is words regarded as the typical essay writing task. This type of essay is signs in the gospel of john utilized in the majority of words well-established examinations, like TOEFL, IELTS or SAT. Seeing as in the majority of such examinations you need to stick to Essay Infection a time limit when it comes to finishing the “Writing” part, it’s advisable to words for leadership learn the structure of the Mobile Computing, 5-paragraph essay by heart. This way, you’ll be able to complete the exam swiftly and efficiently. The best feature of this format is the fact that it can be used for a large variety of for leadership essays, such as Expository, Narrative, Persuasive, Cause and Effect or Persuasive essays. 5-Paragraph Essay Subject Examples. Here are a few of the most recurrent subjects on which students write 5-paragraph essays: Is an individual able to memorize a life lesson from an event they weren’t part of? Is one able to learn from the errors of other individuals?
Is it moral to conduct experiments on animals? Should homosexual matrimony be legalized? Should the example, legislation on firearms become harsher? Should the capital punishment be fully eliminated? Should cannabis become legal? Should all students benefit from free-of-charge education? No doubt, you can write 5-paragraph essays on many other topics in addition to these examples. The Structure of a 5-Paragraph Essay. The introduction is the section which lays down the outline of the entire essay. The initial phase represents the HOOK sentence. The Hook Sentence has the purpose of catching the reader’s interest.
In general, the Hook Sentence is a rhetorical one. Additionally, it could also constitute a life example or an outstanding piece of words for leadership information. For instance: Let’s say that your 5-paragraph essay approaches the of Urinary Infection, topic of for leadership environment protection. In that case, you can come up with a sentence like: “Is it normal to live in a world of men by ts eliot barren lands and waste?” The question above is a rhetorical one. This means that no one expects a response, as the answer is evident. Short Introduction of Substantiated Arguments (1 to 3) In this section, you should concisely present your substantiated arguments. The key is to avoid disclosing an excessive amount of words information. Wb Yeats Things Fall! As a piece of advice, picture this short introduction as the for leadership, trailer of a film, meaning that it ought to be captivating, but it must not reveal the “STORY.” For instance: Environmental protection is essential to preserving the about Treatment, well-being of our planet. For Leadership! This is the most essential part of the whole essay; it represents your argument.
The argument will serve as the premise of the entire paper. Of Korea! Seeing as your essay deals with environmental conservation, your thesis could be something like: “Environmental protection is essential to averting huge natural calamities.” A small piece of advice: if you believe that the body paragraphs are not related to for leadership the thesis you’ve chosen, the best solution would be to ts eliot modify the thesis. The Three Body Paragraphs: 5 to 7 Phrases. This represents the words for leadership, “bulk” of your paper. In this part, you need to justify the perspective you’re supporting (Thesis Assertion). In general, the three body paragraphs have the following outline: Introductory Phrase (1), Substantiated Argument/Justification (3-5), Conclusion Phrase (1). The Introductory Phrase must concisely present your argument.
It shouldn’t disclose too much. For instance, you could say something like: “Disforestation and gospel atmosphere contamination affect the characteristics of the atmosphere and intensify the probability of illness in addition to for leadership damaging our planet!” Substantiated Argument and ben Justification: This section involves particularizing the subject, while still, most significantly, SUPPORTING THE THESIS! For instance: Materialism and egoism represent important factors which harm our surroundings, as they are responsible for destroying our forests and polluting our air. While initially a couple of people may benefit from this, in for leadership, the long run, these factors are dangerous to the entire population. For instance, in Beijing, the atmosphere quality is so low that people are obliged to use masks to be allowed to move around the the hollow, city. The Conclusion Phrase ought to represent the contrary of the introductory one. Rather than presenting your argument, you should concisely conclude it, moving on to the subsequent one. For instance: To sum up, the deterioration of our natural assets, as well as the quality of our atmosphere, does not only affect the Earth’s health but the entire humankind. KEEP IN MIND THAT ALL 3 BODY PARAGRAPHS MUST HAVE THE SAME STRUCTURE! The arguments you offer ought to be presented in the following order: The first body paragraph ought to for leadership include your second most powerful argument The second body paragraph ought to describe your poorest argument The third body paragraph ought to present your most powerful argument. To have a better idea of the structure of a 5-paragraph essay, take a look at the following table: Conclusion (3 to 5 Phrases): This must reflect your introduction.
Reiterate Your Thesis (Phrase 1): You must reiterate your primary argument (thesis) in a straightforward manner. To demonstrate that your perspective is valid, you should show confidence when you rephrase the thesis. For instance: The security and endurance of our planet are highly reliant on the manner in which we choose to behave towards it, and signs in the gospel the more attentively we stimulate the procedure, the more we will profit from it. Providing conclusions for your substantiated arguments (1 to words for leadership 3 Phrases): This part involves paraphrasing the wb yeats things fall, central ideas of your arguments in a single phrase per words for leadership paragraph. In case part of your substantiated arguments are alike, you can simply merge them into a single phrase. Of A Salesman Ben! This way, you’ll preserve an words adequate organization. For instance, let’s say that one of the arguments you provided deals with restricting the utilization of resources. In that case, you can write something like “Restricting the utilization of our natural assets and enhancing their performance represent essential methods of strengthening the death salesman ben, health of the Earth.” Drafting a Conclusion for the Hook Phrase (Facultative) A great manner of for leadership finalizing a paper is by offering something unpredicted, which may amaze the reader.
A great idea would be to devise a second hook, one which summarizes your essay in Mobile example, only a couple of words. Ideally, create a rhetorical question. For instance: “The soundness of the Earth is words for leadership highly significant, and in the end, we don't want to Essay about of Urinary Infection turn our planet into a desert, don’t we?” This way, your essay will present a certain level of excitement towards the end, and the reader will ponder over your assertion. Words For Leadership! Different educational establishments from all over the globe utilize different rules. Nevertheless, one of the of Korea, most well-established criteria types is the 5 point type. This involves five different sections, namely Focus, Organization, Conventions, Style and Content. Focus: Did the student take enough time to words demonstrate their hypothesis? Did they meet this target? Organization: Did the essay have a fluent style? Did the student move from one paragraph to the other in example, a steady manner?
Did they stick to words the adequate structure without deviating from it? Conventions: Was the paper written using good grammar? Were the phrases too long? Style: Did the student utilize high-quality lexicon? Did they repeat words too often? Were the Essay Treatment of Urinary, phrase structures original enough? Content: Did the student succeed in words, demonstrating their argument?
Did they include coherent and accurate assertions? Did they come up with powerful arguments? How Do I Proceed If I Have No Idea How to Write the Paper? In case you still feel like your essay writing skills aren’t good enough, there is absolutely no reason to be scared! Many students encounter such issues.
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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of words for leadership things. First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources.
This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of Mobile Computing your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is meant by enough is open to debate, and words, this is also where conventions come in. Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly.
It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the Mobile Computing Essay example, better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail.
Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the source. You do this by stating the words for leadership, author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated. The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of death of a your sentence is based on someone else’s work. Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the words, effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is death of a salesman ben, included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994).
Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the words for leadership, ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into Essay Infection, italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). Words? If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones. What should you reference?
Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the of Urinary Tract Infection, exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to words give the number of the Computing, page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to for leadership use the arguments of in the gospel say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it.
Can you really be sure this is words, what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the The History, work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the for leadership, correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted.
The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the signs in the of john, exact same book, use the original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the for leadership, one of the work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of men by ts eliot square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 ).
Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the words, year to identify which of the works you refer to. Use the wb yeats apart, letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the publication. Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication.
It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is for leadership, cited once, and men by, listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the same. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the words, heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of publication in things fall, brackets, the title in italics, the place of words for leadership publication, and finally the name of the publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign).
Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. Ts Eliot? after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by words for leadership, using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is of Korea Essay, only one. The title is capitalized. For example:
Anderson, C. Words For Leadership? Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. Men By Ts Eliot? (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. Words? (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the about Infection, book is edited. You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s).
If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the name and year of the words for leadership, editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to ts eliot be included in the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. For Leadership? Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Men By? Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Words? Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in Essay example, a book. The editors are often given on for leadership, the front of the men by, reference book.
For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in for leadership, a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the year in brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by of a salesman, the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the words for leadership, volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers.
For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of wb yeats apart Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. Words For Leadership? (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89. Pages on the internet should be cited where used. About Treatment Tract Infection? You should bear in mind the quality of the for leadership, site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays.
The reference includes the name of the Essay about of Urinary, author and initial, the year in brackets, the title of the words for leadership, document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the place of publication, the publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the wb yeats fall apart, content was written. For Leadership? For example: Moser, P. The History Of Korea? (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given. The reference therefore includes the for leadership, name and initial of the author, the signs, year of publication in for leadership, brackets, the title in example, single speech marks, the for leadership, name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the page where the article was found.
For one page it’s customary to signs in the gospel use the abbreviation p. For Leadership? , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is in the of john, common. For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the words, basis of what you write. Essay? It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to words for leadership find the original referred to in the fall apart, lecture. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and words for leadership, journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the gospel of john, year in bracket, the title of the handout in words, single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in Treatment Tract, italics, the word at for leadership and the name of your institution, the place, and date of the lecture. Mobile Example? For example:
Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at for leadership Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an The History option. In terms of for leadership giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the The History of Korea, person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words, words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of Mobile your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to include the e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the author. The subject line of the words, e-mail is often included as the title.
With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important. It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done.
If everything else fails, remember the gospel, function of referencing, and for leadership, provide a reasonable amount of information for Mobile Essay, others to chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006].
UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of words for leadership a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to things panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the words, indication that they are not published.
This is Essay, easily done by including the for leadership, word unpublished in brackets at the end of the reference. With articles sent to signs in the gospel you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. For theses it’s common to include the kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the words, name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the death of a salesman, information blank. For Leadership? This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to The History you are treated very similar to for leadership the lecture handouts. Give the and Transformation, name of the author, the year in words, brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and death of a salesman ben, its title in single speech marks, place of for leadership publication, and publisher. Essay? For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University.
The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is words, capitalized. In the case of a book, the main title is that of the and Transformation of Korea Essay, book. In the case of journal articles, on words, the other hand, the main title is wb yeats things fall apart, thought to be that of the journal itself. Words For Leadership? It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Put in Essay Treatment, capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and words for leadership, adjectives.
This is in fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with . Men By Ts Eliot? Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and for leadership, put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references. It’s perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references.
A good manual of style, such as the ts eliot, Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. For Leadership? You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at the end. It’s difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Salesman Ben? Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an words for leadership idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and Essay, somebody abducting slaves.
The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. For Leadership? The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is gospel of john, not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and words for leadership, putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly.
At the Essay Treatment of Urinary Infection, time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is for leadership, it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for Essay, you, too—that is something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to words the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the wb yeats things fall apart, essay with the books in front of for leadership you. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and Essay of Urinary Infection, that is words for leadership, a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, you’ll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes.
As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for salesman, example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the words for leadership, essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and there is The History of Korea, always the search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the for leadership, job of writing without interrupting my thoughts.
Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the men by, proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Words For Leadership? Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to find it on a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to of Urinary the extent that the words, deed is no longer easy to spot. Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an idea, the markers of ts eliot your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to words for leadership essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold).
The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to wb yeats things fall have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in words for leadership, the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to The History of Korea determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of for leadership words, the kinds of fall apart metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over words, punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to in the gospel break paragraphs, spaces in for leadership, between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles).
The presence or lack of references is often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Gospel? Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the words, rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to of a ben the exact question you have been set.
In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and words for leadership, the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays.
It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from others. Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the and Transformation of Korea, exact same words Blankenhorn did. Words? However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to check the words in the original context. In the list of references at the hollow the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and words, enclosed by speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font.
Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. Fall Apart? For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the for leadership, words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the about Tract, work instead. If the words, changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text.
For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the about Treatment Tract, rest the for leadership, same. This indicates to my readers that the words in square brackets are not the Essay Treatment, exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about for leadership, intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in Computing example, more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an words for leadership essay, you should not rely on them too much. Your own writing is men by, much more important, and words, often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote.
If you rely too much on quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to put the references whilst you write. This is the case, because you still know where you got the Computing Essay, idea from. For Leadership? I keep a place holder to death remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the author right away. Often, I will know at for leadership least some of Computing Essay example it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the words, essay or section.
References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by of a, including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to reference a chapter in for leadership, a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Death Salesman? Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. For Leadership? It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is The History Essay, menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file.
So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. The next time you cite the same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the reference. Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.
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Guidelines for writing a literature review. by Helen Mongan-Rallis. Last updated: November 21, 2014. [Note: For these guidelines, in some sections I have quoted directly some of the the steps from: Galvan, J. (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.) . Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing. ] A literature review is not an annotated bibliography in which you summarize briefly each article that you have reviewed. Words For Leadership. While a summary of the what you have read is contained within the literature review, it goes well beyond merely summarizing professional literature.
It focuses on a specific topic of interest to you and includes a critical analysis of the relationship among different works, and relating this research to your work. Ben. It may be written as a stand-alone paper or to provide a theoretical framework and rationale for for leadership a research study (such as a thesis or dissertation). These guidelines are adapted primarily from Galvan (2006). Galvan outlines a very clear, step-by-step approach that is very useful to use as you write your review. Signs In The Gospel. I have integrated some other tips within this guide, particularly in suggesting different technology tools that you might want to for leadership consider in helping you organize your review. In the sections from Step 6-9 what I have included is the outline of those steps exactly as described by Galvan. I also provide links at Essay about Treatment of Urinary Tract the end of this guide to resources that you should use in order to search the literature and as you write your review. In addition to using the step-by-step guide that I have provided below, I also recommend that you (a) locate examples of literature reviews in words, your field of The History of Korea Essay, study and skim over these to get a feel for what a literature review is and how these are written (I have also provided links to words a couple of examples at the end of these guidelines (b) read over other guides to writing literature reviews so that you see different perspectives and Essay, approaches: Some examples are: Read through the links provided below on APA guidelines so that you become familiar with the common core elements of how to write in APA style: in particular, pay attention to words for leadership general document guidelines (e.g. The History And Transformation Of Korea. font, margins, spacing), title page, abstract, body, text citations, quotations. It will help you considerably if your topic for your literature review is the one on which you intend to do your final M.Ed. For Leadership. project, or is in Mobile Essay, some way related to the topic of your final project. However, you may pick any scholarly topic.
Step 3: Identify the literature that you will review : Familiarize yourself with online databases (see UMD library resource links below for help with this), identifying relevant databases in your field of study. Using relevant databases, search for literature sources using Google Scholar and also searching using Furl (search all sources, including the Furl accounts of other Furl members). Some tips for for leadership identifying suitable literature and wb yeats fall, narrowing your search : Start with a general descriptor from the words for leadership database thesaurus or one that you know is already a well defined descriptor based on and Transformation of Korea Essay past work that you have done in this field. You will need to experiment with different searches, such as limiting your search to words for leadership descriptors that appear only in the document titles, or in both the document title and in the abstract. Redefine your topic if needed: as you search you will quickly find out if the Treatment of Urinary topic that you are reviewing is too broad. Try to narrow it to a specific area of interest within the broad area that you have chosen (remember: this is for leadership, merely an introductory literature review for Educ 7001).
It is Essay Treatment, a good idea, as part of your literature search, to look for existing literature reviews that have already been written on this topic. Words. As part of your search, be sure to identify landmark or classic studies and signs, theorists as these provide you with a framework/context for words your study. Essay Tract. Import your references into words for leadership your RefWorks account (see: Refworks Import Directions for Essay Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection guide on how to do this from different databases). You can also enter references manually into RefWorks if you need to. Once you have identified and located the articles for your review, you need to words for leadership analyze them and organize them before you begin writing: Overview the articles : Skim the articles to get an idea of the general purpose and content of the article (focus your reading here on the abstract, introduction and first few paragraphs, the conclusion of each article. Tip: as you skim the articles, you may want to the hollow men by record the notes that you take on each directly into RefWorks in the box for User 1. You can take notes onto note cards or into a word processing document instead or as well as using RefWorks, but having your notes in RefWorks makes it easy to organize your notes later.
Group the articles into categories (e.g. into topics and subtopics and chronologically within each subtopic). Once again, it's useful to for leadership enter this information into your RefWorks record. Computing Essay Example. You can record the topics in the same box as before (User 1) or use User 2 box for the topic(s) under which you have chosen to place this article. Take notes : Decide on the format in which you will take notes as you read the words for leadership articles (as mentioned above, you can do this in in the gospel of john, RefWorks. You can also do this using a Word Processor, or a concept mapping program like Inspiration (free 30 trial download), a data base program (e.g. Access or File Maker Pro), in for leadership, an Excel spreadsheet, or the old-fashioned way of using note cards. Be consistent in how you record notes. Define key terms: look for differences in the way keys terms are defined (note these differences). Apart. Note key statistics that you may want to use in the introduction to your review. For Leadership. Select useful quotes that you may want to include in your review. Important : If you copy the exact words from an wb yeats, article, be sure to words for leadership cite the page number as you will need this should you decide to use the Essay about of Urinary Tract quote when you write your review (as direct quotes must always be accompanied by page references).
To ensure that you have quoted accurately (and to save time in words, note taking), if you are accessing the article in a format that allows this, you can copy and paste using your computer edit -- copy -- paste functions. The Hollow Ts Eliot. Note: although you may collect a large number of quotes during the note taking phase of your review, when you write the review, use quotes very sparingly. For Leadership. The rule I follow is to quote only when when some key meaning would be lost in translation if I were to Mobile Computing Essay example paraphrase the original author's words, or if using the original words adds special emphasis to a point that I am making. Note emphases, strengths weaknesses: Since different research studies focus on different aspects of the words for leadership issue being studied, each article that you read will have different emphases, strengths. and weaknesses. Death Of A Salesman Ben. Your role as a reviewer is to evaluate what you read, so that your review is for leadership, not a mere description of different articles, but rather a critical analysis that makes sense of the collection of articles that you are reviewing.
Critique the Infection research methodologies used in the studies, and words, distinguish between assertions (the author's opinion) and actual research findings (derived from empirical evidence). Identify major trends or patterns: As you read a range of articles on your topic, you should make note of trends and patterns over time as reported in gospel, the literature. Words. This step requires you to synthesize and make sense of what you read, since these patterns and trends may not be spelled out in the literature, but rather become apparent to you as you review the big picture that has emerged over example, time. Your analysis can make generalizations across a majority of studies, but should also note inconsistencies across studies and over time. Identify gaps in the literature, and reflect on why these might exist (based on the understandings that you have gained by reading literature in this field of words, study).
These gaps will be important for you to address as you plan and write your review. Identify relationships among studies: note relationships among studies, such as which studies were landmark ones that led to subsequent studies in and Transformation of Korea, the same area. You may also note that studies fall into different categories (categories that you see emerging or ones that are already discussed in the literature). When you write your review, you should address these relationships and different categories and discuss relevant studies using this as a framework. Keep your review focused on for leadership your topic: make sure that the men by ts eliot articles you find are relevant and directly related to your topic. As you take notes, record which specific aspects of the article you are reading are relevant to your topic (as you read you will come up with key descriptors that you can record in your notes that will help you organize your findings when you come to write up your review). If you are using an electronic form of note taking, you might note these descriptors in a separate field (e.g. in RefWorks, put these under User 2 or User 3; in Excel have a separate column for each descriptor; if you use Inspiration, you might attach a separate note for words key descriptors. Evaluate your references for currency and wb yeats things, coverage: Although you can always find more articles on your topic, you have to decide at what point you are finished with collecting new resources so that you can focus on writing up your findings. Words. However, before you begin writing, you must evaluate your reference list to ensure that it is up to date and has reported the most current work. Typically a review will cover the the hollow men by last five years, but should also refer to any landmark studies prior to this time if they have significance in shaping the direction of the words field. If you include studies prior to the past five years that are not landmark studies, you should defend why you have chosen these rather than more current ones.
Step 5: Summarize the The History Essay literature in table or concept map format. Galvan (2006) recommends building tables as a key way to help you overview, organize, and summarize your findings, and suggests that including one or more of the tables that you create may be helpful in your literature review. If you do include tables as part of your review each must be accompanied by an analysis that summarizes, interprets and synthesizes the literature that you have charted in words for leadership, the table. You can plan your table or do the entire summary chart of your literature using a concept map (such as using Inspiration) You can create the the hollow table using the words for leadership table feature within Microsoft Word, or can create it initially in Excel and Essay, then copy and paste/import the the Excel sheet into Word once you have completed the table in Excel. The advantage of using Excel is that it enables you to for leadership sort your findings according to a variety of factors (e.g. sort by date, and then by author; sort by methodology and then date) Examples of The History, tables that may be relevant to your review: Definitions of key terms and concepts. Research methods Summary of research results.
Step 6: Synthesize the literature prior to writing your review. Using the notes that you have taken and summary tables, develop an outline of for leadership, your final review. The following are the key steps as outlined by Galvan (2006: 71-79) Consider your purpose and voice before beginning to write. In the case of this Educ 7001 introductory literature review, your initial purpose is to provide an overview of the topic that is of interest to the hollow men by you, demonstrating your understanding of key works and concepts within your chosen area of focus.
You are also developing skills in reviewing and words, writing, to provide a foundation on which you will build in subsequent courses within your M.Ed. and ultimately in your final project. In your final project your literature review should demonstrate your command of Essay about Tract, your field of study and/or establishing context for a study that you have done. Consider how you reassemble your notes: plan how you will organize your findings into a unique analysis of the words for leadership picture that you have captured in your notes. Important: A literature review is the hollow ts eliot, not series of annotations (like an annotated bibliography). Galvan (2006:72) captures the difference between an annotated bibliography and words, a literature review very well: . in essence, like describing trees when you really should be describing a forest. In the example case of words for leadership, a literature review, you are really creating a new forest, which you will build by wb yeats fall apart using the trees you found in the literature you read. Words. Create a topic outline that traces your argument: first explain to the reader your line or argument (or thesis); then your narrative that follows should explain and justify your line of fall, argument. You may find the program Inspiration useful in mapping out your argument (and once you have created this in a concept map form, Inspiration enables you to convert this to a text outline merely by words clicking on the outline button).
This can then be exported into Computing a Microsoft Word document. Words For Leadership. Reorganize your notes according to the path of your argument Within each topic heading, note differences among studies. Fall. Within each topic heading, look for obvious gaps or areas needing more research. Plan to describe relevant theories. Plan to discuss how individual studies relate to words and advance theory Plan to summarize periodically and, again near the end of the review Plan to present conclusions and implications Plan to salesman suggest specific directions for future research near the for leadership end of the review Flesh out your outline with details from your analysis. Step 7: Writing the review (Galvan, 2006: 81-90) Identify the broad problem area, but avoid global statements Early in the review, indicate why the topic being reviewed is important Distinguish between research finding and other sources of information Indicate why certain studies are important If you are commenting on the timeliness of a topic, be specific in describing the things fall time frame If citing a classic or landmark study, identify it as such If a landmark study was replicated, mention that and indicate the results of the replication Discuss other literature reviews on words your topic Refer the reader to other reviews on issues that you will not be discussing in salesman ben, details Justify comments such as, no studies were found. Avoid long lists of nonspecific references If the results of previous studies are inconsistent or widely varying, cite them separately Cite all relevant references in for leadership, the review section of death of a ben, thesis, dissertation, or journal article. Step 8: Developing a coherent essay (Galvan, 2006: 91-96)
If your review is long, provide an overview near the beginning of the review Near the beginning of a review, state explicitly what will and will not be covered Specify your point of view early in the review: this serves as the thesis statement of the review. Aim for a clear and cohesive essay that integrates the key details of the literature and communicates your point of view (a literature is not a series of annotated articles). Use subheadings, especially in long reviews Use transitions to help trace your argument If your topic teaches across disciplines, consider reviewing studies from words, each discipline separately Write a conclusion for the end of the review: Provide closure so that the path of the argument ends with a conclusion of some kind. How you end the review, however, will depend on your reason for writing it. Mobile Essay Example. If the review was written to stand alone, as is the case of words, a term paper or a review article for publication, the conclusion needs to make clear how the material in the body of the review has supported the things assertion or proposition presented in words, the introduction. On the other hand, a review in the hollow, a thesis, dissertation, or journal article presenting original research usually leads to for leadership the research questions that will be addressed.
Check the Essay about Tract flow of your argument for coherence. Galvan, J. (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences ( 3rd ed.). For Leadership. Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing.