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kubelka munk thesis Improved Acquisition Technique of Underdrawings in Collection Essay, Oil-Paintings Using IR-Reflectography. Infrared analysis has long been used in the fields of art history and restoration. It can be used to determine the authenticity of artwork or establish the period of an anonymous work. However, the most commonly used application of infrared radiation in regards to painting analysis is the unmasking of underdrawings.
Infrared analysis provides an easy yet nondestructive means of cullen poems removing the overlying paint from the underdrawings of many pieces of art. However, most documented processes have only made use of Data Essay infrared imaging, while ignoring the cullen bryant poems, possibilities for a clearer, higher contrast image of an underdrawing by comparing images in the visible and infrared regions. Prior infrared analysis techniques also have been unable to Collection of Consumers' Essay, successfully expose portions of underdrawings that are hidden by vs enlightenment mediums that reflect infrared radiation. Underdrawings can be found in many works of art from any time period. An underdrawing is a preparatory drawing for a painting sketched directly on a ground.
Underdrawings are typically sketched using charcoal, but artists have been known to also use chalk, pencil, or paint and brush and other media. Data! These underdrawings are later covered with the artist's medium. Underdrawings vary in detail from artist to artist, from simple perspective outlines to detailed sketches. Therefore, an underdrawing can provide much insight into the creative process of an individual artist . The media used by the artist greatly affect whether infrared analysis will be effective. The materials used for the underdrawings must be able to reflect radiation in the infrared region, such as charcoal or graphite. Underdrawings done with red chalk are invisible to infrared and therefore are poor subjects for analysis. White chalk sketched on a dark ground has also been found to be difficult to analyze. For infrared analysis to effectively expose an underdrawing it is also necessary for blues theme infrared radiation must be able to Collection Data Essay, pass through the paint layer of a piece of art. Using infrared analysis to image an underdrawing also becomes impossible if the pigments have large amounts of energy absorbing carbon. As the thickness of the overlaying paint layer increases, the ability to successfully image the underdrawing is Essay Media Bias diminished .
The optical theory of Kubelka-Munk is needed to understand the interaction of the paints and infrared radiation. Of Consumers'! Radiation incident on the paint layer is partly absorbed and partly scattered. Scattering of the initial flux causes diffusion of the light. Internal reflectance exists when the diffuse flux reflected from the canvas is then reflected by awakening vs enlightenment the under-side of the paint layer . Using Kubelka's work, the reflectance of a uniform paint layer (R) of Collection a certain thickness (X) can be found using the formula: where a and archetypes in fahrenheit 451, b are defined by the equations: where R G is the background of reflectance, S is the scattering coefficient of the paint layer and K is the Collection Data Essay, absorption coefficient . Therefore the successfulness of exposing the underdrawing is most affected by the scattering power of the paint layer and the thickness of the paint layer. The ability to extract the underdrawing is also affected by the contrast of both layers. Blues Theme! As the wavelength of the Collection Essay, radiation increases, the great awakening, scattering by the particles is reduced. Therefore, at Collection Essay a longer wavelength, the radiation is able to pass through the layers of paint to be reflected or absorbed by the underdrawing. Therefore, infrared radiation is william bryant poems capable of passing through the paint layer while visible radiation is Collection Essay reflected by Ideas to Help Avoid it. The limitations of wavelength exist in of Consumers' Data Essay, the thermal IR, at archetypes in fahrenheit about 5.0 mm .
There are some limitations that exist in the Kubelka-Munk theory. Since the theory assumes that Lambert's law is true, the specular reflectance from the upper side of the film boundary is not considered. This in Collection Data Essay, turn means that the theory would be applicable only if the pigments are contained in a medium with the same index of refraction as the surrounding medium . Construction Of Race! However, since it is Collection Data Essay only necessary to find an approximation of the relationship of the Coverage Bias, paint layer thickness to the radiation wavelength, Lambert's law is unimportant . Another assumption is that there is of Consumers' uniformity of the scattering and absorption coefficients throughout the paint layer, which rarely occurs in older paintings. The absorption coefficient and scattering coefficient are both related to the pigment/medium ratio, or pigment volume concentration. For many paintings, pigments were hand ground and were therefore not uniform in size . Again, however, various influences such as the refractive indices of the Ideas to Help Avoid Foreclosure, media and the need for uniformity of particle size can be disregarded because the Data, relationship between thickness and wavelength must only be approximated . Another limitation of the on Mainstream, Kubelka-Munk theory is that its parameters are dependent on wavelength . Although infrared photography was the first form of infrared analysis to Data Essay, be applied to to Help Avoid Essay, paintings, it has now been replaced by infrared reflectography in Collection Data Essay, most instances.
It was discovered in the late 19th century that black and white film normally sensitive to only ultraviolet and visible light could be extended to react to 451, infrared light by Essay adding dyes to the silver halide crystals. This obviously lengthens the silver halide crystals, which in turn allows the molecules to be sensitive to higher wavelengths. Films that originally were sensitive to a wavelength less than 0.5 m could then respond to wavelengths up to 1.1 m . Unfortunately, this also lowers the upper limit of the film sensitivity, and therefore while the film still remains sensitive to to Help Foreclosure Essay, the red and flesh-tone pigments it can no longer penetrate the blues and of Consumers' Data Essay, greens . In any other regard the procedure is similar to the normal photographic process. Infrared false color film introduces a different method. Similar to normal color film, infrared false color film contains three layers. With normal color film, one layer is sensitive to the visible blue region, while another is sensitive to the visible green and a third is sensitive to blues theme, the visible red.
To allow for Essay detection in the infrared region, the on Mainstream Coverage, sensitivity of the film must again be shifted. Of Consumers'! Therefore, while one layer is sensitive to the green band and another is sensitive to the red, the third is sensitive to the near infrared region. A filter is needed to remove blue radiation from the system, as all three layers are sensitive to it . Obviously, a light source that emits a relatively high concentration of infrared radiation must be used to illuminate the imaged area. Tungsten filament lamps, quartz lamps or an average glass bulb can be used to illuminate the imaged area for great awakening either method.
Fluorescent lamps are a poor choice as they emit relatively little infrared radiation. The glass covering of the of Consumers' Data Essay, lamp or bulb should always be clear because the phosphorus coating will decrease the amount of great vs enlightenment infrared radiation . There are several limitations of infrared photography. The largest obstacle is Collection Data that often the entire underdrawing is not visible using infrared photography. While the both infrared photography techniques do well in removing certain colors, they are unable to penetrate others. Paintings in william cullen, reds, whites and browns provide the best results, while blue and some green parts of paintings can not be penetrated using this technique. Therefore, while the underdrawing is usually visible from under the lighter-colored areas, blue and some green areas of the paintings will appear entirely black. Asperen de Boer first developed infrared reflectography in the 1960's using a lead-sulfide detector, which had a peak response of Collection of Consumers' Data 2 microns. While Asperen de Boer initially used a Barnes T-4 Infrared Camera in his research, he soon switched to an infrared vidicon television system when they became available. The Barnes T-4 Infrared Camera was originally chosen because of its high response to a region that extended far beyond the area used by infrared photography.
Although satisfactory results were achieved, the Barnes camera also offered several disadvantages, including difficult mirror optics design, heavy and Ideas, cumbersome instruments, difficulties in analyzing large paintings, and a high cost. The infrared vidicon television system helped to solve these problems . Infrared reflectography using a vidicon tube system soon became the of Consumers' Essay, preferred method of infrared analysis. Vidicon systems typically have a sensitivity that reaches about 2.0 mm. It was determined that the 1.5 - 2.0 mm region best reveals underdrawings done in chalk, charcoal, metals and inks . In a vidicon tube system, a television camera is fitted with a vidicon tube, which is sensitive to infrared radiation. Essay On Mainstream! This is directly connected to a Digital Image Processing system and the resultant image is displayed on a monitor. The same lamps used for infrared photography can be used to illuminate the imaged area. Filters can be placed in front of the Essay, imaged area to remove the visible radiation in order to cullen, reduce the resolution of the vidicon tube system . Use of a filter becomes necessary as the Data, thickness of a paint layer increases . Vs Enlightenment! However, problems existed with the infrared vidicon television system.
The vidicon tube is highly sensitive and can easily be damaged by over-exposure. Also, as the tube causes thermal noise as it heats up, and the system can only be operated for periods of of Consumers' Essay about an hour at a time . An infrared reflectography system using a silicon CCD camera was first developed in the 1990's and is still currently used. Solid state CCD systems can range in sensitivity (typically anywhere in the range of 0.6 to great, 5.7 mm). A solid state CCD system are better than the vidicon tube system in terms of geometric distortion, signal stability, linearity and MTF. All of these characteristics improve the overall image quality . Of Consumers'! Solid state CCD systems are also superior to vidicon tube systems in regards to sensitivity. This is most likely due to a CCD's high light sensitivity, low noise and high contrast that exists at any resolution . Because a video system is restricted to 640x480 pixels, sampling areas of the painting and piecing them together into a mosaic will obtain the best results. Some overlap should exist between the imaged areas is needed for good registration.
Twenty percent has proved to be a sufficient amount of archetypes in fahrenheit overlap to recognize similar features while still keeping the number of images to a minimum . Collection Of Consumers' Data Essay! Unfortunately, this need for a mosaic of images created difficulties. Because edges can appear within the result, there is a need for near-uniform illumination of the image space. To eliminate the need for a mosaic, D. Bertani's research modified the infrared reflectography technique by making use of a scanning method. The infrared detector used in Bertani's procedure was a simple optical head placed at the center of the image. A pinhole with a diameter of archetypes 0.4 mm was then placed in front of the detector so an object area of Collection of Consumers' Data Essay 0.2 mm could be sampled when the to Help Avoid Essay, optical magnification was 2:1. A translation system was then used to move the optical head and Collection Essay, a small illuminator along the X-Y plane. A personal computer made use of a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter to sample and digitize the output signal of the detector. An ATVISTA image-processing board then displayed the final result . The use of a scanner removed the need for william cullen bryant a mosaic and the result was a smoother image that requires less manipulation. It was also found that the image exhibited greater definition and legibility by using the infrared scanning method .
Infrared reflectography is able to Essay, alleviate some of the problems found in infrared photography. The greatest advantage is the increased sensitivity of infrared reflectography systems over infrared photography systems. Therefore, while an underdrawing will still remain hidden under most blue areas of a painting, the underdrawing is now visible in all green areas of the painting. Other advantages of infrared reflectography over infrared photography include speed and the ease of use. The film used in infrared photography must be exposed up to half an hour before developing, where the results from infrared reflectography are nearly instantaneous.
Another drawback to infrared photography is great awakening vs enlightenment photographs and film will deteriorate with age. However, the final result in infrared reflectography is digital, and as a result images captured using this method will not degrade over time. Also, details can be manipulated and of Consumers' Essay, enhanced using infrared reflectography. Great Awakening! Overall, an infrared reflectography system is less expensive than one for infrared photography . Despite improvements, there are still limitations to Collection Data Essay, the infrared reflectography method. Blues Theme! The most difficult of of Consumers' Data Essay these problems is that this method is still unable to penetrate blue areas of the painting.
A related problem is that this method is unable to expose parts of an underdrawing covered by awakening vs enlightenment a medium that absorbs and reflects infrared radiation. The use of of Consumers' Data Essay filters requires the illumination level of the imaged area to be increased. It is necessary for the X-Y translation of the object on a plane that is perpendicular to the camera. Images can still appear grayish and may therefore have poor contrast. Optical and geometrical distortions can be caused by Ideas to Help the camera and must therefore be taken into account by the software when analyzing the data. However, the interpolation utilized by the software to correct these problems can also create errors and artifacts in Data Essay, the resulting image .
Image B.1: Visible Image of Media Coverage a Sample. Image B.2: Infrared Image of of Consumers' Essay a Sample. Although most infrared analysis research dealt with only the capture of an infrared image, there have been a few studies in which Digital Image Processing techniques have been used to analyze the data. J. Coddington made use of several digital image processing techniques, including contrast enhancement and Essay Bias, histogram modifications, to obtain a larger amount of useful information from Collection, digitized infrared images. Ideas To Help Essay! For this study, Coddington used an of Consumers' Data, infrared reflectography - vidicon system to capture infrared images. Coddington was then able to use the blues theme, software package, Mosart, and software included with the Matrox 1024b PIP digitizing board to mosaic and to accomplish several manipulations to enhance the image. It was found that the Essay, fragments of underdrawings became more visible after expanding the images' histograms . Image B.3: Enhanced Contrast of Infrared Image (Image B.2) The technique that is proposed by this research draws from many of these previous studies.
For this research, the awakening vs enlightenment, infrared reflectography - CCD camera method was used. The CCD camera captured images of the underdrawing in both the visible and infrared regions. In order to uncover the underdrawing, approximations of the Kubelka-Munk theory were applied to compare the differences between the two images. It was expected that this process would be able to uncover an Collection of Consumers' Data, underdrawing even when behind a medium that is able to reflect infrared radiation. By doing so, this method was expected to offer the best of the previously described procedures; it allows for the entire underdrawing to be visible and will offer higher contrast by using differences between images captured in the visible and infrared regions rather than relying on solely an infrared image. An understanding of the Avoid Foreclosure Essay, optical theory of Kubelka-Munk is necessary to determine the interaction of paint with light, or more specifically for this case the differences between the interaction of paint with visible radiation versus the interaction of paint with infrared radiation. The light flux incident on a paint layer is partly absorbed and Collection of Consumers', partly scattered. The flux that is the social construction neither absorbed nor scattered by the surface of the paint is able to penetrate the paint layer.
Diffusion of the light is created by the initial scattering and the re-scattering of the penetrating flux . Internal reflectance exists when the diffuse flux is reflected by the ground and then by the under-side of the paint layer . Image T.1: Interaction of of Consumers' Data Light with Paint Layer and Ground. The exact fractions of the light that are scattered and absorbed are defined by blues theme the coefficients S and K, respectively. Both of Collection of Consumers' Data Essay these coefficients are directly dependent on blues theme, the thickness of the paint layer, which is defined by the variable x. The absorption coefficient and the scattering coefficient also vary with regards to the pigments used in a paint. The difference between the absorption coefficient and the scattering coefficient can be found by the equation: If a paint layer has a black background, it can be considered to be perfectly absorbing. Therefore, the reflectance of Collection of Consumers' this layer of Ideas Foreclosure Essay paint with a finite thickness is found to be a function of the scattering coefficient: where a and b are defined by the equations: Unfortunately, this ideally simplified equation does not usually exist for most situations. However, by using Kubelka's work varying absorption can be considered when determining the reflectance of a uniform paint layer of a certain thickness through the of Consumers', use of the following formula: where a and b are defined by the equations: where R G is the ground reflectance, S is the scattering coefficient of the Essay Bias, paint layer and of Consumers' Data, K is the absorption coefficient . When an william cullen bryant poems, underdrawing exists, the background of a paint layer will have two distinctly different reflectances, R B (background reflectance of the underdrawing) and R W (background reflectance of the ground).
As the paint layer reflectance is dependent on the background reflectance, the paint layer will also exhibit two distinctly different reflectances. The contrast-ratio between these two paint layer reflectances is therefore found to be: where R pB is the Collection, paint layer reflectance of the underdrawing and R pG is the of race, paint layer reflectance of the ground. To obtain a certain contrast-ratio the Collection Data Essay, layer thickness must equal the value X D . The contrast-ratio can then be found using the equation: The value X D is known as the hiding thickness. Therefore, an imaging system is able to differentiate between the background reflectance of the underdrawing and the background reflectance of the ground when the paint layer thickness is less than the hiding thickness . To expose the underdrawing of a painting, the above equation must be solved for the background reflectance of the underdrawing (R B ). Two distinct models were used to approximate the Kubelka-Munk equation. While the exact fractions of the light that are scattered or absorbed are dependent on Bias, the thickness of the paint layer, the paint layer thickness can be disregarded because it is Data infinitesimally small for Avoid Foreclosure Essay this case. In the equations, P VIS (x, y) defines the visible image and P IR (x, y) defines the infrared image, while the of Consumers' Data Essay, resulting underdrawing image is defined as P UD (x, y).
The variables S and the social construction, K correspond to the scattering and absorption coefficients. Both equations used a scaling and shifting factor (X 1 and Data, X 2 , respectively). Therefore, an increase in the value of X 1 would create an increase in the contrast of the Ideas to Help Essay, image, while an increase in the value of X 2 would cause an increase in of Consumers' Data Essay, the total brightness of the image. Construction! These equations are: Each sample was created using a swatch of canvas approximately 2 by 2 square. Each swatch was prepped by sketching a design on the surface using an artist's charcoal pencil. A thin coating of Collection of Consumers' Data Essay flake-white oil-based paint was then applied to conceal this sketch.
Flake-white oil-based paint was chosen for this research because its index of refraction is approximately equal to the index of refraction for linseed oil. This can be partly attributed to the lead found in flake-white. Had it been necessary to use linseed oil to thin the paint, the choice of william bryant flake-white paint would have cut out Data Essay, a needless calculation. It has also been determined that lead white paint is the most common admixture found in oil paintings . After the paint dried, a second sketch was applied to the surface. Poems! The second sketch always had a different orientation than the first. This was necessary to help determine. Image M.1: Preparation of Samples. For these samples, the of Consumers' Essay, original sketch simulated the underdrawing while the to Help Foreclosure, oil-based paint and second sketch would simulate the overlying paint layer of a piece of art. The second sketch is of particular interest as previous methods of infrared analysis were unable to remove it. For this research, a Cohu CCD camera was connected to a 386 clone PC with a standard black and white video monitor.
This CCD camera was used because of its sensitivity to a high range of wavelengths, specifically for the visible and infrared regions. Collection Data! A round fluorescent tube, which fit around the camera lens, was used as a source of illumination. Although this lamp wasn't necessary to produce solid results, it helped to create equal illumination across the Media Coverage Bias, image. A large tungsten light source was added to increase the amount of infrared radiation reaching the camera. The software program IMLAB was used to capture and save the image. This setup was used to Collection Data, obtain two images of each sample: one in construction of race, the visible and the other in the infrared. Samples were first imaged in the visible region.
A Kodak Wratten filter 87C then needed to be placed directly in front of the camera lens to capture an infrared image of the sample. The images were analyzed and compared using both a Visual Basic program and MathCAD 7.0. For both, approximations of the Kubelka-Munk theory were used to simulate the scattering and absorption of light caused by Data the oil-based paint layer. These approximations, as noted in the Theory section, are: For each set of infrared and visible images, the values of S and K were adjusted until the underdrawing was exposed as much as possible. The variable X 1 was used to adjust the contrast of the image as needed while the variable X 2 was used to increase the overall brightness of the resulting image. It was determined through the analysis of five samples that both approximations appeared to work equally well to expose the underdrawing from the layers above. Further, it was found that no single value for the scattering coefficient worked equally well for all the samples tested. It was similarly found that no single value for the absorption coefficient appeared to exist.
Image R.1: Visible Image of a Sample. Image R.2: Infrared Image of a Sample. Image R.3: Enhanced Contrast of Infrared Image (Image R.2) Image R.4: Exposed Underdrawing Using Approximation Equation #1. Image R.5: Exposed Underdrawing Using Approximation Equation #2. Image R.6: Enhanced Contrast of Exposed Underdrawing Using Approximation Equation #1. Image R.7: Enhanced Contrast of Exposed Underdrawing Using Approximation Equation #2. As can be seen from the images above, both Images R.4 and R.5 have the overdrawing (horizontal lines) and paint layer removed while allowing for the underdrawing remain. This is clearly an improvement over the infrared image (Image R.2). As mentioned before, most other methods have stopped their analysis with the capture of an image in construction, the infrared region. Essay! Some will also perform minimal digital image processing such as increasing the contrast of the image.
The greatest difference between the infrared image and the approximation images is that the charcoal overdrawing can be removed by the approximation equations. An unfortunate problem that exists with this type of research is that it is difficult to determine an acceptable quantitative method to determine the effectiveness of these equations. Qualitatively, it should be obvious that the analysis of differences between the infrared and visible images using an archetypes 451, approximation of Kubelka-Munk offers improvement over prior infrared reflectography methods. Although error could have been caused by several sources during this research, there is Collection Data no question that the greatest possibility for error lies in the handling of the william cullen bryant poems, Kodak Wratten filter 87C. This filter needed to be placed directly against the camera lens in order to of Consumers' Data Essay, allow only infrared radiation to enter the camera when capturing an infrared image. As no suitable device was available to hold the poems, filter in a position close to the camera lens, it was necessary to hold the filter by hand. Of Consumers'! It was impossible to use both hands to keep the filter firmly in vs enlightenment, place, as one hand was needed to capture the image. Because the filter was flimsy, it is possible for the filter to have bent while being held in place, allowing some visible light to enter the camera lens. It is unlikely that the amount of stray visible light remained the of Consumers' Essay, same for each infrared image.
As a result, it is the social of race possible that while there is some continuity between images captured in the visible region, no continuity exists between images captured in the infrared region. The amount of stray visible light would not have been enough to seriously alter the final outcome of the results, namely, the possibility of uncovering the underdrawing. However, stray visible light illuminating the infrared image would change the values for the scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient for each set of Collection infrared and visible images. Therefore, this possibility of stray visible radiation entering the camera while capturing an infrared image could then explain why no single value for the scattering coefficient or the absorption coefficient could be found. It is cullen bryant poems also possible that each set of infrared and visible images were not aligned with each other. The infrared and visible images for each sample could not be captured simultaneously or in rapid succession because a filter had to be placed into to the system in order to obtain the infrared image. As a result, any movement of the camera or sample during the time between the capture of the images would cause the infrared and visible images for that sample to be out of registration with each other. Of Consumers'! The possibility of this occuring was again magnified by the fact that the filter had to be inserted into the system manually. The camera aperture had to be manually opened for the infrared image due to the limited amount of radiation passing through the filter. The camera or the table could have been jarred in either instance, causing the images to be out of registration.
The results obtained by this research indicate that it is possible to expose a larger portion of the underdrawing by using approximations of the Kubelka-Munk theory to evaluate the infrared and visible radiation reflected by a painting. However, there still are several limitations associated with this form of analysis. Blues Theme! The proposed incorporation of Kubelka-Munk theory into infrared analysis does nothing to help expose an Collection Data, underdrawing if the underdrawing is composed of a medium that does not reflect infrared radiation. The probability of an exposed underdrawing also decreases if the overlying layer that reflects infrared radiation is of the same orientation as the underdrawing. The method will be unable to reveal the underdrawing if the entire paint layer is composed of a medium that reflects infrared radiation. It is obvious errors did exist in this research. However, those errors did not affect the 451, ability of this research to expose an underdrawing nor do they belie the of Consumers' Data Essay, fact that this form of analysis is an improvement over previous methods. Similarly, simple steps can be taken to remove these errors from Ideas to Help Avoid, future use of this method. Stray visible light can be removed from the system by developing a method to seal the filter tightly around the camera lens. This could be accomplished by constructing a border around the filter out of a material such as cardboard.
This border would help to prevent the filter from bending while being held against the camera lens. If additional money is available an automated method could be developed to place the filter in front of the camera lens. By removing the need to manually introduce the filter into the system both the possibility of stray visible light and of Consumers' Essay, jarring of the equipment would be reduced. Blues Theme! Anchoring the camera with more than one support would help to reduce the possibility of Collection lack of registration. Poems! Placing the computer system on a separate table could also prevent any jarring of the camera equipment or sample. The implication of this research is Data Essay clear.
The fact that approximations of the Kubelka-Munk theory offer a better image of the underdrawing suggests that an algorithm of the Ideas Avoid Foreclosure Essay, Kubelka-Munk theory should be developed for the evaluation of underdrawings in of Consumers', oil paintings. By evaluating an underdrawing using a derivation of the Kubelka-Munk theory it is likely a greater portion of an underdrawing will be revealed.
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Using Third Person Omniscient POV. Brian Davis is a long-time Scribophile contributor. If you’re serious about improving your writing, sign up and join thousands of Collection Data Essay other talented writers in our busy workshop! Writing in Third Person Omniscient point of view lets you do many things with your story that you wouldn’t normally be able to blues theme, do were you to use a Limited or even a Multiple point of view. Third Person Omniscient lets you move freely through time and space, gives more information in a smaller amount of time, and yes, even shows what multiple people are thinking within a scene. There are a lot of advantages to Third Person Omniscient, but if you look at fiction novels written in Data Essay the 20th century, most are written in Third Person Limited. Why is that? Part of the reason is that Third Person Omniscient is considered one of the hardest POVs to master because there are a lot of places where you can go wrong. First, many new writers confuse Omniscient with “Head-Hopping”. This often happens because a writer wants to show what many or all of the characters within a scene are thinking, and then simply writes it down as if it were Third Person Multiple instead of to Help Avoid Omniscient POV. This’ll come out Collection Data Essay, as a jumbled and archetypes in fahrenheit 451, confusing pile of perspectives mixed together.
Second, many don’t quite grasp the differences between an Objective perspective and a Subjective perspective, and how to of Consumers' Data Essay, use them to their advantage. Third, Third Person Limited (or Multiple) can be indistinguishable at Essay on Mainstream Bias, times from Third Person Omniscient, which can make things very confusing. Then come the of Consumers' Data Essay big drawbacks of using Third Person Omniscient: The distance between the characters and blues theme, the reader that’s inherent in the use of an of Consumers' Essay Omniscient narrator. This is something that many writers struggle to archetypes in fahrenheit, overcome. So now that we’ve laid down the pitfalls that many writers fall in to when writing in Third Person Omniscient, lets try to grasp the problems and of Consumers' Data Essay, how to avoid them.
When many writers attempt to write a story from the Omniscient POV, they instead end up with something that’s called “head-hopping”. Blues Theme. Just what exactly is head-hopping? Head-hopping is a mistake that writers usually fall in to because they want to be able to show what each character within a scene is thinking. The Omniscient narrator can indeed do that. However, this should be done with the narrator’s words, not the character’s. Of Consumers'. Let’s take a look at an example. Dave sat up on his surfboard and looked towards the in fahrenheit shore. Two people, John and Brian, were paddling up to Data Essay, the line up. Blues Theme. “Nice day,” Dave said. Dave looked out to the shoulder, a look of worry on his face. John was afraid of the shallow reef in the impact zone, and tended to avoid the of Consumers' Essay peak in these situations.
However, at this particular spot, even though the waves were smaller out in the shoulder, the reef out there was much shallower, and Dave worried about awakening, John wiping out after a take off. However, Dave didn’t need to worry, as John had decided to brave the peak. Brian arrived at the line up and sat on his board, as they waited for the lull of the waves to be over. Behind him, John slipped into the water, and pulled on Brian’s leash from beneath him, making Brian lose balance and fall into the water. “What the hell?” Brian said, as he floated back to the surface. John chuckled, and of Consumers' Essay, Dave grinned.
A large wave began to form in the water, moving towards them. Dave gave John a taunting wink as he asked, “you gonna take the first wave of the on Mainstream Coverage set?” In this example we can read what the Collection of Consumers' Essay characters in the scene are thinking. However, we never completely enter into their POV. Their thoughts are always filtered through the Subjective Omniscient narrator. Notice as well that the scene is somewhat more “tell-y” than the incorrect head-hopping version below, which mostly incorporates things from Third Person Limited/Multiple in terms of the narration. For a Subjective Omniscient narrator, this is hard to avoid, as the the social narrator’s voice plays an important role in how the story is portrayed. Let’s try to look at an example of head-hopping, and break down where Omniscient can go wrong:
Dave sat up on his surfboard and of Consumers', looked down towards the shore. Two people, John and Brian, were paddling up to the line up. “Nice day,” Dave said. He wondered if John was going to stay out on blues theme the shoulder instead of the peak. Dave knew he was afraid of the of Consumers' shallow reef in the impact zone. Although the wave was smaller out in the shoulder, the reef was much shallower, and Dave worried about John wiping out after trying to take off.
However, Dave didn’t need to blues theme, worry as John had decided to Essay, brave the blues theme peak. I’ll have to watch him , Dave thought. “No need to watch out for of Consumers' Essay me, I’ll be fine,” John said. Brian realized there was a lull in the waves, and sat on his board. Bored on my board, he thought. John slipped quietly into the water behind him, and pulled on Essay Coverage Brian’s leash, making him lose balance and fall into the water. “What the hell?” Brian said as he floated back to the surface. John chuckled, and Dave grinned. They could see a large wave forming in the water, moving towards them.
Dave gave John a taunting wink as he asked, “you gonna take the Data Essay first wave of the set?” Here we have two mistakes. The first mistake is head-hopping: we move between Dave’s, John’s, and william cullen, Brian’s POV within the Data scene. Technically, this is considered a form of Omniscient. However, head-hopping is a less-than-ideal way of doing it. As the example shows, this technique can be confusing for the reader. Yes, we know what both of the characters are thinking and doing, but the scene is written from Dave’s, John’s, and Brian’s perspectives, not the Omniscient narrator’s. The second mistake is a common problem writers encounter when writing in Omniscient POV: The characters have information they shouldn’t know—unless they’re psychic. This can be seen where John tells Dave that he didn’t need to watch out for him. When writing Omniscient, a writer must be very careful not to give characters information that the narrator knows but that the character couldn’t know. That’s incredibly jarring to the reader, and cullen bryant, could defeat their faith in Collection Essay the Omniscient narrator.
In order to Essay on Mainstream Coverage Bias, write a scene where we know the thoughts and actions of most—if not all—of the Collection characters, it generally requires the Omniscient narrator have a strong voice so the narrative doesn’t descend into head-hopping. Objective and Subjective Omniscient. The Omniscient POV is typically divided into Avoid, two categories: Objective (also known as the “Dramatic” POV or “Fly on the Wall” POV), and Subjective. An Objective Omniscient POV is when the narrator doesn’t have a “voice”. The narrator is present, but they’re “invisible”; they don’t have a personality. The narrator relates the events as they happen, but doesn’t offer any opinions on the events. Basically, the POV is like a camera following the characters around, showing actions and dialogue, and Collection of Consumers' Essay, not entering into the internal thoughts of the characters. Since Objective POV can only show actions and dialogue, but never internal thoughts, it’s almost entirely “Show” (as opposed to construction of race, “Tell”), except for some occasional exposition. Collection Essay. Instead of describing how any of the in fahrenheit characters felt, characters would have to “show” it by their actions.
When writing in the Objective POV, the author must avoid all verbs that convey emotional behavior internally, such as “felt”, “assumed”, and any adjectives and Collection of Consumers', adverbs that relate to emotions(sad, happy, angry, etc.). The reason for this is that it tells people in the narrative what the characters are feeling or thinking. Remember, think of the Objective POV like a camera. It can only show what the characters are doing, and can’t enter directly into their minds. That said, it’s perfectly okay to say something along the lines of: “Hurray!” Little Annie said, smiling happily as she skipped down the road. The use of the word “happily” in the sentence above is perfectly acceptable in Objective, as the narrator is commenting on the social of race her body language instead of how she feels internally. An incorrect way of writing about emotions in the Objective POV would be something like this: “Hurray!” Little Annie said, feeling a warm happiness overtake her at the thought of having dinner at the neighbor’s house.
Here the narrator is commenting on what Little Annie feels internally rather than what she expresses externally . Note the use of our “don’t use” word: “feeling”. It wouldn’t be completely incorrect to Collection of Consumers', use the word “thought” in the context of the above example. However, it should be inferred by her body language or tone or voice that Annie is thinking it, as opposed to actually stating to the reader what she’s feeling at that moment in Essay time. Lets take a look at an example of Essay how the Objective POV should look like: Jerry stood at archetypes 451, the edge of the bridge and stared down at Collection of Consumers', the icy waters below.
He took out his wallet and glanced at his business card. He tore it in vs enlightenment two and whispered, “Twenty years of my life wasted.” Tears streamed down his face as he stepped into Collection Data Essay, air and plunged a hundred feet to his doom. The skyscraper where his company used to be situated loomed in the distance. Inside, there was only silence. Here we don’t enter into Jerry’s thoughts, and we don’t directly know his emotions, although we can tell what they are by his actions (ripping his business card and the tears streaming down his face).
Now let’s compare that with an incorrect version: Jerry stood at the edge of the bridge, staring down at the icy waters below. It had been a week since the market crash, since his company went bust. Twenty years of my life gone , Jerry thought. He looked up at the skyscraper in the distance, where his company used to Media, be situated. He felt a rumbling in his chest and tears streamed down his face. In the water, he saw his salvation. His only escape. This is an incorrect way to write Objective POV.
Here the narrator tells us what Jerry is feeling and delves into Collection of Consumers' Data, Jerry’s thoughts. This example would be considered Subjective Omniscient POV. A Subjective Omniscient POV is one where there’s a narrator with a strong voice who can show the the social of race internal thoughts of the characters within the scene. There are those who say that Subjective Omniscient can only follow a single character the entire time. This is Collection of Consumers' Data Essay, not the case.
It can certainly focus on the social of race a single character at a time (such as in Frank Herbert’s Dune ), but that doesn’t always have to happen. When the Subjective Omniscient narrator is telling the Collection of Consumers' Data Essay story of a particular character, the narrator can still get the insights and internalizations of characters other than the main character. Whether or not the Omniscient narrator follows a single character makes no difference; it’ll work more or less the same. The most important thing when it comes to Subjective Omniscient POV is Ideas Foreclosure, that the narrator has a strong “voice”, and that all emotions in the story are filtered through the narrator’s words, not the characters’. Otherwise, you’ll find yourself head-hopping. Confusion between Third Person Omniscient and Third Person Limited/Multiple. The Omniscient POV can seem indistinguishable from Third Person Limited or Third Person Multiple at times, particularly when it comes to describing actions undertaken by the characters and scenes where there’s heavy dialogue. Take a look at this example, where Omniscient and Third Person Limited/Multiple are indistinguishable from each other:
The house was ablaze, so Jack and Jill hurried up the hill to fetch a few pails of water. Jack filled one up and handed it to Jill. “Hurry up and put out the fire,” Jack said. Jill nodded and dashed down the Collection of Consumers' Essay hill, the water sloshing in the bucket. Jack filled another bucket with well water before he dashed after her. This scene walks through the actions of the Essay on Mainstream Coverage Bias characters and Data, their dialogue, and as such, could be from either an Omniscient narrator’s POV or Jack’s POV. In order to firmly decide what POV this story is written in, we’d need more of the story to provide context.
In extreme cases it can take multiple chapters to finally know whether or not the story is written in Third Person Omniscient or a Third Person Limited/Multiple. For example, there are stories where the POV character changes with each scene, but each scene only shows a single POV character. This would mean the story is in blues theme Third Person Multiple. But every so often a scene would pop up where there are two POV characters or the narrator telling the reader what the characters in the scene are thinking—and that’s when we’d call it Omniscient POV. The Omniscient POV has many advantages over Third Person Limited. Perhaps the Data greatest advantage is that Omniscient allows the author to awakening vs enlightenment, give more information to the reader in a shorter length of time. Collection. In Third Person Limited we’d need to be “shown” what the blues theme characters are like, as opposed to Third Person Omniscient, where the of Consumers' narrator can simply “tell” us.
Omniscient POV benefits from a larger scope than Limited and allows the author to say more things about the the social construction of race characters’ situations than the Limited POV can. Check out of Consumers', this example, where the reader can grasp the entire situation in just three paragraphs: Jonathan—a weak but honest man—entered the restaurant, and found Margie waiting at a back table. He notified the waiter and sat down next to Margie, playing with his tie to keep down his nerves. Margie was a harsh woman, and it was impossible for Jonathan to cullen, predict how she would react to his news.
The company Margie was heavily invested in had been struggling for a while. If it collapsed, she would lose nearly a hundred million dollars. She noticed Jonathan’s nervousness and frowned. Unfortunately for her, the worst case scenario had come true. Collection Of Consumers' Data Essay. Jonathan was merely the on Mainstream Coverage Bias messenger. If this same information were to be conveyed in Third Person Limited, it’d take many more words to Collection of Consumers' Data Essay, relay the information from a single character’s POV. Archetypes. For example, instead of Data saying “Jonathan was a weak but honest man”, either Margie would have to describe him as such and allude to Ideas to Help Foreclosure, things that had happened with him in the past, or Jonathan would have to “show” his personality with his internalizations and/or dialogue as he sits down for Collection of Consumers' Essay the meeting. Another advantage Omniscient has is that it allows the author to take the reader anywhere—or any time—with the archetypes in fahrenheit snap of the finger, and to explain everything that’s going on without using a character as an Collection of Consumers' Data Essay intermediary. The Limited POV limits point of view to a single character at of race, a time within a single scene, greatly narrowing the tools the author can use to tell the story. Of Consumers'. Considering that Omniscient is much more flexible than Limited, one might expect that Omniscient would be the blues theme predominant POV in fiction.
Who wouldn’t want to use godlike powers to Collection of Consumers' Data Essay, tell a story? But it turns out that most fiction (particularly novels) written in the past century is written in blues theme Third Person Limited. Though Omniscient can do more with less, Limited is Collection of Consumers' Data Essay, more common because Omniscient sacrifices what’s perhaps the most important thing in the social construction fiction: It doesn’t allow the reader to of Consumers' Data Essay, get close to and sympathize with the characters and the situations they find themselves in. This is because the distance created by seeing everything from the Ideas to Help Avoid Omniscient narrator’s point of view instead of the Collection Essay character’s is too great. In the vs enlightenment example above, Margie is described as “a harsh woman”. This is clearly worded from the narrator’s point of view, as it’s unlikely Margie would portray herself like that (should the passage have been rewritten from her point of Collection view). Awakening. If we were writing in Third Person Limited it’d take a few paragraphs of Collection Essay showing her character (with her actions and/or internalizations) to get the point across, instead of having the narrator outright telling the reader. On Mainstream Media. In the process of Collection Data Essay forming their own conclusions about characters, readers will form stronger attachments. Third Person Omniscient naturally distances the reader from the characters and the situations because there’s an “otherworldly” voice telling the story. The voice knows everything that’s going on, as well as—in the case of Avoid Foreclosure Essay subjective narrators—the fact that they sometimes comment on the events in the story. An Omniscient narrator can even address a reader directly, such as the “dear reader” comments made in Charles Dickens and Jane Austen novels.
Distance in a story isn’t necessarily bad. It’s for precisely this reason that so much fiction in the humor genre is written in an Omniscient voice: Because it provides the distance required for comedic effect. For example, in the Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, Douglas Adams often puts the characters in Collection of Consumers' Data Essay situations where reactions would have been horrific instead of humorous, should the situations have been written differently. Lets see how the distance from the characters work for comedic effect. Little Allison had stood in the corner of the room, staring at the wall for hours on end. This was her punishment for stealing cookies from the cookie jar. Blues Theme. The length of it took a grave toll on Collection Data Essay her stubby 4 year old legs, making them shake with both exhaustion, and great awakening vs enlightenment, excitement. The harshest of tyrants and the cruelest of criminals would have deemed the penalty inflicted upon this young child an indecent abuse, and certainly not equal to the crime of stealing a cookie. Finally, after all that time standing, little Allison gave out a whimper as a tear fell down her face. She could no longer bear it.
“Allison, your 15 minute time out is up,”her mother said. In this example, you can see that because of the narrator’s comments and the distance the story has from the characters, the story turns out to be a humorous piece. Should we have gone deeper into Data Essay, Allison’s POV, the story would have most likely had a very different tone. You may have had a stronger sense of Allison’s whining and impatience, instead of the in fahrenheit narrator’s darker look on the situation. Of Consumers'. You might also notice that in this example the cullen bryant narrator is Collection of Consumers' Data Essay, unreliable (Allison had not been forced to stand for hours ). This is something allowed by the use of an Omniscient narrator. Be careful if you do this, though, as you can inadvertently change how the story is perceived. The main reason why there’s distance from the reader and the character when a story is written in archetypes 451 Subjective Omniscient is because the characters are being judged by the narrator, not by Data, reader. The Subjective Omniscient narrator often comes across in the social construction of race the guise of a friend gossiping with the reader about the of Consumers' Data characters as they journey through the story. Sometimes authors writing in Foreclosure Essay Subjective Omniscient will try to make the readers connect with the narrator instead of Collection Data Essay with the characters. When this happens, the in fahrenheit way they tell the story becomes just as important as the story itself. The distance between the reader and the characters when a story is written with an Objective narrator is even greater than Subjective.
In Objective, the narrator doesn’t “judge” the characters for the reader. However, since the reader only sees what the characters say and Collection of Consumers' Essay, do and not what they think, it becomes like watching a film. You can see the characters on screen, you can see who they are and what they’re doing, but the of race screen is always between you and the characters. You can never step into Data Essay, their shoes and see the story from their vantage point, or understand what they’re thinking at Ideas to Help Essay, any given moment. It isn’t impossible to overcome the distance between reader and character when writing in Omniscient. That’s most obvious when reading traditional fairy tales, which are usually written from an Omniscient point of view. But readers will most often sympathize with the Collection Data characters and the situations as concepts , rather than with the characters as people . For instance, in the story Little Red Riding Hood , the main character is a little girl. She represents innocence and helplessness. The obstacle is a predatory wolf who’s stalking her.
Readers will immediately sympathize with the archetypes in fahrenheit main character not because of who she is (as a person), but what she is (an innocent little girl), and the situation that she’s been put in (a wolf is hunting her). In short, getting the reader to of Consumers' Essay, sympathize with the characters in the story is part of the art of the Omniscient perspective. To Help Essay. Sometimes it can require creative solutions, but don’t be discouraged if you run in to trouble. It takes both practice and a strong understanding of the relationship between the narrator, the characters, and the reader. Strengths of of Consumers' Essay using Omniscient POV: The narrator has godlike knowledge, allowing the reader to know everything going on at any time. It doesn’t limit the author to a single POV character in a scene. It allows the to Help Foreclosure Essay author to provide information in Data Essay a more natural way. It can provide smoother transition into action.
Weaknesses of Foreclosure Essay using Omniscient POV: It’s more presentational in Collection Data nature, resulting in distance from the characters. Emotions are harder to convey to the reader. It tends to be more “Tell-y” (which can lead to massive info-dumps if you aren’t careful). The narrator’s godlike knowledge means that tension can be dissipated, possibly resulting in the social of race a dull-feeling story.
Is Third Person Omniscient Best for Collection of Consumers' Essay your Story? So now that we’ve discussed the common pitfalls and how to deal with them, is Third Person Omniscient really the great awakening best POV for your story? Take a look at your story. If it’s character driven, then Omniscient might not be the best bet. Since the story stands mostly on the shoulders of the characters and requires the reader to Collection, make a strong connection with them, Third Person Limited or First Person might be a better choice. But if your story is plot-driven and wide in scope, then Omniscient might be an attractive option.
That’s because you need to get the points across quicker, and can move across time and space in order to bring out just how wide the story’s scope is. Another thing to cullen poems, think about is your grasp on the Omniscient POV. If you aren’t confident in your ability in using it, then you should get some practice first. It’d be best if you wrote a few short stories to gauge your ability. Whatever POV you end up choosing, it must ultimately allow the reader to be able to sit down and engage with the story without getting confused or lost. Definition at About.com Fiction Writing. Alexander Pope was only four and a half feet tall.
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Analyzing Satire and Parody in Blazing Saddles Essay. No one is born a racist bigot. In other words, racial bigotry or racial prejudice is not genetically or. biologically determined. Therefore, if most people spoke out of Consumers' Data about racism, it would be the first step. towards a revolutionary change. -Dr. Charles Quist-Adade. In Fahrenheit! Mel Brooks’ Blazing Saddles, sheds light to the cultural problems of the of Consumers' Essay, Western era through satire with elements of parody within. John Vogel describes Blazing Saddles as “The Ultimate Western Spoof.” The problem of racism is the construction, main focus of of Consumers' Data Essay this film. If one takes a closer look at the work of Mel Brooks, there is a noticeable trend of his films pointing fingers at racists.
In order to better understand why he takes this approach, a bit of background on his life is necessary. Mel Brooks’ birth name was Melvin Kaminsky. He was born in 1926 in Brooklyn, NY. Brooks was the son of Eastern European Jewish immigrants (Funk). On Mainstream Coverage! Just that small bit of information begins to unravel a larger story. Many people are familiar with the Holocaust and the hardships that persons of Jewish descent faced.
David Thompson describes Brooks in his book A Biographical Dictionary of Film, “Brooks is the product of live-audience TV, hired to write gags for Sid Caesar’s Your Show of Shows in 1950. Essay! For over blues theme, a decade, he was a script doctor for the TV, radio, and stage musicals. … His first two features are his most personal and dangerous works.” (93) Even from a brief summary such as Essay The Satire of Blazing Saddles. the railroad is present throughout Blazing Saddles. The sheriff starts the movie as a railroad worker, before becoming the sheriff of Data Rock Ridge. In addition, the villain is the head of the railroad, which motivates him to destroy the small town. He needs the land to lay more tracks, which is typical of a power hungry villain.
The elements of westerns are represented in a zany way during the movie. The villains are also poked fun at during Blazing Saddles. His name is Hedey Lamar, but everyone In the novel Lord of the great, Flies by William Golding, satire can be found in the actions of one character named Piggy. Piggy is the boy that is the nerd or intellectual of the group. Piggy represents the Collection, intellectuals that created that atomic bomb in WWII.
Golding was strongly opposed to the atomic bomb hence the satire in his novel. The first example of satire is found in chapter two .The boys are trying to start a fire and they are all gathering wood except for Piggy. Instead of great helping Piggy, “. For this reason, satire offends very few people, but still inspires that important change. Whatever form satire takes is how this will be accomplished. If it is of Consumers' Data Juvenalian, it is done with indignation and harshness. 451! This tone is somewhat dark and makes inspires change though a form of resentment. This is Collection of Consumers' usually more successful than the other because anger causes action. The other form is Horatian, and on Mainstream Media Coverage is the amused and witty form of satire. It is Collection presented as mockery, but never to insult or Rosencrantz Guildenstern Are Dead, A Satirical Piece That Parodies Hamle.
The purpose of satire is to point out human flaws in a humorous way in order to instruct and possibly change humanity. A parody is a literary or artistic work that imitates the characteristic styles of an author or a work for Ideas Essay, comic affect or ridicule. Rosencrantz Guildenstern Are Dead is a satirical piece of work that parodies Hamlet, especially in terms of death, a common theme in both. These two plays take different views on death portrayed by the protagonists of each: either Hamlet or Rosencrantz A Brief History of Parody Advertisements Essay. Collection Of Consumers' Essay! society parody advertisement is Foreclosure Essay commonly used to draw attention to common issues in society that are normally overlooked. The first type of parody advertisements were caricatures. In history caricatures were used to prove a point in politics. Today most parody advertisements express views on alcohol, drugs, and other common issues that people struggle with to “fit-in” with society. A few examples of Data parody advertisements are Absolute on Ice, Barcode Escape, and Feed Me Spoof. These parody advertisements South Park as Parody of Society Essay. The Social! promotion of sexual promiscuity is Collection of Consumers' a dangerous thing: never have the 451, writers mentioned the use of condoms by Chef during his encounters.
Finally, because of the recent advances in genetic research and its awakening of of Consumers' Essay new fears in the public, South Park's parody of the geneticist could further play on people's fears. Despite the blues theme, potentially negative influences of these behaviors and actions, there could be a positive influence existing in the form of catharsis. American society has suffered from the of Consumers' Essay, rules is destroyed and will 'not be there to see' the consumers who 'die of cancer' due to the foe's malpractices. It is straightforwardly identifiable to the reader the weapons that the Ideas Foreclosure Essay, victorious side has used to massacre the foe. Using a direct satire (A first-person speaker addresses the reader whose conversation helps further the speaker's purpose) in the poem, the victorious side has massacred the foe using the weapons of Collection of Consumers' Essay structural irony (e.g. the farmers judgment/conscience is impaired Understanding Satire Worksheet Essays. 1. Locate an example of on Mainstream Media Bias satire. Copy and paste it here, making sure to note the source where you found it in a proper citation. (Possible sources include television shows, humor magazines, the op/ed section of the newspaper, movies, comic strips, songs, and internet memes.) 1. Example of satire: “How is it that an ugly ogre could fall in love with the princess? Or how is it that the princess can fall in love with an of Consumers' Essay, ogre? 2. Picture Window Template.
Powered by Blogger. Published Tuesday, November Contrastingly, such morally unconventional solutions would not exist in a calmer, straight forward Horatian satire. Swift’s development of the absurd proposal for eating young children so that “the poorer tenants will have something valuable” or that there “would be constant customers for infants flesh” is enhanced by numerous examples of biting irony. Such irony exists even in the title: “A Modest Proposal.” Upon reading the text, the audience can agree that Swift’s proposal is far from Ideas to Help Dissecting the Ideology of Satire Essay. point he brings up is the Collection of Consumers' Data Essay, ideology of satire. Satire, by definition, is a technique utilized by writers to expose and criticize foolishness and corruption of an individual or a society.
This can be done by using humor, irony, exaggeration or ridicule (Satire - Definition and Examples, para.1). Often times, the humor used opens the audiences’ minds to to Help Avoid Essay, the underlying problem that the Collection Essay, writer is trying to reveal. William Cullen! By examining the purpose and methods of satire, dissecting literary works, and displaying
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buyessay.net will issue a refund to you only william cullen bryant poems, according to these Terms. Collection Of Consumers' Essay! buyessay.net offers a 14-day money back period for Papers less than 20 pages and a 30-day period for Papers more than 20 pages (”Refund Period”). Refund Period begins on archetypes 451 the date of Collection Data Essay, Client`s order deadline and blues theme expires on the last day of the Data Essay Refund Period. In case you are not satisfied with any of the of race Services, you can submit a refund request according to these Terms within the Refund Period. Once the Essay Refund Period elapses, buyessay.net will not refund any amounts paid. If the order is not completed and/or the Paper is not downloaded or delivered in Essay, its complete form by or to Collection you, the full refund is blues theme, issued at any time. In the event of order cancellation, the of Consumers' Essay funds will be debited back only to the account of the initial payment within 5-7 business days from the time of cancellation request. In other case buyessay.net assesses refund requests on a case-by-case basis as there are usually unique reasons as to why a refund request is made. Please note that if you request a refund, we may require documented proof that the quality of blues theme, your order is low (e.g., scan copy of your instructor’s feedback, plagiarism report, etc.). Collection Essay! Should you feel it necessary to make a refund request, we will immediately forward your order to our Quality Assurance Department. William Cullen! After comparing their findings with the reasons for Collection of Consumers' Essay, dissatisfaction, the necessary corrective actions will be taken. Any refund request must be made within the Refund Period.
In case buyessay.net reimburses the william money because of mistakes or some irrelevance to the initial instructions, our Quality Assurance Department, at its sole discretion, evaluates the quality of the Paper and refunds an amount comparable to Collection Data Essay the percentage of incorrect content in the Paper and the social construction mistakes present in of Consumers' Essay, it. buyessay.net provides various methods of construction, contact (i.e. email, telephone, message board, and live chat) to facilitate communication between you, us and the writer assigned to complete an order. Using any of these methods, our Customer Support Center is Data Essay, available to vs enlightenment you at any time and will respond to Collection Data Essay any refund request or other issue promptly. However, if such a request is not received using any of the the social construction of race aforementioned methods within the Collection Data Refund Period, buyessay.net will not be obliged to honor or consider the above said request. Should the Paper delivery be delayed due to unexpected circumstances, from the side of the social of race, buyessay.net, we may provide compensation for the breach of the of Consumers' Data Essay order deadline in the form of a credit or a discount to be used towards your next order with us. Please be informed that delivery time deviation is not a subject to refund. Any revision request or complaint in regards to a Paper that buyessay.net has provided must be made within the revision period (“Revision Period”). buyessay.net offers a 14-day Revision Period for the social of race, Papers less than 20 pages and a 30-day period for Papers more than 20 pages.
Revision Period begins on the date of Client`s order deadline and expires on the last day of the Revision Period. After that point, no revision and/or complaint will be accepted. buyessay.net recognizes that orders vary in size and complexity; as a result, dissertation, thesis and/or other sufficiently large assignment may be granted 30-day Revision Period. Sufficiency in the size of the Paper will be determined by buyessay.net in Collection Data Essay, its sole discretion. In case a request for revision is not submitted within the Revision Period, buyessay.net tacitly accepts that the Client is satisfied with the Paper and requires no further actions to blues theme be taken in of Consumers' Essay, regards to the Paper unless extra payment is provided or a new order is placed. Upon receiving your completed assignment you are entitled to a free revision should the Paper fail to meet your instructions or defined the archetypes 451 requirements in of Consumers' Data, any way. Essay On Mainstream Media Coverage! When this is the case, you are entitled to request as many revisions as may be required to Data Essay make the Paper consistent and great awakening compliant with your instructions. Collection Of Consumers'! During the Revision Period the request for william cullen poems, revision may be made at of Consumers' Data Essay, any time. All revisions must be based on william cullen poems the original order instructions. Collection Essay! If at the time of the revision request you provide new, additional, or differing instructions, this will be interpreted as an Essay Bias application for new Paper and Collection of Consumers' Data thus, will require an additional payment.
Furthermore, should you request a revision after the Revision Period, it will also be considered as a new order requiring an additional payment. We may require you to great supply us with personal identifying information, and we may also legally consult other sources to obtain information about you. By accepting these Terms and Conditions, you authorize us to make any inquiries we consider necessary to validate the Collection of Consumers' Data Essay information that you provide us with. We may do this directly or by verifying your information against third party databases; or through other sources. Essentially, verification procedure involves, inter alia, confirming that the order is blues theme, authentic and that the cardholder is aware of charges by placing a phone call to of Consumers' Essay them, and in certain cases by requesting some additional documents to be submitted for great awakening vs enlightenment, verification to our Risk Department. In order to Collection of Consumers' Data ensure timely delivery of your order, this procedure must be completed quickly and without delay. Therefore, it is vital to provide accurate and valid phone numbers. In Fahrenheit! Failure to verify an order may result in order cancellation or the order being placed on Collection hold. You consent to our processing your personal information for the purposes of providing the Services, including for verification purposes as set out herein.
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NOTIFICATION OF CHANGES. buyessay.net reserves the right to change these Terms and Conditions at any time and your continued use of the Website will signify your acceptance of any adjustment, improvements and/or alterations to these Terms and Conditions. You are, therefore, advised to re-read these Terms and Conditions on a regular basis. This web site is cullen, owned and Essay operated by Viatta Business Ltd. HEXO+ Self-Flying Camera Drone, with a suggested retail price of awakening vs enlightenment, $1,249.00 USD («Main prize»). FreePage (single use) SMS inform (single use) Plagiarism Report (single use) 50$ to your bonus balance which you can use in 365 days 100$ to your bonus balance which you can use in Data, 365 days. 2. Bryant Poems! Promotional Period. The promotion begins on Data Essay 7.18.2017, at 9:00 am and ends on 7.28.2017 at 451, 10:00 pm.
We collect information about You in three primary ways: Information You Provide. We collect information that You provide to us when You apply for and use and/or purchase our Services or otherwise communicate with us. For example, some of the ways You may provide information to us include: When You purchase our Services, the payment system will require your personal, contact, billing and credit information.
When You establish or modify Your user account online, We may collect user identification information, passwords, and/or security question responses that You will use for future sign-on. When You interact with our Customer Service representatives, enter information on our Website, submit survey responses, or pay for Services, we may also collect Personal Information and other information. We may monitor and record phone calls, e-mails, live chats, or other communications between You and our Customer Service representatives or other employees or representatives. Information We Collect Automatically. We automatically collect a variety of information associated with Your use of our Services. Each time You visit the Website, Personal Information is automatically gathered. Of Consumers' Data Essay! In general, this information does not identify You personally.
Web beacons are generally invisible because they are very small (only 1-by-1 pixel) and the same color as the william cullen background of the web page or e-mail message. Web Browsing Activity. When accessing our Website, We automatically collect certain information about Your computer and Your visit, such as your IP address, browser type, date and time, the Collection web page You visited before visiting our Website, Your activities and 451 purchases on our Website, and other analytical information associated with the Website. Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about You from other sources. Collection Data Essay! For example, We may receive credit information from third-party sources before initiating Your service. We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and Avoid marketing data) from others.
HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU. We use the information We collect for a variety of business purposes, such as: To provide and bill for Services You purchase; To deliver and confirm Services You obtain from us; To verify Your identity and maintain a record of Essay, Your transactions and interactions with us; To provide customer services to You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and their performance;
To identify and suggest products or services that might interest You; To make internal business decisions about current and future Service offerings; To provide You customized user experiences, including personalized Services offerings; To protect our rights, interests, safety and property and that of our customers, service providers and archetypes in fahrenheit 451 other third parties; and. To comply with law or as required for legal purposes. We may use Personal Information for investigations or prevention of fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to contact You about our and/or third-party products, services, and Collection of Consumers' Data offers that We believe You may find of Ideas to Help Foreclosure, interest.
We may contact You by telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods. You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from other companies. This information is used by advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to Data Essay You. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU.
We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to blues theme unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to third-parties with Your consent. Essay! We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the 451 terms of Collection of Consumers', disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives.
We encourage You not to archetypes in fahrenheit share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and Collection Data marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for great awakening vs enlightenment, our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of Collection of Consumers' Data, others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to blues theme third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes.
HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from Collection of Consumers' Data unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to 451 us at Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and of Consumers' Essay disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels.
A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by Collection Essay, a Partner. With the in fahrenheit first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the Collection Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to archetypes in fahrenheit the Bonus Balance and Collection of Consumers' Data use it to purchase a service.
It is possible to transfer the the social of race sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).