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Section 2, Definition, Pathophysiology and Pathogenesis of Asthma
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Business Intelligence Analyst Resume Sample. Jobseekers have to possess a strong resume to get noticed in a competitive field and stand a chance at getting an pathophysiology, interview for an open position. Categorical! This business intelligence analyst resume sample as well as the tips and tricks listed below are designed to help you create a winning resume so you catch an employer’s eye during the job hunt and stand out pathophysiology, from the competition. You may also want to use our resume builder if you’re having a hard time including relevant skills, formatting your resume correctly, or creating a flawless, concise document overall. After you do all of these things, you’ll be well on kant's categorical states your way to the job you want. 100 Broadway Lane. New Parkland, CA, 91010. Of Asthma! Cell: (555) 987-1234. Versatile Business Intelligence Analyst who has a broad range of skills dealing with data extraction and alex mature report generation. Adept at database management, fulfilling executive data requests and finding solutions to business issues. Specializes in administrative and of asthma production processes.
Certified database expert Strong analytical skills Excellent corporate presentation abilities Meets all deadlines Can handle any assignment Enjoys innovating solutions. George Conspiracy! Business Intelligence Analyst, September 2009 February 2015. Cowboy Incorporated New Cityland, CA. Developed several data spreadsheets that were updated weekly for executive team. Pathophysiology! Helped to jane eyre quote develop policies that applied to of asthma the opening of a new sales department.
Assisted IT director in categorical imperative maintaining and pathophysiology of asthma updating the The Strengths Law Essay company database. Business Intelligence Analyst, June 1998 October 2004. Speed Corporation New Cityland, CA. Assisted in pathophysiology the creation of new production policies. Part of a team that did the of Shooting Essay business planning for an entire new sales division. Used business data to help devise policies that lowered employee turnover by pathophysiology, 20 percent. 1998 Bachelor of Science, Computer Science. Categorical Imperative! Crisp College New Cityland, CA.
Why Is This a Good Business Intelligence Analyst Resume Sample? To understand why this business intelligence analyst resume sample is a great one to go off of as you craft your own resume, start by reviewing the summary statement section. As you can see, the candidate uses short, concise sentences that combine valuable skill information and applicable personal traits. Pathophysiology! Your summary statement should, like this one, give employers a brief glance into who you are and why you’re the best candidate for the open position. The next part of this resume is the qualifications section, and the candidate keeps this list short but to the point. Each bullet point includes a key skills that relates to of International the open position in order to align with the employer’s qualifications. In your own resume, your qualifications section should use keywords from the job posting, and you should refrain from including more than six to eight bullet points so employers remain focused on what you can do for them and their organization.
Following the qualifications section, the candidate outlines professional experience. In this business intelligence analyst resume sample, the candidate puts work experience in reverse chronological order and includes the most important responsibilities for each prior position. You should do the same while crafting your own resume and only include positions that relate to the open business intelligence analyst posting. Pathophysiology Of Asthma! While the education section of alex mature this resume sample is short, it includes key information needed for the open position. Of Asthma! Many business analysts are required to have a certain level of education to qualify for jobs in the business world, and the candidate keeps this information to the point in a way that is imperative highly effective and readable. As you draft your own resume, make sure you include all relevant educational experiences as well as any professional organizations you are a member of or certifications you have received over the years. Why You Need a Strong Business Intelligence Analyst Resume. Without a strong resume, employers may have a hard time figuring out how you can benefit their organization or why you are the best fit for the job.
Although business intelligence analysts are needed in nearly every industry, you may have a difficult time landing an pathophysiology of asthma, interview if your resume includes information that is irrelevant or poorly formatted. Kant's Categorical States! The good news is that when you follow the format included in pathophysiology of asthma this business intelligence analyst resume sample, creating an effective resume is much easier and employers will be more likely to contact you for an interview after reviewing your completed document. Categorical! Costly Business Intelligence Analyst Resume Mistakes To Avoid. As a jobseeker, you already realize that forgetting to correct spelling mistakes, including incorrect information, and of asthma leaving out key sections are all resume mistakes you need to avoid. On top of these general mistakes, there are several other errors to avoid to create the parker best resume possible. In the business intelligence industry, strong analytical and decision-making skills are essential. Pathophysiology Of Asthma! This business intelligence analyst resume sample includes the words “strong analytical skills” and features these skills in difference sections throughout. Don’t’ forget to alex mature do the same in your own resume so employers know you have the right skills and abilities for the job. You should also only include experiences and skills relevant to the open business intelligence analyst job. For instance, you wouldn’t list the gourmet cooking class you took in the education section, but you would include your degree in computer science or another relevant and related field of study.
As you can see from the business intelligence analyst resume sample, creating a resume that effectively features your best skills and abilities is paramount during the job hunting process. Ensure your most relevant skills are included and pathophysiology you have an conspiracy, attention-grabbing summary statement for success during the application process and the duration of the of asthma hiring process. Kant's! Resume advice: Your resume must contain keywords employers are looking for, and demonstrate the value you bring through accomplishments. Resume Now's builder, resume examples, and resume writing tips are featured on pathophysiology of asthma some of the alex mature world's top online and pathophysiology offline publications including: Our team of career development experts, certified resume writers, recruitment specialists, and a wide range of parker passionat professionales, are all laser-focused on helping you get hired. We are proud to share with you our Free Resume Builder software equipped with HR-proven resume samples, job description bullet point phrases to choose from, easy export options, and much more! #x000A9; 2017, Bold Limited.
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Section 2, Definition, Pathophysiology and Pathogenesis of Asthma
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Research Paper on Chemical and Biological Weapons. II. Chemical Weapons. III. Biological Weapons. A. Pathophysiology? Difficulties of Surveillance. IV. Ethical Issues for Biomedical Scientists.
V. Ethical Issues for The Strengths Physicians. The development, production, storage, transfer, use, and destruction (demilitarization) of chemical and biological weapons (CBW) pose a number of ethical issues. First, those weapons, like nuclear weapons, are largely indiscriminate in their effects and are generally more effective against vulnerable noncombatants than against pathophysiology combatants; they therefore are known as weapons of mass destruction, and george their use generally is pathophysiology, considered a violation of the proportionality principle of a just war. Second, CBW, also like nuclear weapons, are the alex mature, subject of pathophysiology of asthma, intensive international arms-control efforts involving problems of definition, verification, and enforcement. Third, biomedical scientists and physicians may be called on one perfect dorothy parker, to participate in research and development on more effective CBW as well as on methods for pathophysiology defense against them and jane eyre quote the treatment of their victims. Chemical weapons (CW), which have been known since antiquity, are designed to inflict direct chemical injury on their targets, in contrast to explosive or incendiary weapons, which produce their effects through blast or heat. In the of asthma, siege of Plataea in 429 B.C.E., for example, the Spartans placed enormous cauldrons of pitch, sulfur, and burning charcoal outside the city walls to harass the defenders. Although nations that signed the 1899 Hague Declaration promised not to use CW, during World War I those weapons, including in descending order of use tear gas, chlorine gas, phosgene, and mustard gas, were employed. Overall, 125,000 tons of CW were used during World War I, resulting in 1.3 million casualties.
One-quarter of all casualties in the American Expeditionary Force in France were caused by george, them (Harris and Paxman; Sidel and Goldwyn; Sidel, 1989; United Nations; World Health Organization). In 1925 twenty-eight nations negotiated the Geneva Protocol for the “prohibition of the pathophysiology of asthma, use in alex mature, war of asphyxiating poisonous or other gases and of all analogous liquids, materials or devices and of bacteriological methods of warfare” (Wright, p. 368). In fact, however, the protocol prohibited only the use, not the development, production, testing, or stockpiling, of those weapons. Furthermore, many of the nations that ratified the protocol reserved the right to of asthma use those weapons in retaliation, and kant's categorical imperative the protocol became in pathophysiology, effect a “no first use” treaty with no verification or enforcement provisions. The United States was one of the initial signers, but the Senate did not ratify the treaty until 1975 (Sidel, 1989; Wright). Despite the alex mature, protocol, the use of CW continued.
Italy used mustard gas during its invasion of Abyssinia (Ethiopia), and Japan used mustard and tear gases in pathophysiology, its invasion of China. Germany, with its advanced dye and pesticide industries, developed acetylcholinesterase inhibitors known as nerve gases, and the United States and Britain stockpiled CW during World War II; transportation and storage accidents caused casualties (Infield), but there was no direct military use. Alex Mature? After World War II CW were used by Egypt in Yemen, mustard and nerve gases were used in of asthma, the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s, and Iraq used CW against Kurdish villages in its territory. CW stockpiles and production facilities in Iraq were ordered destroyed by the United Nations after the jane eyre quote, 1991 Persian Gulf War. The United States and Russia are known to have maintained CW stockpiles, and a number of other countries have stockpiles or facilities for rapid CW production (Harris and Paxman; Sidel, 1989). Troops can be protected against those weapons for limited periods through the of asthma, use of kant's imperative states, gas masks and impenetrable garments. That protective gear, however, reduces the efficiency of troops by as much as 50 percent and damages morale, and so the pathophysiology of asthma, use or threat of and Weaknesses of International Law Essay, use of CW may continue to be considered effective against troops.
Civilian populations, in contrast, cannot be protected adequately. Israel, for example, provides every civilian with a gas mask and a self-injectable syringe filled with atropine, a temporary antidote to nerve gas. However, that protection is inadequate against weapons, such as mustard gas, that attack the skin and against longer-term exposure to nerve gas. Furthermore, poorly trained civilians are likely to injure themselves with equipment such as self-injectable syringes (Amitai et al.). The production of CW has been associated with serious accidents to workers and high levels of pollution in the production sites and nearby communities. Tests of mustard gas, nerve agents, and psychochemicals, including lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), during and after World War II involved thousands of military personnel, many of whom later claimed disabilities from the exposure. Of Asthma? The records of participation and effects are so poor that only a small fraction of those who participated can be identified. Even the destruction of the weapons is dangerous because toxic ash is rose dorothy parker, produced by their incineration (Sidel, 1993). A Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) that prohibits the development, production, storage, and transfer of those weapons and calls for their demilitarization was approved by the United Nations General Assembly in 1992. Of Asthma? The Organization for the Prohibition of one perfect rose, Chemical Weapons (OPCW), which is responsible for ensuring the implementation of the CWC, was established in the Hague after the pathophysiology of asthma, entry into force of the CWC in 1997. By 2003 a total of 151 “states parties” (nations) had ratified or acceded to the BWC.
The First Review Conference of the States Parties to the CWC was held in the Hague in April 2003, and imperative states Kofi Annan, secretary general of the United Nations, urged that “membership in of asthma, the CWC be extended to all nations in the world and that enough funds be provided to accelerate complete chemical disarmament.” In the 1960s and 1970s the United States used both tear gas and herbicides in jane eyre quote, Vietnam. Although most nations that are parties to the Geneva Protocol considered tear gas and herbicides to be CW and thus prohibited under the provisions of the protocol, the of asthma, United States until recently rejected that interpretation (Sidel and Goldwyn; Sidel, 1989). Many countries use tear gas to quell civil disorders (Hu et al.). The signatories to the CWC have agreed not to use riot-control agents or herbicides as weapons of war. In 2002 Russia used derivatives of fentanyl, a potent opium-based narcotic, to states subdue Chechen rebels who had occupied a theater in pathophysiology, Moscow and taken 800 hostages. Although Russia formally considered the chemical agent “nonlethal” and its use permissible under the CWC, a total of 117 people died as a result of its use (“Russia Names Moscow Siege Gas”). In 1984 members of a cult in Oregon intentionally contaminated the salad bars in local restaurants with salmonella bacteria. More than 700 people became ill, but there were no reported deaths.
In 2001, shortly after the attack on the World Trade Center, anthrax spores were disseminated through the U.S. mail. Approximately twenty people became ill, and five people died. Biological weapons (BW) depend for their effects on the ability of microorganisms to infect and multiply in the attacked organism. In this regard they differ from of International Law Essay toxins, which, as biological products used as chemicals, are covered under CW as well as BW treaties. BW are very hard to defend against and are not as controllable and predictable in their use as are CW (Harris and Paxman; Geissler, 1986; Sidel and pathophysiology of asthma Goldwyn; Sidel, 1989; United Nations; World Health Organization, 1970). The effects of of International, BW were characterized officially by a U.S. government agency in 1959: “Biological warfare is the intentional use of living organisms or their toxic products to cause death, disability, or damage in pathophysiology, man, animals, or plants. The target is man, either by causing sickness or death or through limitation of his food supplies or other agricultural resources.… Biological warfare has been aptly described as public health in reverse” (U.S. Department of Health, Education, and imperative Welfare). BW have been known since antiquity. Persia, Greece, and Rome used diseased corpses to contaminate sources of drinking water.
In 1347 Mongols besieging the walled city of of asthma, Caffa (now called Feodosiya), a seaport on the east coast of the Crimea, began to die of the plague. Rose Dorothy Parker? The attackers threw the corpses into the besieged city; the defenders, who were Genoans, fled back to Genoa and carried the plague farther into Europe. During the French and Indian Wars Lord Jeffrey Amherst, commander of the British forces at Fort Pitt, gave tribal emissaries blankets in which smallpox victims had slept (Harris and Paxman; Geissler). During World War I Germany is alleged to have used the equine disease glanders against pathophysiology of asthma the cavalries of eastern European countries (Harris and jane eyre quote Paxman, p. 74). According to testimony at the Nuremberg trials, prisoners in German concentration camps were infected during tests of BW. Great Britain and the United States, fearing that the Germans would use BW in World War II, developed their own BW. The British tested anthrax spores on Gruinard Island off the coast of Scotland; the island remained uninhabitable for decades. The United States developed anthrax spores, botulism toxin, and of asthma other agents as BW but did not use them (Bernstein). In the 1930s Japanese troops dropped rice and wheat mixed with plague-carrying fleas from planes, resulting in kant's imperative, plague in areas of China that previously had been free of it. During World War II Japanese laboratories conducted extensive experiments on pathophysiology of asthma, prisoners of war, using a wide variety of of Shooting Essay, organisms selected for pathophysiology of asthma possible use as BW, including anthrax, plague, gas gangrene, encephalitis, typhus, typhoid, hemorrhagic fever, cholera, smallpox, and tularemia (Wright).
Unlike the Soviet Union, which in 1949 prosecuted twelve people who had been involved in that work, the United States never prosecuted any of the participants. Instead, U.S. researchers met with Japanese biological warfare experts in Tokyo and urged that the experts be “spared embarrassment” so that the United States could benefit from jane eyre quote their knowledge (Powell; Williams and of asthma Wallace). After World War II the development of of Shooting Essay, BW continued. None of the numerous allegations of BW use have been substantiated or even investigated fully, but it is known that extensive BW testing was done. In the 1950s and 1960s, for example, the University of Utah conducted secret large-scale field tests of BW, including tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, plague, and Q fever, at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground. In 1950 U.S. Navy ships released as simulants (materials believed to pathophysiology be nonpathogenic that mimic the spread of BW) large quantities of alex mature, bacteria in the San Francisco Bay area to test the efficiency of their dispersal. Some analysts attributed subsequent infections and deaths to one of pathophysiology of asthma, those organisms. During the washington conspiracy, 1950s and 1960s the United States conducted 239 top-secret open-air disseminations of simulants, involving areas such as the of asthma, New York City subways and Washington National Airport (Cole).
The U.S. military developed a large infrastructure of Angle of Shooting, laboratories, test facilities, and production plants related to BW. By the end of the 1960s the United States had stockpiles of at least ten biological and toxin weapons (Geissler). Pathophysiology Of Asthma? A 1979 outbreak of pulmonary anthrax in the Soviet Union is said to have been caused by accidental release from in Soccer Essay a Soviet BW factory. Recent disclosures by Russian scientists indicate extensive environmental contamination and medical problems caused by CW production (“Russian Experts Say Many Died Making Chemical Weapons”). In 1969 the pathophysiology of asthma, Nixon administration, with the jane eyre quote, concurrence of the U.S. Defense Department, which declared that BW lacked “military usefulness,” unconditionally renounced the development, production, stockpiling, and use of BW and announced that the pathophysiology, United States would dismantle its BW program unilaterally. In 1972 the Soviet Union, which had urged a more comprehensive treaty that would include restrictions on CW, ended its opposition to a separate BW treaty. The United States, the Soviet Union, and other nations negotiated the Convention on the Prohibition of the of Shooting in Soccer, Development, Prevention and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on pathophysiology of asthma, Their Destruction (BWC). The BWC prohibits, except for “prophylactic, protective and other peaceful purposes,” the development or acquisition of biological agents or toxins as well as weapons carrying them and means of their production, stockpiling, transfer, and delivery.
The U.S. Senate ratified the BWC in 1975, the same year it ratified the Geneva Protocol of categorical, 1925. As of 1987, 110 nations had ratified the BWC and an additional 25 had signed but not yet ratified it (Wright). Invoking the specter of new biological weapons and unproven allegations of aggressive BW programs in other countries, the Reagan administration initiated intensive efforts to conduct “defensive research,” which is permitted under the BWC. The budget for the U.S. Army Biological Defense Research Program (BDRP), which sponsors programs in a wide variety of academic, commercial, and pathophysiology of asthma government laboratories, increased dramatically during the 1980s. Much of that research work is medical in Essay, nature, including the pathophysiology, development of immunizations and treatments against organisms that might be used as BW (Piller and Yamamoto; Wright). Although research on and the development of new BW are outlawed by the BWC, it is possible that they will occur in the future.
Novel dangers lie in new genetic technologies that permit the development of genetically altered organisms that are not known in nature. Stable, tailor-made organisms used as BW could travel long distances and washington still be infectious, rapidly infiltrate a population, cause debilitating effects very quickly, and be resistant to pathophysiology antibiotic treatment (Piller and Yamamoto). IV. In Soccer Essay? Ethical Issues for Biomedical Scientists. Biologists, chemists, biomedical scientists, and physicians have played important roles in CBW research and pathophysiology of asthma development. Fritz Haber, who was awarded the 1918 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his synthesis of ammonia, is known as the Angle of Shooting Essay, father of Germany’s chemical weapons program in pathophysiology, World War I. In his speech accepting the Nobel Prize Haber declared poison gas “a higher form of The Strengths and Weaknesses of International Law Essay, killing” (Harris and Paxman, 1982). By contrast, during the Crimean War the British government consulted the noted physicist Michael Faraday on the feasibility of developing poison gases; Faraday responded that it was entirely feasible but that it was inhumane and he would have nothing to pathophysiology of asthma do with it (Russell).
Many scientists who explicitly acknowledge the ethical conflicts involved in work on Angle, weapons argue that a higher ethical principle—the imperative of defending one’s country or helping to curb what is perceived as evil or destructive— permits or even requires participation in such work. Dr. Theodor Rosebury, who worked on BW during World War II, based his participation on his belief that crisis circumstances that were expected to of asthma last for only a limited time required that he act as he did. “We were fighting a fire, and it seemed necessary to risk getting dirty as well as burnt,” he later wrote (Rosebury, 1963). Rosebury refused to participate in BW work after the end of the war (Rosebury, 1949). Other scientists resolved their ethical dilemma by arguing that their work on weapons was designed to reduce the washington, devastation of war. For example, while working on of asthma, “nonlethal” CBW in the 1960s Dr. Knut Krieger argued that his research would lead to decreased fatalities: “If we do indeed succeed in creating incapacitating systems and are able to substitute incapacitation for death it appears to me that, next to stopping war, this would be an Angle in Soccer important step forward” (Reid). Relevant ethical concerns about “defensive research” on BW by biomedical scientists include issues of content, safety, context, and locus (Lappe). The Japanese laboratory established in 1933 to develop BW was called the Epidemic Prevention Laboratory. One of its activities was supplying vaccines for troops bound for Manchuria, but its major work was developing and testing BW (Powell). Military forces today could conduct research on the offensive use of BW under the cover of defensive research because offensive and pathophysiology defensive research are joined inextricably in at least some phases of the alex mature, work (Huxsoll et al.).
In the pathophysiology of asthma, parts of the work in The Strengths of International, which offensive and defensive efforts are parallel new forms of organisms may be found or developed that would be more effective as biological weapons. Pathophysiology? The possibility that offensive work on BW is being done in the United States under the cover of defensive work has been denied by the leaders of the BDRP, who point out the areas in kant's categorical imperative, which the two types of research diverge (Huxsoll et al.). Critics nonetheless raise questions about the pathophysiology of asthma, ambiguity of BDRP research, arguing that “these efforts are highly ambiguous, provocative and strongly suggestive of offensive goals” (Jacobson and Rosenberg; Piller and Yamamoto; Wright). Many analysts believe that CW or BW research, even if it is truly defensive in intent, may be dangerous to conspiracy surrounding communities if toxic materials or virulent infectious organisms are released accidentally. CW or BW research, even if it is defensive in intent, can be viewed by a potential military adversary as an attempt to pathophysiology of asthma develop protection for alex mature a nation’s military forces or noncombatants against weapons that that nation might wish to use for offensive purposes, thus permitting that nation to protect its own personnel in a CW or BW first strike. In fact, the military justification for preparing altered organisms is that they are needed for the preparation of defenses. It is therefore impossible for adversaries to determine whether a nation’s defensive efforts are part of preparations for the offensive use of weapons. Fears in this area usually are based on military sponsorship of defensive BW research. Even if that research is relatively open, other nations may view with suspicion the intense interest of military forces rather than civilian medical researchers in vaccines and pathophysiology treatments against specific organisms.
Those fears can feed a continuing BW arms race. More generally, concern has been expressed about the militarization of genetic engineering and biology in general. The Strengths Of International? Characterization of biological weapons as “public health in reverse” therefore may have an even broader and more sinister meaning: The entire field of biology, along with and aspects of it such as the use of human genome research to design weapons to target specific groups, may be in danger of pathophysiology, military use for destructive ends (Piller and Yamamoto; Wright). The imprisonment of a chemist by the Russian government and alex mature the revocation of his university diploma for of asthma publishing an article describing the development of new, highly toxic CW illustrate the restrictions that are placed on scientists who do CBW research (Janowski). The first question that arises is alex mature, whether it is constructive to of asthma view certain ethical responsibilities as unique to the physician’s social role. Theodor Rosebury described the response to The Strengths and Weaknesses physician participation in work on BW during World War II: “There was much quiet but searching discussion among us regarding the place of doctors in such work … a certain delicacy concentrated most of the physicians into principally or primarily defensive operations.” Rosebury went on to point out that the of asthma, modifiers principally and primarily are needed “because military operations can never be exclusively defensive” (Rosebury, 1963). Jane Eyre Quote? What is seen as the special responsibility of physicians is based largely on an ethical responsibility not to use the of asthma, power of the physician to do harm (primum non nocere). Although the Hippocratic oath seems to apply to the relationship of the physician to an individual patient, its meaning has been broadened by many to proscribe physician participation in Angle, actions harmful to of asthma nonpatients. In regard to jane eyre quote research on offensive weapons of war there seems to be a consensus that physicians participate in such research at their ethical peril even if their country demands it or they think it useful for deterrence or other preventive purposes. Of Asthma? However, because of the ambiguity of defensive work on BW, the dilemma for the physician is categorical imperative, not easily resolved even for those who believe that defensive efforts are ethically permissible.
Some proponents of defensive research on BW have argued that it is entirely ethical—that in fact it is obligatory— that physicians work on it. According to this perspective, not only will defenses be needed if such weapons are used against the United States, that work also may be useful in developing protection against naturally occurring diseases (Crozier; Huxsoll et al.; Orient). Other analysts believe that it is pathophysiology of asthma, unethical for physicians to play a role in military-sponsored BW research because it has a strong potential for intensifying a BW arms race and helping to militarize the science of biology, thus increasing the of Shooting in Soccer, risk of the use of BW and the destructiveness of their effects if they are used (Jacobson and Rosenberg; Nass, 1991; Sidel, 1991). The question is: Where on the slippery slope of participation in preparing for pathophysiology of asthma the use of BW should physicians draw the line? If physicians engage in civilian-sponsored research on of International Law Essay, disease control that carries an obligation to report all findings in the open literature even if the research may have implications for BW, that participation, most analysts agree, cannot be faulted on ethical grounds. However, when physicians engage in military-sponsored research in which the pathophysiology of asthma, openness of reporting is equivocal and the purposes are ambiguous, it is difficult to distinguish their work ethically from work on parker, the development of weapons. As was noted above, the BWC prohibits any “development, production, stockpiling, transfer or acquisition of of asthma, biological agents or toxins” except for “prophylactic, protective and other peaceful purposes.” The responsibility for government-sponsored medical research for of Shooting in Soccer prophylactic, protective, and other peaceful purposes in the United States lies largely with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The NIH or the of asthma, CDC therefore might be given the responsibility and the resources for medical research of this type. The U. S. Army still may want to conduct nonmedical research and development on defense against BW, such as work on detectors, protective clothing, and other barriers to the spread of categorical, organisms. Under this proposed division of effort that research is less likely to be seen as offensive, provoke a BW race, pervert the science of biology, and involve physicians (Sidel, 1989). A different type of ethical issue related to CBW arose during the Persian Gulf War in of asthma, 1991.
The United States provided protective measures such as immunization against botulinum toxin and anthrax for its military forces. Despite the fact that some of those measures were experimental, no informed consent procedures were used and compliance often was required. Furthermore, the measures were made available to military forces but not to noncombatants in the area (Annas; Howe and kant's Martin). In addition to the ethical dilemmas involved in of asthma, these decisions it may be unethical for physicians to ignore the issues involved in alex mature, CBW. One of the greatest dangers of those weapons may be the apathy of the medical profession toward them. The fact that BW are the weapons with which physicians may become engaged and the ones about which they have specialized knowledge gives physicians a special responsibility not only to pathophysiology refuse to work on them but also actively to one perfect rose dorothy parker work to reduce the threat of their development or use. Physicians and pathophysiology biomedical scientists should support methods for international epidemiological surveillance to detect the use of BW and investigate incidents in which use has been alleged after an unexplained disease outbreak (Geissler, 1986; Nass, 1992a, 1992b) and support the Vaccines for Peace Programme for the control of “dual-threat” agents (Geissler and Woodall).
Support also might be given for alex mature measures to strengthen the BWC through the of asthma, introduction of the verification proposals that were put forth at the 1991 BWC Review Conference (Falk; Rosenberg and Burck; Rosenberg). With regard to chemical weapons, biomedical scientists and physicians might support effective implementation of the 1993 CWC (Smithson).
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The answer keys for the chapter tests are located as a link right under the chapter test link. The audio in some videos within the pathophysiology, Religion course are problematic. Can you fix it? This is categorical imperative states a problem that was in the original content we received from the course developer. We have no way of fixing this at this time. Why aren't the lab sections in Environmental Science appearing? The Environmental Science labs require you to have Java installed on your computer. You can get the latest version at http://www.java.com/en/download/manual.jsp. HippoCampus and Advanced Placement (AP)* How are homeschoolers using HippoCampus for AP?
What about DANTE and CLEP? We know a lot of homeschoolers use HippoCampus. We are often asked if homeschoolers can study the content at HippoCampus and then just take and pass the pathophysiology, AP exam. Angle Of Shooting? HippoCampus courses were designed to address the pathophysiology, AP College Board criteria. George Conspiracy? However, as with any teaching resource, they should not be considered a singular solution, but can be used as a good foundation for an AP teaching curriculum. The courses at HippoCampus have not currently been mapped to the CLEP and DANTE tests. If you wish to receive college credit for taking an AP course, most colleges will require that the course have been approved by pathophysiology, the College Board. Schools wishing to give their students AP credit must go through the AP audit process. The same is alex mature true for pathophysiology homeschoolers. The AP Course Ledger section below gives more information about the audit process. Categorical Imperative? AP Course Ledger The AP Course Ledger is a comprehensive and public registry of pathophysiology of asthma all courses authorized to use the AP label on student transcripts.
The Ledger is an annual and one perfect dorothy parker, culminating product of the AP Course Audit, a process by which college faculty confirm that courses submitted by AP teachers and schools provide students with the essential elements of a college level experience. As an exclusively Web-based registry, the Ledger is published annually in November and updated weekly throughout the academic year to reflect newly authorized courses. Of Asthma? Here is a link to george washington, AP Audit information, (and you can find other links on this page to various other resources): Can schools order and administer AP Exams without completing the pathophysiology, AP Course Audit? Yes, the one perfect rose dorothy, AP Course Audit is pathophysiology only required for schools desiring to: Are the Angle in Soccer Essay, courses at HippoCampus AP approved? Our AP content is a good resource to help students prepare for AP exams.
However, while we provide content resources, we do not have instructors who teach the pathophysiology of asthma, courses. In order to be authorized by jane eyre quote, the College Board and put in the AP Course Ledger, an instructor must submit a syllabus for the course. While we do not have instructors who teach our courses, we do have NROC member schools that teach the courses for credit and they have been approved through the AP College Board. *AP, Advanced Placement and Advanced Placement Program are registered trademarks of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this content. Of Asthma? The NROC Project. Monterey Institute for of Shooting in Soccer Essay Technology and pathophysiology, Education. The Strengths And Weaknesses Of International Law Essay? Marina, CA 93933. Of Asthma? Beth Pickett, HippoCampus Product Manager, HippoCampus is sustained by academic institutions that are members of The NROC Project. NROC members cooperate to develop and share digital resources and of Shooting, tools to impact college and career success.
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essay microsoft Saturday, February 5, 2000. Notes for an Essay on Microsoft Word. Damn the paperclip to hell. My thinking is in a transitional state, as I sort out things technical and pathophysiology of asthma, personal. As a result, this Ftrain article is not a finished thing, but a big pile of ideas, thrown out of my head into a buffer. You're welcome to conspiracy, any ideas you like, but there are so many digressions, so few real points, you may want to spend your time elsewhere. I make my living putting words, then paragraphs, then sections of text, into structured sequences.
I could call it writing, but it is often as much sorting or design or listing . Some of my sequences are published as brochures, business articles, or Web sites, others are read by corporate Vice Presidents and discarded. Some influence the design of a particular piece of software. From necessity, I usually create these documents in Microsoft Word, the of asthma established, standard tool for American corporate alphanumeric symbol-arranging. Microsoft Word is Angle of Shooting in Soccer Essay, a fascinating landscape of cultural thought, expressed as a consumer software product. It breaks the pathophysiology of asthma writing process of creating a document into the application of of Shooting Essay hundreds of small tools, very few of which have anything to do with writing words. Most of the tool involve operating upon symbols, syymbols which might or might not be made of the characters on of asthma your keyboard. One tool might allow you to sketch a circle, turn a paragraph red, or include a rotating 3D cube in the middle of your document. In the most recent millennia, thousands of rhetoricians and professors have desconstructed the writing process into component structures, from before Aristotle to I.A. Angle In Soccer. Richards to Richard Lanham.
While they've written enormous essays on the theory of pathophysiology composition and the structure of documents, Microsoft has not heeded their counsel in its design for Word. Microsoft has built something quite different, a composition tool for various kinds of media, something McLuhanist, with Postmodern currents beneath it, and ultimately intended to serve the marketplace rather than promote best practices. Angle In Soccer Essay. Many computer types seem fascinated by pathophysiology of asthma Postmodernism. I've written a mini-essay on this, which began as a note but got too big for its trousers. It's included at the bottom of this article. Other software is and Weaknesses of International, also designed along these lines. Adobe Photoshop, for instance, was first built to match the needs of those preparing images for press. It offers a host of components based on darkroom techniques - dodge, burn, and so forth, as well as canned filters, which are the same in theory as MSWord's host of icons. The filters are a sort of prefab creativity, and mostly emulate other media; they turn images into of asthma pretend oil paintings, or photocopies, or crosshatch drawings. Photoshop doesn't, however, allow all the cross-media incorporation, yet; instead, it fits in as a piece in a suite of products, like Illustrator, InDesign, Streamline, Acrobat, etc, which together form a monolith of MSWordian proportions, but with more discrete, professionalized tasks.
As image or video processing becomes more and more a daily task, however, you can expect the worst abuses of alex mature Word to perpetrated upon other software. Even the free-software GIMP has a built-in e-mail mode, created self-consciously to fulfill the computer-science axiom that all software expands until it can send mail. Thought exercise: when I use software, I ask myself what it tells me about my world. Pathophysiology. The browser which will display this random, meandering essay tells me, in large icons, that I may wish to alex mature, go back from this page, receding, or forward to where I've been before. Pathophysiology. My personal experience of the jane eyre quote non-linear Web is pathophysiology of asthma, very linear; I move back and forth across a line of pages, creating a personal history file (which I can also browse), adding bookmarks to a menu, where they're listed in the order I put them there. Later, I can sort them into a non-linear, categorical form. So the browser is an archive, a timeline, in one perfect dorothy, its way. There's more, though.
Its primary application is to display Web pages,. Pathophysiology Of Asthma. Most browsers now contain tools to create Web pages, chat live, send e-mail, and and Weaknesses of International Law Essay, maintain addresses. These are more fundamental acts than reading, which is pathophysiology of asthma, personal, based on the technology of text; they're communicative. The Browser connects you to the landscape of information, and the other tools allow you means to discuss it, to george washington, share inside of pathophysiology it? I know the goal of the browsing experience is to be all-integrative - ultimately turning into alex mature Virtual Reality, fully immersive 3D, superseding the of asthma phone, superseding face-to-face meetings. The idea then is that there is no conversation without annotations, without references and hyperlinks, and a call to your father will include forwarded jokes, pictures, reviews, everything. This is not just digital; once a month, my mother sends me religious clippings along with a brief, three-sentence note.
She is annotating our relationship, pulling in samples from the media and collaging them onto kant's, our connection, adding them to the wire. VR and of asthma, the Internet simply formalize that sort of thing, by providing a consistent addressing scheme for everything under the sun. So, why did they choose this approach for kant's imperative states the browser? And when you have the obvious solution to of asthma, that obvious question, then why ? And why again? The Why? matters, because everywhere I read, regardless of the creed or ideology of the authors, people agree that the future is alex mature, tied somehow into all of these networks and of asthma, digital tools. Alex Mature. After all, if you were going to sneak in cultural imperialism, there's no better way than software design; it flies under the radar in the guise of abstract utility. And these are tools, thus they can be probably be used as weapons in pathophysiology of asthma, some way.
And a million other reasons. Of Shooting In Soccer Essay. The interface of MSWord may not matter as much as the homeless problem, or world hunger, at pathophysiology of asthma all. Angle Essay. But it might not be as far from those problems as we think. Language is pathophysiology, a sacred space for me; I'm not an athiest when I write. While my apartment can be a mess, and my life in shambles, I'm liberated at kant's the black, text-only console. Recursion: there is also software, in the form of a computer script, inside of the page you're reading now. It just loaded a text file, listing each entry, placing links at pathophysiology of asthma the bottom of the page. I wrote it so that I wouldn't need to alex mature, bother with much HTML, just. tags and image references.
It converts a tag into the gray note boxes on the right, without the need for complex HTML when I write. Pathophysiology. I wrote the script/page for utility, but it also consistently expresses the things I think are important about this Web site: the image at the top, the word F T R A I N, and the other elements create an Ftrain brand. They're inescapable to the reader. They create the Ftrain culture, in a way. Further recursion: I am writing a novel, a sci-fi type thing. I have an editor who will look at some chapters, so I'm undertaking a more focused and categorical imperative, active novel-writing process than I might otherwise undertake, putting aside paying work to do so. The narrative of the novel and of asthma, the narrative of this site are beginning to intertwine, often outside of dorothy parker my control, and they connect with the flow of my life. My friends read these Web pages and speak to pathophysiology, me as if I'd spoken the words here directly to them, over the phone or in person. Washington Conspiracy. In the novel, the ideas, including these ideas, are being played out 100 years from now, in the standard cities with tall spires, with the of asthma expected sections of the protagonist's brain accidentally turned into quantum-biological-nanotech computers, jangling and tuning the nerves in his head, where each aspect of life is of Shooting Essay, absorbed by the network, and yet the desires and kindnesses and passions of the human, part of phylum Chordata, remain identical to those I know from experience. Furthest recursion: When I erased the dozens of old entries and pathophysiology of asthma, re-started Ftrain in its current incarnation, I'd spent 4 months of my spare time mapping out exactly how to represent complex documents in relational databases.
It's been done before, but I wanted to The Strengths Law Essay, figure it out myself. I eventually arrived at a way to hold all level of complexity and structure inside a small number of tables, thus making documents easy to sort and edit, while allowing for pathophysiology of asthma multiple authors per document and a moving window of what a document was. Parker. It could be an entire community of Web sites, it could be a single sentence, at of asthma any given time. I was going to implement all of this as a multi-author Web based system for mutual communities of expression, first as a newspaper that would compile itself, but then with more complicated interfaces, and jane eyre quote, I built some prototypes. They worked well enough, enough to convince me it was viable.
But I found myself shirking the pathophysiology of asthma responsibility of writing. It made me wonder what the whole point of it was. Enough with the encapsulating interfaces, enough with the kant's states jargon and the vapid punditry; what about the sequences of letters themselves? Take those three recursions above, and multiply them times thousands of marketers, programmers, testers, managers - a real culture of of asthma corporate development, not just a penny ante Web site - and alex mature, you have fractal software design, a recursive pool of desires, wants, market research, technical limitations, and exhausting deadline, and thus you have Microsoft Word. They probably had great intentions in Redmond, like the Communists before Stalin. But it's ultimately a failure for pathophysiology of asthma all but defined tasks.
Technologies like the Office Assistant, with its dreaded paperclip, interfere in your most private moments: So what's the alternative? I don't know. I'm not so savvy as the 20-something Web pundits, so I can't tell you. Others have thought about it more, so let me pull in a quote; in Angle of Shooting in Soccer Essay, Electric Language , writing specifically about word processing, Michael Heim, who from the 1980's has written about computing as a philosophical endeavor, and is the opposite of the Media- Virus- Meme-o-matic pundits, puts it this way (with my emphases): In any case, current research on computer interface has shown that it is necessary for the user to develop a mental model or set of inferences concerning the underlying movement of the system. However crude and unsophisticated it may be, a mental model allows the user to build some basis on which experiences can be collected and from which the user can respond to the interactive processes of automated writing . A metaphor or sense-endowing map of the system is not provided ready-made by the technology, as was frequently the case with mechanical operations. Because of the indefinite number of its operations and becaus of the flexibility of any given software, the pathophysiology of asthma user can never wholly rely on a so-called idiot-proof system; it will always be necessary to jane eyre quote, manage problems as the system is applied to different tasks in the flow of of asthma information in thought and writing. Michael Heim is a philosopher of cyberspace. But he means it - he takes Leibniz, Heidigger, and kant's categorical, the rest of them and applies them to pathophysiology of asthma, the digital. He's focused his mind on virtual reality for much of the george washington conspiracy last decade.
It was a somewhat unfashionable choice of study, I think, since VR is out of of asthma favor in the computer world and computers spook academics, but it will prove prescient as the digital world expands. The Strengths. Mark my words. When you use a computer program extensively, you create a model of how it works in your mind. MSWord, in theory, works like business is pathophysiology of asthma, supposed to work: every piece fits together, and the end result is imperative, hopefully greater the pathophysiology of asthma sum of its parts. Microsoft Office is jane eyre quote, called that for a reason. Pathophysiology Of Asthma. But it doesn't happen: you run up against limits as you attempt to use the program in any seriously advanced way, because the program was designed to anticipate your behavior, to predict your needs, rather than providing you with the tools you needed to satisfy them yourself. Dorothy. If you are growing and learning, your needs are always changing and expanding - they're impossible to predict. Pathophysiology. So, ultimately, you hit the Redmond Paradox: the canned routines of MSWord - even though MSWord is built with enormous cultural assumptions about how we order our world built in - can't satisfy your work. And successive versions of the jane eyre quote software are self-fulfilling prophecies: we release this new version to meet the needs the old one didn't, acknowledging in turn that this software will also not meet needs.
I need to come back here and back up my argument with lots of pathophysiology examples. For now, I'll wuss out.The trouble is, this whole modularity thing isn't effective when there's a lot of one perfect rose parker work to do, especially in a knowledge economy, where putting ideas together creatively , in new ways, is key to pathophysiology, corporate growth. Most recent business theory books, especially those focusing on the digital economy (like Unleashing the Killer App push creativity, teamwork, and exploration over modularity of individuals. Kant's Imperative. Working on building Web sites, which is a network-and-knowledge intensive, incredibly rapid growth industry, I've had roughly 14 positions in 3 years, which makes the concept of a title, or a set role, meaningless. In a work environment, I adapt to fit where I can help, and where I'm interested. If I don't make a difference, or I'm bored, I quit. Total Quality Management, understanding my place in the organization and filling it completely with responsibility to the whole corporate entity, has no meaning to me; there's no point in of asthma, me learning a role as much as learning techniques for adapting . Vicious cycle: brought to a conclusion, this high adaptability makes it absolutely futile for me to have a desk job. Corporations must do things well in a reliable manner, and Angle of Shooting in Soccer Essay, minimize failure. I am interested in doing things wrong and failing (hence this essay, which is of asthma, definitely a failure, but hopefully an alex mature inspired failure--see?--which will lead me to clearer and more valuable, in-depth thinking later. Right now, no role exists for me to fill as writer- thinker- bad-programmer- strategist- creative- brand- mascot- etc; I flounder and pathophysiology of asthma, thrash unless I can consider documents and databases along with the flow of language and poetry.
This sounds pretentious but it's fairly grave; I've gotten to a point where I just can't handle being in an office working on projects, and my mind wanders so far off point I feel I shouldn't even charge people for what I do, and it makes me a liability. And the truth is I have years before I can really put it all together correctly . I'm still as dumb as dirt. I'll be up all night this Sunday doing the imperative states things I didn't bother to think about last week because I was reading library books. Can the instinct to express and of asthma, learn be reconciled with the of International instinct to work and be part of of asthma a productive group? Academia doesn't really work that way. Are the two instincts like Eros Thanatos? Tom Jerry? Ricky Lucy? Clinton Lewinsky?
Since all of it is alex mature, my life, and I have no interest in separating life and pathophysiology, work from one another in some corporate centrifuge, I remain gainfully unemployed, writing code some weeks, writing copy some others. This is where the essay ends, for now. Early Notes on Postmodernism and Computer Science. In the four years since, I've seen essays ranging from How To Deconstruct Almost Anything, the story of one computer professional's explorations in the world of postmodern literary criticism to Larry Wall's lengthy explanation of alex mature Perl as a Postmodern programming language. On the pathophysiology of asthma other side, the Theory crowd digs science, usually without a lick of Angle in Soccer Essay understanding, writing about chaos theory and quantum gravity as the roots of the other in pathophysiology, a seamless, cheerful stream of babble. There's an amusing book out of Shooting in Soccer Essay there called Fashionable Nonsense where scientists take on Pomo Critics. Me, I understand neither the science nor the Postmodernism very well, at least during this decade of my life. The hazard of pathophysiology of asthma being a generalist is you stay stupid longer. More on this later. To hypothesize from jane eyre quote a ridiculously tiny experimental base: do code wonks and pathophysiology of asthma, Theory wonks have the same fascinations? Postmodernists are extremely curious about the deep structures of our culture, and they'll go so far as to say that our culture is what defines our atoms, not the other way around.
Computer scientists interested in non-traditional domains (say, algorithmic video and sound composition, as opposed to Angle, efficient search algorithms) and especially those interested in the Internet are also arguing against the atoms. They won't always talk about it, but they're into re-arranging the pathophysiology of asthma creative and cultural universe into manageable structures; they're implementing the structures the PoMo critics are exploring, actually hard-coding units of meaning into their software, or to take it up a metalevel, they're implementing tools which have built-in assumptions about the structures the PoMo critics are exploring , like with VRML, or CSound, or MSWord. I think it all emerges from data instinct, that weird ability humans have to kant's categorical imperative, simply absorb ideas after enough time online, rather than knowledge (more on of asthma data instinct later.) In any case, that's the real promise of Virtual Reality. VR is not just a jackoff fantasyland; it's a tool for of Shooting Essay modeling all the wacked-out nonsense and relationships, for playing out the differences in of asthma, our minds and The Strengths and Weaknesses of International Law Essay, our situations. More on this later. It'll all out when quantum computers show up, mark my words. More on this later.
Ftrain.com is the website of of asthma Paul Ford and his pseudonyms. It is showing its age. Rose Dorothy Parker. I'm rewriting the code but it's taking some time. About the author: I've been running this website from 1997. For a living I write stories and essays, program computers, edit things, and help people launch online publications. (LinkedIn). Pathophysiology Of Asthma. I wrote a novel. I was an rose parker editor at Harper's Magazine for five years; then I was a Contributing Editor; now I am a free agent. I was also on NPR's All Things Considered for pathophysiology of asthma a while.
I still write for The Morning News, and conspiracy, some other places. If you have any questions for me, I am very accessible by email. You can email me at firstname.lastname@example.org and ask me things and I will try to answer. Especially if you want to clarify something or write something critical. I am glad to clarify things so that you can disagree more effectively. © 1974-2011 Paul Ford. Woods+. People call me a lot and say: What is pathophysiology, this new thing?
You're a nerd. Explain it immediately. Alex Mature. (July 10) 0h30m w/Photoshop, by Paul Ford. It's immediately clear to me now that I'm writing again that I need to of asthma, come up with some new forms in order to have fun here—so that I can get a rhythm and Law Essay, know what I'm doing. One thing that works for me are time limits; pencils up, pencils down. So: Fridays, write for 30 minutes; edit for 20 minutes max; and go whip up some images if necessary, like the big crappy hand below that's all meaningful and evocative because it's retro and zoomed-in.
Post it, and leave it alone. Can I do that every Friday? Yes! Will I? Maybe! But I crave that simple continuity. Of Asthma. For today, for absolutely no reason other than that it came unbidden into my brain, the subject will be Photoshop. (Do we have a process?
We have a process. It is 11:39 and. ) (May 13) Tickler File Forever, by Paul Ford. I'll have no one to blame but future me. (May 10) Time's Inverted Index, by Paul Ford. (1) When robots write history we can get in trouble with our past selves. (2) Search-generated, false chrestomathies and the historical fallacy. (May 9) The Moral Superiority of the Streetcar. (1) Long-form journalism fixes everything. (2) The moral superiority of the streetcar. (3) I like big bus and Angle in Soccer Essay, I cannot lie. Of Asthma. (May 4)
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Social Psychology : Should social psychology aim for a more integrated approach? Social psychology is the scientific study of how we affect each other by anything from what we say or do, to of asthma the simple act of our presence. From this descriptions it is clear how social psychology is often seen to overlap with sociology and indeed explains why many of washington, its roots are there. Perhaps because of its diverse roots, the range of different approaches within social psychology can seem bewildering and, quite apart from anything else, it can be difficult to see any kind of coherent whole or overarching meta-theories. Pathophysiology? In order to evaluate whether social psychology might benefit from a more integrated approach it is useful to evaluate where that integration is occurring and whether it is producing meaningful knowledge. The standard approach to most areas of social psychology has been in the creation of theories that are not overarching but more modestly aim to explain an area of social psychology but go no further. This is alex mature partly the result of a proliferation of research in social psychology that has meant that researchers tend to focus on a specialised field and take less notice of what is of asthma happening outside its narrow confines - not a situation conducive to an integrative approach. Washington? The problem with this fragmented approach is clearly seen in what are called the pathophysiology different 'levels of explanation' at which social psychological research operates at.
The three levels are intrapersonal, interpersonal, and intergroup and the research has tended to concentrate on Angle in Soccer Essay, one of pathophysiology of asthma, these levels without integrating them together. This can lead to an incomplete answer to the original research question. Hogg Vaughan (2002) use the example of social psychologists tackling group behaviour in terms of intrapsychic processes - like personality - which are not amenable to explaining such phenomena as stereotyping or prejudice. Branscombe Spears (2001) have suggested that there are ways to conspiracy integrate social psychological knowledge and outline some of these attempts. The continuing rise of pathophysiology of asthma, cognitive psychology as an Angle of Shooting in Soccer Essay, overarching method of explanation or meta-theory, has been invoked in social psychology. Of Asthma? For example, explanations of social cognition are made in jane eyre quote terms of information processing using neural or connectionist networks as the basis. This can be seen in a variety of experiments on the effects of motivational and emotional factors on behaviour such as that by Forgas (1995). Here participants were told they were going to pathophysiology be involved in two unrelated studies, the first involving watching a film which was either happy, sad or neutral.
The second involved making a judgement about a person under a variety of different conditions. The experimenters wanted to see how the mood state would affect the social judgement of the participants. They found different levels of 'affect infusion' depending on the particular circumstances of the study. And Weaknesses Of International Law Essay? The main criticism of this type of formulation of motivational and emotional factors as somehow 'add-on' or extra factors that then modify 'normal behaviour' is that it rather isolates these factors rather than integrating them with the perception and evaluation of others. Evolutionary psychology has also had a great effect on many areas of psychology and lays claim to being another overarching theory - although this is more of a 'top-down' rather than 'bottom-up' theory. Evolutionary theorists such as Buss (1995) claim that parts of our behaviour can be explained in terms of adaptations to the environment, both social and physical. Of Asthma? This had become a very popular explanation with analysis often focussing on interpersonal relationships, specifically in terms of sexual attraction and how it relates to differing levels of investment in offspring. Modern theorists are now, however, turning away from evolutionary theory as it tends to focus on how the distant past might affect people's behaviour today.
While it is possible, perhaps probable, that evolutionary factors will be somewhat relevant, it can be difficult to see this as a complete overarching theory that can explain how people behave in modern technological societies. Both the evolutionary theory and categorical imperative states, ideas from pathophysiology of asthma, cognitive psychology, therefore, do not provide meta-theoretical explanations on which social psychology can build an integrated perspective. Where then can we turn? Currently one of the most hopeful areas for an integrative approach as identified by both Hogg Vaughan (2002) and Branscombe Spears (2001) is in a particularly social psychological perspective. These authors suggest that one of the one perfect rose dorothy parker most successful attempts at integrating analyses from a variety of different levels - intrapersonal, interpersonal and intergroup - is in social identity theory (Tajfel Turner, 1986). Social identity theory grew out of the minimal group paradigm experiments in which it was found that people would strongly identify with even an extremely arbitrary and loosely formed grouping so as to prefer the in-group members over the out-group members. This would occur with only the smallest and pathophysiology of asthma, most subtle provocation (described in Tajfel, 1978).
This theory is based on imperative, the idea that society is structured by pathophysiology, social groupings with different levels of The Strengths and Weaknesses, power and interests and that people gain their social identity from these groups. Attached to this social identity are particular ways of behaving to be adhered to. People are not limited to a single social identity though and can, and generally do, have multiple identities which can be switched between depending on the situation. To counter the criticisms mentioned earlier about levels of explanation, social identity theory is careful to pathophysiology separate personal identity from social identity as it is precisely the confounding of these two levels that has drawn the alex mature censure of critics. Because of its concentration on the importance of groups, a number of established social psychological processes are also brought into the theory automatically. These include, for example, in-group favouritism and of asthma, intergroup differentiation. Finally, social identity theory assumes that people have a need to gain a positive evaluation of themselves in george washington conspiracy relation to other people. The explanations provided by social identity theory so far cover interpersonal and intergroup effects, but what about intrapsychic processes?
Branscombe Spears (2001) suggest that self-categorisation theory provides another important piece in providing an integrated meta-theory. Self-categorisation theory grew out of social identity theory and concentrates on how a person places themselves in particular social categories (Turner, 1987). It sees a person as choosing from a number of pathophysiology, fuzzy categories about how to behave in particular situations as compared to a kind of alex mature, prototype. This analysis brings in the more cognitive ideas of having a representation of a group, and the prototype of that group, and then comparing individual behaviour to pathophysiology of asthma that. These kinds of distinctions between levels of of International, understanding and categorisation or identity can be clearly understood in research like that carried out by Spears, Doosje, Ellemers (1997). Pathophysiology? In this study psychology students were encouraged to compare themselves to fine arts students and then physics students respectively. The results showed they tended to emphasise their intelligence when comparing themselves to dorothy fine arts students, and their creativity when comparing themselves to physics students. Pathophysiology Of Asthma? This clearly shows how people have a need to compare themselves favourably to others but also effectively shows how people's image of themselves is affected by the exact nature of the social comparison that they are making. The combination of rose, social identity theory and self-categorisation theory have been used to pathophysiology of asthma explain a number of social psychological phenomena. These have included social stereotyping, group formation and and Weaknesses Law Essay, cohesion and the maintenance of pathophysiology of asthma, self-esteem. One oft-analysed example that demonstrates the salient points is that of alex mature, crowd behaviour.
Crowd behaviour has traditionally been analysed as a function of changes in individuation and in self-awareness in an individual person. Pathophysiology? Like many areas of jane eyre quote, social psychology this analysis has come under fire for pathophysiology of asthma, ignoring or playing down the intergroup interactions. In an analysis of crowd behaviour based on social identity theory, these criticisms are lessened. Reicher, Spears Postmes (1995) posit that crowds come together as members of a specific social group in order to perform a particular act or protest, the alex mature result of this is pathophysiology that there is often a high level of the sharing of kant's categorical imperative, social identity. But in a crowd situation there are frequently few cues as to pathophysiology how to behave and so people tend to look for those members of the group that they identify with and copy them. To look at it from another perspective, rather than becoming deindividuated by being in a crowd, people are actually raising their social identity in this situation above their personal identity.
The simple result is of Shooting that people tend to pathophysiology conform to the group norms to a greater extent. Studies of riots cited by Hogg Vaughan (2002) provide some evidence for The Strengths and Weaknesses of International, this point of view. Reicher (1984) studied the riots that occurred in pathophysiology 1980 in one perfect rose dorothy the St Paul's area of of asthma, Bristol. It was found that, for example, people only targeted symbols of the state such as the police and banks, they were certainly not indiscriminate. There was a strong sense of positive social identity and the crowd remained within the confines of St Paul's rather than spreading to other areas. These kinds of alex mature, findings tend to support ideas from social identity and self-categorisation theory. The fragmentation and attempts at integration discussed so far are those that have occurred within what is known as mainstream social psychology . However, one of the most important major differences or splits in the practice of social psychology came with the so-called 'crisis in social psychology' in of asthma the late 60s and early 70s.
This was lead by critics of traditional approaches to social psychology like Gergen (1973). What these critics were saying was that social psychology, in its mainstream incarnation, had become too obsessed with scientific methods that were not best suited to gaining social psychological knowledge: namely reductionism and positivism. Of Shooting? The effect of concentrating on reductionism in of asthma psychology, it was argued, meant that accounts of social psychological phenomena tended to concentrate on The Strengths and Weaknesses of International, intrapersonal psychology at the expense of of asthma, understanding the social nature of human relations. Critics of jane eyre quote, positivist approaches claimed that social psychologists tended to place too much emphasis on the explanatory power of traditional scientific methods. They contended that it was not possible to study a person or group of people in an 'objective' way for the simple reason that effectively people are studying themselves and it is impossible to be objective about yourself - by definition! While traditional experimental approaches to of asthma social psychology continued then, new methods began to grow from different traditions that challenged the way social psychology had been 'done' in one perfect rose the past. Lyons (1998) describes some of these new approaches that are often collected under the of asthma banner of alex mature, 'social constructionism'. This new plurality of approaches has at its centre the idea that reality is socially constructed.
In essence this idea is that there is no objective reality so that reality which we construct (mainly) through our language should form the primary focus for investigation. Discourse analysis (Potter Wetherell, 1987) is pathophysiology of asthma one method of alex mature, analysing our interactions with each other that involves the qualitative analysis of written or verbal text. While these new approaches to social psychology have certainly fed back usefully into the mainstream in terms of the methodologies used, their philosophical bases are fundamentally opposed to the way that mainstream psychology is carried out. Still, their concentration on of asthma, the social in social psychology can be seen to parallel the mainstream's increasing awareness in the same direction. Whether integration is desirable, or even possible, between these two approaches is certainly questionable. The main problem for social psychologists is that knowledge naturally becomes highly specialised and eventually ghettoised, so that there is little communication between specialisms and little opportunity for the sharing and integration of knowledge. As human beings represent extremely complicated integrated systems it seems unlikely that they can be fully understood as a number of discrete parts or modules. Unless bridges can be built between the sub-disciplines of social psychology, it seems likely that much knowledge about how these systems operate will be lost between the widening cracks. There is some evidence that some level of integration might be achieved through social identity and self-categorisation theory, although the alex mature gap between mainstream social psychology and social constructionist analyses look less likely to of asthma be bridged despite the boost to qualitative methodologies in the mainstream.
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Social psychology as history. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 26, 309-320. Hogg, M. A. Vaughan, G. M. (2002) Social Psychology, Third Edition, London: Prentice Hall Lyons, E. (1998) Social Psychology 1, In Psychology: An Integrated Approach, Ed. George Conspiracy? Eysenek, M. W., pp.324-355. Essex: Longman. Pathophysiology Of Asthma? Potter, J., Wetherell, M. (1987). Discourse and social psychology: Beyond attitudes and behaviour. London: Sage. Reicher, S. (1984) St. Paul's a study of the limits of crowd behaviour. In Murphy J et al (eds.) Dialogues and debates in alex mature social psychology.
Reicher, S. D., Spears, R., Postmes, T. (1995). A social identity model of deindividuation phenomena. In Stroebe, W., Hewstone, M. (Eds.), European review of social psychology, Vol. 6, pp. 161-198). Chichester, UK: Wiley. Pathophysiology? Spears, R., Doosje, B., Ellemers, N. (1997). Self-stereotyping in the face of george washington, threats to group status and distinctiveness: The role of group identification. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 538-553. Tajfel, H. (1978).
Interindividual behaviour and pathophysiology, intergroup behaviour. In: Tajfel, H. (Ed.) Differentiation between social groups (pp. 27-60). New York: Academic Press. Tajfel, H., Turner, J.C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In Worchel, S., Austin, W. G. (Eds.), The psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7-24). Kant's Categorical? Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall.
Turner, J.C. (1987). A self-categorization theory. Pathophysiology Of Asthma? In Turner, J.C. Hogg, M.A. Alex Mature? Oakes, P.J. Reicher, S.D., Wetherell M.S. Of Asthma? (Eds.), Rediscovering the dorothy social group: A self-categorization theory (pp. 42-67). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
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