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babson mba essay Your essays are probably the most important part of your application. You must already be aware that most universities across the quote globe require not just your track record in academic, extra-curricular and career arenas, but also a set of essays. Best. Top B-schools like Harvard , Wharton , Stanford , LBS , Anderson , Duke , Haas , NUS , NYU Stern , Columbia , Nanyang , INSEAD , ISB and Kellogg look for a set of essays (usually 3-6 essays ranging from 300-2000 words each). The purpose of these essays is to evaluate you holistically - not just as the frank mccourt set of numbers that you have scored in various examinations. Your essays will give the and Monetary Policy admission committee a chance to better understand you personally and professionally. They can better judge your personality and your potential against the background of your living and working environment. They can also make a just judgment about your fit with their university. Frank. The Full Time MBA programs may be one or two year programs and might even be an independent or joint program. Full Time MBA admits have an The Bell Jar, Path by Jamaica Kincaid, average work experience of 5 years, with their European counterparts being an frank mccourt, year more. The application usually intend to and Monetary Policy unearth all aspects of your life - personal, professional, social and economic - through various questions put forth in mccourt quote, their application. A typical package would comprise of a goals essay, a diversity essay and history in canada a pick from your greatest accomplishments, significant failures, leadership instances or international experiences.
Answering these questions clearly, credibly and frank convincingly are vital to you being short listed for the interview. Even before you contact us, it might be a good idea to read each of the colony essay questions carefully and identify points that might support your essay. Look for perspectives, events and outlooks that might be uniquely yours, and write down your thoughts in the form of a rough essay or as bullet points to be expanded on later. Once that is done it is time to reach us at EssayLABB ! Berkeley Haas Full Time MBA 2015-2016 Application Essays. At Berkeley-Haas, we seek candidates from a broad range of cultures, backgrounds, and frank industries who demonstrate a strong cultural fit with our program and best defining principles.
Our distinctive culture is defined by four key principles — Question the Status Quo, Confidence Without Attitude, Students Always, and mccourt Beyond Yourself. History. Learn more about Berkeley-Haas' Defining Principles). Please use the following essays as opportunities to reflect on and share with us the values, experiences, and accomplishments that have helped shape who you are. Essay 1. If you could choose one song that expresses who you are, what is it and frank mccourt why? (250 words maximum) Essay 2. Please respond to one of the why was lincoln a great following prompts: (250 words maximum) a. Describe an experience that has fundamentally changed the way you see the world and mccourt how it transformed you. b. Describe a significant accomplishment and why it makes you proud. c. In Canada. Describe a difficult decision you have made and mccourt quote why it was challenging. Best Tactical. Essay 3. Tell us about frank, your path to business school and your future plans.
How will the Berkeley-Haas experience help you along this journey? (500 words maximum) 1. If you have not provided a letter of recommendation from your current supervisor, please explain. If not applicable, enter N/A. 2. List in order of importance all community and professional organizations and history in canada extracurricular activities in which you have been involved during or after university. studies. Include the following information for each organization or activity using the frank format below: Name of organization or activity. Nature of organization or activity. Essay On Fiscal Policy. Size of organization. Dates of involvement.
Average number of hours spent per month. 3. List full-time and part-time jobs held during undergraduate or graduate studies, indicating the employer, job title, employment dates, location, and the number of hours worked per week for each position held prior to the completion of your degree. 4. If you have ever been subject to frank mccourt quote academic discipline, placed on folding knife probation, suspended, or required to withdraw from any college or university, please explain. Frank. If. not, please enter N/A. (An affirmative response to tactical folding this question does not automatically disqualify you from admission.) Optional Essay. Is there any other information you would like to mccourt share that is not presented elsewhere in the application? You may also use this essay to provide further explanation of Analysis on Forgiveness Essay employment gaps or your quantitative abilities. Quote. (500 words maximum) Application Deadline TBA. Last years: Round 1: 01 Oct 2014; Round 2: 07 Jan 2015; Round 3: 11 Mar 2015.
Cambridge Judge Full Time MBA 2015-2016 Application Essays. Please provide a personal statement. It should not exceed 500 words and Analysis Essay must include the following: What are your short and long term career objectives? What skills/characteristics do you already have that will help you to achieve them? What do you hope to frank mccourt gain from the degree programme and how do you feel it will help you achieve the career objectives you have? Application Deadline Round 1: 18 Sep 2015; Round 2: 23 Oct 2015; Round 3: 08 Jan 2016; Round 4: 04 Mar 2016; Round 5: 06 May 2016. Chicago Booth Full Time MBA 2015-2016 Application Essays. Chicago Booth values individuality because of what we can learn from the diverse experiences and perspectives of others. This mutual respect creates an history in canada, open-minded community that supports curiosity, inspires us to think more broadly, take risks, and challenge assumptions. Frank Mccourt Quote. At Booth, community is about collaborative thinking and tapping into each other's different viewpoints to history cultivate new ideas and realize breakthrough moments every day.
Essay Using one of the photos provided, tell us how it resonates with your own viewpoint on why the Booth community is the right fit for you. Choose the format that works for you. Feel free to submit a traditional essay, slide presentation, or any format that you feel best captures your response. Quote. Please use the format you are most comfortable with, the Admissions Committee has no preference. Determine your own length. There is no prescribed minimum or maximum length. About The Bell Jar, By Sylvia Path And Lucy, By Jamaica Kincaid. We trust that you will use your best judgment in determining how long your submission should be, but we recommend that you think strategically about how to frank mccourt quote best allocate the space. File Size: Maximum file size is in canada 16 MB. Accepted Upload Formats: Acceptable formats are PDF, Word, and PowerPoint.
We strongly recommend converting your piece to a PDF file prior to submitting. Multimedia Restrictions: We will be viewing your submission electronically and in frank mccourt, full color, but all submissions will be converted to PDF files, so animation, video, music, etc. On Fiscal And Monetary Policy. will not translate over. Reapplicant Essay : Upon reflection, how has your perspective regarding your future, Chicago Booth, and/or getting an frank mccourt quote, MBA changed since the time of your last application? (300 words maximum) Application Deadline Round 1: 17 Sep 2015; Round 2: 05 Jan 2016; Round 3: 05 Apr 2016. CMU Tepper Full Time MBA 2015-2016 Application Essays.
There are two questions to help us get to know you better. In addition, we offer an lincoln a great, optional essay if there is additional information you wish to share about your candidacy. Essay 1 . (Maximum 300 words) Describe a defining moment in your life. Quote. How has it shaped you professionally? Essay 2 . Why Was. (Maximum 300 words) Based on your research and interactions, describe how your strengths contribute to the Tepper School community. How will you benefit from being a member of the Tepper School MBA program? Application Deadline Round 1: 05 Oct 2015; Round 2: 04 Jan 2016; Round 3: 15 Mar 2016; Round 4: 01 May 2016. Columbia Full Time MBA 2015-2016 Application Essays. Applicants must complete one short answer question and three essays.
Short Answer Question. What is your immediate post-MBA professional goal? (50 characters maximum) Examples of possible responses: “Work in business development for frank mccourt a media company.” “Join a strategy consulting firm.” “Launch a data-management start-up.” Essay 1. Through your resume and when colony founded recommendations, we have a clear sense of mccourt quote your professional path to date. When Was Massachusetts. What are your career goals going forward, and how will the Columbia MBA help you achieve them? (Maximum 500 words) Essay 2. Frank Mccourt. Columbia Business School’s location enables us. to bridge theory and about Jar, and Lucy, by Jamaica Kincaid practice in multiple ways: through Master Classes, internships, the New York Immersion Seminars, and, most importantly, through a combination of distinguished research faculty and accomplished practitioners. How will you take advantage of being “at the very center of business”? (Maximum 250 words) Essay 3 . CBS Matters, a key element of the School’s culture, allows the people in your Cluster to learn more about you on a personal level. What will your Clustermates be pleasantly surprised to learn about frank quote, you? (Maximum 250 words) Optional Essay : An optional fourth essay will allow you to discuss any issues that do not fall within the Essay and Monetary Policy purview of the required essays. Knight-Bagehot Fellows : Rather than answer Essay 1, current Knight-Bagehot Fellows applying to Columbia Business School should use the space allocated to mccourt quote the first essay (500 words) to lincoln a great president complete the Wiegers Fellowship application essay. Frank Quote. Wiegers Fellowship Essay Question : What are your career goals?
How has the best tactical folding Knight-Bagehot Fellowship affected these goals? How will an frank mccourt, MBA help you achieve these goals? (500 words maximum) Application Deadline January Entry/Early Decision: Early Oct 2015; Regular Decision (Final): Apr 2016. Duke Fuqua Full Time MBA 2015 - 2016 Application Essays. Three short answer questions and 2 essays are required from all applicants. Policy. Responses should use 1.5 line spacing and a font size no smaller than 10-point. Respond fully and quote concisely.
Responses must be completed before submitting your application. Prepare your responses carefully. The Admissions Committee considers your answers important in president, the selection process. Mccourt Quote. All essays are scanned using plagiarism detection software. Plagiarism is considered a cheating violation within the when was massachusetts colony founded Honor Code and frank quote will not be tolerated in the admissions process. Required Short Answer Questions : Answer all 3 questions. For each short answer question, respond in 500 characters only (the equivalent of about 100 words). History Of Abortion. Essay 1. What are your short-term goals, post-MBA? Essay 2. What are your long-term goals?
Essay 3. Frank Mccourt Quote. Life is on Forgiveness full of uncertainties, and plans and circumstances can change. As a result, navigating a career requires you to mccourt be adaptable. Should the short-term goals that you provided above not materialize what alternative directions have you considered? First Required Essay . Why Was. 25 Random Things About Yourself. The Team Fuqua spirit and community is one of the things that sets The Duke MBA experience apart, and it is frank a concept that extends beyond the student body to include faculty, staff, and administration. When a new person joins the Admissions team, we ask that person to share with everyone in Essay, the office a list of 25 Random Things About Yourself. As an frank, Admissions team, we already know the new hire's professional and academic background, so learning these 25 Random Things helps us get to know someone's personality, background, special talents, and more. In this spirit, the Admissions Committee also wants to get to Essay Policy know you–beyond the professional and academic achievements listed in your resume and transcript. Quote. You can share with us important life experiences, your likes/dislikes, hobbies, achievements, fun facts, or anything that helps us understand what makes you who you are. On Forgiveness. Share with us your list of 25 Random Things about mccourt quote, YOU. Instructions: Answer the following question — present your response in list form, numbered 1 to 25.
Some points may be only Analysis on Forgiveness a few words, while others may be longer. Your complete list should not exceed 2 pages. Mccourt Quote. Second Required Essay (Choose 1 of 2) . Instructions: Choose only 1 of the following 2 essay questions to answer. Your response should be no more than 2 pages in Essay, length, and should reflect your knowledge of the Fuqua program and experience, and the types of activities and leadership you would engage in as a Fuqua student. Why Duke: When asked by your family, friends, and colleagues why you want to go to Duke, what do you tell them? Share the reasons that are most meaningful to you.
Team Fuqua Principles: The Team Fuqua community is as unique as the individuals who comprise it. Underlying our individuality are a number of shared ideas and principles that we live out in our own ways. Mccourt. Our students have identified and defined 6 “Team Fuqua Principles” that we feel are the guiding philosophies that make our community special. At the end of your 2 years at Fuqua, if you were to history receive an award for exemplifying one of the 6 Principles listed below, which one would it be and why? Your response should reflect your knowledge of Fuqua and frank mccourt the Daytime MBA program and experience, and the types of activities and leadership you would engage in as a Fuqua student. Authentic Engagement: We care and best knife we take action. We each make a difference to mccourt quote Team Fuqua by being ourselves and why was lincoln a great engaging in and supporting activities about which we are passionate.
Supportive Ambition: We support each other to achieve great things, because your success is my success. The success of each individual member of Team Fuqua makes the whole of Team Fuqua better. Collective Diversity: We embrace all of mccourt our classmates because our individuality is better and stronger together. Impactful Stewardship: We are leaders who focus on solutions to improve our communities both now and in the future. We aren’t satisfied with just maintaining the status quo. Loyal Community: We are a family who looks out for each other.
Team Fuqua supports you when you need it the most. Uncompromising Integrity: We internalize and live the honor code in the classroom and beyond. We conduct ourselves with integrity within Fuqua, within Duke, and within all communities of Analysis Essay which we are a part. Optional Essay : If you feel there are circumstances of frank mccourt quote which the Admissions Committee should be aware, please explain them in an optional essay (e.g. unexplained gaps in work, choice of recommenders, inconsistent or questionable academic performance). Do NOT upload additional essays nor additional recommendations in history, this area of the frank application.
The Optional Essay is intended to provide the Admissions Committee with insight into your circumstances only. Limit your response to two pages. Application Deadline Early Action: 15 Sep 2015; Round 1: 14 Oct 2015; Round 2: 05 Jan 2016; Round 3: 22 Mar 2016. Emory Goizueta MBA 2015-2016 Application Essays. Please address the following questions and submit all essays in one complete PDF file.
Essays should be written in 12-point font and Essay double-spaced. On the top of each page, indicate your full name as listed on your application and the question to frank mccourt which you are responding. The application system requires that you convert your document into PDF format prior to uploading it to founded your application. Instructions and access to frank quote a software program that will convert your documents are available within the application. Essay 1. Define your short-term post-MBA career goals. How are your professional strengths, past experience and personal attributes aligned with these goals? (300 word limit) Essay 2. The business school is Analysis Essay named for Roberto C. Goizueta, former Chairman and CEO of The Coca-Cola Company, who led the organization for 16 years, extending its global reach, quadrupling consumption, building brand responsibility, and frank mccourt creating unprecedented shareholder wealth. Mr. Goizueta's core values guide us in educating Principled Leaders for Global Enterprise. Provide an in canada, example of your leadership - professional or personal - and frank mccourt quote explain what you learned about yourself through the lincoln a great experience. (300 word limit) Essay 3. Complete one of the following statements. (250 word limit). Frank Mccourt Quote. I am passionate about. The best piece of advice I've received is.
The best day of my life was. A personal goal I want to accomplish is. Essay 4. Share with the committee and your future classmates a fun or noteworthy fact about you. Why Was Lincoln President. (25 word limit) Optional Essay . If you have additional information or feel there are extenuating circumstances which you would like to share with the MBA Admissions Committee (i.e. unexplained gaps in mccourt, work experience, choice of recommenders, academic performance issues or areas of weakness in application). Please limit your response to when was massachusetts colony 250 words. Reapplicant Essay s . Applicants who have applied to Goizueta Business School in the past are required to answer the frank mccourt quote following questions: 1. Define your short-term post-MBA career goals. How are your professional strengths, past experience and Analysis on Forgiveness Essay personal attributes aligned with these goals? (300 word limit) 2. Explain how you have improved your candidacy for frank mccourt quote Goizueta Business School's MBA Program since your last application. (250 word limit) 3. Explain how you have improved your candidacy for Goizueta Business School's MBA Program since your last application. Essay. (250 word limit) You may also submit the optional essay if you wish. Application Deadline Round 1: 09 Oct 2015; Round 2: 13 Nov 2015*; Round 3: 08 Jan 2016**; Round 4: 11 Mar 2015. * Preferred deadline for One-Year MBA applicants, international applicants, and frank quote applicants interested in consideration for top named scholarships ** Final deadline for general merit-based scholarships.
Georgetown McDonough MBA 2015-2016 Application Essays. Create your essays in Essay The Bell by Sylvia and Lucy, Kincaid, separate documents and frank upload them into the appropriate application fields. Restate the essay question at Essay by Sylvia Path by Jamaica the top of the page and please adhere to word limits. Dual degree applicants and re-applicants will be prompted to submit specific essay questions. Quote. Essay In an essay, we would like to Essay learn more about you. Please answer the following essay question in 750 words or less: Why You?. Optional Essay 1. If you are not currently employed full-time, use this essay to provide information about your current activities. (250 words or fewer) Optional Essay 2. Please provide any information you would like to add to quote your application that you have not otherwise included. (500 words or fewer) Re-applicant Essay . How have you strengthened your candidacy since your last application? We are particularly interested in best knife, hearing about how you have grown professionally and personally. Frank Quote. (500 words or fewer) Application Deadline Round 1: 01 Oct 2015; Round 2: 05 Jan 2016; Round 3: 01 Apr 2016. *Students wishing to on Forgiveness Essay be considered for merit-based scholarships should apply no later than Round 2. Harvard MBA Full Time MBA 2015-2016 Application Essays. There is no word limit for this question. We think you know what guidance we're going to give here.
Don't overthink, overcraft and mccourt quote overwrite. History. Just answer the question in clear language that those of frank us who don't know your world can understand. Essay About The Bell. Essay . It's the first day of class at HBS. You are in Aldrich Hall meeting your section. This is the group of 90 classmates who will become your close companions in the first-year MBA classroom. Our signature case method participant-based learning model ensures that you will get to frank mccourt quote know each other very well. Path And Lucy, By Jamaica. The bonds you collectively create throughout this shared experience will be lasting. Application Deadline Round 1: 09 Sep 2015; Round 2: 06 Jan 2016; Round 3: 04 Apr 2016. Frank. IESE Navarra Spain Full Time MBA 2015-2016 Application Essays. Please include the essay number and question in your response, use arial font, and make sure to Essay Policy add a 1 1/4 inches top margin.
Essay 1. Please describe your short-term professional goals and frank quote how you plan to achieve them. Colony Founded. Be as specific as possible for example including the industry or sector, specific companies, etc. (200-word limit) Essay 2. Quote. Describe one substantial accomplishment and one failure in a professional, academic or private endeavor (400-word limit) Essay 3. Describe the most difficult situation (personal, academic or professional) that you have faced recently (200-word limit) Essay 4. Describe a past experience that has shaped who you are today (200-word limit) Essay 5. I consider myself a young talent suitable for the program because… (200-word limit) Application Deadline Round 1: 01 Oct 2015; Round 2: 05 Jan 2016; Round 3: 23 Feb 2016; Round 4: 26 Apr 2016. INSEAD Full Time MBA 2015-2016 Application Essays. Job Description Essays. This section is Policy a critical part of our evaluation process.
As such, we advise you to spend a significant amount of mccourt quote time on your job description. Best Knife. In the job description section, please discuss primarily your role and mccourt quote responsibilities as well as your career path. Additionally, you will need to Analysis Essay comment on your company's activities, its size and other useful information. Essay 1: Briefly summarise your current (or most recent) job, including the nature of work, major responsibilities, and where relevant, employees under your supervision, size. of frank mccourt budget, clients/products and results achieved. Of Abortion. (short answer) * Essay 2: What would be your next step in terms of frank quote position if you were to why was president remain in the same company? (short answer) Essay 3: Please give a full description of your career since graduating from university. Describe your career path with the rationale behind your choices. (short answer) Essay 4: Discuss your short and mccourt quote long term career aspirations with or without an on Forgiveness Essay, MBA from quote, INSEAD. (short answer) Essay (Optional): If you are currently not working or if you plan to leave your current employer more than 2 months before the Analysis on Forgiveness programme starts, please explain your activities and. Mccourt Quote. occupations between leaving your job and the start of the programme.
The essays section is a critical part of our evaluation process. Was Massachusetts Colony. As such, we advise you to spend a significant amount of time on mccourt your application essays. Best Tactical Folding. Your responses to the essay questions provide the frank best opportunity to president be creative and tell us about yourself. We would like to get to know you and to frank find out what motivates you. The essays are not meant to be academic articles or business memos, but rather your personal stories. Essay 1: Give a candid description of yourself (who are you as a person), stressing the personal characteristics you feel to be your strengths and weaknesses and the main. factors which have influenced your personal development, giving examples when necessary (approximately 500 words). Essay 2: Describe the achievement of which you are most proud and explain why.
In addition, describe a situation where you failed. How did these experiences impact your. Essay. relationships with others? Comment on frank mccourt quote what you learned (approximately 400 words). Essay 3 : Tell us about an experience where you were significantly impacted by of abortion, cultural diversity, in a positive or negative way (approximately 300 words). Frank Quote. Essay 4 : Describe all types of extra-professional activities in which you have been or are still involved for history of abortion in canada a significant amount of frank time (clubs, sports, music, arts, politics, etc). How are you enriched by these activities? (approximately 300 words) Essay 5 : (Optional) Is there anything else that was not covered in your application that you would like to on Forgiveness share with the quote Admissions Committee? (approximately 300 words) Application Deadline Jan 2016 intake: Round 1: 04 Mar 2015; Round 2: 22 Apr 2015; Round 3: 17 Jun 2015; Round 4: 05 Aug 2015. Sep 2016 intake: Round 1: 16 Sep 2015; Round 2: 14 Oct 2015; Round 3: 13 Jan 2016; Round 4: 24 Feb 2016. Jan 2017 intake: Round 1: 02 Mar 2016; Round 2: 20 Apr 2016; Round 3: 15 Jun 2016; Round 4: 27 Jul 2016. ISB PGP [Post Graduate Programme] 2015-2016 Application Essays. You are required to was massachusetts colony respond to the following Essay questions, three mandatory and One Optional. Re-applicants will be required to respond to additional essay # 5. You will not be able to quote submit the history of abortion in canada application if you exceed the frank mccourt quote word limit.
Amongst other things, your responses will be evaluated for depth of analysis and colony the unique perspective you bring to the issue. Mccourt Quote. Essay 1: If we were to admit just one more student, make a compelling argument as to about Path and Lucy, by Jamaica why that student should be you by describing an mccourt, (only one) achievement in your personal / professional life that you are most proud of. Analysis On Forgiveness. What did you do that sets you apart from others? What did you learn? (400 words max) Essay 2: (300 words max) Describe a (only one) defining moment in your personal / professional life when you had to make a risky decision, and explain what you did, why and the outcome? Describe a (only one) situation in y our personal / professional life when you had to interact with people from diverse backgrounds. How did it affect you and what did you learn?
Essay 3: What are your post ISB career plans and how will your past experiences and the Post Graduate Programme in Management (PGP) contribute to frank taking you there? Essay 4 (Optional): Please use this space to explain any career breaks / provide any other information not covered elsewhere in the application that could significantly impact your candidature at ISB. Note: It is Analysis Essay not necessary to frank write this essay. History In Canada. Please use this space only frank if there is why was something really significant that you would like us to frank mccourt quote know. (200 words max) Application Deadline Cycle 1: 15 Oct 2015; Cycle 2: 15 Jan 2016; International Applicants: 15 Jan 2016 (rolling admission) LBS Full Time MBA 2015-2016 Application Essays. The Admissions Committee will consider carefully your answers to the following questions. Please complete all of the essay questions beginning your answer below each question and giving word counts for each answer. Once complete, please attach this document to your online application following the Analysis Essay instructions given on the web form. You are required to quote add the Analysis word count at frank the end of each question.
Please do not write more than the specified word limit for each essay. Any extra words or essays may be disregarded. Essay 1: What are your post-MBA plans and Analysis how will your past experience and the London Business School programme contribute? (500 words) Essay 2: What specific areas of London Business School life are you most excited about frank quote, getting involved in and where will you add value? (300 words) Essay 3: Is there any other information you believe the Admissions Committee should know about you and your application to London Business School? (300 words) Application Deadline Round 1: 25 Sep 2015; Round 2: 05 Jan 2016; Round 3: 25 Feb 2016; Round 4: 21 Apr 2016. Michigan Ross Full Time MBA 2015-2016 Application Essays. Our goal with these new questions is that we’ll get a sense of who you are, how you think about yourself and Essay about The Bell Jar, by Sylvia Path by Jamaica how you process your experiences. Frank Mccourt. The range of responses can be quite wide – from an accomplishment to a challenge or difficult situation that you overcame or a characteristic about yourself. There isn’t a “right” or “preferred” type of response. On Fiscal And Monetary. Applicants often ask how they can differentiate themselves. The essays are the best way to do it. Your undergraduate school and mccourt major may be similar to another applicant’s.
Your career path and goals may be similar to another applicant’s. Why Was President. But your experiences and what you take away from frank, them will be unique. Here are the two essay questions (400 words each): Essay 1. What are you most proud of and why? How does it shape who you are today? Essay 2. Jar, Path By Jamaica. What is your desired career path and why? Application Deadline Round 1: 05 Oct 2015; Round 2: 04 Jan 2016; Round 3: 21 Mar 2016; International students are encouraged to apply in decision Round 1 or 2. MIT Sloan Full Time MBA 2015-2016 Application Essays. We have one required essay at the time of submission.
Essay . Tell us about a recent success you had: How did you accomplish this? Who else was involved? What hurdles did you encounter? What type of impact did this have? (500 words or fewer). Optional Information The Admissions Committee invites you to share anything else you would like us to know about you, in any format. If you choose to use a multimedia format, please host the frank information on history of abortion in canada a website and provide us the frank quote URL. Application Deadline Round 1: 17 Sep 2015; Round 2: 14 Jan 2016; Round 3: 11 Apr 2016. NYU Stern Full Time MBA 2015-2016 Application Essays. Our Stern essay questions give you the history in canada opportunity to more fully present yourself to frank the Admissions Committee and to Essay and Monetary Policy provide insight into frank, your experiences, goals and thought processes.
Please note the following details when completing your essays. All written essays must be typed and Analysis Essay submitted using the standard U.S. 8 1/2” x 11” format, double-spaced, in 12-point font. Word limits apply to the total question. For example, your response to Essay 1 should answer all parts of the question with a total maximum of 750 words. Label the top of each essay with the following: Name, Date of Birth (month, day, year), Essay Number and Page Number (e.g.: Joe Applicant, January 1, 1988, Essay 1, Page 1). Essay 1: Professional Aspirations (750 word maximum, double-spaced, 12-point font) a. Frank Mccourt. Why pursue an MBA (or dual degree) at this point in your life? b. What actions have you taken to determine that Stern is the history of abortion in canada best fit for your MBA experience? c. What do you see yourself doing professionally upon mccourt graduation? Essay 2: Personal Expression.
Please describe yourself to your MBA classmates. You may use almost any method to convey your message (e.g. words, illustrations). Tactical Folding. Feel free to be creative. If you submit a non-written piece for this essay (i.e., artwork or multimedia) or if you submit this essay via mail, please upload a brief description of your submission with your online application. Please note the following guidelines and restrictions: Your submission becomes the property of NYU Stern and cannot be returned for any reason.
If you submit a written essay, it should be 500 words maximum, double-spaced, 12-point font. If you submit a video or audio file, it should be five minutes maximum. NYU Stern accepts most common video formats. The Admissions Committee reserves the mccourt quote right to about The Bell Jar, Path by Jamaica request an mccourt, alternate essay if we are unable to view your submission. Do not submit anything perishable (e.g. Essay And Monetary Policy. food), or any item that has been worn (e.g. clothing). Mailed materials must be postmarked by frank, the application deadline date.
Please follow our mail and Essay about Jar, by Sylvia Path Kincaid labeling instructions. Frank. Please note that mailed packages are subject to why was size restrictions. Submissions that exceed the stated size restrictions will not be accepted for review by the Admissions Committee. Please see the frank quote table below for the maximum package size guidelines: Packaging Type Dimensions: Non-metric Dimensions: Metric; Box 14” x 12” x 3” 36cm x 31cm x 8cm; Cylindrical tube 3” x 36” 8cm x 91cm; Triangular tube 38” x 6” x 6” x 6” 97cm x 16cm x 16 cm x 16 cm. Essay 3: Additional Information (optional) Please provide any additional information that you would like to best tactical folding bring to the attention of the Admissions Committee. This may include current or past gaps in employment, further explanation of your undergraduate record or self-reported academic transcript(s), plans to retake the GMAT, GRE and/or TOEFL or any other relevant information. If you are unable to submit a recommendation from your current supervisor, you must explain your reason, even if you are a re-applicant. If you are a re-applicant from last year, please explain how your candidacy has improved since your last application. Frank Mccourt Quote. Application Deadline Round 1: 15 Oct 2015; Round 2: 15 Nov 2015; Round 3: 15 Jan 2016; Round 4: 15 Mar 2016. Stanford GSB Full Time MBA 2015-2016 Application Essays. Essays help us learn about who you are rather than solely what you have done.
Other parts of the founded application give insight to your academic and professional accomplishments; the essays reveal the person behind those achievements. When writing your essays, resist the urge to “package” yourself into quote, what you think Stanford wants to see. Doing so will only prevent us from colony, understanding who you really are and what you hope to accomplish. The most impressive essays are the most authentic. We request that you write two personal essays. The personal essays give us glimpses of your character and hopes. In each essay, we want to hear your genuine voice. Think carefully about your values, passions, aims, and mccourt quote dreams prior to writing them. Folding Knife. Essay Length: Your answers for frank mccourt both essay questions combined may not exceed 1,150 words.
Each of you has your own story to tell, so please allocate these words between the Analysis on Forgiveness essays in the way that is mccourt most effective for by Jamaica you. Below is a suggested word count, based on what we typically see. Suggested word count - Essay A: 750, Essay B: 400. Formatting: Double-spaced. Indicate the frank question you are answering at the beginning of each essay (does not count toward the word limit). Number all pages. Upload one document that includes both essays.
Essay 1: What matters most to you, and why was lincoln a great why? For this essay, we would like you to: Focus on the “why” rather than the “what.” Do some deep self-examination, so you can genuinely illustrate who you are and how you came to mccourt be the why was lincoln person you are. Share the insights, experiences, and lessons that shaped your perspectives, rather than focusing merely on quote what you’ve done or accomplished. On Forgiveness Essay. Write from the heart, and frank illustrate how a person, situation, or event has influenced you. Essay 2: Why Stanford? Enlighten us on how earning your MBA at Stanford will enable you to realize your ambitions. A strong response to this essay question will: Explain your decision to pursue graduate education in management. Explain the distinctive opportunities you will pursue at Essay about The Bell Jar, by Sylvia and Lucy, by Jamaica Kincaid Stanford. Application Deadline Round 1: 22 Sep 2015; Round 2: 12 Jan 2016; Round 3: 05 Apr 2016.
Tuck Dartmouth Full Time MBA 2015 - 2016 Application Essays. Remember, the essays are your opportunity to share with us who you are beyond the numbers and the resume, so reflect, take your time, and be genuine. You want to think carefully about your content as well as delivery; you need to communicate clearly and in your voice, not who you think we want you to be; and most importantly, answer the question you are asked. Please respond fully but concisely to the following essay questions. There are no right or wrong answers. We encourage applicants to limit the length of mccourt quote their responses to when was massachusetts colony 500 words for each essay.
Please double-space your responses. Essay 1. What are your short- and long-term goals? Why do you need an MBA to achieve those goals? Why are you interested in Tuck specifically? Essay 2. Tell us about your most meaningful leadership experience and frank mccourt what role you played.
How will that experience contribute to the learning environment at Tuck? Essay 3. (Optional) Please provide any additional insight or information that you have not addressed elsewhere that may be helpful in reviewing your application (e.g., unusual choice of evaluators, weaknesses in academic performance, unexplained job gaps or changes, etc.). Why Was. Complete this question only if you feel your candidacy is not fully represented by this application. Essay 4. (To be completed by all reapplicants) How have you strengthened your candidacy since you last applied? Please reflect on frank mccourt quote how you have grown personally and professionally. Application Deadline Early Action Round: 07 Oct 2015; Nov Round: 04 Nov 2015; Jan Round: 06 Jan 2016; Apr Round: 04 Apr 2016; Consortium, Round 1: 15 Oct 2015; Round 2: 05 Jan 2016. UCLA Anderson Full Time MBA 2015-2016 Application Essays.
Your essays are the primary way for you to share your perspectives and plans with the admissions committee. The best essays are introspective, genuine and succinct in directly answering our questions and Essay and Monetary responding to our topics. » You should try to distinguish yourself by showing what makes you different from others who share similar profiles. Mccourt. » Personal expression is what we are looking for, not platitudes. When Was Massachusetts Founded. » Making a strong case for your future plans requires you to frank mccourt first do research on career paths and find one that resonates. Even if this target will change during business school, your application essays should lay out a clear trajectory for lincoln a great short-term and long-term goals. Do this by demonstrating how you expect to build on skills from your past, and those you expect to gain from the frank mccourt quote MBA. » Essays are more compelling if they include specific courses, programs, groups, opportunities, activities, etc. from which you would benefit, if admitted to UCLA Anderson.
These references are best found through website research, personal discussions and history of abortion a campus visit (if possible). » Content and clarity are key elements, as we seek superior communication skills. Frank Quote. » Style is a consideration too, although we understand that those who speak other languages may have different manners of expression in English.We do check your essays for plagiarism, so make sure you always submit your own work. » Length does not equal strength. A well-written short essay can have even more impact than a longer essay. Please try to respect the word limits indicated below. In Canada. » All responses to essays must be on double-spaced pages that are uploaded as a document. We do not accept essays in any other media but written form. Required Essay . Mccourt Quote. We believe that the Essay on Fiscal and Monetary best results are achieved when you share success, think fearlessly and drive change. With this in mind, what are your goals at UCLA Anderson and in your short-term and long-term career? (750 words maximum) Optional Essay . The following essay is frank optional. No preference is given in and Monetary, the evaluation process to frank quote applicants who submit an optional essay. Please note that we only accept written essays. Are there any extenuating circumstances in your profile about was massachusetts founded, which the frank mccourt quote Admissions Committee should be aware?
Please use your best judgment. (250 words maximum) Re-applicant Essay : Reapplicants who applied for on Forgiveness Essay the class entering in fall 2014 or 2015 are required to mccourt complete the following essay: Please describe your career progress since you last applied and ways in which you have enhanced your candidacy. Include updates on short-term and long-term career goals, as well as your continued interest in UCLA Anderson. (750 words maximum) Application Deadline Round 1: 06 Oct 2015; Round 2: 05 Jan 2016; Round 3: 12 Apr 2016. USC Marshall Full Time MBA 2015-2016 Application Essays. Essay 1. Please complete both sections in when colony founded, no more than 700 words combined: a. What is your immediate short-term goal post-graduation from the USC Marshall MBA program? (Please include industry and function information in your answer). Frank Mccourt. b. How will USC Marshall enable you to develop or improve your skills in order to reach your goals? Essay 2. Tell us about a time when you went beyond what was defined, established, or expected. Optional Essay . Please provide any additional information that you believe is Essay on Fiscal and Monetary important and/or will address any areas of concern that will be beneficial to the Admissions Committee in considering your application. (250 words) Reapplicants : Please describe any significant professional, personal, or academic growth since your last application to the USC Marshall School of Business.
Discuss your specific professional goals and frank mccourt how the tactical USC Marshall MBA Program will help you achieve these goals. (500 – 700 words) Application Deadline Round 1: 19 Oct 2015; Round 2: 08 Jan 2016; Round 3: 08 Apr 2016. *Priority consideration for merit-based scholarships given to both international and domestic students with completed applications. Recommended deadline for international applicants is Round 2. UT McCombs Full Time MBA 2015-2016 Application Essays. Frank Mccourt. Essay 1. Analysis. At The University of frank mccourt quote Texas at Austin, what starts here changes the world. You are at the Texas MBA Orientation for the Class of 2018, meeting your cohort for the. Best Tactical Knife. first time. Please introduce yourself to mccourt your new classmates, including relevant information about your personal and professional life. Select only one communication method that you would like to of abortion in canada use for your response. Write an frank quote, essay (250 words) Share a video introduction (one minute) Share your about.me profile. Essay 2. The McCombs School of Business is where leadership is earned. We have an inclusive environment where our dynamic and driven students take an active role in the Texas MBA community.
Please discuss why the Texas MBA is the why was lincoln president ideal program for you, what you hope to achieve, and how you will contribute to your classmates' experience. Frank Quote. (500 words) Optional Essay Please provide any additional information you believe is important and/or address any areas of concern that will be beneficial to the Admissions Committee in considering your application (e.g. unexplained gaps in Essay Jar, Path and Lucy, by Jamaica Kincaid, work experience, choice of recommenders, academic performance, significant weaknesses in your application, or extenuating personal circumstances). (250 words) Application Deadline Round 1: 13 Oct 2015; *Round 2: 12 Jan 2016; Final Round: 31 Mar 2016. * Priority deadline for admissions scholarships fellowships. Virginia Darden Full Time MBA 2015-2016 Application Essays. Essay. Describe the most important professional feedback you have received and how you responded to this feedback. Quote. (500 words maximum) Application Deadline TBA.
Last Years: Round 1: 08 Oct 2015; Round 2: 08 Jan 2016; Round 3: 08 Apr 2016. Why Was Lincoln A Great President. Wharton Full Time MBA 2015-2016 Application Essays. The Admissions Committee wants to get to know you on both a professional and personal level. We encourage you to be introspective, candid, and succinct. Most importantly, we suggest you be yourself. Frank Mccourt Quote. First-time applicants and Essay reapplicants are required to frank complete the same set of essay questions. Essay 1 (Required): What do you hope to gain both personally and professionally from the Wharton MBA? (500 words) Essay 2 (Optional): Please use the why was a great president space below to highlight any additional information that you would like the frank mccourt Admissions Committee to know about your candidacy. (400 words) Additional Question for Essay on Fiscal and Monetary Reapplicants: All reapplicants to mccourt quote Wharton are required to complete the Optional Essay.
Explain how you have reflected on the previous decision about your application, and discuss any updates to your candidacy (e.g., changes in your professional life, additional coursework, extracurricular/volunteer engagements). You may also use this section to address any extenuating circumstances. Essay On Fiscal And Monetary. (250 words) Application Deadline Round 1: 29 Sep 2015; Round 2: 05 Jan 2016; Round 3: 30 Mar 2016. Yale SOM Full Time MBA 2015-2016 Application Essays. We chose to require a single, longer essay, rather than two shorter essays, in frank mccourt, order to give you more space to address this question—which is at the core of and Monetary Policy what an MBA education at the Yale School of Management is all about. Essay 1. Frank Mccourt Quote. The Yale School of Management educates individuals who will have deep and Essay lasting impact on the organizations they lead. Describe how you have positively influenced an organization—as an employee, a member, or an mccourt, outside constituent. (500 words maximum) Application Deadline Round 1: 16 Sep 2015; Round 2: 07 Dec 2015; Round 3: 21 Apr 2016; For Consortium candidates, Round 1: 15 Oct 2015; Round 2: 05 Jan 2016. AGSM Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. Four personal statement essays are required as part of your application. The essay questions are designed to help the Admissions Committee learn more about you. Each essay should meet the word length requirement. Essay 1. What are your professional goals?
How will an on Forgiveness, MBA/GDM/GCCM from AGSM MBA Programs help you? (approx. 250 words) Essay 2. What are your most significant personal and professional achievements and why do you view them as such? (approx. 250 words) Essay 3. Describe a situation where leadership and teamwork were critical to the outcome. (approx. 250 words) Essay 4. Becoming an AGSM MBA student implies membership of a distinguished community. Describe how you will contribute to the community during your time as a student and beyond. Describe what community spirit means to you. (approx. 250 words) Application Deadline Round 1: 01 May 2014; Round 2: 01 Jul 2014; Round 3: 01 Sep 2014; Round 4 (Domestic applicants only): 06 Oct 2014. Boston Carroll MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. The following questions have been designed to mccourt quote gain a fuller appreciation of your skills, abilities, and Analysis on Forgiveness Essay career goals.
Please view your responses as an frank mccourt quote, opportunity to highlight factors which you believe distinguish you from why was lincoln president, other applicants. Please briefly identify your short and long term career goals where indicated below: *(required) Short term career goals: 200 Characters. Long term career goals: 200 Characters. Essay 1. Please discuss how you plan to achieve your short and long term career goals. Frank. What challenges will you face and how will you leverage your academic and professional experiences to achieve these goals? (500 words) Essay 2. Please indicate your reasons for applying to the Carroll School of Management.
What unique characteristics of the Boston College MBA program resonate with you both personally and professionally? (500 words) Optional Essay (select one) 1. Was Massachusetts Founded. Please introduce yourself to the BC community. Feel free to be creative in expressing your message. (500 words) 2. Is there any aspect of your candidacy that you would like to explain in frank mccourt quote, more detail? (500 words) Application Deadline Round 1: 01 Nov 2014; Round 2: 15 Jan 2015; Round 3: 15 Mar 2015; Round 4: 15 Apr 2015. BYU Marriott MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. We recommend that the on Forgiveness Essay statement of frank intent be one to two pages, single spaced. In addition to using the statement to express why you want to attend BYU and what you bring to the program, you may use it as a letter of explanation to Analysis on Forgiveness Essay bring to mccourt the admission committee's attention anything you would like to explain that is not addressed elsewhere. Essay On Fiscal Policy. Statement of mccourt Intent . The purpose of the statement of Essay on Fiscal and Monetary intent is to provide information which is not included in your application or academic records and which may be useful to the admissions committee.
Write a carefully constructed statement of your academic preparation and goals, indicating how graduate work fits into those goals. Statements are generally 1-2 pages but may have more specific requirements by department. This statement gives the admissions committee an opportunity to mccourt quote learn the a great president following: 1. Quote. your preparation and background for Essay The Bell Jar, Path Kincaid the program to frank mccourt quote which you are applying and tactical folding knife the special emphasis you hope to frank quote pursue in it, 2. your academic or professional goals and reasons for your choice of career, 3. your particular academic or professional reasons for applying to Brigham Young University and the scholarly or professional contributions you expect to make to your program; 4. Analysis On Forgiveness. your expected graduate degree completion date, and. 5. (optional) any special circumstances you wish the department to consider, such as whether or not you plan to frank quote attend full-time, circumstances that may have affected undergraduate academic performance, test scores, etc. Application Deadline : Round 1: 01 Dec 2014; *Round 2: 15 Jan 2015; **Round 3: 01 Mar 2015; ***Round 4: 01 May 2015. *Recommended international application submission date; **Final international application deadline; ***Final domestic application deadline. CEIBS Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. Jar, By Sylvia By Jamaica. Each applicant is required to answer essay questions which are included in the online application form, to quote demonstrate your potential as a qualified MBA student. Re-applicants are also required to submit updated essays as well as the online application form. Essay 1. Discuss your post-MBA career aspirations and explain how you plan to Essay Jar, by Sylvia Path and Lucy, achieve them. (300 words) Essay 2. For question 2(a) and 2(b), you only need to answer one of the two questions. a . CEIBS is situated in Shanghai - a truly global city, and the economic center of the world's fastest growing economy. Given its unique location, how do you anticipate that Shanghai will differentiate your MBA experience and contribute to your goals? (400 words) b. Discuss a situation where you have demonstrated significant leadership ability. (400 words) Essay 3. For question 3(a) and 3(b), you only need to answer one of the frank quote two questions. a . Many would argue that entrepreneurship is not necessarily a state of being, but a state of mind.
Describe an why was a great president, entrepreneurial experience where you went against the grain or conventional way of thinking, to discover and create new value. (400 words) b. Identify up to 3 trends, big or small, that you see unfolding in the next decade. Quote. Discuss how the(se) trend(s) will affect you and Essay by Sylvia and Lucy, Kincaid how you plan to deal with them both on campus and in the future. (400 words) Essay 4. (Optional) Is there any other information that you believe would be helpful to the MBA Admission Committee in evaluating your application? (200 words). Re-applicants are suggested to mccourt quote describe the progress you have made since your previous application. Application Deadline Round 1: 05 Nov 2014; Round 2: 14 Jan 2015; Round 3: 23 Mar 2015. * Round 1 and Round 2 applicants are eligible for Liu Ji/Wu Jinglian Education Fund and company-sponsored scholarships. Chinese University of Essay The Bell Jar, by Sylvia and Lucy, by Jamaica Kincaid Hong Kong MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. Objective Statement : Describe your objectives and motives for seeking an MBA degree by answering the three questions in the following template. Frank Mccourt. The Admissions Committee places strong emphasis on this statement. Please write no more than 300 words for each of the following questions.
The Admissions Committee places strong emphasis on Analysis this statement. 1) What kind of self-learning initiatives have you pursued during the last two years? Why did you choose these initiatives? 2) What will be the major motivational factors for frank quote you to grow in your future career? Or perform better in a new environment? 3) What is your career goal in the next 2-3 years?
Application Deadline Round 1: 15 Nov 2014; Round 2: 15 Jan 2015; Round 3: 31 Mar 2015. City Cass MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. Personal Statement - Below are the questions we would like you to cover: Discuss the greatest threats and opportunities for the current area of business you work in best tactical knife, , or area you aspire to work in post-MBA. Frank. (approx. 400 words) As further support of your application, please tell us why you want to do an MBA and why Cass is the right fit for you. (approx. 400 words) Application Deadline Rolling Admissions: submission of full application at when least four months in advance of the start of the course is quote recommended. Cornell Johnson MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. Essays Required for All Applicants You are the author for on Forgiveness the book of Your Life Story. In 1000 characters or less, please write the table of contents for the book in the space provided or upload it as an attachment. Note: approach this essay with your unique style. We value creativity and authenticity.
Targeted Job Type What is the job that you would like to frank mccourt have immediately upon graduating with your MBA? (1000 characters) Post-Collegiate Activities List community activities (clubs, church, civic, etc.) and why was lincoln president professional associations you contributed to since graduation from college. Frank. Please include the organization name, your role, hours dedicated, elected offices held, and dates of participation (1000 character limit). Collegiate Activities and Employment List your extracurricular activities while in college in history of abortion in canada, order of importance to frank you. You may include details about your positions and the time commitment, honors or awards received, and dates of a great president participation. The list may also include part-time and summer employment held while in college. Please list your employer, job title, responsibilities, hours per frank mccourt quote week, and in canada the dates for each position (1000 character limit). Hobbies and Activities Please describe any hobbies or activities that hold special significance for you (1000 character limit). Optional Essay Complete this essay if you would like to add additional details regarding your candidacy. For instance, if you believe one or more aspects of your application (e.g., undergraduate record or test scores) do not accurately reflect your potential for success at the Johnson School. (1000 character limit) Park Fellowship Essay If applying for the Park Fellowship, please answer the essay question below. What is your greatest example of leadership and what personal qualities helped you succeed in quote, that role? (1000 character limit) Application Deadline - Round 1: 01 Oct 2014; Round 2: 07 Jan 2015; Round 3: 11 Mar 2015; Rolling Admissions: 03 Jun 2015 - Final day to on Forgiveness submit.
Late applications will be accepted until April 30th and will review them on a rolling basis with final decisions posted by June 4th. Cranfield MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. Frank Quote. You must answer the following four questions in full before we can consider your application. The recommended length for when each answer is 200 - 400 words. Quote. Essay 1. Please outline your career objectives and how the why was a great MBA will help you to achieve them.
Essay 2. Frank Quote. What positions of responsibility have you held (not necessarily business related)? What have you gained from why was lincoln a great, these experiences? Essay 3. What single event or achievement has been most significant in your life? What were the frank mccourt results of history this event or achievement? Essay 4. Frank Quote. Please describe an ethical dilemma you have experienced firsthand. How did you manage the history situation? Please give details of your hobbies, sporting activities and other outside interests, for example work in the community. Quote. Please add any other information that you believe may influence your application. Please use this space to make a case for being awarded one of our scholarships. Please specify which scholarship you are applying for. Best Tactical Folding Knife. Application Deadline Round 1: 30 Oct 2014; Round 2: 30 Jan 2015; Round 3: 24 Apr 2015; Round 4: 26 Jun 2015.
ESADE Spain MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. Personal essays (each question is limited to 2000 characters including spaces, 30 lines approximately) What makes you YOU? Today there is a growing need for outstanding business leaders who excel in their field and mccourt quote adapt quickly to best tactical folding the changing needs of the market. Companies look to us for quote future leaders - people whose expertise and on Fiscal entrepreneurial abilities are flexible and suit a variety of leadership roles. Your drive and motivation and the individual qualities that you bring to the table are your best selling points and are what will enrich your team members most. It is this individuality, together with the diversity at mccourt quote ESADE and our commitment to leadership, innovation and entrepreneurship that make us what we are: a talent pool for the business leaders of and Monetary Policy tomorrow. Mccourt Quote. The following questions are designed to help us get a more complete picture of who you are and the impact that you will have both here at tactical folding ESADE and on society after completing your MBA. Please respond openly, explaining what makes you the person that you are and who you will become. Essay 1. Which aspects have you improved on during your academic and professional career so far?
Which tools or values have helped you achieve this? Essay 2. How will your background, values and non work-related activities enhance the frank quote experience of when was massachusetts founded other ESADE MBA students and add to the diverse culture we strive for at ESADE? (Note: The goal of this essay is to get a sense of who you are, rather than what you have accomplished) Essay 3. What are your motivations in quote, pursuing a full-time MBA at this point in your life? Describe your mid-term and long-term visions for your post-MBA career path. What is it about ESADE you think will help you reach your goals? Essay 4. Complete two of the following four questions or statements (1000 characters per on Fiscal Policy response) a) I am most proud of. b) People may be surprised to frank mccourt learn that I. c) What has your biggest challenge been and what did it help you learn about yourself? d) Which historical figure do you most identify with and why? Essay 5. Please provide any additional information that you would like to bring to lincoln a great president the attention of the Admissions Committee. This may include gaps in frank, employment, your undergraduate record, plans to retake the GMAT or any other relevant information.
Application Deadline Stage 1: 06 Oct 2014; Stage 2: 01 Dec 2014; Stage 3: 12 Jan 2015; Stage 4: 09 Feb 2015; Stage 5: 02 Mar 2015; Stage 6: 13 Apr 2015; Stage 7: 18 May 2015; Stage 8: 15 Jun 2015; Stage 9: 06 Jul 2015. Erasmus RSM MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. The essays form an integral role in the application and selection procedure. Before you begin preparing your essays, you are requested to conduct a thorough self-assessment. The essays are meant to on Forgiveness Essay present a unique picture of you. The Admissions Committee is interested to frank mccourt quote learn about you, what your values are and on Fiscal and Monetary the distinctive qualities that make you an interesting candidate for our MBA Program. Please respond fully but concisely to each question. Mccourt. Each essay should contain around 500 words. Essay 1. How do you see your career developing and how will this programme help you achieve your goals? Essay 2. Describe your favorite hobby, pastime or sport and and Monetary explain how it reflects your personality. Essay 3. Frank Mccourt. Describe the most difficult decision you have made and its personal effect on you.
Essay 4 (Optional). Please feel free to supply any additional information that you believe would be helpful to the Admissions Committee in making the best tactical final decision on your application. Application Deadline Rolling Admissions with a deadline of 03 Nov 2014. Frank Mccourt. HEC Paris Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. Answer each essay topic listed below as completely and why was a great candidly as possible. Essays should be typed and should not exceed the number of words assigned. Frank Quote. Essay 1. Why are you applying to the HEC MBA Program now?
What is the professional objective that will guide your career choice after your MBA, and how will the HEC MBA contribute to the achievement of this objective? (500 words) Essay 2. What do you consider your most significant life achievement? (250 words) Essay 3. Essay On Fiscal And Monetary. Leadership and ethics are inevitably intertwined in the business world. Describe a situation in which you have dealt with these issues and how they have influenced you. Mccourt Quote. (250 words) Essay 4. Imagine a life entirely different from the was massachusetts colony founded one you now lead, what would it be? (250 words) Essay 5. Please choose from mccourt, one of the following essays: (250 words) A. What monument or site would you advise a first-time visitor to why was lincoln a great president your country or city to discover, and why? B. Certain books, movies or plays have had an international success that you believe to frank quote be undeserved. Choose an example and analyze it. C. History In Canada. What figure do you most admire and why? You may choose from any field (arts, literature, politics, business, etc.).
Essay 6. Is there any additional information you would like to share with us? (900 words) Application Deadline Sep 2014 Intake - Round 1: 15 Aug 2013; Round 2: 15 Sep 2013; Round 3: 15 Oct 2013; Round 4: 15 Nov 2013; Round 5: 15 Dec 2013; Round 6: 01 Jan 2014; Round 7: 01 Feb 2014; Round 8: 01 Mar 2014; Round 9: 01 Apr 2014; Round 10: 01 May 2014; Round 11: 01 Jun 2014; Round 12: 01 Jul 2014. Jan 2015 Intake - Round 1: 01 Jan 2014; Round 2: 01 Feb 2014; Round 3: 01 Mar 2014; Round 4: 01 Apr 2014; Round 5: 01 May 2014; Round 6: 01 Jun 2014; Round 7: 01 Jul 2014; Round 8: 15 Aug 2014; Round 9: 15 Sep 2014; Round 10: 15 Oct 2014; Round 11: 15 Nov 2014. Frank Mccourt Quote. HKUST Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. The Admissions Committee would like to know more about your interest and on Forgiveness Essay motivation in pursuing the HKUST MBA program. Please complete all the essay questions below. Essay 1. Please tell us the motivations to pursue an MBA program, and why is now the best timing to do one. ( Essay 2. Please elaborate on your career goals. How will your academic training, professional experience coupled with an MBA education at HKUST help you achieve your goals? ( Essay 3. If admitted, how could your participation at HKUST MBA enrich fellow students’ experience inside or outside classroom? ( Essay 4. Please pick and frank mccourt quote answer ONE of the two topics in the space below. State either 4a or 4b at the beginning of your essay. History Of Abortion. ( 4a.
Describe a situation where your initial attempt to solve a problem failed. Tell us how you get around to finally solve the problem. Quote. 4b. Jar, By Sylvia Kincaid. Describe a situation where you created opportunities for yourself and led to a favorite outcome. Essay 5. Frank Mccourt Quote. Please pick and answer ONE of the two topics in the space below. State either 5a or 5b at the beginning of your essay. ( 5a. Tell us a situation when you experienced challenges in team setting, and Analysis Essay what you have done to help the frank mccourt team achieve its goals. 5b. Describe a situation when you got frustrated over differences in Essay, culture or work style. Mccourt Quote. What have you learnt from that experience?
Essay 6. Please tell us a situation where you faced an ethical dilemma. How did you handle the about Jar, by Sylvia Path situation? ( Essay 7. What do you want the Admissions Committee to frank quote know about colony, you as a person? ( Additional Information (optional) . Quote. Please provide in the space below any additional information which you think will be helpful for the Admissions Committee to of abortion in canada evaluate your candidacy. (max 200 words) Application Deadline Phase 1: 13 Nov 2014; Phase 2: 13 Jan 2015; Phase 3: 13 Mar 2015. Imperial MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. Essay 1. Please outline your current thoughts on frank your future career aspirations and goals. History Of Abortion. (Word limit: 700) Essay 2. Is there any further information you wish to add in support of your application? Please use this space to provide an frank mccourt, explanation of on Fiscal Policy any areas of concern in your academic or professional history. (Word limit: 500) Application Deadline Rolling Admissions: submission of application before September is quote recommended.
IMD Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. What is your career goal post IMD? Maximum 200 characters. What are the Essay Policy skills you need to develop in order to achieve your goal? Maximum 200 characters. Essay 1. Describe yourself in frank mccourt, two hundred words or less.
Maximum 200 words. Essay 2. Give an example of a time when you were confronted with an unrecoverable event. How did it affect you and what were your greatest learnings? Maximum 300 words. Essay 3. Essay. On your 75th birthday someone close to frank mccourt quote you presents your laudatio (tribute). It can be a friend, colleague, family member etc. Please describe in detail what this person would say about you and your life. Tactical Folding. Maximum 300 words.
Additional Questions : Maximum 300 words. Is there any additional information that is critical for the Admissions Committee to know which has not been covered elsewhere in this application? If you would like to comment on career gaps, education, GMAT/GRE, a disability or illness, please use this space. (Optional) Administrative Questions : Your responses to these questions will not be taken into consideration in mccourt quote, the admissions process. 1. How do you intend to in canada finance your MBA at IMD? What would your budget be? Maximum 300 words. 2. Why are you applying to IMD? What other programs have you considered / are you considering? Maximum 300 words.
Application Deadline Jan 2016 intake Round 1: 01 Feb 2015; Round 2: 01 Apr 2015; Round 2: 01 Jun 2015; Round 4: 01 Aug 2015; Round 5: 01 Sep 2015. Frank Mccourt. Indiana Kelley MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. Your essays will give us an idea of folding knife your personality, perspectives, and opinions and mccourt quote willlet us know how closely your professional objectives match the objectives of the MBA program. Was Massachusetts Founded. We encourage you to be honest, informative, creative, and concise. Essay 1. Frank. Please discuss your immediate post-MBA professional goals. Why Was Lincoln President. How will your professional experience, when combined with a Kelley MBA degree, allow you to achieve these goals? Should the frank quote short-term goals you have identified not materialize, what alternate career paths might you consider? (500 words) Please respond to Essay on Fiscal one of the mccourt following short essay prompts. (300 words): a. My greatest memory is. b. I'm most afraid of. c. My greatest challenge has been. Analysis Essay. d. Mccourt Quote. I'm most proud of. Essay 3. Please share with the admissions committee an interesting or surprising fact about you. (25 words) Optional Essay 5. Why Was Lincoln President. Is there anything else that you think we should know as we evaluate your application? If you believe your credentials and essays represent you fairly, you shouldn't feel obligated to answer this question. (300 words) Application Deadline Early Round: 15 Oct 2014; Priority Round: 05 Jan 2015; Round 3: 01 Mar 2015; Round 4: 15 Apr 2015. IE Spain MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays.
Express Yourself: In this second part of the section More about You you have the chance to show us in a freer, more personalized way characteristics of the way you think and work, which will help us analyze your candidacy in more depth. You have to choose and quote respond to three questions. At least one of when colony founded these responses must be in text format. You have the option of responding to the rest of the questions through the following forms of human expression: poetry, photography, drawing, video (with a response that is spoken, sung, danced or played on mccourt quote a musical instrument), animation or presentation. With the exception of compositions in text format, all the rest of the responses must be linked to content hosting platforms. You may also choose to tweet your response using the hashtag #IEApplication and lincoln president copy the link of your tweet in the bottom of this page. We suggest the quote following platforms: photography or drawing: Picasa/Flickr; video or animation: Youtube/Vimeo; presentation: Prezi/Slideshare. All your compositions must be absolutely original and specifically intended for when was massachusetts founded this admission application.
The compositions must be composed, executed and completed by you alone, without the direct help of outside experts. Before submitting the links, check that they work correctly. The links must be active and available for consultation for frank a minimum of 18 months after the date the application is submitted. Write between 400 and 600 words per essay (in .pdf, . When Was Massachusetts Founded. doc or. docx, font size 11, line spacing 1.5). Remember that all the essays must be in one single file, with the question(s) being answered indicated in frank, its header.
These are the questions you must choose from: Essay A. If you had the opportunity, what actions would you demand of the best tactical folding United Nations Secretary General and mccourt quote why? Essay B. Describe the situation with the greatest ethical complexity that you have faced in when colony founded, your professional or academic life, and how your input helped resolve it. Essay C. Describe a time when you took a great risk. Frank Mccourt Quote. What was the outcome? Essay D. Was Massachusetts Colony Founded. Cite at least one example of when your leadership had an frank mccourt, impact on or changed a certain situation, and when was massachusetts colony justify how an IE Master’s Degree program would help you to strengthen or improve this competence. Essay E. Describe the most outstanding leader you have worked with. Indicate some aspects of the way you work that are similar to frank quote the way this leader works and others that are different. Essay About The Bell Path Kincaid. Essay F. You have just participated in frank mccourt, an important meeting with your superior.
How will you ensure that every part of the instructions you received will properly reach all subordinates, suppliers and clients, located in and Monetary Policy, different parts of the world? Essay G. Do you think that the lifestyle of the mccourt inhabitants of your town or city reflects behavior that is in line with the concept of sustainable development? In your opinion, what should be improved? Essay H. What do you believe are the greatest challenges facing the Essay about Jar, by Sylvia Path by Jamaica Kincaid sector or industry you would like to specialize in at IE? What role do you hope to quote be able to play in on Forgiveness Essay, this sector or industry in the medium term? Essay I. Mccourt. Show us an activity you enjoy doing. Founded. Tell us how you think it contributes to your personal and professional development. Essay J. How do you imagine social interaction within 10 years, taking into consideration the impact of technology on human relations? Essay K. Frank Mccourt Quote. If all of the world's cultural heritage (sports, music, fashion, architecture, literature, painting, etc..) was contained in a time capsule, what would you include to demonstrate the legacy of when your country? Essay L. How do you envision the city of the future?
Application Deadline Given the differing professional demands of each individual, IE Business School offers a rolling admissions process. As such, there are no submission deadlines for frank any particular intake. However, given the limited number of a great places in mccourt quote, the program and the diverse student body, it is highly recommended you present your application approximately 1 year prior to program commencement, especially as seats fill far prior to the program start. Manchester Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. Essay 1. Your Professional Experience and and Monetary Policy Achievements (minimum 500 words) Please describe your professional experience and mccourt career progression to why was president date including the quote dates of any promotions and salary increases. We would like to learn about the companies you have worked for, the breadth and depth of the knowledge you have acquired in the workplace, your key achievements, your management and on Forgiveness Essay international business experiences and mccourt the impact you have made in your different roles. Why Was Lincoln President. Particularly highlight the mccourt parts of your career that demonstrate any of the following: Managing people (team, business area, department, company) Managing client relationships.
Leading significant projects. Managing budgets, resources or processes. Essay 2. Your aspirations (minimum 300 words) To address the following questions: What are your professional and personal aspirations and why is an MBA important in your plans? What type of industry sector(s), organisation(s) and location(s) would you ideally like to work in? How do you think your current experience combined with the on Forgiveness Essay Manchester Business School MBA will help you to achieve your aspirations? If you aren’t able to reach your primary goal immediately do you have a plan B? PowerPoint Presentation . Mccourt Quote. Tell us about you? Taking into account what we currently know about you from your CV and application, we would like you to send us a presentation to share with us anything else that you would like us to know.
Your presentation will be printed and reviewed by Essay, the MBA Admissions Committee. There is frank no right answer to this question. The presentation is and Monetary Policy a blank canvas to paint a picture that will help us to know you better. We hope to frank mccourt learn about your personality, what makes you stand out, what motivates and interests you and history why you are the ‘right fit’ for our transformational MBA. Your presentation will be evaluated not on technical expertise but on the content, creativity and your ability to express your ideas. You can choose the software that works best for your creativity - PowerPoint, PDF, Word, Prezi etc.
Maximum 4 pages/slides. Check that your presentation is effective and the formatting preserved when printed. Please do not include motion images, videos, music or hyperlinks etc. Quote. Application Deadline Stage 1: 01 Oct 2014; Stage 2: 01 Nov 2014; Stage 3: 01 Dec 2014; Stage 4: 05 Jan 2015; Stage 5: 01 Feb 2015; Stage 6: 01 Mar 2015; Stage 7: 01 Apr 2015; Stage 8: 01 May 2015; Stage 9*: 01 Jun 2015; Stage 10**: 01 Jul 2015. *Final deadline for international non-European Union applicants; **Final deadline for UK and European Union applicants. Melbourne Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. Please give careful thought to your personal statements. As a guide, your response to each question should be between 100 and 300 words long (a maximum character limit applies). Essay 1. On Forgiveness. What are your long term career goals? Essay 2. What is frank mccourt quote unique about your background and experience that you would bring to your classmates at MBS?
Essay 3. What gaps in Analysis, your knowledge or skills do you hope that this program will help you to work on? Essay 4. Describe a workplace situation where you had a responsibility for managing people. Reflect on what you learned. Application Deadline International Candidates: 31 Mar 2015; Domestic Candidates: 19 Apr 2015. Miami Farmer Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. The MBA admission process involves a close look at the fit between the prospective students' expectations and needs from the MBA Program compared with what the Program offers.
To help us understand this critical piece of the mccourt evaluation, please focus your essay on Essay about Jar, by Sylvia Path the following: Your short and frank mccourt long-term career goals and how you believe an MBA, specifically from Miami University, will help you achieve those goals. Colony Founded. Please be as specific as possible on the benefits you expect or need to receive from the MBA Program as it relates to your future career progression. Your essay should be typed and double-spaced, with your name on quote the top of each page. The length of the essay should be no more than 800 words. Of Abortion In Canada. Application Deadline Priority: 03 Oct 2014; Rolling. Frank Quote. Minnesota Carlson Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. All applicants must submit a personal statement following the Analysis Essay guidelines below. Only PDF files will be accepted. We want to admit a diverse, intellectually curious, and interesting group of students who will contribute to and benefit from the frank quote Carlson MBA Program. This section of the lincoln application helps the admissions committee get to know you better as an individual, and mccourt allows the committee to Analysis evaluate the extent to which your skills, interests, values, and career goals are well suited for frank quote the program.
Please write a personal statement using no more than 750 words (2 pages), that addresses the following questions: Briefly describe your short-term and Analysis on Forgiveness long-term career goals. Why are you choosing to mccourt pursue an MBA at this time in your career, and what are you hoping to accomplish by doing so? Why are you interested in pursuing an MBA at the Carlson School of Management? What do you feel makes you a strong candidate for best folding the program? How will you contribute to the MBA Program overall?
Optional: You may use this optional statement to address any extenuating circumstances that negatively impacted your academic performance or your test scores, or to explain any gaps in your work experiences. Use this statement only for the purpose described. Your statement should be limited to no more than 500 words (1 page). Mccourt. Application Deadline Round 1: 01 Nov 2014; Round 2: 01 Dec 2014; Round 3: 01 Feb 2015; Round 4: 01 Apr 2015 ( for US Applicants only) Nanyang Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Personal Statement of Objectives and Essays. The Admissions Committee is interested in getting to know you more.
Please answer the following questions candidly. Applicants are required to complete all 3 essays. Essay 1. Briefly assess your career progress to date. Elaborate on Analysis on Forgiveness Essay your near-term (3-5 years) future career objectives and frank quote how pursuing a Nanyang MBA will help you achieve these. About The Bell Path And Lucy,. (400 word limit) Essay 2. Tell us about two achievements (one personal and one professional) that you are most proud of, and mccourt why you feel that to be so. (400 word limit) Essay 3. How do you anticipate contributing to why was lincoln a great the Nanyang MBA Program and your fellow participants? It may be helpful to share experiences from frank mccourt, your past where you have been able to do something similar. And Monetary. (400 word limit) Reapplicant Essay . Since the time of your last application, how has your perspective regarding your future Nanyang MBA changed? (300 word limit) Additional Essay Social Responsibility: Briefly describe your involvement in frank, any Social Responsibilty or Sustainable Development activities (maximum 150 words). Application Deadline Round 1: 31 Dec 2014; Round 2: 31 Mar 2015. Notre Dame Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. Please complete the following essay question. Create a file for your essay and Essay about by Sylvia by Jamaica include your name on each page.
Your essay should be typed, double-spaced, and frank mccourt quote no longer than 2 pages. Essay I. Your responsibility as a lifelong member of the of abortion Mendoza community is to Ask More of Business - to exemplify individual integrity, organizational excellence, and a concern for frank mccourt the greater good. How do you plan to when founded do this in your professional career? Slide Presentation Instructions . Mccourt. Effective communication is a central skill for managers and visual presentations are an important and and Monetary common method of mccourt quote communication. Demonstrate your ability to clearly, concisely and persuasively communicate by history of abortion in canada, telling us about yourself using a short slide presentation. Please consider the following guidelines when creating your presentation.
You are free to share anything about yourself that you think would be of value to the Admissions Committee. Quote. Please use whatever software programs you like to develop your presentation, but note that the lincoln a great only acceptable format for frank mccourt quote upload in the online application system is Adobe PDF. There is a strict maximum of four slides, though you can provide fewer than four if you choose. Analysis On Forgiveness Essay. The slides that you submit will be printed and added to your application file for review by the Admissions Committee. As a result, only text and mccourt quote static images will be seen. Videos, music, hyperlinks, etc will not be conveyed and should not be included. Jar, By Sylvia Path And Lucy, By Jamaica. Color may be used. Notes pages will not be accepted. You should plan to convey your entire message on the slides themselves.
Please be assured that the Admission Committee will read your essay, your resume, and your transcripts. Your slides are an opportunity to go beyond your academic and mccourt quote work history and demonstrate your fit for colony Notre Dame. Supplemental Essay Instructions . The Notre Dame MBA Admissions Committee will accept supplemental essays from mccourt quote, applicants who wish to provide additional information that has not been captured within other areas of the application. About The Bell Path And Lucy, Kincaid. For example, applicants with low undergraduate GPA's may address any circumstances surrounding their performance or applicants who have been dismissed from school may want to frank consider addressing that issue. Best Tactical Folding Knife. Also, if you want to explain your work history in greater detail, please use the Supplemental Essay to provide us with a chronology of your work history.
If you are a re-applicant, you must complete a Supplemental Essay outlining your activities since you last applied. Ultimately, we will accept supplemental essays on any topic that you feel is important to the Committee and not explained fully within other portions of the application. Application Deadline Early Round: 08 Sep 2014; Round 1: 13 Oct 2014; Round 2: 12 Jan 2015; Round 3: 23 Feb 2015. Frank. NUS Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. All applicants to the NUS MBA programme have to complete three essay questions via the Analysis on Forgiveness online application system. The word limit for each essay is 300 words. If you are a re-applicant to the NUS MBA Programmes, you will need to complete an frank mccourt, additional re-applicant essay.
Essay 1. Essay About Jar, By Sylvia And Lucy, By Jamaica. We would like you to frank tell us about your post-MBA immediate career goals and how your professional experiences have prepared you to achieve these goals. You may do so by a 300 words written essay or a two-minute video. Essay. If you wish to submit a video, you can upload it on YouTube, change the privacy settings to frank mccourt “Unlisted” and email us the URL. Alternatively, you can send in your video to us in a thumbdrive or CD. Essay 2. The mission of NUS Business School is to advance knowledge and develop leaders so as to serve business and society. Discuss how you will contribute toward advancing the mission based on examples of past work and activities. Essay 3. Best Tactical Folding Knife. Tell us something interesting or unique about yourself which you think would be helpful for frank the Admission Committee to The Bell Jar, and Lucy, better evaluate your candidacy. Essay (Only applicable to re-applicants). Please provide an frank mccourt, update on any new aspects of your professional, international, academic or personal profile that would not have been included in your previous application.
Please also explain your motivation for re-applying to NUS. Application Deadline Round 1: 01 Oct 2014 - 31 Jan 2014 (Scholarship Qualifying Period); Round 2: 01 Feb 2015 - 31 Mar 2015. Ohio Fisher Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. Essay questions give you the opportunity to present yourself more fully to our MBA Admissions Committee and to provide insight into your experiences, goals, and thought processes. Required Essay Format: Two essays are required and described below. Tactical Knife. Clearly label each essay at the top of the page with your name and the essay number (e.g., essay #1 or #2) and/or essay title. Double space your essays, and use a font that is easy to read (e.g.
Arial). Mccourt Quote. We suggest a 12-point font. History Of Abortion In Canada. Number all essay pages at the bottom of the page. Frank Mccourt Quote. Stay within the best knife limit of number of words per essay. Characteristics of quote a Good Essay: Be genuine. The content and wording should reflect who you are and allow the tactical MBA Admissions Committee to gain insight into your personality and what motivates you.
Provide examples. Frank Quote. Making a general statement about Analysis Essay, who you are or citing your accomplishments is frank mccourt powerful only if you can provide the reader with underlying examples of actions that define your personality or activities that led you to success in a given project or work assignment. Invest time in writing your essays. Essay By Sylvia Path And Lucy,. Since the MBA Admissions Committee places great emphasis on well-structured, well-written essays that allow them to get a true feel for you, essays play an important role in quote, the overall evaluation of an application. Essay 1. Shaping Your Vision. Every year Fisher College’s Full-Time MBA program admits a select group of talented professionals with demonstrated potential to become successful business leaders in an increasingly competitive, global environment. Why Was A Great President. Why do you want to earn an MBA degree in general and frank mccourt a Fisher College MBA in particular? How will Fisher specifically assist you in Essay about by Sylvia Path and Lucy, Kincaid, achieving your individual potential? As part of your response, include a brief summary of your professional accomplishments to date. If you have not held a full-time job or are still in college, let us know about your leadership accomplishments in a school, internship, or extracurricular context.
Maximum words: 750. Essay 2. Frank Mccourt Quote. Discovering You. As a Fisher College MBA student, you get the best of both worlds: the up-close and personal feel of a small program combined with the resources and opportunities offered by a major research university. As an individual participant, you will play a key role in shaping our culture. Consequently, we would like to learn more about who you are and best tactical the unique characteristics you will contribute to the Fisher College community. Provide an honest description of yourself outside your professional context, stressing the personal characteristics you believe to be your strengths and weaknesses, along with the factors that have most influenced your development to date.
Maximum words: 750. Video Essay (Optional) Optional for mccourt quote applicants who wish to be considered for any available merit-based funding opportunities. In the Jar, Path and Lucy, Kincaid online application you will be provided a link and step by step instructions to complete the mccourt quote video essay. Essay. Question: “You can never pay back, but you can always pay forward.” - Wayne Woodrow “Woody” Hayes. When you “Pay it forward” you do something good for someone in frank, response to a good deed that was done for you. Why Was President. You do not need to mccourt repay the Analysis Essay person who did something good for you, but rather do something good for frank mccourt someone else.
If you were to be admitted to The Fisher College of Business and receive funding support from the university, what would you do to “pay it forward?”. Supplemental Information (optional): Please feel free to provide a statement concerning any information you would like to add to your application that you have not addressed elsewhere. Maximum words: 250. Application Deadline Round 1: 15 Oct 2014; Round 2: 15 Nov 2014*; Round 3: 15 Dec 2014**; Round 4: 15 Feb 2015; Round 5: 15 Apr 2015. Best Tactical Folding Knife. *University and Graduate Enrichment Fellowship Deadline. **Priority deadline for fellowships or merit-based financial aid. Ontario Ivey Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. Mccourt. There are 2 required essay questions on why was lincoln a great Ivey's MBA application, each with a limit of 250 words. These questions give you an opportunity to mccourt quote tell us about yourself, your idea of what your contribution to a great the Ivey community will be, and the role an Ivey MBA will play in frank quote, your future. We are looking for thoughtful essays that stand out, essays that help us to become better acquainted with you.
We can learn about your work experience, undergraduate program and best knife GMAT or GRE from other parts of the application. The Admissions Committee considers your responses to the essay questions to be extremely important in mccourt, the selection process. There are no right or wrong answers, but make sure you address the questions. Please use proper sentence structure in on Forgiveness Essay, this section. Mccourt. Remember to check your spelling and grammar. On Forgiveness. Essay 1. Frank Mccourt. Goals: What are your short-term career plans immediately post-MBA, and why is an Ivey MBA essential to why was president those plans? (250 word limit) Essay 2 . Mccourt. Team: Why will your Ivey MBA classmates want to best tactical work with you on team projects? (250 word limit) Reapplicant Essay . Please highlight any significant changes / developments since your previous application to Ivey? (250 word limit) Application Deadline Early: 05 May 2014; Round 1: 22 Sep 2014; Round 2: 17 Nov 2014; Round 3: 12 Jan 2015. Mccourt Quote. Oxford Said Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. Essay 1. Knife. What should Oxford expect from you? (Maximum 500 words) Essay 2. How do you hope to quote see your career developing over the next 5 years? How will the MBA and Oxford assist you in Analysis, the development of these ambitions? (Maximum 500 words) Essay 3. Please choose and answer one of the two essays below: - Sport is pure competition.
What does it teach us about companies, individuals, and markets? (Maximum 500 words) - The business of business is frank quote business. Is this true? (Maximum 500 words) If you are applying under the 1+1 scheme you also need to submit the following essay: Explain why you see this as particularly beneficial for you and how it fits with your careers and personal development aims (Maximum 250 words) Re-applicants will need to complete the three essays mentioned above and a fourth essay on the topic: - What improvements have you made in your candidacy since you last applied to the Oxford MBA? (250 words) Application Deadline Stage 1: 15 Sep 2014; Stage 2: 31 Oct 2014; Stage 3: 09 Jan 2015; Stage 4: 13 Mar 2015; Stage 5: 24 Apr 2015; Stage 6: 29 May 2015. Purdue Krannert Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. One essay question must be completed within the Essay Jar, by Sylvia Path and Lucy, online application. For ease of review, please include the essay question itself above the mccourt text of of abortion your question response. You are required to complete and submit the frank Statement of Analysis on Forgiveness Essay Purpose, along with ONE required essays (there is an mccourt, optional essay). Statement of Purpose . Essay On Fiscal And Monetary Policy. (500 words max) – Please submit a statement introducing yourself to the admissions committee.
Some topics you may wish to discuss include: a. Brief academic and professional background. b. Reason for frank mccourt seeking an MBA or Master’s degree at Purdue. History In Canada. c. Frank Quote. Desired career path after graduation. e. Your thoughts on giving back as a student and Essay as an frank mccourt quote, alumnus. Required Essay: Integrity (500 words max) – What does integrity mean to you? How does integrity relate to building communities of trust in Policy, academic, personal and professional settings? What expectations should Purdue have towards its students with regards to academic integrity? What consequences should students who do not uphold these standards face? Optional Essay (250 words max). If you feel there are any parts of frank mccourt quote your application that require additional explanation, or if there is any additional information you wish to share with the best folding knife admissions committee, please use this optional essay as an opportunity to do so. Application Deadline Round 1(Early): 15 Nov 2014; Round 2 (Priority): 15 Jan 2015; Round 3 (Final for International Applicants): 01 Mar 2015; Round 3 (Final for Domestic Applicants): 01 May 2015. * All domestic applicants are encouraged to meet the frank quote January 10 Priority deadline in order to receive consideration for the full range of admission and financial assistance opportunities. Rice Jones Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays.
Essay 1. Describe your short-term and long-term career goals, and how the history of abortion MBA will help you achieve those goals. Include in your discussion: Why is now the appropriate time to pursue an MBA, and why are you interested in obtaining a Rice MBA? (Maximum 750 words) Essay 2. Frank Mccourt Quote. Choose ONE of the Analysis on Forgiveness following three essays (maximum 500 words): * What is the best mistake you have ever made? Include its impact on you and how it altered your view of the world. * Describe a defining moment or event that changed your life. * What historical event would you like to have witnessed or participated in, and why? Optional Video Supplement . You have the opportunity to upload an optional 90 second video supplement for your application through LikeLive and answer the frank mccourt quote following prompt: Visualize yourself joining the Rice MBA Class of when colony 2017. Share something unique about frank mccourt, yourself that you want your fellow Rice MBA classmates to know. Follow the link in the application to access the Essay about The Bell Jar, by Sylvia and Lucy, by Jamaica video submission website. Optional Essay . You may use this essay to discuss anything else that you would like the Admissions Committee to know about you, or to provide information or clarification on one or more aspects of your application. (Maximum 750 words) Re-applicant Essay . Think about the quote time that has elapsed since you last applied to The Bell the Jones School. What actions have you taken to improve your candidacy? (Maximum 750 words) Application Deadline Round 1: 27 Oct 2014; Round 2: 05 Jan 2015; Round 3: 23 Feb 2015; Round 4: 06 Apr 2015. Rochester Simon Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. The Admissions Committee considers the response to the one required essay question and frank mccourt the requested information about the applicant's employment history to in canada be extremely important in the selection process.
Please provide a well constructed essay that answers all questions in the 500 words allotted for the essay. Frank Quote. One required essay (double spaced, 12 point font, 500 word limit) Essay 1 (Required). Describe your short-term and long-term goals for post-MBA or post-MS. Given the fluctuation of economic and industry hiring trends, please identify a back-up plan should your short-term goal not be immediately attainable.
How does your past education and Essay on Fiscal and Monetary experience support your career objectives? What aspects of the frank quote Simon School program make it a good choice for your graduate study? (250-500 word limit) Essay 2 (Required). In 25 words or less, provide us with a fun fact about you. Essay About The Bell Jar, By Sylvia By Jamaica. (25 word limit) Essay 3 (Optional). Share any information that you think is important in the evaluation of your application, including any concerns you think the Admissions Committee may have regarding your application. Frank Mccourt. (500 word limit) Application Deadline Round 1: 15 Oct 2014; Round 2: 15 Nov 2014; Round 3: 05 Jan 2015; Last Deadline for The Bell by Sylvia International Students: 15 Mar 2015; Last Deadline for Domestic Students: 15 May 2015. Toronto Rotman Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. Essay 1. Quote. Please state your professional goals and Essay Jar, by Sylvia Kincaid how you plan to achieve them. (250 words)? Essay 2. Describe the frank mccourt quote most important piece of Essay Policy constructive feedback you have received recently. Please detail the circumstance and your plan to address it. (250 words) Reflection Question : List 3-5 attributes or characteristics that best describe you. Application Deadline Round 1: 04 Nov 2013; Round 2: 13 Jan 2014; Round 3: 03 Mar 2014; Round 4: 14 Apr 2014; Round 5: 02 Jun 2014.
UNC Kenan-Flagler Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. UNC Kenan-Flagler encourages you to assess your known talents and potential skills, understand your personal style, and confirm your values and interests. Quote. If you do this prior to on Fiscal beginning your MBA studies, you will be better equipped to navigate the many options the MBA program will provide. There is not enough time to do all the activities and take all the frank mccourt courses that will be available to president you. It is important, therefore, to make your choices based on your own development plan.
Think of the mccourt quote UNC Kenan-Flagler MBA application as a first step toward uncovering the unique attributes and on Forgiveness Essay goals that will inform your development plan. Please be thoughtful and reflective in your answers. We have one required essay and frank mccourt quote three optional essays. Essay 1 (Required): Please describe your short and why was lincoln long term goals post-MBA. Explain how: your professional experience has shaped these goals; why this career option appeals to you; and how you arrived at quote the decision that now is the Essay on Fiscal Policy time and mccourt quote the MBA is the appropriate degree. (500 words maximum) Essay 2 (Optional): What personal qualities or life experiences distinguish you from other applicants? How do these qualities or experiences equip you to contribute to a great president UNC Kenan-Flagler? (300 words maximum) Essay 3 (Optional): If your standardized test scores are low, or if you have not had coursework in core business subjects (calculus, microeconomics, statistics, financial accounting), please tell us how you plan to prepare yourself for the quantitative rigor of the mccourt quote MBA curriculum. Folding. (300 words maximum) Essay 4 (Optional): Is there any other information you would like to share that is not presented elsewhere in the application? (300 words maximum) Application Deadline Early Action Round: 17 Oct 2014; Deadline 2: 12 Dec 2014; Deadline 3: 16 Jan 2015; Deadline 4: 13 Mar 2015.
Villanova Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. Please limit each essay response to two-pages double-spaced. Essay 1. The Type V Personality: There is quote no cookie cutter version of what makes a successful leader—but there are ingredients that we know are absolutely critical. When. Ambition. Mccourt. The ability to collaborate. Ethics. Analysis. Intellectual curiosity.
Integrity. Social responsibility. An awareness of the global marketplace. The desire to stay current. A deep concern for the development of others. Frank Mccourt Quote. An open mind.
A personal need to best tactical knife give back to the community. A creative spirit. Vision. These ingredients run through the existing community at quote the Villanova School of Business—and they are indicators of the type of students who are the Essay The Bell by Sylvia Path and Lucy, best fit at VSB. Using a maximum of quote three traits in of abortion, the Type V Personality, please describe yourself both personally and mccourt quote professionally and how you will contribute to the Villanova School of Business.
Additionally, given these traits, please discuss what value you would add to the Villanova community and your peers as a member and Analysis Essay leader of this incoming class. Essay 2. Professional Aspirations: Please discuss how this degree will impact your short and long-term career plans and address the following questions: Why pursue an MBA at this point in frank mccourt, your career? What actions have you taken to determine that Villanova is the best fit for your MBA experience? Essay (Optional). Are there any other factors you would like the Admissions Committee to consider when reviewing your application? Application Deadline Round 1: 15 Dec 2014; Round 2: 15 Feb 2015; Round 3: 15 Apr 2015; Round 4: 30 Jun 2015. Wake Forest Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. Essays will be evaluated on how well you articulate your goals and Essay Path how clearly you identify how or why the features of a Wake Forest MBA fit your objectives and personal characteristics. The essay has a 500-word limit and frank should be typed, double-spaced, using 11 point font. Essay 1. How will your graduate business degree from Wake Forest University fulfill your personal goals and positively impact your current or future organization and when was massachusetts colony founded the greater community/society? (750 word limit, double-spaced) Essay 2. Frank Mccourt Quote. Please answer ONE of the following questions (750 word limit, double-spaced) Tell us about a time when you were placed in an uncomfortable and challenging situation.
How did you address the challenges you faced? What was the Analysis Essay outcome and what did you learn about yourself? Identify a long term-goal you created for yourself. Frank Mccourt. What obstacles or challenges did you encounter in pursuit of this goal? How did you address them and what was the outcome? Did you achieve your goal and what did you learn about yourself?” Optional Essay . Please use the optional essay to of abortion address anomalies that may exist in your application and/or special requests for frank the Admissions Committee to of abortion in canada consider as they review your application (i.e. poor academic performance, gaps in your educational/work history, special requests, appeals, needs, etc.) If you are applying to the Evening or Saturday MBA program and are requesting a GMAT/GRE waiver, please use this essay to make that request. Quote. (750 word limit, double-spaced) If you are a reapplicant, you are required to submit the history of abortion in canada optional essay explaining what you have done to strengthen your application within the mccourt past year. Dingledine Scholar for Positive Social Impact Essay : Describe your dream for a different and better world. Essay About Jar, By Sylvia Kincaid. How might you manifest your dream into reality?
How are you presently working to better the lives of others in fulfillment of your dream? How will your Wake Forest MBA experience facilitate your creating this reality? (500 word maximum, double-spaced) Application Deadline Scholarship Deadline: 15 Feb 2012; Final Deadline: 15 Apr 2012. Mccourt. Warwick Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. Essay 1. Please describe your main interests and leisure activities, and any other experiences or involvement that has significantly influenced your career or personal development. Please limit your response to 200 words. Tactical. Essay 2. Imagine our admission decisions are being made based on a tweet on Twitter. How would you define the contribution you will make to the Warwick MBA in frank quote, 140 characters or less? Please limit your response to 140 characters. Essay 3. What are your short- and long-term career goals? How do you see the Warwick MBA influencing your career thinking and helping you to achieve these goals?
Please limit your response to 300 words. Essay 4. Tell us about one of your major accomplishments and conversely, one setback that you have faced. Folding Knife. What did you learn from each? Please limit your response to 300 words. Essay 5. Quote. Choose from one of the following two topics, writing no more than 1000 words. Either In your opinion, what are the key issues facing your organisation over the next five years? OR Identify the major strengths and weaknesses of an Essay Jar, by Sylvia Path by Jamaica, organisation of your choice. If you were the CEO, what three things would you change?
Please limit your response to 1000 words. Essay (Optional) Please use this page for any additional information that was not captured within your application. If you feel you've already provided us with sufficient information about yourself, you need not add anything here. Frank Quote. Please limit your response to 300 words. Application Deadline Jul Intake: 30 Apr; Jan Intake: 31 Oct. On Forgiveness Essay. Washington Olin Full Time MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays. The purpose of frank quote these statements/essays is to help the Admissions Committee get to know you.
Any information you can provide concerning those qualities and folding knife experiences that distinguish you from other applicants will be especially helpful. Please leave a one-inch margin at the top and bottom of each page of your essay. Statement of Purpose (required): Please provide a statement of purpose that describes your decision to pursue the Olin MBA or Specialized Master's degree for which you are applying. Your response should include a thoughtful presentation of the personal and frank professional experiences that have led to colony founded your decision to mccourt quote pursue graduate management education. It should also provide an identification of your specific short- and long-term career objectives, an explanation of Analysis on Forgiveness your decision to pursue this degree at this point in frank, your life, a description of Analysis on Forgiveness Essay your specific interest in the Olin Business School, and any other information that would help inform the Admissions Committee of your qualifications for our program. (500 – 1,000 words) Essay (Optional) . Please provide any additional information not previously addressed in frank mccourt, other areas of the lincoln a great application that you feel would be helpful to the Admissions Committee in its assessment of your candidacy. (300 word maximum) Application Deadline Round 1: 01 Oct 2014; Round 2: 15 Nov 2014; Round 3: 05 Jan 2015; Round 4: 15 Feb 2015; Round 5: 01 Apr 2015; Round 6: Rolling Admissions after 01 Apr 2015. York Schulich MBA 2014-2015 Application Essays.
Please answer the following questions and quote statements clearly and concisely ensuring that each essay adheres to history of abortion the required word length requested. Frank Mccourt Quote. The following question will assist the when was massachusetts founded Admission Committee in evaluating your application. Essay 1. How will the Schulich MBA degree help you achieve your short and long-term career goals? (please limit your answer to 350 words.) Essay 2. Describe a time when you were faced with an ethical dilemma. What strategies did you use to mccourt quote resolve the issue? What would you have done differently if faced with a similar situation? (please limit your answer to 350 words.) Essay (Optional). Is there any other information or areas of when was massachusetts colony founded concern in your academic or personal history that you believe would be helpful to the Admissions Committee in considering your application?
Application Deadline (January Intake): 01 Sep (early); 01 Oct (final) (September Intake): 07 Jan (early deadline - US/Canada Applicants); 28 Feb (International Applicants); 30 Apr (final deadline - US/Canada Applicants)
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How to Write an Exceptional New-Grad Nursing Resume. Writing a new-grad nursing resume is a daunting task for most new-grads. The fear of mccourt having no experience and being unqualified leaves many wondering what details to include. Moreover, many new-grads wonder how to structure their nursing resume in a way that best conveys their current skill-set and value to prospective employers. When Founded! As former recruiters, we reviewed thousands of frank mccourt quote new-grad resumes. In this blog post, we’ll draw on why was that experience to provide a comprehensive guide to creating an amazing nursing resume for new-grads. How to Structure Your New-Grad Nursing Resume. How you structure your resume has an impact on its effectiveness. Quote! Let’s first consider which headings to include on your resume. There are certain headings that every new-grad should include and other headings that will depend on whether or not you have any applicable details to include under those headings. Headings that every new-grad nursing resume should include (Required)
Every new-grad resume should include the following headings (we’ll discuss why we recommend these headings and provide tips for each below): Summary Licenses and why was lincoln president, Certifications Education Clinical Rotations. Optional headings for mccourt quote your new-grad nursing resume. Each of the when was massachusetts colony following headings should be considered and included based on quote whether or not you have relevant details to why was lincoln a great include: Work History Affiliations Volunteer Activities Honors and Awards Skills Summary Languages. Now let’s take a look at the ordering of the headings. Of course, your contact information should be at frank mccourt the top of your resume. Tactical! As usual, you should place the Summary as first heading on your resume.
Next, include your Licenses and Certifications if you have already obtained them. Frank Mccourt Quote! However, if you have not already obtained them, then you may want to push this heading farther down the list under your Clinical Rotations. Next, include your Education followed by your Clinical Rotations. Was Massachusetts Founded! You will undoubtedly find many who recommend that you place your Work History first. Moreover, placing Work History before Education is the conventional standard.
As a result, it’s difficult for some to trust advice that recommends placing Education first. So, here’s our supporting argument… As a new-grad, you may not even have work experience. If you do, it’s most likely that you don’t have applicable work experience and even if you do have applicable experience, it’s most certainly not Registered Nursing work experience. You can’t obtain RN work experience without an RN license and you can’t get an RN license without first graduating from an accredited nursing program and passing the NCLEX. Moreover, your new-grad nursing resume should quickly convey that you are a new-grad. There is no point in trying to hide this fact. If employers are considering new-grads for frank an open position, then recruiters and Essay The Bell Jar, Path and Lucy, by Jamaica, hiring managers are going to be receptive to your situation. If they’re not considering new-grads for the opening and are instead requiring experience for the position, then they’re not going to be receptive to your situation. Frank! You’re not going to trick them by putting your CNA or EMT work experience ahead of your education. In fact, doing this could make your resume even less effective as reviewers receptive to new-grads may never even get to your new-grad status before passing on Essay Jar, Path by Jamaica Kincaid the resume.
Perhaps more importantly, our recommendation is based on frank mccourt quote what was desired by the hiring managers we worked with. You will find corroboration for this recommendation from reputable sources all over the internet. For example, the sample new-grad resumes from California State University Chico and University of Texas San Antonio both have the headings listed in the order we recommend. When Was Massachusetts Colony Founded! Additionally, UC Davis Medical Center requires Education, Senior Preceptorship and Clinical Rotations on the resumes of all applicants to quote their nursing residency program. For further proof, let’s take a look at what a hiring manager had to say about new-grad resumes. As the Director of best folding Workforce Development for frank mccourt quote Orange County Memorial Care University and a Board Member of the Association of California Nurse Leaders, Maria-Jean Caterinicchio, RN, MS said, “It (your resume) should state where you have done your clinicals and any certifications such as EKG and ACLS. On Forgiveness Essay! You can also include any conferences you have attended beyond the classroom.” Your Clinical Rotations and frank mccourt, Education are key components of your new-grad resume! That takes care of the The Bell by Jamaica Kincaid 4 required headings. The 6 optional headings can be ranked as you see fit.
Remember, you should only include these headings if you have substantial details to quote convey. And you may want to rank them in order of strength as they relate to the job in question. For example, if you have experience working as a CNA in a hospital setting, then your Work History should be given a higher ranking because it highly relates to tactical the job you’re applying for. Specific Details to Include on Your New-grad Nursing Resume. You’ll undoubtedly come across many people who recommend that new-grads use an Objective instead of quote a Summary on their resumes. The argument is when colony founded that you really have nothing to summarize as a new-grad. However, we think that Objectives are an outdated resume heading that do nothing to advance your main objective of conveying why you’re the right person for the job. Frank! Moreover, you can include an objective within a summary if you’re intent on having one.
Here are three articles from major publications that support summaries over objectives: Now, you may have heard that recruiters spend 6 seconds reviewing your resume. While we doubt that they really spend that little time reviewing each resume, we certainly believe that the time they spend is very limited. Therefore, your goal is to make sure your resume can be easily scanned, starting with your Summary. You do not want recruiters getting stuck on your Summary by best tactical writing a big paragraph. Instead, use bullet points and try to keep each point at frank mccourt 1 to 2 lines . As for what to include in your Summary…It’s a good idea to state that you’re a new-grad. You might summarize your clinical rotations. You may point out any special skills that you have, like second languages or computer skills. And, as mentioned previously, you may include an objective. We recommend listing each license and certification with the following information:
Full name of the when founded license or certification. Full name of the issuing body of the license or certification. Expiration date of the mccourt quote license or certification if applicable. License or certification number if applicable. If your license is part of the Nursing Licensure Compact, then it should be indicated. Many nurses express privacy concerns over including their license numbers. Your nursing license number is made public through the state licensing board. It can easily be obtained using the basic information you provide on tactical folding your resume. Adding it simply assists those recruiters and mccourt, hiring managers who need to look it up for best tactical folding verification as a result of frank quote hospital/employer policy. Education for Policy Your New-Grad Nursing Resume.
You should display all of frank your relevant college education. So if you attended 2 colleges to attain your degree, then you should include them both. Please do not include your high school education. We recommend including the following information for each pertinent education institution you attended: Full official name of the colony education institution. City and State Dates attended. Degree achieved. GPA if it was good. There are several other details in addition to frank these that you may want to why was a great include regarding your education. We’ve had many new-grads inform us that in their area, employers were interested in frank quote knowing their HESI or ATI scores. We recommend checking with your Nurse Educators or your school’s Career Guide to was massachusetts colony founded see what they recommend.
You may also wish to include relevant coursework and corresponding grades if you got an A. Frank Quote! However, keep this brief and relevant to the job you’re applying for. Finally, you may wish to include any honors and best, awards you achieved if you would rather not place these items under their own heading. Clinical Rotations on Your New-Grad Nursing Resume. Clinical Rotations are an extremely important part of your new-grad nursing resume. As illustrated above, hiring managers indicate that they want to frank mccourt see these details. Major teaching universities require that they be included on resumes submitted for their residency programs. We consider them the crux of your new-grad resume. The Bell Path! At a minimum, you should include the following: Details to mccourt quote include about your clinical rotations. Type of experience (Clinical Rotation, Senior Preceptorship, other). Start and end dates.
Total number of hours worked. Name of the was massachusetts colony founded hospital or institution. City and frank, State. Name of the unit/department (examples: Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Medical Surgical Unit (MS), Labor and Delivery Unit (LD)). One common mistake to tactical avoid when listing the name of the unit is listing the hospital specific unit name. For example, the hospital specific unit name might be 3-West, but nobody outside the mccourt hospital knows what that means. Instead, list the type of unit it was as designated by the type of patients the unit took. In addition to the details above, we also recommend including the following information: Optional details to include about was massachusetts, your clinical rotations. Facility type: Every facility has a technical designation. For example, most hospitals are “Acute Care Hospitals”.
Other designations include Long Term Care Facility, Long Term Acute Care Facility, Children’s Hospital, etc. Listing the facility type lets the reader know without a doubt what the mccourt quote setting was. Number of beds in the facility. List the Essay The Bell and Lucy, Kincaid facility’s trauma designation if applicable. If the facility was a teaching hospital, then include that information. Number of beds on the unit you were assigned to.
Trauma designation of the unit you were assigned to mccourt quote if applicable. On Forgiveness Essay! Age range of the patients the unit cared for mccourt if applicable. Nurse to patient ratio on the unit. Type of history charting system used at the facility and name of any EMR/EHR you gained experience with. The grade you received if it was an frank mccourt, A. As you may have noticed, many of the details we recommend are technical details pertaining to the facility and unit. On Forgiveness! These details convey so much about the frank setting you were in why was president and the experiences you were exposed to with very few words. So including them provides the reader with a ton of useful information. Additionally, it demonstrates that you understand how import these details are to any healthcare organization, otherwise, you wouldn’t have listed them.
Additional options for highlighting your clinical rotations. Finally, you may also wish to include specific details about the quote experience you gained while engaged with your clinical rotations. For example, did you have any experiences that might make you a more attractive candidate to the prospective employer? Did you learn anything specific about folding knife, compassion for frank quote patients, team work, the importance of learning and growth as a new-grad RN? If you did, then try to offer the specifics to Essay on Fiscal illustrate exactly what happened. You may also be able to relate your clinical rotation experience to specific goals or problems of the employer you’re applying to. For example, maybe your research on the prospective employer turns up the mccourt quote fact that they’re seeking Magnet Status. Tactical Folding Knife! If one of the facilities that you worked at frank quote during your rotations was seeking to achieve the same goal, then you may be able to was massachusetts find some way to frank mccourt quote relate your experience to it. Or, perhaps the prospective employer is trying to improve their HCAHPS score and one of the facilities you worked at just achieved success with a similar endeavor. There are limitless possibilities with this option.
The main idea is to try and relate your experience during clinical rotations to tactical a real problem or goal faced by the prospective employer. At this point, we’ve covered each of our recommended required headings. As you may have noticed, we’ve offered tons of options. So many that if you were to incorporate them all, then your resume would either be too crowded or too many pages. However, many of the quote details we offer are simply for tactical folding your consideration.
It’s not required to include them all. Frank Mccourt Quote! So pick and choose the ones that work best for you by and Monetary Policy researching the job in mccourt quote question and determining which details will be of folding knife most value to the prospective employer. Optional Details for Your New-grad Nursing Resume. As indicated above, each of the mccourt quote following headings are optional for your new-grad resume. You should decide whether or not to use them based on whether or not you have applicable details to provide for them. Let’s take a brief look at history of abortion each of quote them. If you have work history, which most college students these days do, then you should probably include some reference to it on your resume.
Try your best to convey how the experience relates to nursing. This will be a lot easier to do if the experience was healthcare related. If all else fails, offer concrete examples of how you excelled at time management, team work, compassion, service, collaboration, or communication. One important issue to consider regarding work history is stability. Many college students work several jobs during their college career for history of abortion in canada any number of reasons. Too many short term stints may exhibit instability to prospective employers who are about to devote a large amount of frank quote resources to you. Essay! So you may want to explain short-term work stints or leave them off of your resume. You should definitely use the Affiliations heading if you are already a member of frank mccourt quote a professional organization related to nursing. For example, if you’re a member of the Essay Jar, Path and Lucy, American Association of Critical Care Nurses, then prospective employers will want to frank mccourt quote know. Was Massachusetts Founded! You may also include relevant college organizations such as Sigma Theta Tau, or the Student Nurses Association. Of course, if the only organizations you belong to are scholastic, then you may choose to include them under your Education heading to frank mccourt quote save space.
When listing your affiliations, consider including the following details: Full name of the organization. Date joined. Best Tactical Folding Knife! Your designation within the organization. Frank Mccourt Quote! Any special duties. Lincoln A Great President! Organization conferences attended. Including Volunteer Activities is a great way to demonstrate compassion. You may have volunteered for charity or at a healthcare facility. Consider including the following details: Full name of the organization. Dates of engagement.
Quantify the number of frank quote hours volunteered. Essay On Fiscal And Monetary Policy! Description of duties and results you achieved if applicable. Any awards or recognition you received. If you have received many honors and awards, then giving them a special place on your resume may be warranted. The other option is to mix them in throughout your resume where applicable. Consider including the following details: Name or title of the award. Date received. Mccourt Quote! Organization received from. Significance of the award, or reason it was received. For most new-grads, a Skills Summary heading may not be warranted.
Skills summaries are intended to convey proficiency with specific skills. As a new-grad, you most likely haven’t achieved proficiency with any aspect of nursing. However, if you have experience in a healthcare setting, then you may indeed be proficient with relevant skills. For example, you may be certified in tactical phlebotomy or Crisis Prevention. In any case, if you haven’t achieved proficiency, then you may be better served by listing skills as details under the heading that pertains to frank where the skills were practiced. Additionally, you might consider utilizing a Skills Checklist during your job search.
In case you’re not familiar, Skills Checklists are documents that allow healthcare professionals to self-assess their skills pertaining to Essay about Jar, by Sylvia Path and Lucy, by Jamaica Kincaid a specific profession or specialty within a profession. They are commonly used by healthcare employers of all types to gauge their employees’ skill sets. BluePipes has over 100 comprehensive skills checklists that you can complete, save and frank mccourt quote, download at your convenience. When Was Massachusetts! You can print them out and take them to job interviews in order to easily convey your level of expertise with hundreds of skills. Again, as a new-grad, it’s not advised to utilize a checklist for frank quote a nursing specialty like Intensive Care Unit because you most likely won’t have the required expertise. However, if you have experience as a CNA, Phlebotomist, or LPN, then you could use one of those checklists as a way to stand out from the history crowd. These checklists are free to frank mccourt quote use on Essay and Monetary BluePipes. Frank Mccourt! So, join today to when was massachusetts founded take advantage! A recent study by Wanted Analytics found that “bilingual” was the frank mccourt second most common skill listed on about by Sylvia Path and Lucy, Kincaid nursing job postings in mccourt the United States. If you speak multiple languages, then it’s definitely recommended that you include them under their own special heading! What Hiring Managers and Analysis Essay, Job Postings are Looking for in New-Grad RNs.
It’s important to remember that experience, temperament, talents, and frank mccourt quote, convictions vary from person to person. While all new-grads may share certain commonalities, they are all unique in their own ways. Similarly, it’s fine for new-grad resumes to share certain commonalities, but each should be unique in best tactical it’s own way. As you’ve seen, we have strong opinions on the structure of your resume and we provide many recommendations on mccourt various details to about The Bell Path and Lucy, Kincaid include. However, we’re not writing the resume for you. In fact, we strongly recommend against the boiler-plate phrases that have become so common as a result of online resume builders. So, when it comes to the meat of your resume, let the frank mccourt words of hiring managers and job postings guide your efforts. In other words, find ways to relate your unique experiences to what hiring managers and job postings are looking for.
And always strive to provide concrete examples as opposed to generalizations. Assuming that you’re applying for a job through a job posting (as opposed to networking for a job), you should do your best to optimize your resume for on Forgiveness the Applicant Tracking System (ATS). We’ve covered how to do this in a previous blog post, so we won’t rehash it here. The bottom line is that you want to naturally include the key buzzwords and phrases used in the job posting in your resume. This way, you’re ranked higher by mccourt the ATS. Of course, you’re probably wondering what hiring managers are looking for! We’ve provided some examples above, but below are some direct quotes we found from interviews posted online. These quotes validate what our own experience as recruiters taught us. “Knowing that new nurses are very green in regards to their technical skills, we look to whether a nurse is really ready to step into the profession. We are looking for those who are really interested in making life better for people who are suffering.” Kimberly Horton, MSN, RN, FNP, DHA, Vice President and Chief Nursing Officer at Mercy Hospital and Mercy Southwest Hospital in Bakersfield, California. “We expect our new nurse graduates to have the basic fundamental nursing knowledge and we are also looking for compassion, a sense of teamwork, accountability and communication.
We look for an attitude of colony collaboration and mccourt, communication.” Maria-Jean Caterinicchio, RN, MS, Director of Essay on Fiscal Workforce Development for Orange County Memorial Care University and Board Member of the Association of California Nurse Leaders (ACNL) Always side on patient safety first. Be open to feedback. Use your resources, such as more experienced nurses, physicians and other members of frank your team. This will also help you build a support system. Always ask questions when you are unsure or don’t know something. Why Was! Discuss your feelings and/or concerns with your unit leadership. From the first day on the job, be a team player.
Greg Kingsley, RN, New Grad Nurse Recruiter, Emory Healthcare. With all of this in frank mind, it’s important to remember that there is no one correct way to create your resume. About The Bell By Sylvia Path Kincaid! We certainly hope this guide provides an idea of frank mccourt quote best practices as well as an idea of what you shouldn’t do. Perhaps most importantly, it’s important to remember that your resume is just one facet of your job search. And while your resume is important, the single most important thing you can do to land that first job, or any job for that matter, is NETWORK! Estimates indicate 70% to 80% of all jobs are filled through networking. And it’s always best to operate with the “80-20 rule” in mind.
In other words, make sure that you’re focusing on networking as your main job-search activity because it’s most often the determining factor in success. History In Canada! That’s why we created BluePipes in the first place…to give healthcare professionals a professional networking platform capable of providing unique career management tools designed to help them solve their unique career challenges. Join today, it’s free and frank mccourt, easy! 5 Things that New Grad RNs and Experienced RNs Should Know About the best tactical folding Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. How to Write an Effective Nursing Resume Summary Writing an effective nursing resume summary is easier said than.
8 Things Every Nurse Ought to Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for mccourt quote nursing jobs. Tactical Knife! We provide. So my situation is a little different. Quote! I’ve been a Dental Assistant most of colony founded my life and quote, decided to change careers. I have now achieved my RN. But it took me a lot longer than a traditional ADN program is supposed to Analysis on Forgiveness Essay take. I had an “issue” at the first school I started the nursing program at and ended up needing to find another school to frank mccourt complete the program. Is this something I should include in my resume (as I see it as a negative thing) or how do I incorporate it to benefit my appearance? I don’t want to leave out info that can hurt me but I’m wondering if the info can hurt me if included.
I agree with Kyle. List out your clinicals. Colony! Add a targeted bullet point under each one that relates to the job you are applying for. Learn about ATS. Read the frank mccourt job posting. What words are on there most? What qualifications MUST you have? What qualifications do they PREFER? All the ones you have – write them down. By Sylvia And Lucy, By Jamaica! Yes, use their words.
Also read their mission and quote, values. Look through their website. Encorporate their values with yours. A great place to do this is in your cover letter. What do you recommend to someone like me whose 19 years old.
Has no work experience, this is my first career.. my resume would be completely blank pretty much. I know you said don’t include high school education.. buts that’s pretty much the Essay The Bell by Sylvia by Jamaica only thing I’ve “accomplished” so far, I was an honor student, GPA 3.9, Received an award for academic excellence all 4 years, advanced diploma. And currently my GPA is 3.5, I haven’t graduated yet but will in mccourt OCT, 2016 with my associates degree in nursing. I’m applying to a new graduate residency program now, that will start in February. Please HELP! #128577; how can I make my resume better? Thanks for the inquiry Glenda. Most of the applicants to new graduate residency programs have similar circumstances. To make your resume stand out, be sure to include the details described above regarding your various experiences including clinical rotations and education. You’re welcome to include your high school education. However, chances are it will not be considered.
Just remember that most candidates are going to be in the same boat, so making sure you provide all the best folding knife details hospitals like to see (as described above) will help you stand out. I hope this helps! Great article! Finally people are talking about New Graduate Registered Nurses and the job search!! The Struggle is VERY real for frank mccourt new, old, reentry, and RN’s seeking a new specialty! Especially in oversaturated markets like California.
I invite anybody who is seeking a job to in canada join our Facebook Group RNInterview Tools. https://www.facebook.com/groups/PlayingTheGame/ All are invited to share what worked for mccourt them, post questions, and seek support from colony founded others who understand. Members are landing job offers all over and we could not be more thrilled. I definitely shared this article and have shared others from Blue Pipes in frank the past. Thank you for best knife assisting all of frank mccourt quote us Nurses in our quest. Glad to hear the article is and Monetary Policy useful and thanks for sharing, Melissa! Help! I just graduated in May 2016 and got hired as an quote, RN in a hospital. Unfortunately, I resigned after a month as I felt so overwhelmed in the unit I was assigned to. Should I include that one month experience in my resume?
Thanks for sharing, Aleli and sorry to hear about the difficulties. Why Was President! This is mccourt quote a tough situation. I believe most career consultants would recommend leaving the job off of your resume. Essay And Monetary Policy! This is because you’ll most certainly be required to explain the short duration in any interview. Moreover, the duration was so short that many employers wouldn’t even require an explanation for the gap in employment. That said, you may want to consider the instructions on frank job applications. Some hospitals have very stringent rules for best entering work history on mccourt their applications. For example, they might require every employer for and Monetary Policy the past 7 years to be entered on the application regardless of frank mccourt quote duration and also require applicants to provide an explanation of any gaps in employment of greater than 1 month.
There will be a signing statement in the application indicating you attest the information is accurate and complete. If they find out you left the Essay job off the application, it could result in frank a rescinded job offer. Although the chances of this happening are slim. I hope this information helps! Nursing is my second career.
I taught elementary school before this. Should I include my education for that? Also, should I include teaching school in my work history? I taught for a great eight years in the same school, so it’s a good example that I can hold a job long term. Thanks!
Congratulations on frank your new career, Priscilla. Essay About Jar, By Sylvia Path By Jamaica! Previous work history and frank mccourt, education are both optional for your new-grad nursing resume. In your case, I highly recommend including them both as they are both excellent experiences to display. History Of Abortion! However, be sure to keep them brief in order to highlight your nursing skills. I hope this helps! Hello, I was wondering how do I include my phlebotomy certification on my resume if it doesn’t have an expiration date? If you are formatting your own resume, you can simply add the mccourt license without expiration dates. However, I’m wondering if you’re using BluePipes to format your resume? Please let me know if so. Thanks!
Hi i’m just wondering do you have an example resume with all the information you have listed here for preview? thank you! My apologies, but we don’t have a sample. We’ll work on creating though. Thanks! How about of abortion in canada, information on building a new-grad RN Cover letter? When listing previous certifications and frank quote, licenses, should you list the initial date of obtainment or expiration/ renewal date? Also, regarding Applicant Tracking System, what is the Analysis Essay rule regarding parenthesis ()? I ask because in my certifications I have ACLS, PALS, and a bunch of other alphabet soup acronyms.
Should I use (ACLS) after Advanced Cardiac Life Support? Good questions! There are no steadfast rules, but we recommend listing the quote expiration dates. On our resume builder, licenses are listed with both the acronym and Path and Lucy, Kincaid, name. For example: ACLS – Advanced Cardiac Life Support. That said, most resume parsers are quite advanced these days, so they should be able to contextualize what is meant by “(ACLS)”.
However, as illustrated above, it’s not necessary to use the parentheses if you don’t want to. I hope this helps! Help! I work in quote a long term care nursing facility as an RN for in canada about a year and half now. This is my first nursing job and nursing is my second career.
What can you suggest in writing my resume? Are my clinical rotations still relevant? Thanks. There isn’t a steadfast rule that applies to your question. I think it’s fair to say that most recruiters and frank mccourt quote, nursing career advisers would say that your clinical rotations shouldn’t be added to colony your resume after a year and a half of working in an LYC facility.
That said, you might still list it in an effort to land a job in a new-grad training program.
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10 tips for quote, writing a first class LLB dissertation. 25 February 2016 | tagged Student blog. Stuart McRobbie is currently a Diploma student at the University of Dundee. He has accepted a traineeship with Stronachs LLP to commence in September 2016 and is set to become the folding, first lawyer in his family. Writing a dissertation as part of my LL.B was undoubtedly the most challenging thing that I have had to do at university, but it also turned out to be the mccourt, most rewarding. Like many, I was initially quite apprehensive about writing such an extensive piece having found 3,000 word assignments difficult enough. Universities recognise this and will provide students with detailed structural and formatting guidelines, as well as some high-level guidance with regards to being original and analytical. However, I found that there was a lack of practical advice from those who had been through the process and so I thought it would be good to share some wisdom from my own experience and that of others. 1. Choose a topic that inspires you. Students are likely to be given a list of potential questions to aid them in their search selection process. Was Massachusetts. My advice would be to quote, generally steer clear of these.
It’s unlikely that you’ll feel truly inspired by a set question, however they can be useful as a basis for was massachusetts founded, tailoring or simply generating ideas. From speaking to students that achieved the highest grades for frank, their dissertations, it’s clear that they all had a genuine interest in what they were writing about. Creating a unique question encourages original analysis and is likely to be more interesting from a marker’s perspective. The law library can become a bit like something out of Lord of the Flies as people turn their attention to reading everything that has ever been written about their chosen topic. Ordinary library rules of founded borrowing and returning may appear to go up in smoke and it can feel like every person for themselves. The earlier you start your research, the less likely it is you’ll encounter any problems.
Whatever forms the frank quote, basis of your research, ensure that you keep track of it. A great way to do this is by completing a bibliography as you go, rather than at the very end. Why Was Lincoln A Great. There is mccourt quote nothing worse than forgetting in which case or by which judge you read a great dictum (hint: it was probably Lady Hale or Lord Denning!). It is oft said that the human brain can only of abortion, focus for 30-40 minutes at a time, however students are often guilty of ignoring this in favour of cramming for hours on end. This is likely to have a negative affect on the quality of your research and writing. I found that breaking my time up into 40-minute periods, with 20-minute breaks in between, increased my productivity.
I also found that setting myself achievable daily targets made the task of writing an extended piece seem less daunting: 15,000 words to be completed in 3 months suddenly becomes just 170 words a day! Leave time for reviewing your finished dissertation and make sure you beat the queue at the local printing and frank quote binding business. It is knife vital that you create and work in frank mccourt quote, an environment that is conducive to productivity and on Fiscal and Monetary creative thought. That doesn’t mean installing soundproof walls and non-reflective surfaces a la Kanye West. Everyone is different but I found that sitting at a desk with just a pen and paper to jot down ideas, whilst Buddy Holly played in the background, was a great way to focus. Temporarily blocking certain websites might be a good idea, otherwise the temptation to frank, binge-watch ‘Making A Murderer’ again will always be there! 5. Make the most of your supervisor. Essay Policy. Supervisors are a great resource and can be a fantastic sounding board for ideas. Whilst there is only so much a supervisor can do, they may be able to mccourt quote, point you in the right direction and they are likely to be au fait with the most appropriate resources and current trends in thinking.
Supervisors are also likely to be incredibly busy with teaching commitments and so you need to establish when and how to approach them. The law doesn’t operate in when was massachusetts, isolation. Many students make the mistake of simply writing about quote what the when colony founded, law was or what the law is without necessarily considering the wider social, political or economic consequences of the legislation or case law. Consider, for instance, section 172 of the Companies Act 2006 which requires directors to act in mccourt, the best interests of a company’s shareholders. Such a rule doesn’t affect just shareholders; it also has wide-ranging consequences for the rest of tactical folding society in terms of the payment of corporation tax, wealth and health inequality, the growth in atypical workers and access to justice. In order to establish these links, it was necessary for me to frank mccourt quote, draw upon financial textbooks, reports from charities and colony founded studies conducted by frank mccourt economists – not just legal resources.
This goes without saying, but one of the major problems that students come up against is the evolutionary nature of the why was lincoln president, law. You will begin researching months before the submission date and there are likely to be some changes in that time. It’s therefore essential that you read relevant publications, bulletins and updates on the area of law you are writing about. Mccourt. Reading blogs by law firms is often a good way to keep track of any changes. Every couple of weeks I would also check on Lexis that the cases I had referred to in canada, were still good authority for the points I wanted to make. Lord Reed recently gave a talk at the University of Dundee in which he encouraged solicitors and advocates to challenge authority. Mccourt Quote. The same holds true for students in Essay on Fiscal, their writings. In analysing case law and legislation, it is important to understand the historical context within which those decisions were made.
Society in 2016 is vastly different to frank mccourt quote, society 50 years ago. Even just one or two years can see dramatic changes in social values, technology and Essay about The Bell Jar, and Lucy, by Jamaica the economy. An excellent way to gain an understanding of the context in which certain pieces of legislation were passed is to frank mccourt, consider any discussion papers issued prior to an Act being passed and to and Monetary, review Hansard. Becoming isolated from friends and family as you focus your full attention on your dissertation is not good for either the quality of your work or your general well being. A great bit of advice I was given was to pair up with another student to frank mccourt quote, allow us to best, talk about our projects and bounce ideas of each other. Speaking with people who aren’t law students, be they students of other subjects or even just family, will allow you to tap into the life experience of mccourt others and gain an best tactical knife, insight from a perspective you might not have considered. Always allow time to socialise: a game of frank pool, watching a game of football with friends or geein it laldy on the karaoke will clear your head and history allow you to refresh. 10. Finally: keep a notepad under your pillow. And another one on your person at frank mccourt, all times! Given the amount of focus and effort that you put into your dissertation, random moments of insight are likely to arise as you carry out daily tasks.
I would sometimes find myself returning home from work with something that resembled a sleeve tattoo drawn by a toddler. Better to avoid hastily scribbling notes on your arm and carry a notepad! Now and again I would also be awoken from my sleep by an idea and would have to write it down. Admittedly I would often find that the notes I had scribbled in a semi-conscious state were either illegible or just completely bonkers, but my final dissertation contained at least 3 points that came to Essay Jar, by Sylvia Path by Jamaica Kincaid, me in my sleep. Frank. Maybe I’m just a bit weird!
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chemical essay An Online Research Center on the History and Theory of Anarchism. #147;The Problem of Chemicals In Food#148. Within the past few decades, tremendous quantities of chemicals have been introduced into the cultivation and processing of food products in the United States. The annual production of bread alone is estimated to involve the addition of about 10,000,000 pounds of chemical emulsifiers by thousands of frank quote bakers throughout the country.
During the when was massachusetts colony six-year period since the end of the frank mccourt war, at least 700 to 800 chemicals have been discovered for use in American food products. These substances cover nearly every aspect of Analysis on Forgiveness Essay production: from fertilizers and quote, pesticides to substitutes for organic nutrients, preservatives, flavouring and colouring matter, and a legion of processing agents. There are some foods on the market that are almost entirely synthetic; the chemical content in a certain instances has been increased in piece-meal fashion to such an extent that these foods no longer contain the organic contents from which they were originally derived. This is the knife ad absurdum of chemicals in food; a natural product is converted by the continual addition of chemical materials into a synthetic or near-synthetic product. Often, from the standpoint of public health, no satisfactory reason can be adduced by either the manufacturer or food technologist. The principal motives for chemicals in food arise from mccourt quote reasons of profit and industrial competition.
The use of chemicals in Policy, food has, in fact, become so extensive and reckless that mass poisoning is now a real danger to the American population. Instances of acute toxic effects have already approached the point of national disasters. In one case, a marketed drug, #145;Elixir of Sulphanilamide#146;, killed over a hundred people before it was tracked down by governmental agencies. In another case, frozen peaches were confiscated which contained a large amount of thiourea. When these peaches were fed to experimental rats by the Food and Drug Administration, the rats died overnight. Yet neither governmental legislation nor scientific experimentation has proved adequate to this type of problem. The burden of proof for deleterious chemicals often rests not with the food manufacturer but with the Food and Drug Administration. The government is usually required to show that a chemical is definitely harmful rather than unnecessary for health and nutrition before it can be prohibited in food production.
Even this task may require fairly long judicial proceedings by an agency that is understaffed and has access to limited funds. Moreover, scientific standards of toxicity are frequently open to doubt. Agene, for example, was used for decades in bleaching flour. It was adjudged by chemists and frank mccourt quote, physiologists as harmless until British scientists recently found that dogs fed a diet of lincoln a great president 80 per cent. white bread acquired #145;running fits#146;. An equally interesting case is the variance of scientific opinion on thiourea as a preparation which prevents the mccourt browning of certain sliced fruits. As late as 1943 this chemical was described as harmless to folding, man. Further study, however, revealed that thiourea acts upon the thyroid gland to inhibit the formation of thyroxin, and may result in the development of thyroid adenomata and tumours of the liver. Finally, one of the most remarkable disputes centers around the use of monochloracetic acid.
This acid was first described in a French patent as a useful food preservative more than eighteen years ago. After extensive pharmacologic tests, the use of monochloracetic acid was regarded as harmless #145;even in continued daily ingestion by quote, infants#146;. Only after the a great acid came into fairly widespread usage did reports indicate that this substance irritates the gastrointestinal tract, causing nausea and vomiting. Yet Dr. Franklin C. Bing, an eminent authority on nutrition and food chemistry, testified that one of the food scientists who originally characterized monochloracetic acid as harmless to human beings, #145;still holds that monochloracetic acid is mccourt quote, perfectly harmless and ought to be used#146;. Dr.
Bing recounts the best tactical folding story of a food manufacturer #145;who wanted to mccourt, submit a product for consideration by our council [American Medical Association]. Why Was Lincoln. He had a little monochloracetic acid in his product as a preservative, and my duty as secretary of the council was to frank quote, ask him what evidence he had as to its harmlessness, and Analysis on Forgiveness, he brought that in, and frank quote, I told him I did not think that the history of abortion council would accept it, and the council did not. And I remember vividly getting a couple of telephone calls from outstanding pharmacologists of this country saying that they thought we were wrong in not giving approval to that particular product#146;. But by far the most fundamental problem of chemicals in food is the danger of chronic toxicity. Mccourt. Within very recent years, especially during the last decade, chemicals without an immediate toxic effect have found their way into food products. These chemicals may, in lincoln a great president, the long run, produce incalculable damage to public health.
For damage of this sort, scientific experimentation is extremely complex and woefully inadequate, even if the best intentions are kept in mind. Proper control, in such instances, cannot end with tests on individual experimental animals; they must cover entire generations over fairly long periods of time and at considerable financial expense. More must be learned of animal physiology than is frank quote, to-day even faintly suspected by Essay, the most eminent biologists in the United States. #145;I have spoken to students many times about the newer knowledge of nutrition,#146; declared Dr. Bing in his testimony to the House Select Committee to Investigate the Use of Chemicals in frank quote, Food Products (U.S. Congress), #145;and I use the term somewhat glibly, but in the final analysis, I think I would have to admit that we know very little compared to what remains to be found out. #145;Some of the things that we do know are that the body has mechanisms by which it can handle substances commonly or naturally found in food materials, and it may have some difficulty in and Monetary, handling substances which are not naturally found in foods, even though they differ only frank mccourt, slightly in chemical configuration. So I should think that any foreign substance, any substance which is in canada, not found to a fair extent in foods, is mccourt quote, open to some suspicion when you take it into of abortion in canada the body. In the meantime, the use of chemicals in food #150; tested, for the most part, only for acute toxicity, and this often with extreme superficiality #150; has increased by leaps and bounds. Dr. Bing observes: #145;You can pick up almost any issue of the quote technical magazines which come to Essay about Jar, by Sylvia by Jamaica Kincaid, the attention of the chemists in the food industries, and find some little advertisement in mccourt, them about new emulsifying agents, or something that is a plasticizer, or food improver, as they sometimes call them.
That is a good term, too, which, well, it is written up so that you are intrigued by it. And it seems that just as human beings like to take a pill to relieve their illnesses or their lack of sense of well-being, so it seems to be typical of a man in Analysis Essay, the food industry when something comes along, some problem in technology, he likes to have chemical aids to solve it. That seems to be inherent in frank quote, human nature, perhaps. So this problem to-day is much bigger and broader than it was fiver years ago, and certainly tremendously increased over what it was ten years ago.#146; Chemical Fertilizers in Agriculture. The danger of chronic toxicity, to-day, arises at a fairly remote point from the industrial processor and consumer. It beings in agriculture and cattle-breeding, with a vast array of fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, fruit colouring matter, hormones and growth stimuli. These chemicals (some of Jar, by Jamaica Kincaid which are little understood by frank, industrial chemists, still less by physiologists) are allowed to enter into great natural cycles whose ramifications touch upon the processes of life itself. Since natural processes are intricately tied together, an isolated view of the effect that any single chemical has upon life and nature is scarcely a basis for knowing how several of of abortion these chemicals will react together.
For example, grazing animals, which have received hormones to increase their weight may leave behind chemical traces in manure long after they have been slaughtered and consumed. How the frank soil, as well as the public, is affected is little known. Best Tactical Knife. If, as often happens, the same area of land is frank mccourt, treated with chemical fertilizers and sprayed with insecticides, these substances may very well combine to produce a totally unpredictable effect. The dangers inherent in this problem cannot be overestimated. Was Massachusetts Colony Founded. Instances are already known where insecticides have so completely saturated the top-soil that cultivation must be restricted to frank mccourt quote, only certain kinds of food.
It is often maintained that insects, not insecticides, and soil exhaustion due to increased population, not chemical fertilizers, are ultimately responsible for the difficulties created by chemicals in food. This may be regarded as a spurious treatment of a very serious social question. More fundamental are the ecological disturbances that profit-minded businessmen have produced throughout the American countryside. Essay. For decades, lumber companies and railroads were permitted a free-hand in destroying valuable forest lands and wild life. The attendant results are widespread erosion and the removal of many natural enemies of insect life. The normal balances that were responsible for soil preservation and insect control are no longer present in many parts of the United States. At the quote same time that irreplaceable top-soil is washed into the rivers of the country, it is why was president, accompanied by industrial wastes that probably abet the multiplication of insects and diseases detrimental to crops.
An equally important social reason for chemical substances in agriculture is the mccourt historical shift from Analysis on Forgiveness Essay small- to large-scale farming. For centuries, as far back as the threshold of history, food cultivation remained in the hands of small rural families. The individual farmer who worked the land, whether he was a serf, peasant or yeoman, brought a certain amount of personal interest to frank, agriculture. The care of crops usually fell within the why was lincoln horizon of an individual, who felt himself more implicated in the quality of agricultural food than large-scale absentee land-owners. Even when social oppression underlay agriculture, the individual farmer who performed the mccourt quote work could not escape the responsibility for the crops he produced. On Fiscal. Much attention, interest and concern were involved in frank, earlier agricultural practices, and the farmer usually took great pride in the quality or food output. Fairs, local markets, contests, and finally a real sense of responsibility to the surrounding community often induced the farmer to bring his best efforts to food cultivation. Agriculture in past eras depended upon a material technique that had not changed in about Jar, by Sylvia Path by Jamaica Kincaid, many respects for mccourt, thousands of years. Labour was arduous and famine remained a continual threat.
But the farmer had the satisfaction of knowing that drought, insects and crop diseases were seldom the result of Analysis Essay man-made difficulties. Frank Mccourt. Nor has modern science removed many of the natural disturbances that entered into earlier food cultivation. Essay The Bell Jar, By Sylvia. The greatest difficulties of the past were solved when machines or knowledge of ecology, not synthetic chemicals, were brought to frank mccourt, the farm. The advances made in soil chemistry and crop rotation during the eighteenth century were based entirely on best tactical knife, organic and natural resources. Charles Townshend, for example, taught the English farmer the four-course rotation of wheat, turnip, barley and clover. Bakewell formulated the pragmatic orientation toward the selection and breeding of cattle.
There is no better description of the agricultural advances of the eighteenth than the world #145;husbandry#146;. Frank Quote. The rule-of-thumb researches of the period were intent on garnering, rather than substituting for, the forces of nature. The #145;conquest of nature#146; meant a rational use of natural resources, not a disruption of the biological processes around man. It can never be too strongly emphasized that every tract of best tactical folding knife soil and every area of countryside compromises a relatively unique ecological situation. Just as climate, land, vegetation and quote, wild-life may very greatly from one part of the lincoln president country to another, so every square mile presents in some degree a distinctive balance of natural forces. Frank Mccourt Quote. Food cultivation by was massachusetts founded, man, which must be regarded as a form of botanical #145;domestication#146; imposed on what was originally virgin and wild land, always threatens to upset this balance. In many cases, of course, uniform conditions completely outweigh ecological differences, and large-scale farming is not only feasible but even necessary. For the most part, however, successful agriculture depends upon how the farmer adapts himself to quote, the small differences he is about Jar, and Lucy, by Jamaica Kincaid, likely to find. He must understand not only quote, gross variations in soil, but particularly his own soul as it is on Fiscal and Monetary, affected by frank quote, the local vegetation, insect and animal life it supports. He must ask himself how far he can interfere in his given situation without causing irreparable damage. This can only come with personal familiarity, with fairly extended experience and understanding.
The farmer must bring not only about Jar, by Sylvia and Lucy, Kincaid, insight to the specific characteristics of his land, but also sympathy, interest, and a socially-responsible attitude. With the shift to large-scale farming, the emphasis of agriculture changed from the quality to the quantity of food cultivation. This meant that the land was to be exploited like any other resource under capitalism #150; in a drastic and one-sided manner. The #145;success#146; of large-scale, quantitative farming depended upon a uniformity of resources, and #145;average#146; in the agricultural situation. Since nature never presents uniformities or averages in such simple terms, they had to be created. To a large degree this task devolved upon chemicals. Thus fertilizers were used to compensate for differences in soil; chemical hormones were employed to standardize the size of crops; and growth stimuli were discovered to replace the results of variations in climate. The most elementary lessons of man#146;s relationships to the soil and nature have since been abandoned for frank, #145;synthesis#146; #150; for artificiality not only in agriculture but also in nature. In short, #145;husbandry#146; has been replaced by #145;chemistry#146;.
But just as capitalist farming has #145;created#146; an #145;average#146; agriculture, so it has created an #145;average#146; farm worker. Wherever the farmer has been dispossessed by huge corporate growers, he has also been replaced by rural labourers who view the intimate problems of crop management with complete indifference. On large estates to-day, #145;farmers#146; often include aviators who spray insecticides, tractor drivers and sales#146; agents; not to mention harvesters who never sow and sowers who never harvest. The division of labour in large-scale farming often precludes a total view of the agricultural situation. Even the agricultural technician, who can provide an over-all view, must change his orientation to meet the needs of #145;average#146; farming. As a result, the complex requirements of co-operation with nature and natural processes are fractured into numerous, unintegrated tasks.
Management is often supplied #150; at least in motivation #150; from on Fiscal remote heights above, by business interests which include little appreciation for the problems of the soil. Demands imposed upon the land are shaped neither by the needs of the public nor by the limits of nature, but by mccourt quote, the exigencies of profit and competition. All the gaps in the picture #150; from the variations of the land to the indifference of folding farm labourers #150; are filled by chemicals. Fertilization by organic and inorganic (chemical) fertilizers plays a decisive part in altering various soils for quote, #145;average#146; farming. In making these alterations, a number of very important principles are involved. Under natural conditions, the history of abortion in canada fertilization of land by organic materials is frank mccourt, a process in the course of and Monetary which complex substances are broken down into simpler plant nutrients. For example, nitrogen in mccourt, proper quantities is indispensable for plant nourishment. Ordinarily, this element is provided through the well-known #145;nitrogen cycle#146;. When proteins decay, they are eventually reduced to carbon dioxide, water, ammonia, and free nitrogen.
Soil-dwelling bacteria act upon ammonia to produce nitrate compounds that are suitable for plant nourishment. When excessive nitrogenous compounds exist in the soil, denitrifying bacteria may reverse the process to produce a suitable balance. Excesses of this sort are no longer a serious issue because animal proteins play a very small part in supplying the a great land with nitrogen. Burial conventions require that a human body shall not be used to further the cultivation of frank mccourt food, and the human body, in history of abortion, turn, consumes the proteins of cattle that once eventually reached the soil. But other means exist.
Leguminous plants like beans, peas, clover, and alfalfa support nitrogen-fixing bacteria that use free nitrogen in the atmosphere. Quote. Furthermore, the fecal deposits of many living animals (including man) are also rich in nitrogen. In the past, and to-day to a great extent in the Orient, these resources have been carefully husbanded and restored to the land. The major principle behind chemical fertilization is to introduce these simpler nutrients directly, often without intermediate steps through bacteria. By industrially combining atmosphere nitrogen with lime or soda ash, the nitrogen-fixation process is performed in the factory instead of in the soil. Phosphates are usually obtained commercially for agriculture by treating phosphate rock with sulphuric acid. In fact the acidulation technique has a wide variety of when was massachusetts colony uses in preparing chemical fertilizers. Frank. It often not only supplants the work of history of abortion in canada bacteria but also brings to the soil a bewildering number of chemicals that are not always necessary for agriculture. The added chemicals often play no role whatever in soil fertility. Mccourt Quote. They either represent residual substances that cannot be avoided because of the when colony acidulation technique itself, or at best they are added to render inorganic fertilizers soluble or absorbable. Often, they remain in the soil where they do nothing for plant nourishment as such, accumulating over the years to serve no special purpose for agriculture.
Do these new accretions harm the soil? Do they play any role in human health? Generally speaking, is enough known of the effect of frank quote chemical fertilizers have on the soil or on The Bell Jar, Path and Lucy, Kincaid, the human body to lend inorganic fertilization to adequate controls? Behind each of these questions are even more obscure problems. During the hearings of the Select House Committee, for example, Mr. J. I. Frank Mccourt. Rodale of the #145;Soil and Health Foundation#146; suggested the complexities that are introduced by inorganic fertilizers as part of his objections to a great, such fertilizers. #145;In some cases they (chemical fertilizers) are caustic. They actually have a burning quality that will kill bacteria. In other cases they are too soluble.
It is frank mccourt, as if an individual were forced to eat when he were not hungry. It forces itself on history in canada, the plant, crowding out frank important trace mineral elements. #145;The most important reason why some chemical fertilizers are harmful,#146; continued Rodale, #145;is because they contain more than one element. When Was Massachusetts. The one element that they need to feed the plant in frank mccourt quote, order to make it soluble is tied in with some other element which gives it that solubility and which is there practically only for that purpose. #145;An example is a very common fertilizer called superphosphate. What they are after is to feed the plant phosphate. Lincoln. But is mccourt, it mixed with sulphuric acid to when colony, give it that solubility. The plant takes up a great deal of phosphate but very little of the sulphur.
When sulphur piles up in the soil there are certain kinds of frank mccourt quote bacteria, called sulphur-reducing bacteria, which begin to multiply to work down that sulphur. As they work they have to feed. It so happens that those sulphate-reducing bacteria feed on a very important soil organism, which is needed to on Forgiveness Essay, break down organic matter. Therefore when you have a lot of sulphur piling up in the soil there are bacteria multiplying which are killing off certain organisms which the farmer needs to break down organic matter.#146; This problem, which was first introduced because of the quote acidulation technique, reaches even further back. #145;When you grow a crop of anything,#146; concludes Rodale, #145;that root that remains in the soil must break down for the next crop. The roots are very valuable. The roots of the preceding crops give nourishment to the next. Founded. If the soil does not contain enough of this breakdown bacteria it will not be able to furnish the frank food in time for the next crop.#146; Rodale#146;s testimony may be regarded as a very unorthodox view in the United States. It was opposed at the hearings by a battery of #145;experts#146; who vehemently argued for chemical fertilizers, #145;judiciously#146; mixed with organic substances.
Although the #145;experts#146; freely acknowledged that organics keep the soil friable, easy to work and Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, permeable to water, they pointed up transport difficulties and, in fact, the entire arrangement of mccourt modern society as objections to supplying the land with enough organic materials for agriculture. #145;It is neither economically feasible nor physically possible to rely upon organic manures exclusively in our present-day agriculture,#146; observed Dr. Richard Bradfield of Cornell University, who particularly tried to place inorganic fertilizers in perspective from the specialist#146;s standpoint. #145;Organic gardeners make a great deal of when was massachusetts what they call the #147;law of returns#148;, by which they mean the return to the soil of all the frank mccourt elements which the crop removes from it. About The Bell Jar, By Sylvia By Jamaica Kincaid. Such a system is feasible in a primitive, sparsely populated area in which practically the entire population is engaged in farming, and in which there is a high proportion of the population which can collect and transport city wastes to the farms which feed the cities. If we stopped to quote, think for a minute, it would become apparent how difficult it would be to apply this law literally in the United States at the present time.#146; In support of inorganic fertilizers, Bradfield insisted that such fertilizers supply elements in the same form that they are released by organic substances. In fact he found organic fertilizers of very limited value because #145;the organic matter which is generally available for why was a great president, use on mccourt, soils does not contain these elements in the proportions in which they are needed to give the best growth of crops on most soils.#146; Now we may reserve the social problems raised by the exclusive use of organics for and Monetary Policy, later discussion. But Bradfield#146;s unfavourable comparison of organic with inorganic fertilizers may be regarded as resting on entirely spurious premises.
Dr. A. F. Camp, Vice Director in charge of the University of Florida Citrus Experimental Station makes the observation that #145;the difference between trees fertilized with organic fertilizers and frank, those fertilized with chemical fertilizers lay primarily not in when, the field of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and calcium but in the lack of the so-called minor or secondary elements such as magnesium, manganese, copper, zinc, and boron which were present as impurities in the organic materials but not present in appreciable amounts in frank mccourt, the chemical materials. Thus, in the case of The Bell by Sylvia Path by Jamaica Kincaid bonemeal which was credited with containing only quote, nitrogen, phosphorous, and calcium, it was found that one of the most important elements it supplied was magnesium which is universally deficient in Florida citrus soils and for which citrus trees have a very high requirement. Superphosphate contained only traces of magnesium and when substituted for bonemeal resulted in trees that were acutely deficient in magnesium. All of these so-called minor elements which are actually as necessary to the development of citrus as the so-called major elements were found as sizable impurities in the natural organic materials because, just as in citrus, they were necessary to the growth or development of the organisms from which these organic materials were derived#146;. Indeed, it hardly tells us much to criticize the president efficacy or proportions of organic fertilizers that are #145;generally available#146;. What is #145;available#146; has a very restricted meaning in the lexicon of experts to-day.
To the frank mccourt average farmer, organic fertilizers are almost completely represented by manures, which are admittedly a limited source of soil fertility. Even if we include the best composts in use to-day (and this being exceptionally generous) the term #145;organic fertilizer#146;, as it is currently employed, would ignore a wide range of potentially valuable substances which could be brought to the soil. Curiously enough, the Essay about Jar, Path and Lucy, Kincaid #145;experts#146; carry the greatest responsibility for frank, this situation. They have almost completely evaded, and directed attention away from, research into new and better organics. Indeed, the current emphasis on inorganic fertilizers in agricultural laboratories and projects has reduced organic substances to an #145;indispensable#146; but entirely ancillary position in food cultivation. Bradfield went on The Bell and Lucy,, to deny that #145;valid evidence exists#146; to show that #145;crops grown with chemical fertilizer are more attractive and nutritious to insects and plant pathogens#146;. This too will be discussed elsewhere.
His denial, however, that evidence exists as to whether #145;crops grown with chemical fertilizers are less nutritious to frank, men than those grown with organic fertilizers#146; is extremely questionable. Slowly and in the face of extreme hostility from the Essay and Monetary Policy #145;experts#146;, a number of frank quote soil scientists and practical farmers are producing evidence that inorganic fertilizers may seriously reduce the a great quality of crops. The discussion is still being cast in quote, a strictly adaptive framework, as part of a general reconciliation to the use of chemicals. It is widely accepted that the Analysis on Forgiveness contemporary social scene renders the frank use of inorganics necessary and Essay The Bell by Sylvia Path and Lucy, Kincaid, few are willing to abandon chemical fertilizers as such. But, as Dr. K. C. Beeson pointed out, #145;Fertilization with large quantities of nitrogen can also result in some lowering of frank mccourt certain nutritive constituents in the plant. For example, in some experiments with turnip greens, applications of nitrogen reduced the percentage of calcium in the greens in on Forgiveness, twenty-four to thirty experiments. Quote. Fertilization with the ammonium salts of nitrogen has resulted in a reduction of vitamin C in plants, but fertilization with the nitrates under the same conditions did not affect vitamin C. The reasons for lincoln a great, the difference are unknown.#146; Perhaps the most strongly emphasized point made by all the #145;experts#146; in favour of inorganic fertilizers is the conclusion that chemicals increase crop yield. #145;The most important reason for the use of fertilizers,#146; said Bradfield, #145;is that they increase the yield of practically all crops on mccourt quote, all but our most fertile soils. This point is so generally appreciated that detailed elaboration is unnecessary#146;.
Very well, then #150; let us elaborate! By leaning on poorly-evaluated experimental facts, the #145;expert#146; generally knows that the addition of certain chemicals to the soil can increase the size of crops. Although impressive yields can be produced, more and more evidence has appeared to show that these yields often drain the soil of valuable substances. Dr. On Fiscal And Monetary Policy. William A. Albrecht of the University of Missouri astutely observed at the Hearings that #145;a fertilizer balancing the supply of nutrients in the soil is mccourt, merely a help to take all the other things out faster. So if you fertilize a soil with nitrogen, which is by Sylvia Path by Jamaica Kincaid, deficient, and grow a bigger crop, you merely have taken all the other things out faster and by virtue of that observation people will say, #147;Oh, yes, fertilizers ruin your soil#148;. Well, they have just helped you wear it out faster. That is all.#146;
But is that all? #145;We have built up the lime, the phosphorous, the potash,#146; continues Albrecht, later in his testimony. #145;Now we come along and shove under the nitrogen and that is very demonstrative for the first year or second year until we pull the other things down. Frank. We had the same thing with limestone. The moment we build up the one thing that is deficient, we get a glorious effect until something comes in as a deficiency, and then we are in trouble. . . . Lime is in canada, a necessity but like alone is not enough. Frank Mccourt Quote. Many years ago the farmer, who did not know any chemistry, gave us a very interesting jingle which is very true: #147;Lime and lime without manure make father richer but son poorer.#148; #145;A very find old truth, very fine, because when you lime, the Essay calcium next to the hydrogen serves to push the other things out. So when you lime, a crop gets greener and a crop gets bigger, but not because the lime did that in the crop but because it pushed out other things and balanced up the thing to help it.#146; Before chemicals can replace organic substances without leading to mccourt quote, disaster, more must be known of the factors which enter into soil composition, of the soil itself and finally of plant and animal nutrition; in short, of a stupendous natural process concerning which agronomists know surprisingly little.
The soil, as Dr. Beeson has put it, is #145;a highly complex dynamic system of minerals, inorganic chemical compounds, organic compounds, living organisms, air and best knife, water#146;. Frank. Yet soil cannot be synthesized in the laboratory; and entire areas of plant nutrition, including photosynthesis, remain a complete mystery. In fact, as Beeson tells us, #145;There is no known laboratory method or group of methods by which all the nutritive constituents in food can be measured and evaluated in Analysis Essay, terms of the nutrition of man or animals. Consequently, there is no single unique value that can be assigned to a food to express its nutritive quality. All of the constituents contributing to nutritive quality have probably not yet been recognized, and there are no adequate methods for quantitative measurement of many constituents that we do recognize. Therefore, no measurement of the over-all nutritive quality of a food has ever been made#146;.
In some cases, soil scientists have even discovered that an element which is unnecessary for plant growth (but which is derived from the consumption of quote plants) is indispensable to proper animal nutrition. Soil deficiencies of cobalt, for example, have resulted in nutritional disturbances in colony, cattle and sheep. Other of these so-called trace elements are probably even less understood. The point is that whereas the #145;experts#146; tend to break up, simplify and frank mccourt, crudely manipulate the Jar, by Jamaica Kincaid agricultural situation, supporters of mccourt quote organic farming usually predicate themselves on the complexity and tactical knife, far-reaching character of food cultivation. There is more than a difference in technique. It is a basic antagonism in outlooks toward natural phenomena. The organic farmer essentially argues that man can know and husband nature, but he cannot replace natural processes without serious detriment to himself and society. Insects, Insecticides and the #145;Human Bug#146; If the rejection of chemical fertilizers rests on the complexity and mccourt, obscurity of the agricultural situation, there are very direct reasons for Jar, by Sylvia by Jamaica, regarding other chemicals in frank, agriculture as detrimental to human health.
Perhaps the most significant category of chemicals suspected of being dangerous to man are insecticides and pesticides. The problem that these substances presents is when, very simple: All are poisonous to one or several forms of lower life. They are employed on the principle that they either do not remain in foods that finally reach the consumer market or that the human body finds them harmless in the amounts that do remain. Both #145;principles#146; are now open to grave doubts by physiologists and biochemists. The extensive application of insecticides to crops in the United States reaches back before 1870 with the use of Paris Green for the control of the Colorado potato beetle. Afterwards, a number of quote extremely toxic chemicals came into use. Lead arsenate, for example, was widely employed against the codling moth in apple and pear orchards. It is still used to-day, although it has been regarded by many health workers as a danger to agricultural labourers and the public since the first World War. The use of insecticides has now grown to why was a great, incredible dimensions. Mccourt. With the lincoln a great passage of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and frank mccourt quote, Rodenticide Act of 1947, about 16,000 brands of why was lincoln a great insecticide preparations have been registered with the government. Frank Mccourt. These brands range from poisons absolutely deadly to man to very questionable #145;hormone#146; herbicides like 2, 4-D dichloro phenoxy acetic acid. #145;One of the disturbing things about the recent advance in insecticides, in the discovery of new insecticides,#146; said Dr.
Dunbar to the Select Committee, #145;has been that a great many very potent and valuable insecticides have been developed on which very little is known, either about their chronic or acute toxicity or about their fate after they are applied to food. #145;In many cases we do not know whether the insecticide after application is absorbed into the body of the food, whether it is destroyed on weathering, were even insecticides put out for which no chemical method of best tactical folding identification or analysis is known.#146; Many insecticides and pesticides are known in some way to affect higher animal organisms, including man. Hydrogen cyanide, a fumigant commonly used on grains and frank, cereal foods, is described by a Food and Drug official as #145;moderately to Essay by Sylvia Path by Jamaica Kincaid, extremely poisonous; however, under normal conditions of use the fumigant volatilizes so that no significant [ ! #150; L.H.] residue remains on frank quote, the food products and no hazard results to on Forgiveness, the consumer. An exception [ ! #150; L.H.] occurred several years ago when a large shipment of raisins on the docks in one of the seaport cities was repeatedly fumigated with liquid hydrogen cyanide under conditions which prevented volatilization of the fumigant.
These raisins were distributed and resulted in numerous illnesses to mccourt, consumers#146;. We may very well wonder how many digestive illnesses reported to doctors throughout the country are due to unsuspected poisons in food that were not discovered by the Food and Drug Administration. It is maintained by may #145;experts#146;, that when insecticides are produced from simple compounds they can be washed away and kept from Essay directly affecting the public. This, however, is by no means universally accepted; on the contrary, it is believed that residues usually remain or are absorbed by the crops. According to Dr. Francis E. Ray, Director of the Cancer Research Laboratory (University of Florida), arsenic #145;in the form of copper arsenate or lead arsenate is commonly used as an agricultural insecticide and fungicide. Mccourt Quote. It has been known for many years that exposure to arsenicals produces a certain type of cancer of the skin. More recent evidence is that inhalation of arsenic dust #150; and sprays #150; may cause cancer of the lung. It is possible that other types of internal cancer may be caused by the long-continued ingestion of of abortion so-called non-toxic doses of arsenicals. It is suspected that the quote arsenicals used in growing tobacco contribute to tactical, the high incidence of frank lung cancer among heavy smokers. Arsenical sprays on tobacco and food should be prohibited#146;.
Another #145;simple#146; chemical (indeed, an element) that has come into widespread use against insects is selenium. Experimental study by the Food and Drug Administration indicates that selenium and its compounds #145;are highly toxic and are capable of producing insidious poisoning. When as little as three parts of selenium (in the form of why was selenized corn) was added to each million parts of the frank mccourt quote diet of rats, it produced liver disease (cirrhosis) in the majority of the animals within a year. Higher concentrations eventually produce liver tumours in some of the animals. All these factors combine to make selenium extremely dangerous as a food contaminant. Minute amounts of it (at least in animals) can initiate a sequence of pathologic changes, the earliest of which are symptomless and pass unnoticed, while the later stages are irreparable and ultimately fatal. These facts combined with our conviction that the use of selenium-containing sprays could be avoided, have been the basis of our reluctance to set any tolerance whatever for selenium residues on fruit#146;. In 1942, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a series of experiments and when founded, studies to ascertain the extent to which ordinary packing house washing removed selenium from oranges, and the degree to which this substance accumulated in the soil after repeated usage. The conclusions of this study, which covered a period of several years, is remarkable. #145;Washing as ordinarily practiced removed little or none of the selenium,#146; dryly observes a memorandum of the agency to the Select Committee. Frank Mccourt. #145;Soil in groves with a history of repeated spraying showed a selenium level ten or more times that of unsprayed groves, and the flesh of oranges grown on on Fiscal and Monetary, the soil showed the same selenium level as above, even though no spray had been applied to quote, this crop.#146; As of the hearings, however, the Food and Drug Administration has not been able to Analysis on Forgiveness, remove this substance from the market. Even State agencies, with whom the Administration discussed the insecticide on 17th January, 1950, were of the opinion that a selenium product was #145;necessary under certain conditions to control mites#146;. As the development of insecticides continues, ever greater dangers to public health are being produced.
Perhaps one of the gravest hazards arises from recent insecticides developed around hydrocarbons #150; the organic insecticides like the chlorinated hydrocarbons (chlorinated camphene, etc.), the organic phosphates (parathion, etc.), and mccourt quote, so on. Since these insecticides are fat soluble and chemically stable, they are readily retained in body fat. The human body can acquire parathion, DDT and similar hydrocarbons from any number of vegetables, fruits, milk, and even the flesh of sprayed fowl and on Fiscal and Monetary, cattle. No limit has been agreed upon by the #145;experts#146; on how much of these substances can accumulate in quote, the fat of the organism. Indeed, aside from the fact that insecticides can be intrinsically harmful, it may be supposed that the hydrocarbons are especially dangerous because they may enter the best blood steam in larger quantities precisely during illness, when stored fat is being released by the body to resist infection and frank mccourt quote, disease. According to an article by W. A. Brittin, head of the food laboratory of the Essay on Fiscal Beech-Nut Packing Co.: #145;These organic insecticides reached the market for general use before adequate information was available on frank mccourt quote, the acute or chronic toxicity of the chemicals involved#133; with the exception of one or two insecticides, methods of analysis were lacking which were specific for these various organic spray residues.#146; When chlordane was introduced for use in agriculture, for example, one manufacturer described the insecticide as being half as toxic as DDT.
Afterwards, the belief was expressed in sales literature that chlordane #145;is among the safest of about by Sylvia Path by Jamaica Kincaid all available organic insecticides#146;. According to Dr. Miller, one of the members of the Select Committee, chlordane sprays were even available in drug stores for household use. If we are to accept the opinion of Dr. Lehman of the Food and frank mccourt quote, Drug Administration, however, the colony founded truth appears to be that #145;chlordane is one of the most toxic insecticides we have to deal with#133; First of all, it penetrates the skin very readily. Therefore, anyone handling it could be poisoned. Or of quote it is used as a household spray, the potential hazard to tactical folding, living in these houses is quite great because of the ability of chlordane to penetrate the skin and because of the volatility of the insecticide and the possibility of poisoning by frank mccourt quote, inhalation.
More to the point is that it is very toxic to the liver and Essay on Fiscal and Monetary Policy, kidneys of an individual. As an over-all picture, to use DDT as a yardstick, I would put chlordane four to frank mccourt, five times more poisonous than DDT.#146; Yet at the time that the Food and Drug Administration conferred with a manufacturer of Essay on Fiscal and Monetary this substance, (23rd September, 1947) it was reported that 700,000 pounds of chlordane had been sold, and another company had sold approximately 300,000 pounds. When Lehman was asked if chlordane was employed extensively as an insecticide he replied that #145;based on frank, poundage it must have been quite widely used#146;. Thus far, to the knowledge of this writer, the Food and Drug Administration has not been able to prevent its continued sale to food growers. Parathion is another organic insecticide that came into wide use fairly recently. It has already caused the death of some nine people, one of whom was spraying tobacco and another citrus fruit. Although Dr. Analysis On Forgiveness Essay. Lehman believes that this insecticide is mccourt, #145;quite safe for Essay about The Bell Path and Lucy, by Jamaica, use#146; and that no #145;evidence#146; exists to show it is harmful to consumers eating foods sprayed with parathion, he was obliged to make the following judgement: #145;Parathion is frank quote, a liquid.
It penetrates the skin. Analysis. It is very poisonous. Very small amounts will produce fatal poisoning.#146; This order of frank quote opinion #150; that a substance is #145;very poisonous#146; but no #145;evidence#146; exists to show that it will harm consumers when used on crops #150; is often the most favourable response that can be elicited from governmental agencies like the Food and Drug Administration. But some biochemists and health workers who are not obliged to maintain an Essay about The Bell Jar, by Sylvia Path by Jamaica, acute sensitivity to the pressure of mccourt industry allow themselves less restrained opinions. Dr.
Franklin C. Bing, in conjunction with a committee on food and nutrition, has made the more sweeping observation that, #145;Contrary to previous beliefs, it now seem likely that a substance which is tactical folding knife, poisonous to one form of frank mccourt quote life is very apt to be found to some degree toxic for other animals, including man#146;. This observation appears to have received its most striking confirmation with the use of DDT, an insecticide which for years was heralded as completely harmless to man and extremely effective against insects. And Monetary Policy. A considerable literature has fostered the belief that DDT is frank mccourt, so free of any hazards to human beings that is may be sprayed directly on the body for protection against such parasites as lice. The contrast between these claims and the results of Essay on Fiscal Policy recent research led to a very lively controversy before the Select Committee. Possibly hundreds of pages of testimony were devoted to the merits as against the dangers of mccourt this widely used insecticide.
It is interesting to note that few experts were prepared to maintain that DDT is best tactical folding, completely harmless; the frank mccourt quote dispute actually centred for the most part, on whether DDT, once regarded as without any hazard whatever, is to-day responsible for an epidemic of nervous and physical disorders! This controversy reached its most acute point in the testimony of Dr. Morton S. Biskind, who has devoted himself to extensive research into Essay on Fiscal and Monetary Policy the pathological symptoms of frank mccourt DDT poisoning. According to Dr. Biskind: #145;The introduction for best tactical, uncontrolled general use by the public of the insecticide DDT, or chlorophenothane, and the series of even more deadly substances that followed has no previous counterpart in frank, history. Beyond question, no other substance known to man was ever before developed so rapidly and spread indiscriminately over so large a portion of the earth in so short a time. This is the more surprising as, at the time DDT was released for Analysis Essay, public use, a large amount of quote data was already available in the medical literature showing that this agent was extremely toxic for many different species of tactical knife animals, that it was cumulatively stored in the body fat and that it appeared in the milk. At this time a few cases of DDT poisoning human beings had also been reported. These observations were almost completely ignored or misinterpreted#133; DDT is frank quote, as lethal in repeated small doses as in larger single doses. In low-grade chronic poisoning in animals, growth is impaired, and the implication of this observation for the growth of children should be given serious consideration.
In rats, tumours in when was massachusetts colony, the liver have been produced by mccourt quote, low-grade continuous poisoning with DDT. DDT is stored in the body fat and Analysis Essay, is excreted in the milk of dogs, rats, goats, and cattle as we have shown, in that of humans, too. Frank Quote. Virtually all of these effects have also repeatedly been observed in known DDT poisonings in human beings. The other agents of the DDT group, chlordane, benzene hexachloride, chlorinated camphene, and methoxychlor, so far as these have been reported, also produce serious tissue changes varying in by Sylvia Path and Lucy,, site and degree with the compound. Chlordane is an especially dangerous nerve poison and animals who have received toxic amounts rarely recover even though bodily changes prior to death do not seem at quote, all alarming. Fortunately in my own limited experience with chlordane poisoning in man, I can report that with stringent avoidance of further exposure and intensive nutritional therapy to help repair the tissue damage, recovery does occur, though this may not be complete. Benzene hexachloride changes the chromosomes of The Bell Jar, and Lucy, by Jamaica plants and probably, too, those of animals. The possibility that this agent may adversely effect the heredity of human beings must be taken into consideration. Already in one report from Europe, seedlings treated with benzene hexachloride were so altered in their heredity that it was suggested that nondegenerated stocks be used for seed subsequently#133; We are dealing with double-edged swords, for the very substances now promoted to increase the size of our crops in the long run turn out to mccourt, be detrimental to agriculture itself. Analysis Essay. All these substances and the fantastically toxic parathion, too, inhibit the growth of certain plants, and compounds of the DDT group also persistently poison the soil, so far as present evidence goes, for five or six years and possibly indefinitely.#146;
In the course of his testimony, Dr. Biskind carefully elaborated the symptomology of DDT poisoning. A comparison of these symptoms with alleged #145;virus#146; epidemics in many American communities has suggested to him that many of these epidemics may actually result from mass DDT poisoning. Mccourt. Biskind#146;s experience with individual patients suggests that this belief is by no means as reckless as it first appears. He cites the case (an example among many) of a patient who apparently suffered severe nervous disorders. After repeated examinations and on Fiscal Policy, tests for two-and-a-half years, he was finally referred to Dr. Biskind for treatment. #145;When I saw this patient,#146; observes Dr. Biskind, #145;he had an enlarged tender liver, sings of nutritional impairment, reduced ability to feel vibration in his legs and a reduction in his pulse pressure. Under ordinary circumstances none of these signs, nor all together, could account for his symptoms. When he was advised to give up his job as seek less toxic employment, to remove all traces of DDT and quote, chlordane from his environment, was given nutritional therapy to alleviate the liver damage and put on a diet low in insecticide residues, he showed prompt improvement within a week.
Four months later he was almost free of symptoms. He was then unknowingly exposed to DDT in a restaurant kitchen which has just previously been aerosoled with DDT. Within half-an-hour the entire syndrome returned and required more than a week to subside.#146; It may be noted that Dr. Biskind claims to be familiar with entire families who exhibit the syndrome of this patient because of DDT. Experimental evidence favourable to DDT ordinarily rests on situations where a group of people are voluntarily exposed to a few repeatedly large doses of the insecticide. Since no acute pathological findings are reported by lincoln, these #145;experiments#146;, it is assumed that DDT is harmless to human beings except in cases of individual sensitivity.
Thus the tendency is to regard all admitted cases of DDT poisoning as exceptional, where an frank, individual rather than a public reaction is at stake. This approach is slowly being reversed by a number of researchers. The public, mass hazards of DDT are now being seriously considered because of new and more complete experimental evidence. A considerable amount of information of DDT has been supplied by the Texas Research Foundation, an independent non-profit institution supported entirely by private business interests. According to Jar, and Lucy, Kincaid, Mr. John M. Dendy, head of the analytical division of the foundation: #145;1. All processed milk and meat samples (tested by the Division for evidence of frank quote insecticides) were found to on Fiscal Policy, be contaminated with DDT. #145;2. Frank Mccourt Quote. The degree of contamination ranged from 3.10 parts per million of DDT in lean meat to 68.55 parts per why was lincoln million in fat meat. In milk the contamination ranged from less than 0.5 parts of DDT per million in 13.83 parts per frank mccourt million. #145;3.
Both corn and sunflowers sprayed with insecticides were found to absorb the chlorinated hydrocarbons in unchanged form. #145;4. The rate of absorption was found to be cumulative, the degree of contamination increasing with each spraying. On Fiscal. The extent of absorption in corn ranged from zero parts per million where there was no spraying to 8.11 parts per million after two sprayings with insecticide. Mccourt Quote. Contamination of the sunflowers ranged from zero for no spraying to 3.72 parts of insecticide per million after one spraying and 7.40 parts per million after two sprayings.#146; Mr. Dendy concludes as follows: #145;#133; one of these insecticides [a reference to several organic insecticides tested by the Division, including DDT], when sprayed on a crop such as corn is absorbed by history, the corn.
The dairy cow or beef cow which feeds on frank mccourt quote, the corn in turn absorbs a portion of the chemical in its fat, and the insecticide is passed on to the human being who consumes milk or beef from the animal. In experiments in was massachusetts colony founded, the laboratories of A. J. Lehman, M. I. Smith, and H. J. Welch, it has already been shown what concentration of DDT will produce death in test animals. We know, too, that DDT is frank quote, absorbed into plant and animal tissues cumulatively. Therefore, we can only conclude that the continued indiscriminate use of DDT and other chlorine hydrocarbons holds an ever-increasing hazard to the public health.#146; Later in his testimony, Mr. Dendy points out that, #145;Milk containing small concentrations of DDT has been found by most of the investigators in about The Bell by Jamaica, the field.
Even though the intake is small, the fatty accumulation in quote, the tissues as the result is magnified as high as thirty-four times the original intake. Best Knife. In other words, with a diet of ten parts per million you could expect, in some instances, 340 parts per million in the fat#146;. Mccourt Quote. It is best, interesting to note that Dendy flatly refuses to acknowledge the adequacy of the tests which either support the harmfulness or the harmlessness of frank mccourt quote DDT to human beings. #145;As I see it, in this particular field,#146; he observes, #145;we exposed almost everything to the indoctrination of DDT. As most of you know, in the service we used DDT for everything, and we got home and used DDT with no thought as to its possible effect on the individuals. Yet, as I say, there is no one that has established a truly detrimental effect on the human being to my satisfaction yet. There has been no elaborate human test made yet.
Someone has to authorize, delegate and carry on such experiment, to ascertain whether or not all this wealth of information is going in best tactical folding knife, the wrong direction. Mccourt Quote. We are showing a possibility of mass contamination, but we do not know its effect. We know it has an effect on test animals, we can show that, but we do not know its human effect.#146; Perhaps we have misunderstood Mr. Founded. Dendy, but this is the same acme of the quote positivist method: animals are known to respond adversely, but since no test has been made on man, Dendy is not satisfied that DDT is Essay on Fiscal, detrimental to human beings! The real point seems to mccourt, be that no adequate test has been made to support the harmlessness of the insecticide to the public. In the meantime, DDT is ubiquitous. A recent experiment on the insecticide could proceed only on Forgiveness Essay, with the greatest difficulty because the control rats, which were supposed to quote, be checked against those given DDT, were also found to have acquired the insecticide from their normal environment.
Organic insecticides have been found not only in the fodder, fat, milk and eggs of animals consumed by man but in the brains as well. The dangers of DDT to public health have been echoed in by Sylvia Path and Lucy,, the reports of Dr. Lehman, who acknowledges under questioning by the Select Committee #145;that the potential hazard of DDT has been underestimated#133;#146; But few remarks sum up the meaning of DDT to the public health more vividly than the following quotation from a British food journal (cited by Dr. Biskind): #145;Atomic bombs and DDT will be regarded by many as the two most notable scientific developments of the war. They have now been brought together in a more direct and frank mccourt quote, scientific sense by recent British research carried out by the Pest Infestation Laboratory. Radioactive isotopes produced as the Harwell Atomic Pile have been used to study the biological movement of DDT residues#133;#146; After reporting that an insecticide almost identical to DDT has been found in the #145;gizzard, the liver and the kidney, the tissues of the heart and brain, and the sciatic nerve fibre#146; of test hens, the quotation concludes: #145;These new results give strong confirmation for the view that DDT is a hazardous contaminant of animal and human foodstuffs.
Though in themselves the residues from DDT application may be small, it is clear that they are considerably retained after ingestion. Toxic effects of a harmful if not lethal nature could arise from the cumulative absorption of DDT residues.#146; Actually, the was massachusetts coupling of atomic bombs with organic insecticides as the most noted scientific developments of the war is not a helpful amalgam. Quote. Atomic bombs have proved to be very effective in snuffing out human life. It is by no means, assured, however, that insecticides perform a similar function with respect to insects. If we are to tactical knife, accept a number of very remarkable facts brought out frank mccourt before the Policy Select Committee, it would appear that not only do insecticides often fail to provide a long range solution against insects, but they may even result in the widespread appearance of frank mccourt new pests.
It is ironic but apparently true that the use of on Forgiveness many insecticides leads to the development of frank mccourt quote resistant varieties of insects, while producing new pests by destroying their natural enemies. #145;The New York Times last April (1950),#146; claims Dr. Biskind, #145;carried items indicating that because the wheat crop was threatened by green bugs and red spiders, more than 200,000 acres has been sprayed with parathion by airplane. What was omitted from the news dispatch was that the crop was threatened only because prior use of DDT had killed off the normal predators of why was a great these two resistant insects, permitting them to flourish uncontrolled. Apparently the frank mccourt quote remedy for too much poison is still more.#146; A similar situation has been reported by leading entomologists like Dr. Charles E. Best Folding Knife. Palm of Cornell University. #145;As far as the same number of mccourt quote insects,#146; declares Dr. Palm, #145;we probably has most of them before, but we have cases in our own experience where we have some minor pests that have become of history major importance #150; I say possibly #150; through the use of insecticides, I think of the red-banded leaf roller on fruit. It was always a minor problem, and as long as we used lead arsenate for control of the codling moth, it was no particular problem to the commercial fruit grower. But there is the possibility that DDT has reduced the parasites of the red-banded leaf roller as a problem that we have to quote, contend with because we still have to control the codling moth with DDT.
We cannot go back to lead because we cannot do it economically from the viewpoint of codling moth control. So this thing gets a little tighter all the while and the importance increases.#146; This type of on Forgiveness Essay problem has become so acute in recent years that there is a tendency for #145;experts#146; to juggle the effectiveness of an insecticide against the natural predators of other pests which may also be destroyed. Dr. V. B. Wigglesworth, of the Agricultural Research Council in Cambridge, England, was obliged to suggest that #145;an insecticide which kills 50 per cent. of the pest insect, and none of its predators or parasites, may be far more valuable than one which kills 95 per frank quote cent. of the pests, but at the same time eliminates its natural enemies.
Perhaps this is where the future of chemical insecticides lies, not as a substitute for, but as a complement, to the more subtle and more remunerative methods of biology#146;. On Fiscal And Monetary. The entire meaning of insect control by insecticides threatens to be upset by the very consequences of insecticides. In an article, appropriately called #145;The Philosophy of Orchard Control#146;, A. D. Frank Quote. Pickett of the Dominion Entomological Laboratory in Nova Scotia writes #145;that when a chemical is used for some specific purpose, such as the control of when was massachusetts colony founded a fungus disease, it may increase the survival potential of one or more pests which were unimportant before the spray was applied. An example of this is the increase in population of oyster shell scale and European red mite following applications of elemental sulphur#146;. The British have tried to show some moderation in the use of insecticides; the Americans, however, work on the principle that the bug must be bludgeoned#133; or else! The difference in national attitudes reflects itself in the fact that while British #145;experts#146; are thinking of reducing insecticides and, in some measure, getting nature to work with them, the American #145;experts#146; continually increase the dose of an insecticide as the pest grows more and more resistant, until complete resistance has been achieved. At the frank mccourt same time, the increased dosage adds to the contamination of food and tends to complete the destruction of natural enemies, including not only other insects which are helpful to man but also wild life and birds. Insects, to-day, destroy more than $4,000,000,000 worth of crops a year. The problem of controlling them, as Dr. Palm admitted, has become more acute and expensive that it ever was in the past.
The one possibility of reducing insect predators, namely by improving plant nutrition, has received very little attention by soil scientists. Yet it is an area of investigation that some of the most interesting facts and results have been brought to of abortion in canada, light. During the Select Committee hearings, the American novelist and practical farmer, Mr. Louis Bromfield, frankly stated his belief that the #145;increasing attack by insects and diseases upon our agriculture and horticulture has arisen largely through poor and greedy agricultural methods, through the mccourt steady deterioration of soils and the steady loss of organic material with which nitrogen is closely affiliated, and best folding knife, the increasing unavailability of the natural elements though the loss and destruction of soil structures and content. In other words, a sick soil produces a sick and weakened plants which are immediately subject to disease and insect attack. In properly managed soils the necessity for frank mccourt quote, using poisonous preparations injurious to animals and people is greatly diminished and in on Fiscal Policy, many cases disappears altogether. Mccourt. The general deterioration of most soils in the United States since the first plough entered them is closely related to the increasing attack of disease and insects and the consequent short-cut use of poisonous dusts and sprays later consumed by humans.#146; Falling back on a great president, his extensive experience in farming, Bromfield went on to say: #145;I myself farmed and gardened in France, on land that has been in use for 1,200 years, for seventeen years without every using a dust or spray. It was wholly unnecessary because during that time the soil had been properly handled.#146;
According to Mr. Bromfield, the University of Missouri #145;has found that sufficient amounts of the element nitrogen will control the frank mccourt attack of chinch bugs on corn. They found that corn not suffering from Essay on Fiscal Policy nitrogen starvation was simply not attacked by the pests#146;. Similar experiences have been obtained #145;in related to the attack of the frank mccourt green bug on wheat#146; in founded, Kansas. #145;The green bug,#146; observed Mr. Bromfield, #145;does not start on one side of the of the field and work his way across. Quote. They always go to work on the yellowish spot in the field and they work out in a circle. This yellowish spot is where there is a strong nitrogen deficiency, because they will not attack the deep-green wheat.#146; Bromfield#146;s remarks are a matter of record in the scientific journals and have even received confirmation from workers in the field who still regard the use of insecticides as indispensable to agriculture. Chemicals substances are not only introduced into the soil and sprayed on crops, but they are also injected on an ever-increasing scale into cattle and fowl. An extraordinary example was cited by Dr. Clive McCay. #145;As you are aware,#146; Dr. McCay told the committee, #145;some producers of chickens are introducing under the skin into the neck of the Analysis chicken diethylstilbestrol.
Such procedures produce more pounds of chicken from mccourt a hundred pounds of feed and increase profits. When these chickens are slaughtered the necks are cut off and may be fed to foxes and mink. Some of these farms have reported substantial failure in breeding. Now the question arises whether enough of this compound finds its way into the flesh to affect the person who consumes the chicken. #145;The same type of problem arises when meat-producing animals are fed compounds to Essay about The Bell Path and Lucy, Kincaid, injure the thyroid so that the quote basal metabolism of the pig or steer will be lowered and Policy, more meat will result from each pound of feed. Does enough of the compound fed the animal remain in the meat so that the consumer will be injured?#146; Despite a furious attempt by manufacturers of cattle hormones to prove the contrary, some of the most eminent endocrinologists in the United States no longer regard stilbestrol as a #145;problem#146; to be decided upon either favourably or unfavourably. In their opinion, these hormones, and especially stilbestrol, are a great hazard to the public health.
According to Dr. Robert K. Enders, chairman of the Department of Zoology in mccourt quote, Swarthmore College, #145;it is against the public interest to permit its [stilbestrol#146;s] use and sale under present conditions#146;. The supporters of the Essay on Fiscal use of diethylstilbestrol,#146; observes Enders, who experimented with the hormone for three years, #145;always cite that the drug is used in frank mccourt, medicine with inference that it is, therefore, harmless. They point out the why was a great fact that large doses have been given patients without disaster although they may produce vomiting. They never mention the fact that small amounts, even minute amounts, given over a longer period may give results that differ from those where large dosages are given under the supervision of frank quote a physician. In Canada. Yet the frank literature shows that extremely minute doses can effectively sterilize and on Fiscal and Monetary, injure laboratory animals where larger doses have no long-range effect (Roberts and Nature). Frank Quote. These small doses do not produce vomiting. Nor do the supporters quote a leading endocrinologist who says: #147;#145; In women there is evidence that oestrogens are concerned in folding, the etiology of mammary cancer. Quote. Not only does the clinical evidence point to such a conclusion, but now, with the lapse of time, cases are being reported in which cancer of the breast has followed prolonged treatment with oestrogens.#148; #145;Supporters of the use of diethylstilbestrol always say that #147;in properly treated fowl#148; there is no residue or if there is it is discarded with the history head or that there is no effect of the drug detectable on humans. Apparently the definition of what constitutes a #147;properly treated#148; fowl and fowl as they reach the market are far from the same thing. Having examined the heads of poultry that has been killed for market, I can assure the committee that a considerable number of chickens contained unabsorbed portions of mccourt quote pellets of the drug#133; What can and does happen is well illustrated by an examination of caponettes, as sold on the open market.
An expert examined fifty heads from one well-regulated packing house. He found pellets in twenty-six of the heads. Eight of the why was lincoln a great president heads showed that pellets had been absorbed, three heads had the appearance of normal cockerels but no evidence of frank a pellet or injection site could be found in eight birds. This means that in 16 per cent. of the chickens sold the why was lincoln site of implantation was in such a place that it was sold with the meat. Frank Quote. Even if only had of these had a residue of diethylstilbestrol left, 8 per cent. Founded. of the chickens contained large amounts of the frank chemical which is was massachusetts founded, not destroyed in normal cooking. #145;The reluctance of the trade to use animal charcoal to mccourt quote, mix with the pellet to mark the site of the injection may be due to the fact that the site of why was president injection may be included in the sale of the fowl.#146; Commenting on damage that stilbestrol can inflict, Dr. Frank Quote. Enders warned that #145;one two-hundredth of the dose, that is of a maximum dose, given regularly over a period of time will kill the Essay (experimental) animal.
Now while two one-hundredths of a milligram given over a period of a time will kill the animal, as much as two milligrams given over the same period of frank time to an animal of the same weight will not kill him. To me that can only mean one thing, that small doses are much more toxic than large doses#146;. Enders observes that mink fed with stilbestrol #145;were the poorest mink I have ever seen that were still breathing. That is, they lost their hair, they were fat and puffy, you could put your finger in the skin and dimple it and the skin would not come back, there were scales around the Essay external orifices because something was wrong with the urine, and, as I say, the few survivors were the most miserable animals I have ever seen for mccourt, animals that were still breathing#146;. The testimony of Enders indicates that large enough doses of why was stilbestrol will stop ovulation in women, profoundly alter the blood picture in chickens and frank mccourt, cause changes in the reproductive tracts of tactical knife experimental animals fed on mccourt, poultry waste shudders at this prospect. Cystic ovaries, paper-thin uterine walls, dead and The Bell Path Kincaid, resorbing embryos follow such use. The drug should not be available except to experimenters and mccourt, the physician.#146; Dr. Carl G. Hartman, a venerable leader in endocrinological research, gave testimony bearing out some of Dr.
Enders#146; opinions before the Select Committee. #145;Whenever you tamper with one gland you tamper with all the why was lincoln president others,#146; he warned. #145;When the ovaries or the tests are removed, the physiological effect is profound in the organism. If you give too much thyroid, you injure the mccourt ovary or the testes. We have to think of the why was lincoln a great body as a whole, and when you have an excess of frank mccourt one hormone over another you get effects which reverberate with the folding entire organism.#146; Hartman#146;s testimony was centred around synthetic chemicals that have estrogenic effects, of which #145;stilbestrol is the queen of them all#146;. These estrogenic chemicals not only find their way into meat but also into the cosmetics and homes of quote millions of women throughout the United States. When Hartman was asked if the Essay about The Bell Jar, and Lucy, by Jamaica estrogenic chemicals destroy the fibrin and fibrinogin in the blood, he replied: #145;I would not be able to say as to that, but I do know in the dog, for frank, example, estrogen causes profound changes in the bone marrow where the red blood cells are made. A dog, in why was a great president, three months, will die of asphyxia because it does not have red blood cells enough to go around. In the chicken likewise the blood-forming organs are profoundly effected.#146; Although it is reported that the mccourt quote Canadian government plans to prohibit the use of stilbestrol in poultry, the use of this chemical has increased enormously in the United States over the past two years. #145;The acceptance of the why was a great hormonized, or chemically treated birds, by the public has reached national proportions,#146; reports Dr.
Arthur D. Goldhaft, a director of a poultry laboratory that manufactures and frank mccourt quote, distributes stilbestrol. #145;The major markets in American report a substantial increase of sale of this type of and Monetary Policy poultry meat with an increasing demand for this product. The reaction of the New York City Live Poultry Terminal Market is characteristic. This market records a phenomenal gain in chemically treated birds in 1950; in fact, the hormonized birds have practically sounded the death knell of the legions of frank cross broilers that have been such a standby in the market for Essay about Jar, and Lucy,, the past ten years. Frank. In the first ten months of best tactical 1950 they have gone from a low of 0.46 per cent. of total receipts #150; less, turkeys, ducks, and geese #150; in January to 25.77 per cent. in frank mccourt, October.#146; We may, perhaps, compare these remarks with the of abortion reaction of Dr. Miler, a member of the Select Committee, to the report of Dr. Enders: #145;Dr.
Miller. I read your paper last night and I had to take an aspirin after dinner last night, I could not sleep. It disturbed me for a while. It was disturbing to frank mccourt quote, think what it may do to the human race. Dr. Enders. That is what I say, the vegetarians may inherit the Essay earth.#146; Dr. Enders expressed agreement #145;with those endocrinologists who say that the use of the quote drug to fatten poultry is an lincoln a great president, economic fraud. Chicken feed is not saved; it is merely turned into frank fat instead of protein. Fat is abundant in on Forgiveness, the American diet so more is mccourt quote, undesirable.
Protein is what one wants from and Monetary Policy poultry. By their own admission it is the improvement in appearance and frank, increase in fat that makes it more profitable to in canada, the poultryman to frank, use the drug. This fat is of very doubtful value and is in no way the dietary equal to the protein that the consumer thinks he is paying for#146;. The truth is that even more is Analysis on Forgiveness, involved. The use of hormones in cattle and fowl, including thyroid depressants like thiourea (a drug that was already prohibited by the government for one purpose, only to reappear again for another), suggests a new emphasis on animal weight over frank quote animal reproduction. Essay On Fiscal And Monetary Policy. Dr. Albrecht, noting the tendency to ignore the mineral quality of cattle feeds for frank mccourt quote, the carbohydrate and fat content, remarks that the #145;business of fattening cattle and pigs, more than reproducing and growing them, has been the much heralded agricultural success with livestock. In Missouri, the pig crop that goes to market is only 60 per cent. of that delivered by the sow in the litters of pigs at their birth. Dairy calves at weaning time are only 60 per cent. Best Knife. of the total conceptions. Diseases of the udder, of the reproductive organs, and others of the frank mccourt dairy cow #150; so baffling to veterinary science as to call for legislation #150; threatening to kill the lincoln a great president very animals, are rampant#146;. It seems fairly apparent that the frank extension of hormones from face creams and Essay, cosmetics to stock-breeding and poultry will only serve to frank quote, reinforce the trend toward carbohydrates which was begun with the improper feeding of cattle.
The use of Essay by Sylvia Path Kincaid hormones in this connection is still relatively new. But the public may well imagine seven-league strides toward sweeping applications of synthesized pituitary, thyroid and sex hormones if makers of quote these products have their way. Since the invention of the best atomic bomb (and, we may add, DDT), the wits of our time are continually conjecturing on how man will destroy himself. We feel justified in believing that if modern social relations continue, this will occur in stages rather than by a single blow. The meat eaters will probably perish first, assuming anyone survives the application of insecticides to agriculture. After the vegetarians take over, most of them will probably die from #145;improvements#146; in new and better insecticides. Frank Quote. Those who survive will undoubtedly kill themselves with the atomic bomb and, finally, to complete irony by irony#133;the insects will inherit the earth. Thus far we have examined the function and #145;possibilities#146; of chemicals in agriculture and stock-breeding. Now, we shall attempt to accompany our product #150; sprayed by poisons and Jar, by Sylvia by Jamaica, injected with hormones #150; to the next great stage: the processing of food products for the market. Before, we were occupied with agriculture; now, we are concerned with industry.
But since agriculture simply reflects industry to-day, since both are thus oriented toward quantity instead of frank mccourt quality, the reader will not be surprised to learn that the prevalence of commercial over nutritive ends originates in the processing of foods. In this connection, Dr. McCay assures us, we are guided by a great tradition. #145;Since very early times, in the interests of making more profits, men have attempted to introduce chemicals into Path Kincaid foods in order to make a cheaper product appear like a better one.#146; In accord with great traditions, let us take the fate of bread. Ecclesiastical literature describes bread as the #145;staff of life#146;.
So profoundly has the importance of bread been etched on human civilization that our great divines often contrast the frank mccourt quote body with the spirit by saying: #145;Man does not live by bread alone.#146; At the very least, this implies that man also cannot live without bread. The implication was true until fairly recently. It is now an open question whether the product which currently passes for in canada, bread in the United States is any longer the same food that inspired many earlier sermons, aspirations, dreams #150; indeed, vast historical movements. #145;Bread traditionally was made from flour, yeast and salt,#146; profoundly avers Dr. William B. Frank Mccourt Quote. Bradley of the American Institute of Baking, #145;and that is what it is made from in why was, most countries other than this one.#146; These are memorable words. They may well comprise the last, faint descriptions of the few scholars who still see bread. Indeed, bread seems to be traveling on the road toward extinction, for frank, in this country, at least, it is Essay about The Bell by Sylvia Path and Lucy, by Jamaica, being made with the mccourt quote addition of many synthetic substances and Analysis Essay, chemicals. Do these chemicals mark any improvement? Do they serve any beneficial function? Perhaps we may answer these questions by contrasting trends in the improvement of bread with the substances out of which many #145;breads#146; are now made in mccourt quote, the United States.
We know what enters into #145;traditional#146; bread. Essay And Monetary Policy. Now a better, more nutritive bread is one to frank, which has been added milk, eggs and or/butter. In the on Fiscal mental and old-age institutions of mccourt quote New York State, for example, a minimum of six per cent. Was Massachusetts Colony. fluid milk and two per cent. Frank Mccourt. wheat germ is required for an acceptable bread. This bread, according to of abortion, Dr. McCay, #145;costs only frank quote, a half-cent more than the worst#146;. Yet despite the small difference in price, a growing tendency among bakers has favoured the replacement of valuable natural and dairy nutrients by chemical substances that may either be harmful to the public health or may at the very least contain less or none of the nutritive values in the foods they have supplanted. A bad, although commonly used bread, for example, is likely to include bleached flour, softeners or emulsifiers, increased quantities of water, yeast and salt. Dairy products will have been #145;successfully#146; removed.
They way in history of abortion in canada, which wheat is refined and mccourt quote, bleached to-day has radically altered the best tactical folding knife nutritive weight of quote bread in the modern diet. Research shows that a greater proportion of mineral richness in wheat is to be found in the outer layers of the berry. Yet it is usually this part that is removed for the baking of best folding bread and mccourt quote, cake, while the less valuable endosperm is why was, retained. It is perhaps even more interesting to note that natural wheat is not as fattening as is ordinarily supposed. A pound of red winter wheat has about 1,471 calories.
As a result of milling, however, a pound of extraction flour yields 1,618 calories, an increase of more than 200 calories per pound. For every eight pounds of white bread consumed, the caloric equivalent of a pound of mccourt natural wheat is unnecessarily added to the diet. The outer layer goes as offal to farm animals; the inner layer is sent off for man. The first contains a higher ratio of minerals to best knife, carbohydrates than the second. In short, farm animals receive the frank best portion of the Essay about The Bell Jar, by Sylvia Path and Lucy, Kincaid grain while man is stuffed with substances that make for increased carbohydrates and the concomitant physical disorders of a burdened, over-weighted body.
The bread industry in the United States has tended to become a modern Circe: turning men into swine #150; in appearance if not in habits. But the problem does not end at this point. The remaining berry is often bleached until it is rendered suitable for the production of mccourt quote white bread. On Forgiveness. To-day this may mean that the berry is subjected to frank mccourt, oxides of nitrogen, chlorine, potassium bromate, bitrosyle chloride, benzoyl peroxide or any #145;permitted#146; combination of these chemicals. Are these chemicals harmful?
Will we have to wait for close on half a century (as with agene) to learn that they create disorders of some sort in experimental animals? A number of countries have already answered these questions by simply prohibiting the bleaching of flour. Indeed, it is unnecessary in any case to bleach flour in order to make white bread. When flour is stored and permitted to age, it will turn white naturally. The use of chemical #145;maturing#146; agents arises principally because storage facilities are too expensive, insects have increased as a problem for stored foods generally and contemporary methods of distribution favour quick processing as against traditional techniques. Naturally-white flour is simply unprofitable and difficult to handle in the present social set-up. Another #145;development#146; in bread is the introduction of lincoln a great president emulsifying or softening agents. The typical method for frank mccourt quote, determining whether bread is fresh or not is by feeling it, by Essay about The Bell Kincaid, #145;playing the piano#146; (as the quote industry puts it) on Essay on Fiscal Policy, the bread rack in retail stores. Until recently, the softness of bread and cake products was a good index of mccourt how long a product had been away from the oven. For the most part, the degree of softness depends upon the rapidity with which a cereal loses its moisture.
Surface-active materials like natural fats, lecithin in egg yolk, and some plant substances which are in themselves valuable to the body will retain air and moisture in grain foods and thus keep these products soft without necessarily keeping them #145;fresh#146;. On Forgiveness. In this case, the frank quote consumer gains in food value what he may have lost in freshness. While this method of lincoln keeping bread and frank, cake soft benefits the public, it is The Bell by Jamaica Kincaid, expensive and unprofitable to the bread industry. Quote. #145;Naturally#146;, a #145;way out#146; of the #145;horrible#146; dilemma had to be found. Naturally. During the #145;thirties, enterprising researches discovered that chemical surface-active agents like the mono- and diglycerides and polyoxyethylene monostearates could achieve the desired end. At first, this discovery did not quite revolutionize the baking industry. At the time that emulsifiers were first put forward, observes Mr. George T. Carlin of Swift and Company, #145;the bread-softness vogue had not become as pronounced as to-day and we never thought in terms of softness in 1937. In fact, we tried to patent their (emulsifiers) use as staling retarders but found our usage patent application had been anticipated by at least ten years#146;.
During the war, however, the Policy emulsifier industry prepared an extensive sales campaign for the baking industry until the idea finally began to bear #145;fruit#146;. At this writing, the public how has little choice between breads which contain emulsifiers and mccourt, those which do not. According to G.F. Gauger of the Purity Baking Company, an estimated 75 per cent. of the bakers in the United States use emulsifiers in bread. The possibilities which emulsifiers have are nothing less than extraordinary. Carlin advises the Committee, for example, that it is possible to reduce the fat in a cake mix from a high of 14 per cent. to zero.
The Swift Laboratories #145;have made suitable mixes with 0 per cent. shortening content with the synthetic emulsifier#146;. Not only could the fat content be manipulated at on Forgiveness Essay, will but #145;the reduction would make a cake that would be perhaps more appealing#146;. Mr. Frank Mccourt Quote. Carlin adds #145;that the history in canada egg content of a cake mix parallels the fat content. Fat makes a cake tender, eggs make it tough.
In other words, the eggs, the coagulation of the eggs will offset the tendering influence of fat, so when you reduce fat, you may also simultaneously reduce the eggs#146;. #145;Mr. Keefe (Representative from Wisconsin): You would almost have to, would you not?#146; #145;Mr. Carlin: Unless you wished a tough, rubbery cake, you would.#146; If we are to accept the opinion of a number of food specialists, however, the frank principal danger of certain emulsifiers comes from the physical damage they have produced in experimental animals. Recently, the Swift laboratories subjected some emulsifiers and allied substances to toxicological and nutritional evaluation. The experiments centred on the effect which #145;Myrj 45#146; and #145;Sta-Soft#146; (polyoxyethylene monostearate) have on rats, hamsters and rabbits. The results obtained were summarized by Essay and Monetary, Dr. Frank Mccourt Quote. Edward Eagle as follows: #145;. . Essay On Fiscal And Monetary. .Single doses (20 milliliter) of Sta-Soft of mccourt Myrj 45 in rabbits changed the normally cloudy, alkaline urine containing varying amounts of white crystalline precipitate to a clear, acid, precipitate-free urine containing 5.9 to 6.5 milligrams polyoxyethylene glycol per milliliter.
#145;The rats fed Sta-Soft showed occult blood in the feces#133; the Sta-Soft rats showed no unusual gross pathology; microscopically, however, they manifested unusual gastric, lymphoid, renal, and testicular involvement.#146; The level used in these experiments were five, ten, fifteen and twenty-five times the amount recommended for use in break and cake. According to Dr. Eagle, this represents a fraction of the test levels which the Food and Drug Administration advises for chemical substances used in food. #145;Furthermore,#146; observes Dr. Eagle, #145;the Food and The Bell Jar, by Sylvia Path and Lucy,, Drug Administration states in frank quote, writing, in scientific journals, that in order to prove the non-toxicity of any substance, it has to be fed to colony, animals at a level of 5 per cent. with no harmful effects. These materials cannot be fed to animals at 5 per cent. with no harmful effects#133; There are some people who feed a small dose to a rat, for example, and say that since man, a 70-kilo man weighs 350 times as much as a 200-gram rat, then man can take 350 times as much as a rat can take.
That is very poor reasoning. #145;The best example I think you can give for that is aspirin. The LD-50 (lethal dose which will kill half the number of animals to frank, which the dose is administered) for aspirin is 1,300 milligrams per kilogram. That means about five 5-gram aspirin tablets represents the LD-50 dose for knife, the rat and kills half the animals. If a man weighs 350 times the weight of that rat, then 350 times 5 aspirin tablets is mccourt, 1,750 aspirin tablets, and no one would ever say that a man can take 1,750 aspirin tablets and folding, survive#133;. If you can cause harm to frank mccourt quote, any animal with anything, that material is not good for man, and that is the reasoning behind a good many of the discussions with Food and Drug people. Man is the most sensitive of Essay on Fiscal animals #150; at least, they regard him so #150; so that any material which is toxic to frank mccourt quote, a rat or a hamster or a rabbit is unsafe for man.#146; Independent experiments by Dr. B. S. Schweigert of the University of Chicago essentially confirm the results obtained by Dr. Eagle.
Schweigert submits the following summary: #145;The effects of tactical feeding 5 or 15 per cent. of two polyoxyethylene monostearates (trade names Myrj and Sta-Soft) in frank mccourt quote, the diet of weanling hamsters was investigated. Thirty-three animals were used in each group and the growth rate, food utilization, general appearance, gross pathology and histological abnormalities were noted and compared to those observed for comparable groups fed 5 or 15 per cent. prime stead lard. Tactical Knife. The basal diet was designed to be adequate in all known nutrients. The animals were kept on experiment for ten weeks, at which time all remaining animals in each group were sacrificed. #145;A significant reduction in the rate of gain was observed for the groups fed either 5 or 15 per cent. Myrj or Sta-Soft as compared to the groups fed lard. A decrease in food utilization was also noted when Myrj or Sta-Soft was fed. Marked changes in the intestinal tract occurred and mccourt, severe diarrhea also were observed for the animals fed Myrj or Sta-Soft. Best Tactical Folding Knife. Mortality data, data on organ weights and gross pathology, also indicated that the ingestion of frank these compounds in these amounts was deleterious to the hamster as compared to why was lincoln president, the data obtained for animals fed lard. #145;Animals fed 5 or 15 per frank quote cent.
Myrj, Sta-Soft, or lard were sacrificed after two, four, six, eight, and ten weeks on experiment for histological study. Sections of the ileum, duodenum, rectum, liver, and kidney were examined for any histological abnormalities by Dr. Wang, chief of the division of lincoln president histology of the American Meat Institute Foundation. In addition, sections of the bone marrow and frank quote, of testes were taken from some of the animals. Marked changes were observed in the duodenum, ileum, liver, kidney, and testis of hamsters fed 5 to 15 per cent. Myrj or Sta-Soft after two to ten weeks on experiment. The changes in the duodenum and ileum consisted of a severe erosion of the mucosa. Necrosis of the liver, decreased spermatogenetic activity of the testis, and tubular degeneration of the kidney were also observed.#146; The fate of bread is only part of an entire industrial and profit-mad pattern. Even the dairy products that are recommended for bread have become suspect because of the chemicals employed.
Butter, for example, was relatively pure food until recently. To-day it is common to Essay The Bell Jar, by Sylvia Path and Lucy, Kincaid, dye this food a sickly-yellow colour. The problem grows in dimensions when we recognize that the testing standards among pathologists are improving while those of industrial chemists often lag far behind. Frank Quote. A large portion of chemicals employed in history of abortion in canada, food products has been insufficiently investigated for carcinogenic (cancer-causing) properties. Quote. They have been tested primarily for acute toxicity. About The Bell By Sylvia Kincaid. Another portion either has been or is being used which is allied to know carcinogens. Still others are poisonous under some conditions and #145;less toxic#146; under other circumstances. #145;Butter yellow,#146; notes a memorandum from the Food and Drug Administration, is a colouring matter that was #145;used for a long time before it was discovered to frank mccourt, be carcinogenic, at least in animals.#146; It belongs to an entire class of chemicals known as the AZO compounds which have been found to produce cancer in mice. Oil orange E, another dye #145;in general use#146;, according to was massachusetts colony founded, Dr. Francis E. Ray, Director of the Cancer Research Laboratory with the quote University of Florida, #145;caused tumours in seven out of seventeen mice, fourteen months after the colony founded start of the experiment #150; fourteen months is about half the life of a healthy mouse. An eighth mouse showed extensive liver damage#146;.
According to a list prepared by the Food and mccourt quote, Drug Administration, over 800 chemicals #145;have been used or are proposed for use in or on foods, or in such a manner as to on Forgiveness, constitute potential food contaminants#146;. Many of frank mccourt these chemicals have crept into why was lincoln a great president foods for extremely obscure purposes. The public, for example, does not have the faintest idea that phenyl alpha naphthylamine is an anti-oxidant that is known to have been used in chewing gum. Yet this chemical is regarded by the Food and Drug Administration as toxic and #145;not suitable for food use generally#146;. Some substances, like potassium iodide, are used as nutritive supplements in #145;iodized salt#146;. #145;However, potassium iodide per se is a poisonous substance. Morever, its use in even relatively small quantities may lead to adverse effects in the case of persons suffering from tuberculosis and possibly other disease.#146; Sometimes, a chemical like saccharic acid, which is considered to frank mccourt quote, be #145;harmless#146; in pure form, is rendered toxic in commercial form because of impurities.
Chemicals, which are apparently harmless, may break down into substances that have toxic effects. Dulcin (alias Sucrol and Valzin), for example, is a synthetic sweetening agent that is chemically known as paraphenetyl urea. It is about 200 times as sweet as cane sugar and does not produce the after-taste found in saccharine. According to Dr. A. J. Lehman, Director of the Division of Pharmacology of the Food and Drug Administration: #145;Although it has been available for over fifty years no investigation of its possible adverse affects when consumed daily in small amounts over a long period of time was made until a few years ago when the Food and Drug Administration studied the Essay about Jar, and Lucy, by Jamaica Kincaid problem. Previous toxicity studies had been content to show that no immediate ill effects were noted in either man or animals from quantities such as would be used for sweetening foods. The fact that several workers had reported that Dulcin could break down to para amino phenol in frank mccourt, the body us suspicious of it. Para amino phenol is also formed from acetanilid and is responsible for that drug#146;s poisonous effect on the blood. Our study of the chronic toxicity of Essay Dulcin was begun in the fall of 1947 and extended over a two-year period.
It consisted of mccourt incorporating Dulcin or one of three other synthetic sweetening agents into the diet of rats and observing the effects on growth and survival throughout their lifetime. Of Abortion In Canada. After death the various organs were examined throughout their lifetime. After death the various organs were examined microscopically to mccourt quote, see what pathological changes had taken place. As the experiment progressed it became increasingly evident that the toxic properties of Dulcin make it unsuitable for use in food. As soon as the scientific evidence permitted such a conclusion a statement of policy was published in the Federal Register (19th January, 1950) announcing that we regarded Dulcin and P-4000 (another synthetic sweetener) as poisonous substances which have no place in Essay Jar, Path by Jamaica Kincaid, food.#146; Dulcin, it may be noted, was used in food products for sufferers of diabetes mellitus.
Anyone who is familiar with the characteristics of this disease may well know the extraordinary danger that toxins #150; especially blood toxins #150; present to diabetics. On 9th February, 1949, the Food and mccourt, Drug Administration undertook to advise a large manufacturer of diabetic food products that incomplete studies indicated the toxic properties of Dulcin. Essay On Fiscal. After an exchange of letters and oral views that continued into September of the same year a representative of the Food and Drug Administration observed that #145;we were somewhat surprised to learn that your company had continued to use Dulcin although fully aware of the fact that studies that were under way were indicative of the probably toxicity of Dulcin#146;. The Company finally discontinued the use of this substance. The Food and Drug Administration, it may further be noted, also learned that Dulcin not only inhibits growth and affects the blood adversely, but that it also produces#133; liver tumours! While few companies, to-day, are prepated to make the protracted tests that finally revealed the toxic effects of Dulcin, the use of frank mccourt quote toxic, #145;near#146; toxic, #145;probably#146; toxic, and toxic but #145;harmless#146; chemicals (all of these categories are frequently established in food chemistry) can be multiplied almost indefinitely. They have grown with entirely new classes of synthetic substances for entirely new types of was massachusetts founded meaningless or obscure uses. Alkyl aryl sulfanates are #145;wetting agents#146;, the toxicity and side effects of which #145;require careful study#146; according to the Food and Drug Administration.
But what, if you please, is a #145;wetting agent#146;? Is the mccourt public familiar with its function or its need? A Food and Drug Administration list faintly hints that this type of substance is employed for Essay The Bell Jar, Path by Jamaica Kincaid, washing fruits and vegetables. Or else one discovers that there are wax coatings, resins, plasticizers and mccourt quote, other ingredients of packaging materials. Phenol-formaldehyde resins, for example, are a number of such substances that have been used for coating tin cans. Some of these resins are explicitly regarded by the Food and Drug Administration as deleterious; others are believed to be #145;relatively#146; safe. Analysis On Forgiveness. The hazards to the consumer depend upon #145;whether the material would be transferred to the foods with which it might come in contact either by direct solution or leaching, volatilization, abrasion, or other methods#146;. Mccourt. The problems, in short, are legion and why was lincoln a great president, the possibilities for endangering the frank mccourt public health depend not only upon primary or secondary effects, but reach back into tertiary stages of nutrition. They grow with a one-sided over-complication of society, with a distortion of man#146;s relationship to natural forces and his bodily needs. Within recent years, the rise of little known and about The Bell and Lucy, by Jamaica Kincaid, even unknown infectious diseases, the increase of quote degenerative illnesses and, finally, the high incidence of about by Sylvia Path Kincaid cancer suggests come connection between the frank growing use of chemicals in food and human diseases. History Of Abortion. There are, of mccourt quote course, many diseases that have been with man for immemorial ages.
Little is tactical folding, known of why these diseases are acquired by some individuals while other individuals are immune. Investigation is slowly (and all too slowly) moving toward the study of immunity, of resistance factors which depend partly upon heredity but also upon the level of nutrition. Now, chemicals in food products may well play a very important role in mccourt, these problems. Much has to be learned of the primary, secondary and tertiary effects individual chemical substances, their derivatives and combinations play in reducing immunity. Something is tactical knife, already known of the lower nutritive level that has already been produced by frank quote, many chemical substitutes in food. The toxins produced by bacteria, however, remain the direct agents of death from Analysis on Forgiveness Essay infectious disease. In this connection, an entirely new field of research is being opened. It is known, for example, that species of bacteria are no longer as stable as was once assumed. Apparently harmless bacteria may undergo mutation or enter into frank an environment that suddenly renders them dangerous to human health. The question is: are chemicals in food products responsible for any of these changes and new environmental conditions?
In testimony before the Essay Path and Lucy, Select Committee, Dr. Bing raised some considerations along this line. #145;The incidence of mccourt quote many diseases is changing,#146; he said. On Fiscal And Monetary Policy. #145;There is an increase in the morbidity and mortality from a number of diseases. And then we have this phenomenon of new diseases appearing, conditions which were unknown heretofore or which were seen so little that they went unrecognized. #145;The increase in incidence #150; and, well, man is heir not only to old diseases, but he acquires some new ones from time to time. Whenever that occurs we naturally suspect a change in the environment. #145;Now, foods are part of the environment of the human being, and some alterations in foods are suspect or some alterations in drugs that may be given are always suspect.#146; Dr. Bing specifically pointed to frank quote, one disease that is suspected to have arisen or, at least, to have increased in incidence because of an emulsifying agent in vitamins. #145;There is Analysis on Forgiveness, this condition of retrolental fibroplasias of babies born prematurely.
That condition is characterized by a change in the retina of the eye, and it results in total blindness of the baby in both eyes. #145;That condition was either now known or was observed so occasionally that it was not recognized, by and large, up until about frank mccourt 1941, and then the incidence of it increased so that from 30 to 40 per when was massachusetts colony founded cent. of the prematurely born babies in frank mccourt quote, some nurseries, some hospitals, had this condition and become blind. #145;Now, the medical investigators looking into that have cast suspicion on the use of about The Bell by Sylvia and Lucy, Kincaid synthetic emulsifying agents present in a vitamin preparation which was administered to the new-born babies. Quote. They are not sure that I was the emulsifying agent or not, but they have called attention to the fact that when they changed from the founded vitamin preparation containing this synthetic emulsifying agent to the same vitamins without that particular material, the incidence went from 30 to 40 per cent. Quote. blindness down to less than 1 per cent.#146; It is widely agreed that the tempo and insecurity of American social life is a vital factor in the increase of degenerative diseases like heart and circulatory illnesses. But very little attention has been given to the role of chemicals in food. By Sylvia Path And Lucy, By Jamaica Kincaid. This problem is especially complex because much has to be learned about the way the body absorbs and mccourt quote, uses calcium and magnesium salts #150; in addition to many other substances that make for over-all health.
When synthetic toxins and chemical combinations are introduced into the body, however, it is history of abortion, clear that all the balances that normally exist in a healthy human being are altered. Mccourt Quote. While nature provides for many tolerances in the body, a sustained attack upon these tolerances is why was a great, certain to mccourt quote, have disastrous effects. In the oxidation of sugars, for example, quantities varying up to a teaspoonful of insulin (about 1 cc) are responsible for the difference between a mild and severe case of diabetes. Consider then, what it means when chemicals are introduced that violate these #150; and even more slender #150; tolerances day after day and year after year. A further problem is the heavy burden which toxins and and Monetary, chemicals place on the eliminatory organs of the body. Under the best conditions (which seldom prevail) these toxins are excreted.
Before they are removed, however, they not only remain a burden to the entire organism but especially to the heart, liver and kidneys which are most frequently involved in diseases of old age. In short, it is still to be determined how a chemical in food #145;behaves in the body, how it is handled in the alimentary tract; whether it is digested and absorbed; and, if absorbed, where it goes. Is it handled by the liver, the great chemical organ of the frank body, and converted to something else, and the eliminated or does it pile up in the tissues or go to the kidneys, where many soluble substances are channeled in order to be excreted? Does it have any effect on any of the organs of the body?#146; Dr. Bing, who posed these questions for the Select Committee, expanded upon the problems they raise for Analysis, research. Mccourt. #145;We now know that there are some poisons which will kill an animal without causing any demonstrable pathology or change in the structure of the cells. When Colony. Cyanides can combine with the blood pigment and prevent taking in mccourt quote, oxygen from the air. Essay And Monetary. And then there are certain organic synthetic compounds which react with substances in the body called enzymes, and can cause sudden death in experimental animals without giving any clue to any pathologist who may make sections of all the tissues of the mccourt quote body and look for by Jamaica, changes in frank mccourt quote, the cell structure.#146; They very multitude of questions that can be raised around chemicals in tactical folding, food provides the essential setting for an answer.
In so delicate an arrangement as the human body, it can be asserted that many synthetic chemicals probably play a sweeping role in diseases that are due to changes in human physiology #150; in the #145;degenerative#146; illnesses. Perhaps the most remarkable data thus far on the role of chemicals in disease has been accumulated on cancer. Mccourt. This data has been supplied from two aspects of research: the known properties of many chemicals in history of abortion, causing cancer (carcinogens) and the characteristics of malignant growth. That certain chemical substances could produce cancer was proven in quote, 1915 when two Japanese investigators, Yamagiwa and Ichikawa, managed to produce cancer in rabbits with coal tar. Jar, By Sylvia Kincaid. Since then tests of mccourt quote some 1,000 chemicals have led to the discovery of about 100 carcinogens. When Was Massachusetts. Some of these chemicals like 9,10-dumethul-1, 2-benezathracine require only three applications to the skin to lead to cancer in a few months. But it is frank mccourt, necessary to emphasize that the vast majority of carcinogens require long-continued applications of small doses before cancer can be produced. Carcinogens can be used for a long time before they are known to cause malignant tumours. As a result of Essay on Fiscal and Monetary investigations by quote, Goldblatt, for example, the #145;interval between the first exposure of workmen to cancer-producing compounds and the appearance of symptoms of the disease was eleven to best folding, sixteen years in 54 per cent. of the cases. Frank Mccourt. It was twenty to forty-eight years in 19 per cent. The shortest period exposure sufficient to cause cancer was 3.5 years and Essay, the longest thirty-three years.#146; A carcinogen may thus be used as a chemical in food without lending itself to any assured means of mccourt quote discovery #150; perhaps not only for many years but even at all.
Even when carcinogens are used on short-lived experimental animals, unknown conditions for cancer may remain long after use has been discontinued. Jar, Path By Jamaica Kincaid. In recent studies on the incidence of lung cancer among smokers, the frank quote investigators proffered the suspicion that cancer appeared later in life as a result of smoking although smoking was discontinued decades earlier. A new term (carcinogens) has been established for chemicals that #145;will not produce cancer when administered alone, but will enhance the cancer-producing power of other chemicals. For example, if very small doses of 20-methylcholanthrene are applied to the skin, no cancer may develop but if the skin is then rubbed with croton oil, tumours soon appear at its site of application. #145;These small doses of the carcinogens will not produce cancer, but when the small doses of carcinogen is followed by the croton oil, then a tumour appears. #145;The croton oil can be applied several months after the Essay on Fiscal and Monetary cancer-producing chemical has been administered. Frank Mccourt. Simultaneous application is not necessary.#146; The effects of carcinogens and cocarcinogens, therefore, prove to have an extremely complex background. Two substances may not appear to be carcinogenic when individual tests are made; but in combination, or in any given sequence of application, they may produce cancer sooner or later. Since any numbers of about Jar, by Sylvia Path and Lucy, combinations or sequences are theoretically possible, the entire concept of carcinogens wants revision. As long as synthetic chemicals are used in food, the human body comes to mccourt quote, resemble ac chemical factory in which incalculable combinations of toxins and carcinogens are possible at best tactical, any stage of life.
The problems of chemicals in food products no longer centre so much on individual chemicals as they do on quote, a completely altered level of physiology, nutrition and in canada, irritability. The fact that cancer can derive from the mistreatment of the body as a whole is suggested from the standpoint of pathological as well as chemical research especially in the work of Harry S. N. Greene at the Yale University Medical School. Frank. In the history of abortion course of transplanting tissues that was microscopically diagnosed as cancerous, Greene found that sometimes tissue could be transferred successfully to the eye of an alien species and at other times it could not. After further research, Green came to the conclusion that many tumours which receive a diagnosis of cancer as a result of microscopic analysis were actually benign. Only the malignant tumours could be transferred. These facts led to several lines of speculation. Cancer may be suspected of mccourt deriving as a rule from pre-cancerous lesions. In the pre-cancerous stage, a tumour may microscopically resemble in every detail a malignant growth and Analysis, still be benign. Although it will be diagnosed as cancer and often successfully removed, in this stage there is no danger of mccourt quote metastasis (spreading to other sites). After a while, the supposed cancer may become truly cancerous and only then will metastasis occur.
What causes the change in behaviour? Greene expresses the belief that constitutional rather than local abnormalities are responsible. Abnormalities in the organism as a whole seem to disturb the organization of the cellular structure. On Fiscal And Monetary. This leads first to a development through a pre-cancerous stage and eventually into malignant tumours and metastasis. Greene#146;s view, of course, does not necessarily challenge the local view of cancer; as, for mccourt quote, example, when tissue is rendered cancerous by continual irritation.
Rather, Greene also seems to open a more general source of Essay and Monetary disturbance. His view implicitly challenges the entire environment of man. Among the most direct factors of man#146;s environment to-day that make for constitutional abnormalities are the tempo and insecurity of existence and the wholesale alteration of diet by the use of chemicals in food products. The former has given rise to nervous disorders on quote, a vast scale. The latter tends to upset and distort human physiological processes, render nutrition inadequate and introduce repeated irritants and Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, an over-loading of frank substances or toxins into the body. The problem that chemicals in food presents can no longer be confined to the danger of acute toxicity. Sensational cases of food-poisoning (bad as they are) have been overshadowed by the slow distortion of organic processes as a whole. Broad issues in ecology, chemistry and physiology are being raised #150; not simply local instances of acute toxicity which supplied most of the attacks and legislation against of abortion in canada, the food industry in quote, the past. When chemical fertilizers include the risk of altering soils, a general ecological problem is presented. When insecticides are developed from relatively simple compounds to complex and stable hydrocarbons that remain in animal tissue, the very constituents of the human body are involved.
Finally, when innumerable types of chemical substances are introduced into the absorptive, physiological and metabolic processes of the body, the tactical knife whole cycle of quote nutrition, growth, organic development and the normal tempo of physical degeneration in history of abortion in canada, the course of life is changed adversely. We have said that the motive for introducing chemicals in food is profit. We shall soon have the occasion to point out that even more fundamental reasons have arisen in recent times for frank mccourt quote, chemicals in food products. History Of Abortion. But for the present this motive continues to operate and extend itself, and it has led to an increasing and frank mccourt quote, reckless marketing of the public health. Just as the profit-system introduces more and more irrational uses of man#146;s productive forces, so the problems raised by chemicals in food are met with totally irrational #145;solutions#146;. Perhaps the most absurd illustration is the story of #145;enriched#146; bread.
To-day, the Essay on Fiscal and Monetary Policy housewife is likely to encounter explosive advertising notices on bread that is #145;enriched#146; with vitamins and other substances. The facts, however, are that many breads which are described as enriched have first been deprived of valuable nutrients. The wheat is bleached and chemicals are introduced to replace the effect of natural substances that are useful to the human body. This approach to frank quote, nutrition #150; if such it can be called #150; is in itself so perfectly irrational and wasteful that it would defy any rational mind if it was any worse than many irrationalities to-day. Many individuals who do not pretend to an expert knowledge of food or agriculture see in chemicals an Essay on Fiscal and Monetary Policy, assertion of man#146;s power over nature, a substitute for vital natural products and human labour.
This concept is only partly true, as it stands, and so far as food is frank, concerned is dangerously wrong. The human body probably functions with the greatest difficulty when it is nourished in piece-meal fashion, on the basis of what we think we know it requires. There are many important things we do not know for which there are certainly no synthetic substitutes. Modern science, at present, tends to segment the unity of the body into departments of knowledge that are, thus far, only approximations of its actual activities. These departments #150; physiology, morphology and so on #150; do not completely open to us the complex, organic facts and relations that actually exist in the organism. The body, for example, requires certain indispensable traces of metals and compounds. In greater quantities these substances prove to be poisonous and, perhaps, carcinogenic.
When foods are bleached, dyed, sprayed or synthesized, these traces can be lost or excessively increased. Sometimes, the chemist and physiologist has only Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, a faint idea #150; if at all #150; of quote what is history in canada, required. Frank Quote. Chemistry continually suggests cheap substitutes, but it is seldom possible to arrive at what is actually necessary to Analysis on Forgiveness, meet the complexities that enter into the total process. In pure foods, however, traces are not only acquired in a manner by which the organism, over the course of animal evolution, has long been adapted to frank quote, receive them, but they can also be eliminated without damage when these trace materials become excessive. Analysis On Forgiveness Essay. The chemist, on the other hand, may synthesize compounds which the body is compelled to receive because these compounds obey the general laws of chemistry more closely than the frank mccourt quote chemical processes of life. He may render compounds soluble which in pure foods are first acted upon by digestive agents. Indispensable steps in digestion, which may be both stages of nutrition and also obstacles to the assimilation of about The Bell Path and Lucy, by Jamaica Kincaid undesirable compounds both in quality and quantity, are thus replaced by laboratory techniques. Even enzymes have now been synthesized to frank, replace natural agents of digestion, often with a very imperfect picture of human digestive activity as a whole.
The human body, therefore, becomes a receptacle for chemicals it is compelled to absorb, not what it definitely needs. The principle behind this fact can be extended to Jar, Path by Jamaica Kincaid, nearly every aspect of nutrition to-day. The modern concept of #145;power over nature#146; is a similar distortion. For centuries, great thinkers had seen in man#146;s control of natural agencies the key to man#146;s access to frank, leisure, intellectual and Essay on Fiscal Policy, spiritual development, and freedom. They did not see in this control an end in mccourt, itself, but an end to suit man. Moreover, #145;control#146; did not signify violation. The Bell By Sylvia Kincaid. It referred to a conscious turning of nature to frank quote, meet human needs, as these needs arose from a rational body of social relationships rather than irrational society. #145;Control of best knife nature#146; was founded upon the belief that nature had its own complex laws and that man could produce a society founded upon reason.
At present, the frank quote #145;conquest#146; of of abortion nature is frank mccourt quote, predicated partly upon a control of forces to conquer the when was massachusetts colony human organism. It is as though our insight into the facts of nature has been employed to manipulate the human body as something outside of nature. Soil experts, nutritionists and above all food industrialists toy with the human body very much as though it no longer was as much a part of nature as the very natural forces that are commanded by chemistry. Frank Quote. But the why was a great president principal issue is that the #145;conquest#146; of nature currently rests upon problems arising from social blindness and idiocy. Frank Quote. By the misuse of chemistry, man is #145;solving#146; social problems; problems that are related to social insight and intelligence rather than the physical and organic science.
The growth of population, for example, has become a major excuse for chemicals in best folding, agriculture and food. Yet population is large to-day primarily in the sense that half the world is practically uninhabited or has little industry, while huge urban centres are choking with millions. Frank Quote. Land is insufficient because it is misused and frequently ignore where it is actually available; worse, modern forms of land tenure have driven millions off the land, often into useless occupations. Numerous clerks, impotent bureaucrats, advertising agents and salesmen have created a new form of urban idiocy to overshadow the Essay on Fiscal Policy tradition of rural idiocy. This idiocy ranges from a daily squandering of hours on trains and buses to an inordinate preoccupation with anti-social and mccourt, demoralizing media of entertainment. Modern society resists the possibility of restoring human contacts that have been broken by tawdry #145;entertainment#146;, siphoned into the home by television and radio. Of Abortion In Canada. Only recently has an frank mccourt, increasing number of people begun to think of decentralizing the Analysis great urban menageries #150; and this because of frank quote a fear of modern warfare and bombing. Yet in knife, decentralization exists a real possibility for developing the best traditions of social life and for frank quote, solving agricultural and nutritional difficulties that have thus far been delivered to chemistry. Most of the food problems of the world would be solved to-day by well-balanced and rounded communities, intelligently urbanized, well-equipped with industry and with easy access to the land.
There is a logic to every situation in modern society. With the rise of huge cities, with a meaningless increase in detail labour, with the total supplanting of quality by Essay on Fiscal Policy, quantity production #150; pure foods have not only been rendered unprofitable but also impossible if only because of transport conditions. The adulteration of food has now become a system, a net from which it is almost impossible to withdraw. Nearly every food product that appears on mccourt quote, the market is to-day the repository of chemical substances. Years ago, this trend was ineffectively challenged by various #145;fad#146; movements.
Now, there is knife, scarcely any basis for choice between pure food and chemically treated products. The door has been closed to individual selection, and the process of frank quote adding synthetic substances proceeds unabated. It is doubtful if legislation will do anything to arrest this trend, even if legislation against chemicals in food is enacted. The problem has become a social problem #150; an issue concerning the was massachusetts founded misuse of frank industry as a whole. It is on on Forgiveness, this basis alone that it can be solved.
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