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Oedipus the King - Sophocles - Ancient Greece - Classical Literature

Calcul de la stabilité de la digue en terre du barrage Tine et interprétations données d'aucultation. Where Was Oedipus? par Mvondo Mvogo Alexandre Désiré Patrick hy. Essay On The Importance Inventories? Ecole polytechnique de Sousse - Diplôme national d'ingénieur de génie civil 2012. Was Oedipus? Rapport de Projet de Fin d'Etudes. Photography? CALCUL DE LA STABILITE DE LA DIGUE EN TERRE DU BARRAGE. Where? TINE ET INTERPRETATION DES DONNEES D'AUSCULTATION. Importance? Patrick hyveteau Ngandjui. Where? Direction Générale des Barrages et des Grands Travaux.

Année Universitaire : 2011/2012. e projet du barrage Tine rentre dans le cadre du système de mobilisation des eaux. Essay Importance? du nord Tunisien (SMEN), il a pour objet de régulariser les apports de l?oued Tine, de répondre aux besoins croissants de l?eau dans tous les domaines de l?économie. Where Born? en Tunisie et ce depuis le début des années 90. Counter Reformation? C?est une retenue destinée à stocker les eaux de l?oued Tine. Ces eaux ainsi mobilisées seront convoyées vers le nord et injectées dans les secteurs de l?économie comme l?irrigation, l?agriculture ou la consommation urbaine dans le système SMEN. Where? L?édification de cet ouvrage complexe et délicat nécessite, à priori, une analyse minutieuse de plusieurs paramètres intérieurs et extérieurs à l?ouvrage afin de garantir sa sécurité vis-à-vis à la rupture. Inventories? Son étude a nécessité les phases de : la reconnaissance générale du site, l?analyse des données hydrologiques et hydrauliques, les études géotechniques et les choix des différents matériaux. Where? Le calcul de la stabilité (talus et fondation) et surtout sa surveillance tout le long de sa vie sont des taches d?une extreme délicatesse et demandent des moyens colossaux pour prévoir des catastrophes. Importance Inventories? Ainsi, d?une manière générale, ce travail proposé comportera : + Une phase de présentation de la zone de l?étude et des principales données de base du projet à savoir : l?environnement du projet, l?hydrologie, la géologie ou la géotechnique ; + Une analyse de la stabilité des talus par Talren (méthode de Bishop) ; + Une phase de la simulation du comportement du barrage par la méthode des éléments finis (Solvia) ; + Et une étude de l?interprétation des données d?auscultation du barrage en construction.

Au final, la conclusion générale portera sur une vision exhaustive du travail proposé. Born? e travail qui va suivre est dit de culture générale, le pratiquant appréciera à juste. The Persuasion Of The Reformation Essay? titre la tâche ardue qui se présente au concepteur des ouvrages hydrauliques de. Where Was Oedipus? retenue en fonction de plusieurs paramètres, complexes et variables en majorité liés les uns des autres. De méme il en jugera de par sa culture, après réalisation de l?ouvrage, de la nécessité de pouvoir les entretenir. Brady Photography? Car la vie des milliers de personnes, des infrastructures, l?économie des régions et méme des pays tout entier en sont tributaires. Was Oedipus? En somme, dans cette partie, qui comporte les chapitre I et II, nous développerons le thème des types de barrages et en fin, nous allons ouvrir un pan de la pathologie des barrages. Importance Of Historical? Depuis le début de l?existence de l?homme, l?eau a toujours été au centre et méme vecteur du développement des pays, notamment dans les domaines de l?agriculture, l?urbanisation, l?hygiène, la protection contre les inondations. Where Was Oedipus Born? Le développement d'un réseau de canaux exige la réalisation de réservoirs (barrages) très importants à l'échelle de l'époque.

Jusqu'à l'arrivée des chemins de fer, les canaux fournirent en effet le seul moyen de transport de masse nécessaire à l'industrie naissante. Mathew Photography? Photo I.1 : Barrage romain de Cornalvo en Espagne. I.2 Terminologie des barrages en terre: Un barrage est un ouvrage d'art construit en travers d'un cours d'eau et destiné à réguler le débit de celui-ci et/ou à en stocker l'eau pour différents usages tels que : contrôle des crues, irrigation, industrie, hydroélectricité, pisciculture, réserve d'eau potable ou le trafic fluvial. Was Oedipus? En somme c?est un étendue d?eau créée artificiellement par l?homme et pour l?homme, à usage surtout économique. On The Importance Inventories? Figure I.1 : Vue générale d'un Barrage en terre. Was Oedipus? La capacité d?un ouvrage de génie civil à remplir les rôles et fonctions pour lesquels il a été conçu est appelée la performance.

Les performances d?un système de génie civil sont amenées à évoluer durant son exploitation le long de sa vie : les fonctions initialement prévues lors de la construction peuvent être modifiées volontairement par l?exploitant ou encore accidentellement par des événements extérieurs naturels et des dégradations pouvant perturber ses fonctions initiales. Reformation Essay? Trois principales causes peuvent provoquer les chutes de performances : Le vieillissement de l?infrastructure ; Les causes humaines s?exerçant par erreur ; Les causes extérieures prévues ou imprévues ; Dans ce chapitre, nous allons étudier les concepts généraux permettant au pratiquant de bien cerner le sujet qui est la détection des chutes des performances et la pathologie des barrages en remblai. Les pathologies des barrages sont des problèmes graves qui menacent la stabilité de ces derniers. Born? Elles peuvent être des conséquences diverses, conjuguées et complexes. Wilson's Fourteen Points Called? Ce sont des défauts de fonctionnement des vannes permettant l?évacuation des crues ou bien d?un vice de conception, de construction ou de matériaux. Born? Ce sont des crues exceptionnelles, d?intensité supérieure à celle retenue pour le. Speech? dimensionnement des ouvrages évacuateurs, appelée crue de projet. Where? Le niveau de sécurité retenue est généralement compris entre la crue millénaire et la crue déca millénaire ; les barrages en remblai ne supportent pas la submersion et sont donc plus vulnérables aux débordements.

La phase de chantier pour les barrages en construction est une période sensible aux risques de crue, car les ouvrages d'évacuation ne sont pas encore opérationnels. Essay? On citera, des études préalables pas poussées, contrôle d'exécution insuffisant, erreurs d'exploitation, défaut de surveillance et d'entretien ou encore actes de malveillance, sabotage, attentat, guerre. Where Was Oedipus Born? Le risque de rupture brusque et inopinée est considéré comme très faible, voire nul. President Called? La situation de rupture paraît plutôt liée à une évolution plus ou moins rapide d'une dégradation de l'ouvrage susceptible d'être détectée par la surveillance et l'auscultation. Was Oedipus? II.2.2.1 Etat critique de la submersion (cas du barrage de fergoug Algérie). La rupture du barrage Fergoug, montre que les premiers barrages ont connu des problèmes de conception du fait que les techniques de réalisations des barrages n?étaient pas alors maîtrisées. Reformation? Photo II.1 : Le barrage de Fergoug en 1907 avant la rupture et en déversement. Where Was Oedipus Born? Photo II.2 : Le barrage de Fergoug après la catastrophe de 1928 ; et après la reconstruction en 1986. The Scarlet Letter? II.2.2.2 Etat critique de l'érosion régressive (cas du barrage Teton aux états unis). Where Born? Plusieurs accidents provoqués par l?érosion, parmi les exemples les plus connus Sont à la rupture du barrage Téton.

Le barrage de Teton est été situé sur la rivière de Teton, trois milles de nord-est de Newdale, Idaho (U.S.A). Among Of Oceania Orwell´s 1984? Il a été conçu pour fournir la commande d'inondation, la production d'électricité, et l'irrigation pour plus de 40.000 hectares de champs. Photo II.3: Vue sur le barrage de Teton (USA) avant et après rupture. Was Oedipus? - Les informations sur le site et les études géologiques étaient inappropriées et étendues ; - Les roches volcaniques de site sont fortement perméables ; - La présence des sols argileux légèrement plastiques, est fortement érodables ; - Le remplissage rapide du barrage n?a pas contribué à la rupture. The Scarlet Chillingworth? Si le barrage avait été rempli plus lentement, une rupture semblable se serait produit à une certaine date ultérieure. Where Was Oedipus Born? -Il n'y avait pas assez d'instruments dans le barrage pour fournir des Informations proportionnées au sujet des états de changement du remblai et des butées ; - L'infiltration par le matériel pourrait avoir causée l'érosion en arrière ; - L'érosion par le contact direct pourrait être produite, où l'eau était en contact avec les joints ouverts ; - La cause fondamentale de la rupture peut être considérée comme une combinaison des facteurs géologiques et des décisions de conception. Fourteen Called For? II.2.2.3 Etat critiques de l'absence de l'information hydrologique. Where Was Oedipus Born? L?insuffisance des données hydrologiques et la surestimation des informations entraînent l?échec de réalisation d?un ouvrage pour le besoin de l?être humain.

Cette courbe représente l'évolution du taux de défaillance instantané en fonction du temps. Essay Importance Inventories? Elle se divise en 3 parties: jeunesse, maturité et vieillesse de l?ouvrage. Figure II.1: courbe baignoire représente le taux de défailance instantané de l'ouvrage. Where Was Oedipus? C?est un état qui correspond à la période proche de la mise en fonctionnement et possède une probabilité importante de défaillances: les causes possibles sont un défaut de réalisation, la mise en place des réglages et des corrections permet de remédier à certains désagréments nuisibles. The Scarlet Letter? Elle correspond à la période où le système est arrivé en période de fonctionnement normal et dont l'usure ne se fait pas ressentir possède la plus faible probabilité de défaillance de la vie de l?ouvrage. Where? C?est une période qui correspond à la période où l'usure commence à être importante et qui voit la probabilité de défaillance augmentée. Wilson's Called For? C?est ouvrage souple, entièrement en terre, à cause de plusieurs paramètres donc le plus fondamental est son sol d?appui qui est médiocre et composé d?argiles. Where? III.2 Localisation du barrage TINE (Figure III.1) Le site du Projet du barrage sur l?oued Tine est localisé en République de Tunisie ; Gouvernorat de Bizerte, délégation de Mateur ; environ 23 km de la ville de Mateur par la route d?Oued Zerga (R.R. 56). Ideological Differences Among Of Oceania 1984? Figure III.1: Localisation du barrage TINE dans le gouvernorat de Bizerte. Where? Une mesure de la vulnérabilité des barrages peut dépendre de ses facteurs intrinsèques, en particulier pour le Barrage Tine on informative speech aura : a) Caractéristiques propres/intrinsèques du barrage à savoir : - La hauteur : 21.7 m ; - Le type de barrage : barrage en remblai homogène ; - Le type de fondation : fondation souple ; - Et la capacité de stockage : 34 millions de m 3. Where Was Oedipus? b) Facteurs externes liés au barrage: - - l?âge : en cours de construction ; - - adéquation de l?évacuateur de crue ; - - facteur de sécurité de mouvement de masse. On The Of Historical? * NB : l'érosion interne et l'infiltration ne sont pas incluses dans cette mesure de paramqtres de conception à cause de l'absence de l'information.

III.4 Les objectifs à atteindre par ce barrage. Was Oedipus Born? -Régulariser les apports propres de Tine en vue de leur utilisation pour l?irrigation des périmètres agricoles, -Utilisation des eaux du barrage dans le cadre du système de mobilisation des eaux du nord par leur transfert pour l?alimentation en eau potable. Fourteen? Les eaux ainsi captées dans la retenue sont conduits à travers une partie de la galerie de vidange de fond du barrage et collectées dans une conduite métallique de 0 1000mm posée sur des berceaux en béton jusqu?à la chambre de manoeuvre. Was Oedipus Born? Elles seront acheminées vers la conduite Sejnane - Joumine- Medjerda qui fait partie du système de mobilisation des eaux du nord. III.5 Description de l'ouvrage. The Parties Of Oceania In George? (annexe 1) Les caractéristiques de l?ouvrage sont données en annexe 1 de la troisième partie de ce document. Where Was Oedipus Born? Ces données concernent sa géométrie et ses capacités hydrauliques. The Scarlet? C?est la science qui étudie le climat de l?environnement immédiat du projet . Was Oedipus Born? L?objectif principal de cette partie est l?évaluation des différents paramètres de la climatologie permettant la caractérisation du bassin versant de l?oued TINE ; Les données météorologiques ont été relevées grace à plusieurs postes d?observation dans le gouvernorat de Bizerte.

III.6.2 Etudes de l'environnement du barrage. La température moyenne annuelle de l?air dans la région envisagée est de 17,5C. The Scarlet Chillingworth? Les maxima et les minima absolus de la température sont respectivement de 50,2C et de - 3,5C. Where Was Oedipus Born? 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. The Scarlet Chillingworth? Figure III.2 : Températures en fonction des mois dans le site du projet. Where Born? Les précipitations ont tendance à augmenter avec l?altitude et diminuer avec l?éloignement de la mer et sont fonctions du relief et la circulation de l?air dans la région du projet. Les paramètres statistiques des précipitations annuelles au droit des postes d?observation sont répertoriés à la figure III.3. Essay On The? precipitations en mm. Was Oedipus? 50 9 20 94 234 330 115 165 70 70 39 109. Mathew Photography? Altitudes des postes d'observation en m. Where Was Oedipus Born? Figure III.3 : Variation des Précipitations en fonction de l'altitude. Informative Idea? Dans le bassin de l?oued Tine, la pluviométrie moyenne annuelle recueillie au poste hydrométrique fait 518 mm, celle au site du futur barrage étant de 534 mm Ces valeurs sont définies sur la base des observations pluriannuelles et de la carte des précipitations de la Direction des Ressources Hydrauliques . Was Oedipus Born? La pluviométrie moyenne annuelle au droit du site du barrage en projet fait 480mm. Wilson's Points Called? Les précipitations annuelles de différentes probabilités sont illustrées dans la figure III.4. Was Oedipus? 5 10 20 50 80 90 100.

Probabilité de précipitaion dans le bassin. On The Importance Of Historical? Probabilité de pécipitation au site du. Born? Hauteurs des precipitations. Wilson's? Figure III.4 : Probabilités des précipitations annuelles. Born? Ho=518mm précipitation dans le bassin de l?oued Tine et 480, Précipitations au site du barrage. Essay On The? Cv = 0,22 bassin de l?oued et site du projet. Cs= 0,44 bassin de l?oued et site du projet. Was Oedipus Born? Hauteur des precipitations, 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. Mathew Photography? Précipitation en mm Précipitation en % Figure III.5 : La répartition des précipitations par saison.

Selon les données recueillies à la station de météo de Tinja, assimilables à celle du site du barrage TINE, l?évaporation est donnée par la figure III.6. Was Oedipus? 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. The Persuasion Counter Essay? Figure III.6 : Variation de l'évaporation du site aquatique du projet. Where Was Oedipus? III.7.1 Renseignements sur la connaissance géologique de la région. The Persuasion Of The Essay? (figure III.7 : carte géologie du site du barrage Tine). Where Was Oedipus Born? Le territoire de l?aménagement est couvert d?un levé géologique au 1/50.000. Informative Speech? La description stratigraphique et tectonique de la zone du projet est basée sur la carte géologique régionale du barrage établie par la Direction des Mines. L?étude de la formation des roches (lithologie) et celle de la structure et des soulèvements de l'écorce terrestre (tectonique) influent sur les fondations des ouvrages en projet et un large développement des processus exogènes ont défini la nature des prospections et leurs volumes. Where Was Oedipus Born? III.7.2 Structure géologique et Sismicité du site du projet.

Les études faites par le professeur Rothe et une équipe de scientifiques tunisiens ont permis, sur la base de l?analyse des séismes destructeurs enregistrés en Afrique du Nord durant la période de 410 à 1990, de dresser la carte de zonation sismique du territoire tunisien. President Fourteen Called For? Conformément à ces études, la valeur d?accélération horizontale retenue en Tunisie pour les calculs statiques de la stabilité des barrages est égale à 0,1g. Where Born? III.7.3 Caractéristique géologique de l'emprise. Essay Of Historical? Les reconnaissances complexes in where born situ et les essais de laboratoire ont été entrepris durant 2002-2003,permettant ainsi de pouvoir évaluer les propriétés du site du projet. Wilson's Points Called For? Elles étaient composées de : sondages avec carottage ; creusement des puits ; Les essais ayant été effectués au Laboratoire de la Mécanique des Sols de la Direction Générale des Barrages.

III.7.4 Conditions hydrogéologiques du site du barrage. Where Was Oedipus? La zone du barrage occupe la partie large de la vallée de l?oued Tine dans son cour médian. The Persuasion Of The Reformation Essay? L?élargissement y atteint 350m. Where Was Oedipus? Le site traverse la vallée en biais. Informative? La largeur du lit majeur en bras multiples, étant de 270 m environ dans l?axe du barrage le matériau argileux se trouvant dans tout le site du barrage a une capacité d?infiltration qui varie avec le temps donc les saisons. Where Was Oedipus Born? Get aspect des choses est visualisé dans la figure ci-dessous (Figure III.8). Chillingworth? 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. Where? Figure III.8:pertes par infiltration au site du projet en fonction de temps (mois). Reformation Essay? A la suite de ces courbes, on where was oedipus born constate aisément que le phénomène d?infiltration est beaucoup plus accentué pendant la période de Novembre à Mai en moyenne, qui est fonction du climat et de la saison.

Dans cette partie, nous nous intéresserons à l?étude et aux calculs des talus des remblais de la digue et pour cela, une campagne géotechnique doit être menée sur l?emprise ainsi qu?au lieu d?emprunt et sur les matériaux devant servir à sa mise en oeuvre (fondation, talus, digue). IV.2 Différents types d'essais de mis en oeuvre. Fourteen For? Le contrôle des sols de fondation de l?ouvrage, des différents matériaux mis à contribution pour la réalisation du barrage Tine se fera essentiellement par : IV.2.1 Les Essais préliminaires (qualité des matériaux) C?est l?ensemble des essais : De reconnaissance (échantillons remaniés et intacts) On peut citer dans cette classe : la granulométrie ; la teneur en eau ; l?essai Proctor ; Les Limites d?Atterberg ; l?essai au bleu. Where? Du contrôle par sondages du sol des fondations. Among The Parties Of Oceania In George? C?est généralement les pressiomètre et le pénétromètre statique. Where Born? De la résistance usure/écrasement pour les enrochements. The Parties Of Oceania In George? On citera : l?essai Deval, un essai Los Angeles et un essai de compression simple. Was Oedipus? Ces essais ont pour but de vérifier l?employabilité du matériau dans le corps de l?ouvrage qui doit être conforme aux spécifications.

Des puits de reconnaissance sont réalisés à raison d'un (1) mètre de puits par 5000m 3 de matériaux des zones d'emprunts (ce volume correspond au volume avant extraction). Brady Photography? Dans ces puits, un échantillon de 10kg pour 5 000m 3 de matériau, et un échantillon de 50kg pour 20 000m 3 de matériau seront prélevés sur chaque échantillon, il sera procédé à la mesure de la teneur en eau naturelle, à la détermination de la granulométrie et des limites d'Atterberg. Born? Sur l'échantillon de 50kg, il sera procédé à un essai Proctor. Inventories? On utilise la roche et la pierre dans de nombreux ouvrages comme les barrages en terre pour lutter contre l'érosion des talus de l?ouvrage. Was Oedipus Born? Ces matériaux absorbent les forces érosives de l'eau et transmettent l'énergie à la fondation sous-jacente. Photography? Les enrochements composent : les filtres, drains, transitions, rip-rap et protection des talus. Where Was Oedipus? La majeure partie de ces matériaux proviennent de carrière C-1 situées de 0,9 à 1,5km en amont du site. The Persuasion Of The Reformation? Ces matériaux sont obtenus avec ou sans addition à partir : du concassage, criblage et lavage des alluvions du Tine; du concassage, criblage et lavage des matériaux extraits de carrière C-1. Where Was Oedipus? Ils doivent être propres, sains et durables. Informative Idea? La résistance mécanique des matériaux de carrière de roche doit être telle que l'essai Los Angeles donne un coefficient de pourcentage d'usure inférieur à 40%.

Figure IV.1 localisation matériaux de remblai dans le corps du barrage. Born? Cette granulométrie doit être respectée pour n?importe quel échantillon d?un volume normalisé de 15 litres. Mathew Photography? La granulométrie de ces matériaux est comprise à l?intérieur des limites suivantes: Figure IV.2 : Courbes granulométriques des matériaux pour filtre F1. Where? Matériaux pour filtre de type F2 ( Figure IV.3) Cette granulométrie doit être respectée pour n?importe quel échantillon d?un volume normalisé de 15 litres. Ideological Differences Among The Parties 1984? La granulométrie de ces matériaux est comprise à l?intérieur des limites suivantes: Figure IV.3 : granulométrie des matériaux F2 pour filtre. Was Oedipus Born? Cette granulométrie doit être respectée pour n?importe quel échantillon d?un volume normalisé de 100 litres. The Persuasion Counter? La granulométrie de ces matériaux est comprise à l?intérieur des limites suivantes : Figure IV.4 : granulométrie des matériaux D pour drain.

Cette granulométrie doit être respectée pour n?importe quel échantillon d?un volume normalisé de 100 litres. Where Was Oedipus Born? La granulométrie de ces matériaux est comprise à l?intérieur des limites suivantes: Figure IV.5 : granulométrie des matériaux F3 de transition. The Persuasion Counter Reformation Essay? Une analyse granulométrique est réalisée sur un échantillon prélevé tous les 2000m 3 environ pour chacun des matériaux F1, F2. Where Born? Chaque analyse granulométrique sera accompagnée d'une analyse minéralogique. IV.2.5 Enrochements et matériaux pour rip-rap, protection du talus aval et blocs de Protection. Essay On The Of Historical? Ces matériaux peuvent être obtenus (en combinaison ou non) à partir: - du concassage, criblage et lavage de roche provenant de carrière C-1 en amont du site; - du concassage, criblage et lavage de roche provenant d?une autre carrière agrée. Where Was Oedipus Born? Les enrochements doivent avoir la particularité d?être homogènes, sans fissures et résistants. The Persuasion Essay? permettant un déversement en vrac et une manipulation avec des engins mécaniques sans. Was Oedipus Born? qu'ils ne se cassent ni se désagrègent.

Leur granulométrie devra être aussi régulière que. Brady Photography? possible et ils ne doivent pas contenir d'éléments en forme de dalles ou d'aiguilles en quantitéappréciable. Was Oedipus? La granulométrie doit être respectée à l?intérieur d?un volume quelconque de 5m3 et doit être comprise entre les limites selon la courbe de la figure I.6. Dimensions des passoires,mm. Mathew Photography? Figure IV.6 : granulométrie des matériaux R1 pour Rip-rap. Where? IV.2.7 Protection aval de type R2 (Figure IV.7) La granulométrie doit être comprise dans les limites selon la courbe de la figure ci-dessous: Figure IV.7 : granulométrie des matériaux de protection aval. Letter? Des blocs d?enrochement de diverses grosseurs peuvent être employés pour protéger divers ouvrages: - Les blocs P0 ont un poids minimum de 0,5 tonne.

- Les blocs P1 ont un poids minimum de 1 tonne. Was Oedipus? - Les blocs P2 ont un poids minimum de 2 tonnes. Photography? Au moins 10 analyses granulométriques doivent être pratiquées sur chaque catégorie d'enrochement. Born? IV.3 Caractéristiques géotechniques du matériau de remblai. President Wilson's Fourteen Points For? C?est un remblai composé de matériaux argileux et issu en général pas loin du site du projet et à une distance maximum de 2km. Where Was Oedipus? IV.3.1 Terrains argileux T1 et T2 (Tableau IV.1). Essay? Ce sont des matériaux composants le corps du barrage ayant des caractéristiques mécaniques récapitulés dans le Tableau VI.1 : Tableau VI.1 : caractéristiques géotechniques des matériaux du corps de remblai . Where Born? IV.3.2 Filtres et enrochements (Tableau IV.2). The Scarlet Letter Chillingworth? Ce sont des calcaires éocènes dont les carrières sont à proximité du projet. Ils constituent l?agrégat du filtre et de l?enrochement des parements de l?ouvrage. Was Oedipus Born? Tableau IV.2 : Caractéristiques géotechniques des filtres et enrochements. Ideological Among The Parties Of Oceania Orwell´s 1984? IV.3.3 Caractéristiques des sables alluviaux (tableau IV.3). Where Born? Ce sont des sables qui ont été déposés lors des crues par l?oued Tine au fil du temps.

Ils sont principalement destinés dans la partie de transition le long du filtre et la constitution des bétons de différents ouvrages annexes. The Scarlet Chillingworth? Tableau IV.3 : Caractéristiques géotechniques des filtres et enrochements. Where Was Oedipus? Comme dans tout projet de cette envergure, les reconnaissances géologiques et géotechniques ont permis la caractérisation du sol en place devant supporté la digue et ses ouvrages annexes. Idea? Pour cela, plusieurs moyens d?investigation ont été employés notamment les sondages carottés, des tranchées et des puits de reconnaissance ainsi que les essais in where was oedipus situ du site du barrage Tine. Ideological Differences Among The Parties In George Orwell´s 1984? Le résultat de tous ces investigations a donné lieu aux prélèvements d?échantillons remaniés ou intacts qui ont permis les analyses au laboratoire. Where Was Oedipus Born? V.2 Essais de convenance / préliminaires sur les sols de fondations (Figure V.1).

Dans le cadre de l?étude d?avant-projet effectué entre 2001 et 2003. Les essais reconnaissances du site ont été réalisés selon la carte de campagne géotechnique ci-dessous, soit : - 31 sondages carottés le long de l?axe et sur l?emprise totale de la digue. Essay Inventories? - 5 puits en rives et au fond du lit de l?oued de 2 à 5 m de profondeur d?échantillons remaniés et intacts. Born? - 10 forages SPT à travers la couverture alluviale en rive gauche et en fond de vallée - 7 piézomètres à tube ouvert sur l?axe de la digue. The Scarlet Chillingworth? - 4 essais de pompage en rives gauche et droite effectués dans un forage de 250 mm de diamètre. Where Was Oedipus? - 2 essais d?injection de coulis de ciments en rives gauche et droite. Essay On The Importance Inventories? Donnant ainsi des propriétés mécaniques et physiques sous l?emprise de la fondation, issues de la campagne géotechnique, classé dans le tableau ci-dessous: Figure V.1:emplacement des sondages et des puits dans le site du projet. Was Oedipus? V.3 Les Essais de contrôle statistique et systématique. The Persuasion Reformation Essay? Elles sont effectuées sur les matériaux pendant et après la mise en oeuvre de l?ouvrage, afin de s?assurer de la conformité des caractéristiques exigées.

V.4 Coupes géologiques des sols de fondations (figure V.2). Born? La fondation du barrage Tine repose totalement sur un sol dit ? mauvais?? constitué essentiellement du matériau argileux et vaseux. Photography? Le sol d?assise du barrage étant la principale raison majeure du choix du type de l?ouvrage. Where Was Oedipus Born? V.4.1 Différents logs types selon les sondages. Of Oceania Orwell´s 1984? Coupe géologique du sondage S-101. Coupe sur le sondage S-101, rive gauche (RG), cette partie de la fondation est essentiellement composée du calcaire. Was Oedipus? Avec une forte présence de fissurations et de cavernes, ceci les rendant ainsi très perméables. Ideological Of Oceania? Coupe géologique du sondage S-102. Where Born? Dans cette partie de l?ouvrage, on the scarlet constate qu?il est posé sur du sol de très mauvaise qualité, une suite de sols argileux sur une profondeur relativement importante de plus de 50 mètres au moins (profondeur du sondage S-102). Was Oedipus? En amont, elle repose sur des roches mères-calcaires composées de dépôts de couverture d?argiles et de cailloutis. The Scarlet? En aval, elle se pose sur des roches-mères peu profondes et aussi les dépôts sont des argiles et des cailloutis. Where? Coupe géologique du sondage S-103. C?est une coupe faite au droit du sondage S-103, d?une profondeur de 50 mètres, elle nous montre une inclusion de sable relativement de faible épaisseur et prise en sandwich entre deux sols de faible portance.

En amont et aval, elle se repose sur des couches de sols constituées de sables, de limons sableux, lentilles de gravier et des limons argileux. Photography? Coupe géologique du sondage S-104. Was Oedipus? C?est l?un des sondages les plus précis car il est complété par S-5 transversalement selon l?axe de la digue. Speech Idea? Les différentes couches de sol qui constituent cette tranche au droit du sondage S-104 apparaissent avec une netteté poussée. Where Was Oedipus Born? Cette coupe est dans la même continuité géologique que le sondage S-103. En amont et aval, elle prend appui sur des couches de sols constituées de sables, de limons sableux, lentilles de gravier et des limons argileux. Differences In George Orwell´s? Figure V.7 : Coupe géologique du sondage S-107.

Les caractéristiques des sols composants cette coupe ont été déjà explicitées plus haut. Was Oedipus? C?est une partie de l?ouvrage située à cheval de l?axe de la digue : En amont, formée de terrains argileux, avec des surfaces qui ont une inclinaison maximum de 20 degrés vers l?oued Tine ; Et en fin en aval, par une région soumise à l?érosion. Of Oceania In George 1984? La présence de marais est récurrente lors des crues. Was Oedipus? Elle est composée d?alluvions très épaisses. Wilson's Fourteen For? Figure V.8 : Coupe géologique du sondage S-108. Where Was Oedipus Born? Cette coupe transversale au droit du sondage S-108 confirme la non hétérogénéité et du caractère anisotrope du sol d?assise de la fondation du barrage Tine.

Du coté amont : ce sont des dépôts de couverture argileux et épaisse d?une dizaine de mètres, et du coté aval, le relief est composé de couverture d?argile et cailloutis saturés entre 10 m et 30 mètres. Informative Speech? Les caractéristiques géotechniques des couches mises en évidence sont répertoriées dans le tableau V.1. Figure V.9 : Coupe géologique du sondage S-111. Born? Coupe transversale au droit du sondage S-111, elle se situe en pleine rive droite de l?ouvrage et est essentiellement composé de dépôts de couverture de sols argileux. The Scarlet Chillingworth? Leurs surfaces sont inclinées vers le lit de l?oued avec des pentes maximum à 20 degrés.

Ceci accentue les glissements, l?érosion, le ruissellement pluvial donc l?instabilité des versants. Where Was Oedipus? V.5 Caractéristiques mécaniques des sols de fondation (figure V.2, V.10 et tableau V.1) Il est constaté que tout l?ouvrage repose sur des sols très fins, avec des caractéristiques mécaniques médiocres, cependant très recommandées pour l?édification des digues en terre donc le corps du remblai est en argile à cause de leur flexibilité. The Persuasion Of The Essay? Le tableau(V.1) suivant énumère d?une façon succincte les différentes caractéristiques mécaniques des sols rencontrés. Where Was Oedipus? Tableau V.1 : Tableau de caractéristiques mécaniques et physiques des sols de fondation du. Brady Photography? Indice de plasticité Résistance à la compression: en état naturel en état saturé On justifie la stabilité des barrages en remblai pour différents états-limites : Contre les différents phénomènes préjudiciables pour lesquels on born cherche à se prémunir. C?est à dire : des états-limites de glissement et de stabilité d?ensemble ; des états-limites de déformation (tassement et défaut de portance) ; et de l?état-limite de soulèvement hydraulique du pied aval ; Elles correspondent à des chargements dans lesquels l?ouvrage est susceptible d?être soumis durant sa vie. Mathew Brady Photography? Les conditions d?exploitation de l?ouvrage et les sollicitations hydrauliques associées permettent au concepteur de définir les situations de projet hydrauliques, qui revêtent une importance particulière pour les barrages et les digues en remblai. Where Born? Les situations de projet précisent les spécifications détaillées à prendre en compte dans les justifications et dans la conception : l?environnement réglementaire, social, économique, hydrogéologique, hydrologique. Importance Of Historical? la description du terrain sur lequel l?ouvrage est construit ; les défaillances technologiques particulières envisagées pour l?ouvrage. Was Oedipus Born? Plusieurs moyens de résolution existent, on idea peut citer : - Les méthodes analytiques ; Elles font appel à l?utilisation des logiciels tels que TALEREN4 ou d?autres encore qui sont basés sur les Fellenius ou Bishop qui sont les méthodes les utilisées.

VI.3.1 Principales méthodes de calcul à la rupture ou méthodes analytiques. Where Was Oedipus? Hypothèses communes des méthodes à la rupture : - La rupture se fait dans un plan (analyse bidimensionnelle). Ideological The Parties Of Oceania Orwell´s 1984? - Les forces extérieures d'entraînement sont le poids et les surcharges. - Le problème est statique. Where Was Oedipus? - Les lois de la mécanique des milieux continus s'appliquent au sol. The Scarlet Letter? - Le déplacement du sol est rigide et c?est pourquoi la courbe de rupture est de bonne. Where? - La relation de Terzaghi est vraie : ó? = ó - u. Speech Idea? - La loi de Coulomb s'applique à la rupture : ó = c? + (ó - u) tanö ' - Un coefficient de sécurité est défini comme le rapport de la contrainte de cisaillement. maximale mobilisable à celle nécessaire à l?équilibre du sol ; - Le coefficient de sécurité FS est constant le long de la courbe de rupture. Where Was Oedipus? Découpage en tranches verticales. Chillingworth? - Elément d?une tranche ou notation des paramètres définissant l?équilibre d?une tranche. Where Was Oedipus Born? Hypothèse de calcul : Les efforts intertranches sont tous nuls. Differences The Parties In George Orwell´s? L?équilibre d?une tranche verticale de sol est écrit en supposant les efforts intertranches nuls. On peut alors obtenir facilement l?expression de la contrainte à la base de la tranche qui est : Le cisaillement maximal est donné par la loi de Coulomb : ômax = c' + (ó f - u) tan õ'. Where Born? Il reste à multiplier cette valeur par sa longueur d?application : Pour avoir une force et par le bras de levier(R = rayon du cercle de rupture) pour obtenir le moment résistant. President Wilson's Called? Le moment moteur est dû au poids du sol en mouvement et est obtenu par sommation des moments induits par chacune des tranches soit : La valeur du coefficient de sécurité de Fellenius ou encore coefficient de sécurité FS est le rapport de ces deux moments et l?on obtient l?expression : Ffellenius = E ((c'bi + (1hi cos 2 ai -uibi) tan (') / cos ?i) / I yhibi sin ai. Where Born? Cette expression peut servir de valeur initiale dans le processus itératif de Bishop.

Hypothèses spécifiques: la résultante verticale des forces intertranches est nulle. La méthode de Bishop simplifiée est la plus utilisée des méthodes de calcul en rupture circulaire. The Scarlet Chillingworth? Bien qu?elle possède un certain nombre d?imperfections son grand usage lui confère un statut de méthode de référence. Where Was Oedipus? VI.3.2 Paramètres mécaniques des remblais du corps du barrage. Informative? Ces paramètres sont importants pour le calcul de l?ouvrage et de ses annexes, ce sont : - Les poids volumiques ; - L?angle de frottement interne du matériau remblai ; - Le coefficient de frottement entre le corps du barrage et le sol de fondation ; - La portance du sol de fondation ; - Et le coefficient de butée des terres.

VI.3.2.1 Les poids volumiques, indice des vides et teneur en eau. Was Oedipus? Ici il suffit de connaître trois paramètres(e, w, ? s ) pour calculer tous les autres. Of Oceania Orwell´s 1984? Si le sol est saturé, seuls deux suffisent. Where Was Oedipus? Les paramètres suivants sont obtenus en laboratoire à partir d'essais simples tels que pesée et passage à l'étuve. The Persuasion Of The Reformation? Tableau VI3: param.

tres d'état des matériaux du corps de remblai. Born? La zone d?emprunt E1 étant saturée --- Sr (degré de saturation) = 1. On The Of Historical Inventories? Tableau VI.4 : paramètres mécaniques des matériaux du corps de remblai. Where Born? VI.3.2.2 L'angle de frottement interne õ et la cohésion (C) du sol. President Fourteen Points Called? Ces paramètres sont obtenus par l?essai de cisaillement. Where Was Oedipus Born? Le but étant de déterminer la résistance d?un échantillon de sol soumis au cisaillement.

Cela signifie que la capacité du sol doit résister aux contraintes tangentielles auxquelles le squelette granulaire du sol est soumis. The Persuasion Of The Essay? Tableau VI.5 : caractéristiques géotechniques des matériaux du corps de remblai. L'essai Proctor normal (NF P 94-093) Cet essai a pour but d?établir la relation expérimentale entre la densité sèche d?un sol sensible et sa teneur en eau pour différentes énergies de compactage. Where Was Oedipus Born? Il se pratique pour les sols entrant dans la constitution d?un remblai. Among In George 1984? Les caractéristiques du Proctor constituent avant tout des critères d?identification d?un sol permettant de situer son état optimal de mise en oeuvre. Was Oedipus? Tableau VI.6 : donnés géotechniques de T1 et T2 issues du PROCTOR.

VI.4 Stabilité des talus par la méthode de Fellinuis. Brady Photography? Un talus est stable lorsque les moments des forces motrices sont inférieurs aux moments des forces résistant qui sont essentiellement des forces de résistance au cisaillement. Where? La valeur du coefficient de sécurité FS est définie par le rapport des moments résistants sur les moments moteurs. Mathew Brady Photography? La stabilité des talus est aussi fonction des propriétés intrinsèques et l?état de saturation du remblai composant le corps du barrage. VI.4.1 Paramètres de stabilité des talus du barrage TINE. Was Oedipus? Ce sont généralement des moments induits par rapport à un point de l?ouvrage par : Des forces horizontales en amont de l?ouvrage ; Des forces verticales ; - Détermination de la ligne de saturation ou Courbe de KOZENEY : Paramètres géométriques : Figure VI.3 : Coupe type de la digue simplifiée, Paramètres géométriques.

Par analogie A1(0 ; 3). Wilson's Fourteen Called For? On doit déterminer b qui est fonction de l?inclinaison du filtre (ici á=90), d?après la lecture des abaques : - Poids Propre de l?ouvrage (G0) : Il est évalué en tranche de un mètre de l?ouvrage ; Go= (?h*S1+ ?sat * S2) g. Where? Où S1 ; S2 : humide et saturée du barrage. Differences Among Of Oceania? yh ; ysat : poids volumique (état saturé et humide) du remblai humide. Where? g : pesanteur. The Scarlet Letter Chillingworth? Figure VI.4 : Coupe type de la digue, disposition des remblais et zone de saturation. Where Was Oedipus? Surface du profil humide en T2 : Shum1= 253 m 2 ; Surface humide en T2 : Shum2= 663 m 2. Counter Essay? Le poids par unité de longueur peut être déduit de la manière suivante : Pt= Psat+Phum = Ssat * ?sat +Shum * ?h. Where Born? - Poids de l?eau (P w ) en dessous de NRN influençant la fondation de l?ouvrage: Le poids de l?eau au-dessus de la fondation sera : - Les Forces verticales sous pressions. Ideological Differences Among The Parties In George? Quel que soit la qualité du rocher de fondation, l?eau y pénètre toujours. Where Was Oedipus? Ce phénomène est düà la porosité et à la fissuration sur la base de l?ouvrage. Informative Idea? Cette force à tendance à soulever la digue : Figure VI.5 : Répartition des forces verticales sous pression de la digue. Where Born? Son intensité est : Fvsp=1/2.h.L.?w. Of Historical? L : largeur de la digue simplifiée : L=149.5m. Where? h : hauteur de l?eau en amont(NRN) ; h =16m. Differences Of Oceania Orwell´s? ? w : section poids volumique de l?eau. Where Born? ? w =10kN/m 3. L?action de l?eau se manifeste par la pression qu?elle exerce sur le parement amont de l?ouvrage. Mathew Brady? En tenant compte de la répartition trapézoïdale de cette pression, l?expression résultante de cette poussée est : ? w : poids volumique de l?eau ; Des sédiments s?accumulent souvent au pied du barrage et en résulte une poussée horizontale qu?il faudra ajouter à la poussée hydrostatique.

En tenant compte de la répartition triangulaire, son expression analytique est : Has : hauteur des sédiments, dans ce cas les regards ont été prévu et Has=0 ; d. Where Born? : densité des sédiments (terrain argileux avec arène de cailloux, d=14.2); ö : angle de frottement interne des sédiments ;ö=18.5. President Fourteen? Les sédiments au pied aval du barrage réagissent à la poussée du corps du barrage. Where Was Oedipus? Il en résulte ainsi une butée des terres qui présente l?expression ci-dessous. Of The Counter Essay? Pbs = 1/2 tan 2 LIII LU-LI LThL[d[- ? bs. Where Born? Hbs : hauteur de butée du sol. On va considérer dans ce cas que la partie du noyau ancrée dans la fondation est une butée, car elle remplit exactement les fonctions de celle-ci.

Elle a pour caractéristiques : d=1.7 ; Hbs= 14.5m ; ö=17. Of The Counter Essay? et elle s?applique à Hbs/3= 14.5/3= 4.83m de sa base. Where Was Oedipus? Ou action sismique qui est définie en fonction du risque sismique de la zone du projet et peut s?accompagner d?une évaluation spécifique. Speech Idea? Méthode Pseudo Statique : Elle présente le chargement dynamique par l?application des forces statiques équivalentes aux efforts maximum que peut supporter la digue. Where? La force d?inertie étant celles d?un solide rigide soumis à l?accélération maximale, elle a pour composantes : Fh = 0,67.á.?b . Of The Essay? S : composante horizontale. Where? .où á=0.1g : coefficient sismique horizontal. Brady? ?b =17.1kN/m : poids volumique de l?ouvrage. S : section de l?ouvrage= 1790.5m 2 . Was Oedipus Born? Fh= 20513.80 .kN/ml. Chillingworth? La force hydrodynamique sur la face amont de la digue. Where Born? H=16m: profondeur de la retenue ; ? w =10kN/m 3 : poids volumique de l?eau. The Persuasion Counter? On assimilera le barrage en remblai comme celui en poids, et FS pourra s?écrire : FS = [(ÓV*tan?) + (c * A)] / Ó H. Where Born? A = Aire de la fondation. Essay Inventories? ÓV= Somme des forces verticales ? = Angle de frottement interne. Where Was Oedipus Born? Ó H=Somme des forces horizontales C = Cohésion. The Scarlet Letter Chillingworth? En moyenne, C=0.025 MPa et C= 17 VI.5 Vérification de la stabilité des talus : Méthode de Fellenius Digue en service : Talus aval. Born? Figure VI.6 a et b: Distribution des tranches en Aval.

Données nécessaires au calcul du coefficient de sécurité FS bi : largeur de la tranche i. The Persuasion Counter Reformation Essay? Ci : cohésion de la couche i, ici elle est constante (=0.025 MPa) Wi : poids de la tranche i. Where Born? èi : angle du centre de la tranche i avec la droite perpendiculaire à AB öi : angle de frottement interne de la couche i. Speech? Ui : pression interstitielle dans la couche i. Where Was Oedipus Born? Tableau VI.7 : Récapitulatif des calculs de la méthode de Fellenius. Called For? Il suffit tout simplement de vérifier l?état de mise en service d?une digue pour avoir une idée fixe sur la stabilité globale des talus de l?ouvrage. En rappel, il suffit que : VI.6 Vérification de la hauteur de la revanche. Where Was Oedipus? Pour éviter le risque de submersion fatale à la sécurité du barrage, il faut nécessairement une revanche de hauteur suffisante à cause des phénomènes naturels suivants : tremblements de terre, avalanches ; la surélévation du plan d?eau provoquée par le vent extreme considéré ; le déferlement des vagues à la surface du parement amont ; la hauteur des vagues provoquée par le vent extrême considéré ; et la surélévation du plan d?eau lors du passage de la crue maximale considérée dans le projet. Mathew Photography? C?est un paramètre très important dans pour la sécurité de l?ouvrage et d?après la formule empirique de MOLITOR, hv a pour expression : où F : fetch (km) ; pour le projet, F=4 km. Was Oedipus Born? V : vitesse du vent (km/h) ; ici V=24m/s ou 86.4km/h. The Persuasion Reformation Essay? Application numérique : hv= 0.99m, la hauteur de la vague est h v = 1m. Was Oedipus? Le fetch C?est la distance en mer ou sur un plan d'eau au-dessus de laquelle souffle un vent donné sans rencontrer d'obstacle (une côte) depuis l'endroit où il est créé ou depuis une côte s'il vient de la terre. Brady? Figure VI.7 : Illustration de la direction du vent et valeur du fetch. Where Was Oedipus? VI.6.2 Revanche(R) ou effets du vent (Figure III.8) La revanche est la différence d?altitude entre la crete de l?ouvrage et le plan d?eau pour la situation de projet considérée (PHE). Photography? Elle est destinée à éviter que l?impact des vagues sur la crete puisse l?endommager. Where Born? k : coefficient fonction du parement (k=0.72 pour rip-rap)

La valeur de R=0.71m 2.7m valeur adopté pour le projet. Mathew Brady? Ce qui permet de dire que la sécurité par rapport à ces phénomènes naturels est à priori assurée. Born? C?est un travail à la base de toute vérification numérique des talus,quelque soit la méthode à employer. On The? Elle consiste au maillage munitieux des frontière de chaque couche de sol,tout en évitant la juxtaposition des differéntes couches de sol.Puis entrer les caractéristiques mécaniques (öi,Ci,ãi) de la couche i concernée. Where Was Oedipus? Figure VII.1 : Modélisation de la digue avec les différentes couches. President Wilson's Fourteen Points Called For? VII.1.2 Caractéristiques mécaniques des couches des sols de la digue. Was Oedipus? La figure V.4 nous montre la coupe type du fond de vallée du barrage Tine reposant sur une fondation médiocre composée du grès et prédominée par une couche importante de marne ; l?ouvrage dans sa partie amont est constitué de deux pentes : celle de 1 :3 noyers par l?eau et celle de 1/3.25 faisant écran avec la cote des plus hautes eaux (PHE), et de 1/2.5 dans sa partie aval. Informative Speech Idea? Le niveau de la retenue normale(NRN) à une hauteur de 16m et le barrage à lui-même à une hauteur de 22m.

Il est à noter ici que le barrage est constitué d?un drainage longitudinal évitant ainsi une éventuelle érosion dans sa partie aval et des puits de puits de décompression de 300mm de diamètre avec une hauteur de 17m. Where Born? Les différentes caractéristiques mécaniques des matériaux constituants le barrage nécessaires pour le calcul sur Talren (remblai, filtre) et sa fondation (argile, grès, marne) sont récapitulées dans le tableau VII.1. Tableau VII.1 : Caractéristiques mécaniques des couches constituantes la digue. Informative Speech Idea? VII.1.3 Vérification du talus aval juste après la fin de la construction (Figure VII.2) Dans ce cas, le barrage ne retient pas de l?eau et n?est soumis qu?à son poids propre (poids des remblais, rip rap, filtre . Born? ) ce qui risquera de perturber sa stabilité vue sa hauteur et sa longueur qui sont assez importante. Differences Of Oceania Orwell´s 1984? Les résultats obtenus par le logiciel Talren4 sont alors résumés par la Figure VII.2.

Figure VII.2 : Vérification de la digue juste après la construction. Where Was Oedipus? Dans ce cas, le coefficient de sécurité (F S ) est F S =2.86 1.5 d?où notre barrage avant la mise en eau est stable. On The Of Historical? VII.1.4 Vérification de la stabilité de la digue en service (Figure VII.3) Dans ce cas, le barrage hors mis son poids propre est soumis à des différents efforts tels que les pressions hydrostatiques ou les forces de sous pression. Il est à noter ici que dans la partie amont du barrage, la ligne de saturation traverse deux matériaux T1 et T2 modifiant ainsi leur caractéristiques intrinsèques. Where? Les résultats se résument dans la figure VII.3 : Figure VII.3 : Vérification de la digue en service. Brady? D?après cette figure, on was oedipus remarque que le coefficient de sécurité(F S ) du barrage est égale à F S =1.891.5 d?où le barrage est stable ; aucun risque n?est à observer lors de sa mise en eau. The Persuasion Of The Counter Reformation? VII.1.5 Vérification de la stabilité de la digue à la vidange rapide.

Dans ce cas, le barrage est remplir à une hauteur de 1m partant du niveau du terrain naturel. Was Oedipus? Il est fort de constater ici que la ligne de saturation reste invariable à cause de la grande capacité de rétention d?eau d?argile constituant le corps du barrage. Essay? Les propriétés mécaniques des matériaux constituants la partie humide et la partie saturée du cops du barrage ne change pas ( tableau ci-dessus) . Born? Le résultat issu du logiciel Talren4 est illustré sur la Figure VII.4. The Persuasion Of The Essay? Figure VII.4 : vérification de la digue à la vidange rapide. Where Was Oedipus Born? D?après cette figure, nous remarquons que le coefficient de sécurité F s =1.211.2 nous amène à dire que notre barrage est stade à la vidange rapide, ce coefficient Fs va s?améliorer dans le temps grace à la consolidation des sols de l?ouvrage. Informative Idea? La méthode des éléments finis consiste à calculer les contraintes et les déformations à l'aide d'une modélisation en éléments finis. Where Was Oedipus Born? Cette modélisation est une opération beaucoup plus complexe que le calcul à l?équilibre limite il est plus difficile d'assurer le contrôle des données d'entrée et de s'assurer de la pertinence des résultats. Les calculs convergent généralement vers une solution mais donnant l'illusion de la validité. Differences Among Of Oceania 1984? Aussi, un calcul aux éléments finis ne devrait jamais être réalisé sans une validation, par exemple par des calculs simplifiés d'ordre de grandeur.

Les calculs doivent être menés avec des logiciels adaptés à la géotechnique, et notamment qui permettent au moins de : ? Modéliser les lois de comportement élastique parfaitement plastique avec le critère de Mohr-Coulomb ; Modéliser le phasage de construction, qui détermine les états de contraintes dans les matériaux ; Prendre en compte les effets de l'eau interstitielle (pressions, gradients) ; Si nécessaire (interface avec les ouvrages rigides), modéliser les non linéarités de contact à ces interfaces ; Si nécessaire (présence de matériaux fins), modéliser la consolidation. Where Was Oedipus Born? VIII.2. Informative? Mise en oeuvre de la Méthodes des Eléments finis. Where Was Oedipus? Le modèle doit représenter le barrage, sa fondation et la retenue. La modélisation impose de reproduire, dans le calcul, le phasage de construction et de mise en eau. Informative Idea? Les résultats sont obtenus en termes de contraintes et de déformations. Was Oedipus? Cela ne donne pas directement accès au facteur de sécurité. Informative Idea? Pour obtenir le facteur de sécurité de l?ouvrage, la méthode habituelle consiste à réduire c' et tanö' (ou les paramètres de la loi de comportement) jusqu'à ce que le calcul ne converge plus. Where Born? Ce facteur de sécurité peut être comparé au produit (coefficient partiel x coefficient de modèle) pour se rapprocher du calcul standard. Of Historical? Dans le cas de la modélisation de barrages en service, on where born s'attache à qualifier le modèle par comparaison avec les mesures d'auscultation.

VIII .3 Présentation du logiciel Solvia. The Parties 1984? Le logiciel choisie pour la modélisation du comportement de la fondation est le logiciel SOLVIA disponible actuellement en quelques licences au laboratoire de Génie Civil de l?Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie. Where? SOLVIA est un moteur de calcul en éléments finis capable de faire une simulation du comportement des matériaux sollicités aux différents types de sollicitations. Cette simulation est basée sur l'analyse linéaire et non-linéaire des déplacements, des efforts et des températures dans des conditions statiques ou dynamiques. Of The Counter Reformation? L?avantage de Solvia par rapport à de nombreux autres moteurs de calcul en éléments finis c?est qu?il nous permet d?imposer la forme de maillage et dispose d?une obéissance remarquable pour le choix du type d?affichage des graphiques et des résultats de la simulation.

En outre il ne dispose pas d?interface graphique pour la saisie des données. Where Born? Cette dernière se fait dans un fichier texte qui sera importé au module de calcul Solvia lors de l?exécution de la simulation. Essay On The Importance Of Historical Inventories? Il intègre les modules suivants : SOLVIA-PRE : pour la génération des entrées (input). Where Was Oedipus? SOLVIA : pour l'analyse des efforts et des déplacements. Photography? SOLVIA-TEMP : pour la température et l'analyse d'infiltration. Where Was Oedipus? LE SOLVIA-POST : pour l'affichage des résultats (Output). Speech Idea? VIII.3.2 SOLVIA pour l'analyse du comportement d'un ouvrage. Le programme SOLVIA peut être utilisé efficacement pour l'analyse bidimensionnelle et tridimensionnelle, linéaire et non-linéaire, statique et dynamique, pour les déplacements et les efforts. Where Born? Quatre différentes options d'analyse peuvent être considérées, à savoir : - Grand déplacement mais petite analyse de contrainte. Ideological Differences Among Of Oceania In George 1984? - Grand déplacement et grande analyse de contrainte.

En outre, ces options peuvent être employées dans l'analyse couplée de déplacements/Efforts/températures. Where Was Oedipus Born? Ce logiciel est adapté aux différents types de matériau en particulier pour les sols. Of The? Il intègre dans son analyse les lois de comportement les plus utilisées en mécanique des sols et permet en conséquence d?introduire les paramètres qui en résultent des essais de laboratoire et in born situ. Essay On The Importance Inventories? Les différentes lois de comportement intégrées dans ce logiciel sont : La loi thermo élastique. Where Born? La loi plastique. La loi plastique multilinéaire. The Persuasion Of The Counter Reformation? La loi de Drucker-Prager. Was Oedipus? La loi Curve-Description. Speech? VIII.4.1.

Profil modélisé La modélisation de l?ouvrage est réalisée en bidimensionnelle selon une coupe en travers du lit mineur du barrage Tine (Figure VIII.1 et VIII.2) Figure VIII.1 : Coupe A-A au niveau du lit mineur. Was Oedipus? L?ouvrage à modéliser est constitué de deux parties fondamentales : le corps du remblai du barrage et de sa fondation (Figure III.31). Mathew Brady Photography? La coupe choisie représente une zone dangereuse du faite de sa situation au lit mineur de l?oued Tine et de la profondeur des sables lâches alluvionnaire qui peuvent atteindre les 32 m dans plusieurs endroits. Where? Dans leurs globalités, les remblais constituants la digue sont constitués de trois matériaux principaux : - Le matériau T1 constituant le batardeau et la partie amont de la digue est constitué d?un matériau argileux étanche. The Scarlet? - Le matériau T2 constituant la partie recharge aval composé de sables argileux. Where Was Oedipus? - Le drain est composé par une couche de 2 m d?épaisseur de sable sélectionné. La fondation du barrage est composée de trois matériaux différents dont la majorité est composée d?une alternance de grès et de marne, avec une couche de dépôts vaseux alluvionnaires qui atteint les 15 m en fond de vallée. Informative? Figure VIII.2: Coupe en travers du lit mineur du barrage. Where? Par la suite on speech a adapté un maillage choisi avec la forme irrégulière des couches géologiques de la fondation et d?introduire les paramètres des neufs matériaux qui en résultent selon la loi de comportement élastique (figure VIII.3) Ces paramètres ont été déterminés pour les deux cas, avant et après vibrocompactage de la fondation. Where Was Oedipus? Figure VIII.3 : Modélisation du barrage et de sa fondation. President Fourteen Points? Comme déjà précité, la coupe à modéliser se compose de six matériaux, deux matériaux pour le corps de la digue et sept pour la fondation. Where Was Oedipus? Les paramètres à introduire pour la loi élastique sont donnés dans le tableau VIII.1. Letter? Tableau VIII.1 : Description du matériau avant vibrocompactage.

Argile - Dépôts vaseux d?alluvions. Where? VIII.4.3 Affichage du maillage PRE (figures VIII.4 et VIII.5) Suite à plusieurs tentatives et corrections au niveau du module PRE, nous avons réussi à réaliser la modélisation du corps du barrage et de sa fondation. Of The Essay? L?affichage des graphiques proposés dans ce module et le rapport des résultats élaboré par Solvia nous a été bénéfique pour entreprendre les corrections nécessaires et aboutir aux résultats souhaités. Born? Les figures VIII.4 et VIII.5 présentent les numéros des mailles et des noeuds obtenus à partir de la modélisation. Informative Idea? La fondation du barrage tine comporte un matériau composé d?alluvions vaseux sur une profondeur variable pouvant atteindre 15 m. Born? Afin d?assurer la pérennité et la sécurité de cet ouvrage, le maître de l?ouvrage a décidé d?extraire toute cette partie et de la remplacer par un matériau argileux bien compacté Dans cette étude on Ideological Differences among the Parties 1984 a voulu tester le comportement de la fondation et ce dans le cas statique vis-à-vis du tassement et au cours de la construction. Was Oedipus Born? Les résultats de la simulation montrent un tassement maximal en fin de construction de 0.8 m (figure VIII.6) Figure VIII.6 : Simulation des déplacements verticaux en mètres (PRE - Solvia) La simulation du comportement du barrage nous montre aussi la progression des tassements au niveau de contact remblai fondation. On The? Le tassement maximum est obtenu au niveau de la crete de l?ouvrage (75 cm) (figure VIII.6). Where Was Oedipus? Le tassement global du barrage ne présente pas un grand danger et a été pris en compte dans la conception du barrage en appliquant une flèche convexe à la crete d?environ 1 m de hauteur. Fourteen Called? L?auscultation est une méthode quantitative qui s?appuie sur une instrumentation et l?interprétation des mesures physiques propres à chaque barrage. Where Born? L?instrumentation c?est l?ensemble des appareils servant à surveiller un ouvrage.

IX.2.1 Tassomètre : Tassomètre multipoints Inkrex. Il permet d?évaluer les déplacements axiaux d?une série de points scellés dans le terrain le long d?un forage. The Persuasion Of The Essay? Ce système est adapté pour l?évaluation des tassements, des déformations et des gonflements des sols. Born? En lui combinant avec des mesures inclinométriques, il nous donne des lectures dans l?espace. Letter Chillingworth? IX.2.2 Principe de fonctionnement (figure IX.1).

Lorsqu?il y a gonflement ou tassement, la position des anneaux varie par déplacements légers par rapport aux positions initiales. Born? Ces variations de positions sont mesurées par induction magnétique, ce qui permet une précision élevée. Une courbe de déformations ponctuelle et une courbe de déformations cumulatives permettent de ressortir l?intégralité de la déformation axiale. Letter? Figure IX.1 : Mise en évidence du Tassomètre Inkrex. Where? C?est un dispositif permettant de mesurer la charge hydraulique en un point situé dans un massif aquifère. Chillingworth? Par abus de langage, il est assimilé à tout dispositif destiné à mesurer le niveau du plan d?eau dans le sol. Where Was Oedipus Born? IX.2.4. The Persuasion Counter? Principe de la détermination de la charge hydraulique (figure IX.2) Il consiste à déterminer la charge hydraulique h qui règne au niveau de la crépine. Was Oedipus Born? Celle-ci est évaluée par l?équation de Bernoulli, pour une nappe horizontale au repos : z=0. Letter? Figure IX.2 : Principe de la détermination de la charge hydraulique.

PM : Pression de l?eau au point M ; Z : hauteur du point par rapport à la référence. Where Was Oedipus Born? Or PM est égale au poids de la colonne d?eau unité située au-dessus : Alors PM/?W = MA et H= z+MA =MB . Essay On The Importance Of Historical Inventories? Sur la verticale AB, la charge est donc constante quelque soit M, et égale à la hauteur de la surface libre. Born? IX.2.5 Puits de décompression (annexe 3) En général, dans un massif de la digue et à cause des problèmes de mise en oeuvre des remblais, la perméabilité horizontale est toujours supérieure à la perméabilité verticale et le problème de percolation du filtre par les éléments fins engendrent la sous-pression qui a tendance à soulever la partie aval de l?ouvrage. The Scarlet? Pour éviter cela, il faut ramener le potentiel hydraulique à zéro au pied aval en créant une ou plusieurs lignes de forages (ö300 à ö800mm) drainant, espacées régulièrement dans la fondation. IX.3 Plan d'instrumentalisation dans la structure de la digue (figure IX.3) Le plan d?instrumentation permet une localisation en temps réel des différents instruments de mesure permettant une surveillance sans faille et ponctuelle du barrage. Was Oedipus Born? IX.4 Mesures physiques et interprétations. Among Of Oceania? C?est l?ensemble des mesures traduisant le comportement global de l?ouvrage, pendant toutes les étapes de sa vie. Where Was Oedipus? Elles sont recueillies par les différents instruments disséminés dans toute la structure de l?ouvrage.

Ici, toutes les cotes son données en m(NGT). The Persuasion Of The Counter Reformation Essay? Figure IX.4 Profil 2 du barrage. Was Oedipus Born? C1 (P1 100804) (figure IX.5), date de pose : 9/8/2010 ; La figure IX.5 traduit les variations dans le temps des cotes de remblai et de la pression interstitielle U de la cellule C1 qui est positionnée dans l?interface fondation du noyau et remblai (amont). Pression U (kPa), altitudes. Essay On The? 9/8/10 29/8/10 18/9/10 8/10/10 28/10/10 17/11/10 7/12/10 27/12/10 16/1/11 5/2/11 25/2/11 17/3/11 6/4/11 26/4/11 16/5/11 5/6/11 25/6/11 15/7/11 4/8/11 24/8/11 13/9/11 3/10/11 23/10/11 12/11/11 2/12/11 22/12/11 11/1/12 31/1/12 20/2/12 11/3/12 i i 4/3/12 0/4/12 10/5/12. Where? Cote du remblai. Mathew Photography? Figure IX.5 Variations de la cote de remblai et la cote de pression interstitielle en fonction. Where Was Oedipus Born? du temps (avancement des travaux). Informative Speech? La cote du remblai évolue normalement en fonction de l?avancement des travaux dans le temps ; Le niveau de l?eau dans l?interface fondation du noyau et remblai amont monte graduellement avec la hauteur des remblais: - La cellule 1 se trouve en dessous du niveau de la nappe phréatique ; - Les fluctuations de la cote de pression U entre le 7/2/11 et le 19/3/11 est une réaction différée à plusieurs activités pluviométriques (figure II.7) qui influencent la nappe de surface; - La brusque cassure se situant entre le 22/2/12 et le 2/4/12 (cote pression U): Ce phénomène traduit sans doute un dysfonctionnement de la cellule ou une erreur de lecture des mesures. Rien ne peut expliquer ce comportement anormal de la cellule, le matériau étant de l?argile, donc saturée et noyée dans la nappe, cette période de l?année est caractérisée par une pluviométrie moyenne de 50 mm (confère figure II.7). Where? (P100805) : Contact fondation du noyau/ remblai (Aval), date de pose : 9/8/10. Mathew Photography? La figure IX.6 traduit les variations dans le temps des cotes de remblai et pression U de la cellule (placée en dessous du niveau de la nappe phréatique), positionnée dans l?interface fondation du noyau et remblai coté aval. Where Was Oedipus? Pression U (kPa), altitudes.

9/8/10 29/8/10 18/9/10 8/10/10 28/10/10 17/11/10 7/12/10 27/12/10 16/1/11 5/2/11 25/2/11 17/3/11 6/4/11 26/4/11 16/5/11 5/6/11 25/6/11 15/7/11 4/8/11 24/8/11 13/9/11 3/10/11 23/10/11 12/11/11 2/12/11 22/12/11 11/1/12 31/1/12 20/2/12 11/3/12 31/3/12 20/4/12 10/5/12. Ideological Differences The Parties In George? Figure IX.6 : Variations de la cote de remblai et la pression interstitielle en fonction du temps. Where? (avancement des travaux). Chillingworth? La cote de remblai : La cote de remblai a continué d?évoluer normalement depuis de sa pose. A la date du 14/10/10, elle atteint un niveau presque constant (NGT 120), ce niveau correspondant au niveau zéro du barrage(TN), jusqu?à la date du 4/5/12. Where Born? Cela veut tout simplement dire que, malgré la continuité des travaux de construction du barrage, l?étape finale de cette partie est atteinte. President Points Called? La cote de la pression interstitielle U: Du 9/8/10 (pose) au 18/5/11 : évolution normale du plan de l?eau dans l?interface car ajout de l?eau contenue dans le remblai compacté du noyau ; Du 18/5/11 au 5/10/11 : la cellule signale une baisse du niveau de l?eau dans l?interface : les grains des sols se resserrent entre eux, l?eau est chassée, il y a consolidation des sols tout autour de la cellule. Where Was Oedipus? Du 5/10 au 24/2/12 : la courbe effectue une croissante car les sols sont alimentés par la nappe, qui reprend du terrain.

Le pic se situant entre le 24/2 et le 18/3/12 est une élévation du niveau de l?eau au-dessus de la base du barrage : les causes probables sont des pluies qui ont alimenté la nappe. On The Importance Inventories? C3 (P091677) Fondation batardeau ; date de pose 19/3/10. Where Was Oedipus Born? La figure IX.7 traduit les variations dans le temps des cotes de remblai et de la pression interstitielle U de la cellule C3 positionnée dans la fondation du batardeau. Pression U (kPa), cote remblai. On The Of Historical? 14/3/10 3/4/10 23/4/10 13/5/10 2/6/10 22/6/10 12/7/10 1/8/10 21/8/10 10/9/10 30/9/10 t0/10/10 9/11/10 t9/11/10 19/12/10 8/1/11 28/1/11 17/2/11 9/3/11 29/3/11 18/4/11 8/5/11 28/5/11 17/6/11 7/7/11 27/7/11 16/8/11 5/9/11 25/9/11 15/10/11 4/11/11 t4/11/11 14/12/11 3/1/12 23/1/12 12/2/12 3/3/12 23/3/12 12/4/12 2/5/12. Where? Figure IX.7 : Variations de la cote de remblai et la cote pression U en fonction du temps. Essay Importance? (avancement des travaux) La cote du remblai : Du 19/3 au 28/4/10, il n?y a pas de mouvement des terres (niveau zéro du terrain naturel du barrage= 120 NGT), à partir du 28/4 au 28/6/10, il y a remblai et compactage, l?ouvrage atteint à ce point-là le niveau 131,30 NGT. Where Born? à la date du 1/10/10, il atteint son niveau constant qui est de 132 NGT soit 12 m au-dessus du sol. Idea? La cote pression interstitielle : Du 19/3 au 14/5/10, elle est presque stable et représente le niveau de la nappe phréatique en ce point-là. Where Born? Du 14/5 au 27/7/10, la cellule indique une baisse considérable du niveau de U coïncidant avec le début de l?opération de mise en place du remblai. Chillingworth? Cette opération de mise en place du remblai provoque une consolidation des sols de fondation, donc le resserrement des grains des sols et la fuite de l?eau dus aux contraintes provoquées par cette opération. Where Was Oedipus? Du 27/7/10 au 6/1/11, l?eau se réapproprie du site après le réarrangement des grains des sols, et à partir de cette période, la cote de U devient stable. Of The Reformation Essay? C4 (P100806) Fondation de la revanche, date de pose : 9/8/10. La figure IX.8 traduit les variations dans le temps des cotes de remblai et la pression U de la cellule C4 positionnée dans la fondation de la revanche.

Pression U (kPa), cote remblai (dm) 9/8/10 29/8/10 18/9/10 8/10/10 28/10/10 17/11/10 7/12/10 27/12/10 16/1/11 5/2/11 25/2/11 17/3/11 6/4/11 26/4/11 16/5/11 5/6/11 25/6/11 15/7/11 4/8/11 24/8/11 13/9/11 3/10/11 23/10/11 12/11/11 2/12/11 22/12/11 11/1/12 31/1/12 20/2/12 11/3/12 31/3/12 20/4/12 10/5/12. Where Was Oedipus Born? Figure IX.8 : Variations de la cote de remblai et la cote de pression U en fonction du temps. Informative Idea? (avancement des travaux). Was Oedipus? Du 9/8/10 au 14/10/10, le niveau du remblai augmente rapidement et atteint sa cote constante (120 NGT). La cote de pression U : Entre le 9/8 et le 23/8/10, le plan de l?eau est sensiblement de 1 m au-dessus du fond de fouille, cela s?explique ainsi, le point considéré se trouve en dessous du niveau de la nappe phréatique de surface. Chillingworth? Entre le 23/8/10 et le 16/5/11, le niveau de la cote U augmente difficilement dans le temps, nourrit par la nappe, et difficilement à cause du phénomène de consolidation dû à la mise en place du remblai et à son compactage. Where? Entre le 16/5 et le 5/10/11, il y a une décroissance du niveau du plan d?eau, phénomène de consolidation. On The Of Historical? Et après cette période, la cote remonte et côtoie même le niveau 120 NGT. Was Oedipus? C5 (P091675) Remblai batardeau (cote 125.00 NGT), pose le 29/5/10. The Persuasion Of The Counter Reformation? La figure IX.9 traduit les variations dans le temps des cotes de remblai et la pression U de la cellule C5 positionnée dans le remblai du batardeau. Where Was Oedipus? Pression U(kPa), cotes remblai (dm) 29/5/10 18/6/10 8/7/10 28/7/10 17/8/10 6/9/10 26/9/10 16/10/10 5/11/10 25/11/10 15/12/10 4/1/11 24/1/11 13/2/11 5/3/11 25/3/11 14/4/11 4/5/11 24/5/11 13/6/11 3/7/11 23/7/11 12/8/11 1/9/11 21/9/11 11/10/11 31/10/11 20/11/11 10/12/11 30/12/11 19/1/12 8/2/12 28/2/12 19/3/12 8/4/12 28/4/12. Informative Speech? Figure IX.9 : Variations de la cote de remblai et la cote de pression U en fonction du temps. Was Oedipus Born? (avancement des travaux).

La cote de remblai : Du 29/5 au 25/6/10, elle grimpe et atteint un premier palier constant (131,30 NGT), puis à partir du 20/9/10 elle atteint son niveau constant (132 NGT) jusqu?au 28/4/12. Fourteen Points Called For? Cote de pression interstitielle U: La pression U ne cesse de croitre à cause de la présence de l?eau dans le matériau argileux de remblai. Was Oedipus Born? A partir du 20/10/10, elle passera au-dessus de celle du remblai : l?influence des précipitations (confère figure II.7) et la continuité des travaux au noyé central de l?ouvrage. Wilson's Points Called For? Ce sont des éléments de surveillance se présentant sous forme de forages (Ô300 à Ô800) et atteignant la fondation. Ils sont espacés de 20 mètres entre eux le long au pied de la risberme aval. Where? PC 2 (figure IX.10) cote du tube au 26/3/11 : 120,82 m (NGT) . The Scarlet Chillingworth? Niveau final risberme. Where Was Oedipus? Figure IX.10 : Variation du plan de l'eau dans le puits P en fonction du temps . The Scarlet Letter Chillingworth? Du 30/4 au 17/10/11, pendant cette période, le niveau de l?eau dans le puits est presque nivelé. Was Oedipus? Les fluctuations qui se produisent après cette période ont pour origine probable les précipitations qui alimentent la nappe phréatique de surface et de l?eau contenue dans le matériau des sols de remblais ainsi que les infiltrations du sol d?assise du barrage. Differences Among In George? Cette eau déborde le puits PC 2 entre le 2 et le 11/11/11. Was Oedipus? PC 8 (figure IX.11), cote du tube au 26/6/11 : 120,63m (NGT) ; cote haut du tube : 120,69m.

17/6/10 7/7/10 27/7/10 16/8/10 5/9/10 25/9/10 15/10/10 4/11/10 24/11/10 14/12/10 3/1/11 23/1/11 12/2/11 4/3/11 24/3/11 13/4/11 3/5/11 23/5/11 12/6/11 2/7/11 22/7/11 11/8/11 31/8/11 20/9/11 10/10/11 30/10/11 19/11/11 9/12/11 29/12/11 18/1/12 7/2/12 27/2/12 18/3/12 7/4/12 27/4/12. Niveau final risberme aval. Of The Reformation? Figure IX.11 : Variation du plan de l'eau dans le puits PC 8 en fonction du temps. Where Born? Constats : Dans cette partie de l?ouvrage, il y a une fluctuation très remarquée du niveau de l?eau dans le puits. The Scarlet Letter? Le phénomène de consolidation (23/8 au 27/10/10 et du 1/6 au 28/12/11) est très visible dans cette partie. Where Was Oedipus? Entre ces périodes, la nappe réalimente le puits mais, l?eau n?atteignant jamais le niveau 117 m (NGT). Speech Idea? Le puits PC8 ne présente pas les débordements d?eau. Born? PC 14 (figure IX.12) ; cote haut du tube : 119,91m ; cote du tube au 26/3/11 : 119,01m. The Scarlet Letter? 20/5/10 9/6/10 29/6/10 19/7/10 8/8/10 28/8/10 17/9/10 7/10/10 27/10/10 16/11/10 6/12/10 26/12/10 15/1/11 4/2/11 24/2/11 16/3/11 5/4/11 25/4/11 15/5/11 4/6/11 24/6/11 14/7/11 3/8/11 23/8/11 12/9/11 2/10/11 22/10/11 11/11/11 1/12/11 21/12/11 10/1/12 30/1/12 19/2/12 10/3/12 30/3/12 19/4/12 9/5/12. Where Born? Niveau final risberme aval. Figure IX.12 : Variation du plan de l'eau dans le puits PC 14 en fonction du temps.

Des périodes 21/5 au 23/8/10 et du 23/5 au 18/10/2011, il se produit un phénomène de réarrangement des grains des sols ce qui amène le plan d?eau à baisser dans le puits (consolidation) dü aux contraintes issues de la mise en oeuvre du remblai. President? La période de la remontée du niveau du plan d?eau correspond à l?influence du facteur pluviométrie (confère figure VII.2) et la géologie du sol de fondation de la digue (confère figure II.2 a II.8). Where Born? PC 20 (figure IX.13) ; cote haut du tube 120,40m ; cote tube au 26/3/11 :119,49m. Importance Of Historical Inventories? 21/5/10 10/6/10 30/6/10 20/7/10 9/8/10 29/8/10 18/9/10 8/10/10 8/10/10 7/11/10 7/12/10 7/12/10 16/1/11 5/2/11 25/2/11 17/3/11 6/4/11 26/4/11 16/5/11 5/6/11 25/6/11 15/7/11 4/8/11 24/8/11 13/9/11 3/10/11 3/10/11 2/11/11 2/12/11 2/12/11 11/1/12 31/1/12 20/2/12 11/3/12 31/3/12 20/4/12 10/5/12. Where Was Oedipus Born? Niveau final risberme aval. Informative Idea? Figure IX.13 : Variation du plan de l'eau dans le puits PC 20 en fonction du temps. Was Oedipus? Constats : La période qui correspond à la chute du niveau du plan d?eau est presque similaire au comportement de la cellule PII-4 (distant de PC 20 de moins de 60m). C?est la consolidation des sols de fondation due par des contraintes issues de la mise en place du remblai (compactage et poids). Ideological The Parties Of Oceania In George Orwell´s? PC 29 (figure IX.14) ; cote du tube au 26/3/11 : 123,42m. Was Oedipus Born? Ce puits est situé vers la rive gauche de l?ouvrage et au-dessus du matériau argileux, c?est pourquoi il réagit en différé. Differences 1984? Niveau final risberme.

Figure IX.14 : Variation du plan de l'eau dans le puits PC 20 en fonction du temps Constats : La consolidation dure pendant la période du 30/4/11 au 2/11/11, entrainant ainsi une baisse significative du niveau de l?eau dans le puits. Where Was Oedipus Born? La nappe réapprovisionnant ces puits suites aux averses à la période indiquée confère figure II.7. La structure du sol d?assise étant essentiellement faite de matériaux argileux, elle rend l?infiltration difficile. Mathew Photography? Les effets de la pluviométrie deviennent différés à moins d?avoir à faire aux écoulements de surface. Where Was Oedipus Born? Le dernier cas des effets différés sur le niveau de la nappe dans le puits PC 29 est illustré à partir du 2/11/11, ici la courbe reprend sa croissance après plus de 3 mois avec un niveau moyen de 117m. President Fourteen Called For? Cet appareil de surveillance permet d?évaluer l?amplitude des tassements. Was Oedipus Born? Ses coordonnées de pose sont : X =95869,643m ; Y=24266,03m et la cote de pose est de 118,92m. The Scarlet? Figure IX.15: Evolution du tassement au point considéré(X =95869,643m ; Y=24266,03m) en fonction du temps. Where? Il est à noter que la structure de la fondation de la digue étant en général composée des sols compressibles, le tassement en ce point considéré va continuer à se manifester dans le temps même après la fin des travaux. On The Importance? Du 8/5 au 30/7/10, le sol commence à être chargé et la descente brusque de la courbe le confirme le phénomène du tassement instantané, l?air compressible est chassé dans les vides qui entourent les grains des sols.

Du 30/7/10 au 16/12/11, c?est le tassement secondaire. Where Was Oedipus Born? Cette deuxième phase est moins grande et évolue dans le temps en fonction des charges des remblais qui lui sont appliquées. Idea? IX.5 Vue générale sur les instruments de surveillance du barrage TINE. Where? - L?ensemble des instruments présentés dans cette partie fonctionne normalement d?après les résultats présentés. - En dehors des erreurs de lecture ou d?enregistrement des données pour quelques cellules, les graphiques présentent une allure normale et un comportement qui colle avec les sols argileux utilisés en remblai ou rencontrés dans la l?assise de la digue. On The Of Historical? - Le tassement du point considéré présente une moyenne de 50 cm, ce qui est normal à ce stade (jeunesse) de l?ouvrage. Where Born? Toutefois, il doit faire l?objet d?une surveillance particulière. Importance Inventories? Pour ce tassomètre installé dans l?interface remblai/fondation, au point de coordonnées indiquées, au-dessus du sol argileux, il est conseillé de bien le surveiller à cause de la sensibilité et de la complexité de la fondation du barrage. Was Oedipus Born? ?étude du barrage Tine a nécessité l?intervention de plusieurs disciplines. Mathew Photography? scientifiques complémentaires les unes des autres à cause de nature complexe et. Where Born? délicate. Mathew Brady Photography? Les données environnementales du de la région, hydrauliques, géologiques et géotechniques combinées ensemble constituent le socle de ce projet. Where? Ces données ont influencé toute la structure, notamment le choix des matériaux de son corps, de la fondation et des mesures spécifiques de sécurité.

L?auscultation est une partie très importante, elle se résume à la prévention des accidents graves et certaines pour éviter des pertes en vies humaines. Informative Idea? L?auscultation se compose en de l?auscultation, de l?instrumentation et de la surveillance de l?ouvrage. Was Oedipus? L?emploi des moteurs de calcul, pour le test de la stabilité des talus ou pour une simulation a permis de justifier le barrage tout entier. President Wilson's Fourteen Points For? Les résultats des coefficients trouvés à l?aide du logiciel Talren sont tous inférieurs aux prescriptions en vigueur, de même, grâce au logiciel Solvia, il a été trouvé que le tassement maximum se situera au voisinage de 75 cm (valeur inférieure à la prescription des concepteurs). Where Born? Ainsi le profil final adopté comportera : + Une longueur en crête de 759,7m ; + Une largeur de la digue en fondation de 153m ; + Une largeur de la crête de 8m ; + Une hauteur maximale au-dessus du terrain naturel : 21,7m ; + Le fruit du parement amont : 1/3.25 avec la berme large de 15 à la cote 131m et plus bas 1/3 ; + Le fruit du parement aval : 1/2.5 avec la berme large de 6 m à la cote 123,5 m absolue et plus et plus bas toujours 1/2.5. Analysis of president wilson's stability of the was oedipus, dyke and Essay Importance of Historical interpretation of the born, data. The Scarlet Chillingworth? auscultation of where was oedipus Tine dam. Letter Chillingworth? This work has for where born object the the scarlet letter chillingworth, verification of the was oedipus born, stability (slope and The Persuasion foundation) and was oedipus born the interpretation of Essay of Historical Inventories data auscultation.

The use of born adequate method is the scarlet letter, needed of was oedipus analysis at Ideological among the Parties in George Orwell´s 1984, best Tine dam. Where Was Oedipus Born? The stability methods of the Differences the Parties of Oceania Orwell´s 1984, dyke are mainly the born, following: Fellenius?s method, Bishop?s method and Counter Reformation finite element?s method. In this study, Talren software, whit Bishop?s method to born, stability analysis in speech three cases: + End construction; + Normal operation; + And fast draining. Where Was Oedipus Born? For the of Historical, entire dam, Solvia software has been used to was oedipus, simulate the mathew brady photography, behavior of the where was oedipus born, structure subjected to mathew brady photography, various stresses by born, the finite method. Ideological? These studies gave satisfactory results. Was Oedipus Born? The interpretation of Ideological among the Parties Orwell´s 1984 auscultation?s data allows increased surveillance and was oedipus born allows designers to president wilson's fourteen points, be able to where was oedipus, adjust if necessary in The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation Essay this stage of was oedipus born construction. On The Of Historical? Indeed, the where was oedipus, different numerical analyzes and speech the interpretation of where was oedipus born auscultation data were used to president, support the was oedipus born, dam Tine. Photography? Calcul de la stabilité et interprétation des données. Was Oedipus Born? Ce travail a pour objectif la vérification de la stabilité de la digue ainsi que l?interprétation des données d?auscultation du barrage Tine.

Les principales méthodes d?analyses de la stabilité des talus et de la fondation de la digue testées sont les suivantes la méthode de Fellenius, la méthode de Bishop et la méthode des éléments finis. The Persuasion Of The Reformation? Dans cette étude, le logiciel Talren a été employé pour les trois cas suivant : + La fin de construction ; + Le fonctionnement normal (comportement à court terme); + La vidange rapide (comportement à long terme). La phase de test avec Talren a montré que les valeurs des coefficients trouvées sont bien conformes aux prescriptions. Where? A l?aide du moteur de calcul Solvia, basée sur la méthode des éléments finis, une simulation du comportement des matériaux (sols) soumis aux différents types de sollicitations a été effectuée. Letter Chillingworth? Le résultat de cette analyse est satisfaisant car il donne un tassement définitif de 80 cm, valeur inférieure à celle prescrite (100 cm).

La phase auscultation quant à elle nous permet une surveillance accrue et sans faille de notre ouvrage durant ses phases de vie, pour permettre d?éviter des catastrophes. Where? Toutes ces phases d?études et de l?analyse ont permis de justifier la stabilité et son comportement général du barrage Tine dans le temps. PIEZOMETRIE : Technique de mesure de la charge hydraulique dans un massif aquifère très perméable. The Scarlet Letter? Le piézomètre est un tube installé dans le sol et qui permet d'étudier la nappe phréatique. Where Was Oedipus? PRESSIOMETRIE : Technique permettant de mesurer des variations de pression CELLULE : Aires contrôlées par un site cellulaire (station de base). Ideological Differences Among Of Oceania In George Orwell´s? CELLULE DE CHARGE : Terme impropre pour dynamomètre, capteur de force ou capteur de pression totale. Born? CELLULE DE PRESSION : Terme impropre pour capteur de pression ou pour piézomètre.

CELLULE DE TASSEMENT : Terme impropre pour capteur de tassement ou de déplacement vertical. Essay? CHARGE HYDRAULIQUE : Altitude du niveau piézométrique en un point, par rapport à un plan de référence. Unité mètre d?eau. Was Oedipus? CONTRAINTE : Rapport d?une force s?exerçant sur une surface à cette surface lorsque celle-ci tend vers zéro. Informative Speech Idea? S?applique aux solides. Where Was Oedipus Born? Par définition, une contrainte n?est pas mesurable. Brady Photography? Le plus souvent, on where la détermine indirectement par la mesure de la déformation d?un corps d?épreuve. President Wilson's Points For? Unité Pascal.

CONTRAINTE EFFECTIVE : Contrainte exercée par les grains du sol sur une facette. Where? On ne tient pas compte de la pression de l?eau dans le sol (pression interstitielle). Brady? Voir Contrainte totale. Where Was Oedipus? Unité Pascal. Mathew? CONTRAINTE TOTALE : Contrainte exercée par l?ensemble des constituants du sol sur une facette. Was Oedipus? Voir Contrainte effective. Informative? Unité Pascal. DIAGNOSTIC : Le diagnostic se fonde sur l?étude des symptômes, anomalies de structure ou de fonctionnement, et sur la connaissance des pathologies, pour porter un jugement sur l?état et le fonctionnement de l?ouvrage. Was Oedipus Born? EXTENSOMETRE : Instrument qui mesure une déformation. Ideological Among The Parties In George 1984? Extensomètre de surface: instrument de base courte, quelques millimètres à quelques décimètres. Where Was Oedipus Born? Extensomètre de forage : instrument placé en forage.

FIABILITÉ : Aptitude d?un dispositif à accomplir une fonction requise dans des conditions données pendant un temps donné. Letter Chillingworth? FLUAGE : Déformation en fonction du temps sous une sollicitation constante. Where Born? INCLINOMETRE : Appareil permettant de mesurer un angle ou ses variations. Informative? INSTRUMENT : Moyen qui permet de faire une mesure. Was Oedipus? Un instrument fait quelquefois partie d?un système de mesure.

INSTRUMENTATION : Ensemble des instruments de mesure, d?analyse et d?observation. LOGICIEL : Un ensemble de programmes, de procédures et de documentation d'un système réalisé par ordinateur. Letter? Terme générique pour indiquer des programmes pour ordinateur et des microprocesseurs. Where? PENDULE : Appareil comportant un fil tendu par un poids (pendule direct) ou un flotteur (pendule inverse) qui donne la verticale entre deux points. On The Importance Inventories? On mesure le déplacement horizontal relatif de la structure par rapport à un point du fil en supposant fixe un autre point du fil. Where Born? La lecture d?un pendule direct se fait à l?extrémité inférieure du pendule et à l?extrémité supérieure pour le pendule inverse. Fourteen For? PIEZOMETRE : Appareil destiné à mesurer la pression interstitielle. Where Was Oedipus Born? PIEZOMETRIE : Etat des pressions interstitielles dans un massif.

PLUVIOMETRE : Instrument météorologique destiné à mesurer la hauteur de précipitation pendant un intervalle de temps donné (en supposant uniformément répartie et non sujette à évaporation l'eau de précipitation tombée sur la surface terrestre). Informative Speech Idea? PRESSION INTERSTITIELLE : Pression de l?eau dans un sol. Born? Unité Pascal. Among Of Oceania In George Orwell´s 1984? PRESSION TOTALE : Terme impropre pour contrainte. Vient du terme pression des terres utilisé par les géotechniciens. Where? SURFACE PIÉZOMÉTRIQUE : Surface idéale qui représente la distribution des charges hydrauliques d?une nappe d?eau souterraine à écoulement bidimensionnel ou des charges rapportées à méme strate aquifère en cas d?écoulement tridimensionnel. Photography? TASSEMENT : Déplacement vertical d?un point d?un terrain. Where Was Oedipus Born? Le déplacement est orienté vers le bas. Of The Reformation Essay? Dans le cas contraire il s?agit d?un soulèvement. Where Was Oedipus Born? Un tassement différentiel entre deux points, est égal à la différence entre les tassements absolus de chacun des points. On The Of Historical? TASSOMETRE : Catégorie générale d?instruments dont le principal champ d'application concerne le monitorage des affaissements des terrains de fondation.

Chapitre I : les différents types de barrages 3. Born? I.1 Introduction ..3. I.2 Terminologies des barrages ..3. The Scarlet Chillingworth? Chapitre II : Pathologies des barrages. Where Was Oedipus? II.2 Pathologies des barrages. Wilson's Points Called? II.2.1 Les causes des ruptures. Was Oedipus Born? II.2.1.1 Problèmes techniques. Differences Among The Parties In George Orwell´s 1984? II.2.1.2 Causes naturelles. Where? II.2.1.3 Causes humaines. Informative Idea? II.2.2 Types de ruptures.

II.2.2.1 Etat critique de la submersion (cas du barrage de Fergoug Algérie) II.2.2.2 Etat critique de l?érosion régressive (cas du barrage Teton aux USA) II.2.2.3 Etat critique de l?absence de l?information hydrologique. Chapitre III : Présentation du barrage Tine. Was Oedipus Born? III.1 Présentation du barrage Tine. Essay Inventories? III.2 Localisation du barrage Tine. Where Was Oedipus Born? III.4 Les objectifs à atteindre par ce barrage. Among The Parties In George 1984? III.5 Description de l?ouvrage. Where? III.6 Climatologie 10.

III.6.2 Etudes de l?environnement du barrage 11. III.7.1 Renseignements sur la connaissance géologique de la région 13. Importance? III.7.2 Structure géologique et sismicité du site du projet 13. Where? III.7.3 Caractéristiques géologiques de l?emprise 14. Essay On The Importance Of Historical? III.7.4 Conditions hydrogéologiques du site du barrage 16. Was Oedipus? Chapitre IV : Caractéristiques géotechniques des matériaux pour remblai ..15. The Persuasion Of The Counter Reformation? IV.2 Différents types d?essais mis en oeuvre . Where Was Oedipus? . Wilson's Fourteen Points For? 15. Where Born? IV.2.1 Les essais préliminaires 15.

IV.2.2 Essais de convenance 15. The Persuasion Of The Reformation Essay? IV.2.3 Enrochements 16. Where Was Oedipus? IV.2.4 Matériaux F1, F2 pour filtres 16. IV.2.5 Enrochements et matériaux pour rip-rap, protection du talus aval et blocs de protection .18. The Scarlet? IV.2.7 Protection aval de type R2 19. Was Oedipus? IV.2.8 Enrochements de protection .. Fourteen Called? . Born? 20.

IV.3 Caractéristiques géotechniques des matériaux de remblai 20. The Persuasion Reformation? IV.3.1 Terrain argileux T1 et T2 ..20. Where Was Oedipus Born? IV.3.2 Filtres et enrochements .20. Essay Of Historical? IV.3.3 Caractéristiques des sables alluviaux 21. Chapitre V : Contrôles des caractéristiques géotechniques des matériaux de fondation.

V.2 Essais de convenances/préliminaires sur les sols de fondation .22. Where Born? V.3 Les essais de contrôles statistiques et systématiques 23. Essay On The Importance? V.4 Coupes géologiques des sols de fondation 24. Where Was Oedipus Born? V.4.1 Différents logs types selon les sondages 24. Informative? V.4.1.1 Sondages S-101 24. V.4.1.2 Sondage S-102 24. Born? V.4.1.3 Sondage S-103 ..25.

V.4.1.4 Sondage S-104 .25. The Persuasion Reformation? V.4.1.5 Sondage S-107 ..26. Was Oedipus? V.4.1.6 Sondage S-108 .26. Letter? V.4.1.7 Sondage S-111 .27. Born? V.5 Caractéristiques mécaniques des sols de fondation . Letter? 27. Where Was Oedipus? Chapitre VI : Calculs analytiques du barrage Tine 29. The Scarlet? VI.1 Introduction générale 29. Where Born? VI.2 Eléments de calculs 29. VI.3 Méthodes de résolutions 29. The Parties In George? VI.3.1 Principales méthodes de calculs à la rupture ou méthodes analytiques 30. Where Was Oedipus? VI.3.1.1 Méthodes de Fellenius . The Persuasion Of The Counter Reformation? .31.

VI.3.1.2 Méthodes de bishop 31. Where Was Oedipus Born? VI.3.2 Paramètres mécaniques des remblais du corps du barrage 31. Brady Photography? VI.3.2.1 Les poids volumiques, indices des vides et teneurs en eau. VI.3.2.2 L?angle de frottement interne(ö) et la cohésion (C) des sols. Where Born? VI.3.2.3 Les essais de Portance. Mathew Brady Photography? VI.4 Stabilité des talus par la méthode de Fellenius. Where Born? VI.4.1 Paramètres de stabilité des talus du barrage Tine. Differences Among Orwell´s 1984? VI.4.1.1 Moments résistants.

VI.4.1.2 Moments moteurs. Where Was Oedipus Born? VI.5 Vérifications de la stabilité par la méthode de Fellenius. Importance Of Historical? VI.6 Vérification de la hauteur de la revanche. Where Was Oedipus? VI.6.1 Hauteur de la vague (hv) VI.6.2 Revanche (R) ou effets des vents. Idea? Chapitre VII : Vérification de la stabilité des talus : méthode numérique. Born? VII.1 Vérification numérique. Of Oceania In George Orwell´s 1984? V.II.1.2 Caractéristiques mécaniques des couches des sols de la digue. Was Oedipus Born? VII.1.3 Vérification des talus juste après la fin de la construction. VII.1.4 Vérification de la stabilité de la digue en service. On The Importance Inventories? VII.1.5 Vérification du talus aval de la digue à la vidange rapide.

Chapitre VIII : Calculs de la fondation du barrage Tine par la méthode des éléments. Was Oedipus? VIII.2 Mise en oeuvre de la méthode des éléments finis. The Scarlet Letter? VIII.3 Présentation du logiciel Solvia. Where Was Oedipus? VIII.3.2 Solvia pour analyse du comportement d?un ouvrage. President Wilson's Fourteen Points For? VIII.3.3 Application pour les sols. Where Was Oedipus Born? VIII.4.2 Description des matériaux.

VIII.4.3 Affichage du maillage PRE. Ideological Among The Parties Of Oceania 1984? VIII.4.5 Résultats de la simulation. Where Was Oedipus? Chapitre IX : Auscultations du barrage Tine. IX.2.1 Tassomètre : Tassomètre multipoints. Ideological Among The Parties Of Oceania In George? IX.2.2 Principe de fonctionnement. Where Born? IX.2.4 Principe de fonctionnement.

IX.2.5 Puits de décompression. The Persuasion Counter Reformation? IX.3 Plan d?instrumentalisation de la structure de la digue. Where Was Oedipus? IX.4 Mesure physique et interprétation. The Scarlet? IX.4.1 Profils II. Where? IX.4.1.2 Puits de décompression. Photography? IX.4.1.3 Le Tassomètre. IX.5 Vue générale sur les instruments de surveillance du barrage Tine. Where? Figure I.1 : Vue générale d?un barrage en terre 4. Importance Of Historical? Figure II.1 : Courbe baignoire représente le taux de défaillance instantané de l?ouvrage 8. Where Was Oedipus? Figure III.1 : Localisation du barrage Tine dans le gouvernorat de Bizerte 9. Mathew? Figure III.2 : Température en fonction des mois dans le site du projet 11. Was Oedipus? Figure III.3 : Variation des précipitations en fonction de l?altitude 11.

Figure III.4 : Probabilité des précipitations annuelles .12. The Scarlet Chillingworth? Figure III.5 : La répartition des précipitations par saison 12. Where Was Oedipus Born? Figure III.6 : Variation de l?évaporation du site aquatique du projet 13. Figure III.7 : Carte géologique du site du barrage Tine ..(entre 12 et 13) Figure III.8 : Pertes par infiltration au site du projet en fonction du temps .14. Idea? Figure IV.1 : Localisation des différents remblais dans le corps du barrage 16. Where? Figure IV.2 : Courbe granulométrique des matériaux pour filtre F1 17.

Figure IV.3 : Courbe granulométrique des matériaux pour filtre F2 17. The Scarlet Letter Chillingworth? Figure IV.4 : Courbe granulométrique des matériaux D pour drain 18. Where Was Oedipus Born? Figure IV.5 : Courbe granulométrique des matériaux de transition F3 18. Fourteen? Figure IV.6 : Courbe granulométrique des matériaux R1 pour rip-rap 19. Born? Figure IV.7 : Courbe granulométrique des matériaux de protection aval 19. Letter? Figure V.1 : Emplacements des sondages et des puits dans le site du projet ..23. Figure V.2 : Coupe géologique longitudinale a l?axe de la digue (23 et 24) Figure V.3 : Coupe géologique du sondage S-101 .24. Where? Figure V.4 : Coupe géologique du sondage S-102 .24. Differences The Parties Of Oceania Orwell´s? Figure V.5 : Coupe géologique du sondage S-103 25. Born? Figure V.6 : Coupe géologique du sondage S-104 .25. Brady Photography? Figure V.7 : Coupe géologique du sondage S-107 26.

Figure V.8 : Coupe géologique du sondage S-108 . Where Was Oedipus Born? 26. The Scarlet Chillingworth? Figure V.9 : Coupe géologique du sondage S-111 27. Figure V.10 : Coupe géologique des sols de fondation (entre 26 et 27) Figure VI.3 : Coupe type de la digue simplifiée paramètres géotechnique 34. Where Was Oedipus? Figure VI.4 : Coupe type de la digue disposition du remblai et zone de saturation 34. President Wilson's? Figure VI.5 : Repartions des forces verticales sous la digue . Born? 35.

Figure VI.6a et b : Distribution des tranches en aval 38. Figure VI.7 : Illustration de la direction du vent et valeur du fectch 40. Essay? Figure VI.8 : Paramètres de sécurité vis-à-vis des phénomènes naturels 40. Where Was Oedipus? Figure VII.1 : Modélisation de la digue avec les différentes couches .41. Photography? Figure VII.2 : Vérification de la digue juste après la construction ..43. Was Oedipus Born? Figure VII.3 : Vérification de la digue en service 44.

Figure VII.4 : Vérification de la digue a la vidange rapide 45. The Scarlet Letter? Figure VIII.1 : Coupe A-A au niveau du lit mineur .48. Born? Figure VIII.2 : Coupe en travers du lit mineur du barrage 49. Chillingworth? Figure VIII.3 : Modélisation du barrage et de sa fondation .50. Figure VIII.4 et VIII.5 Modélisation du barrage présentant les numéros des mailles et des noeuds ..(entre 49 et 50) Figure VIII.6 : Simulation des déplacements verticaux en mètre ..51. Where Was Oedipus Born? Figure IX.1 : Mise en évidence du Tassomètre 52. Importance Of Historical? Figure IX.2 : Principe de détermination de la charge hydraulique 53. Born? Figure IX.3 : Plan de localisation des différents instruments de surveillance du barrage (entre 52 et 53) Figure IX.4 : Profil 2 du barrage .54. Of Oceania Orwell´s 1984? Figure IX.5 : Variations de la cote des remblais et de la cote de la pression interstitielle en fonction du temps (avancement des travaux) 54. Where? Figure IX.6 : Variation de la cote de remblai et de la pression interstitielle en fonction du temps (avancement des travaux) 55.

Figure IX.7 : Variation de la cote du remblai et de la cote pression U en fonction du temps (avancement des travaux) . The Parties 1984? 56. Born? Figure IX.8: Variation de la cote de remblai et la cote de pression U en fonction du temps (avancement des travaux) .57. Fourteen Points Called For? Figure IX.9 : Variation de la cote de remblai et la cote de pression U en fonction du temps (avancement des travaux) .58. Was Oedipus Born? Figure IX.10 : Variation du plan d?eau dans le puits P en fonction du temps 59. Fourteen Points Called? Figure IX.11 : Variation du plan d?eau dans le puits PC8 en fonction du temps 60. Where? Figure IX.12 : Variation du plan d?eau dans le puits PC14 en fonction du temps 60. Figure IX.13 : Variation du plan d?eau dans le puits P0 en fonction du temps . Differences? 61. Where Was Oedipus Born? Figure IX.14 : Variation du plan d?eau dans le puits P9 en fonction du temps 62. Informative Idea? Figure IX.15 : Evolution du tassement au point considéré en fonction du temps 62.

Tableaux des données inhérentes à la retenue ; Je dédie ce précieux travail à tous ceux qui de près ou de loin donnent un sens à ma vie, je pense particulièrement à : O Ma mère Mme Veuve POUNGO Cérine. Where Born? O DJAGUEU Cyrille Hortense. Letter Chillingworth? O LEUMASSA Gilles Fernand. Was Oedipus Born? O SIEWE NGANDJUI Hervé O POUGOM NGANDJUI Suzanne Valérie. Ideological Differences Among The Parties Of Oceania In George? O TCHEUTCHOUA NGANDJUI Josiane O MEDJIETCHEU NGANDJUI Pétronille.

O Ma Grand-mère Mme Veuve WEBEBE Agnès. O Ma Tante DEUMEKAM Brigitte. Where Born? O Ma Tata Mme LEUMASSA Chanceline. The Scarlet Letter? O Tous mes neveux et nièces. Where? P F E 2 0 1 2 : Alexandre M v o n d o M Patrick H N g a n d j u i. Ideological Among Of Oceania In George 1984? 1) A.P.D : Avant-projet détaillé du barrage Tine, Tunis, (Ministère de l?agriculture, direction générale des barrages et grands travaux hydrauliques), novembre 2003. Where Born? 2) Berichte des BWG, Serie Wasser, Rapports de l?OFEG, série Eaux, Bienne ,2002.

3) CCT : cahiers des clauses techniques particulières du barrage Tine, Tunis (Ministère de l?agriculture, direction générale des barrages et grands travaux hydrauliques), novembre 2003. President? 4) H. Where Born? Hamdi , travaux de recherches, Tunis, 2012. 5) EL OUNI , Cours Mécanique des sols I et II, Sousse, 2011 et 2012, 6) E.ALONSO , Barrages en remblai (chapitre V). Of Historical? Cemagref. Where Was Oedipus Born? 7) F. Informative Speech Idea? A. Born? MILLOGO. Counter Essay? Ingénieur en Hydraulique, OUVRAGES HYDRAULIQUES , Août 2009. Where Was Oedipus Born? 8) G.DEGOUTTE et P. Informative Speech? Royet , Aide de mémoire de mécanique des sols, AIX en Provence, les publications de l?ENGREF, 96 pages. Was Oedipus? 9) Groupe de Travail Justification des barrages et des digues en remblai , Recommandations pour la justification de la stabilité des barrages et des digues en remblai, JUIN 2010. 10) H. President Wilson's Called For? FEMMAM 1 N. Where? BENMEBAREK 2, EFFETS DES DRAINS SUR LA STABILITE DES BARRAGES EN TERRE(Drains effects on The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation Essay the stability of born earth. Ideological Differences Of Oceania 1984? dams) Courrier du Savoir - N11, Université Mohamed Khider - Biskra, Algérie, Mars 2011, pp.09-15. Where? 11) INTERREG III A. Idea? Activité 4. Born? Systèmes d?instrumentation , Projet n 179 (ex n 046), RiskYdrogéo Risques hydrogéologiques en montagne : parades et surveillance 12) Khaled MEFTAH , cours et exercices de mécaniques des sols, Septembre 2008.

13) Maurice CASSAN , LES ESSAIS DE PERMÉABILITÉ SUR SITE DANS LA RECONNAISSANCE DES SOLS ; Nouvelle édition. Essay Importance Of Historical? 14) Mourad Karray, ing, Ph.D, Cours Séance 1-p sol. Was Oedipus Born? 15) Rapport de l'UFAG , serie Acqua, Sécurité des ouvrages d?accumulation. Idea? 16) Stump ForaTec SA, Abt . Where Born? Messtechnik, Dép. The Persuasion Reformation? technique de mesure. Mon père Mvondo Messi Antoine que j'aime beaucoup et son soutien inconditionnel, Mes enseignants de l'école Polytechnique, en particulier M. Where Was Oedipus Born? EL OUNI et M. Letter Chillingworth? KLAI qui m'ont beaucoup apporté durant tout mon cycle ; Hichem Hamdi, pour son appui professionnel ; La Direction Générale des Barrages et des Grands travaux Hydrauliques, Tunis ; Virginie Solange ADOMA, très spécialement pour tout.

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Coming Down the Mountain: a farewell. Eighteen months ago, I spent four days and four nights alone in where was oedipus born, a very old wood in Devon, in the West of England. I took a tarpaulin and The Persuasion of The, a sleeping bag, a lot of water and was oedipus born, no food, and I sat in a small area of woodland, on a stone escarpment, overlooking the rolling forest. It was a contemporary version of idea a very old experience an initiation, a vision quest which many cultures on Earth have practised for where as long, probably, as there have been people. Even at the time, I wasnt quite sure what I was doing there. Differences Of Oceania In George. I had come looking for was oedipus answers to questions I didnt yet know how to formulate. Perhaps I still dont know, perhaps I never will. I just felt a pull: I knew that this was something I needed to do.

I didnt really expect anything to happen, and in one sense, nothing did. There were no great revelations, no magical experiences, no blinding lights, no clear answers. But in another sense, a lot happened. Things which seemed small at the time seem bigger in retrospect. Animals, birds, winds and weather patterns appeared at moments which seem now to be perhaps significant. One evening, I sat on the escarpment looking down over the great, old, seemingly empty forest and I heard music where no music should have been.

There was nothing and nobody there which could have been creating it, but it was music for sure. It sounded like pipes. I have no explanation. Strange things happen when you go out searching. After four days I walked back down into the valley, tired and hungry, where a small camp was being held by a group of guides for the half-dozen of us whod been out in the woods going through this experience. Letter Chillingworth. We all told our stories, and then we came back home. We were warned, at this stage, that the where born, trickiest part of this experience was not the four-day fast, but the return. That sitting out there with no food and little sleep for days was easy compared to going back out into informative speech the world and explaining to people what we had been doing, and making sense of the experience of where born being tossed around by the wild world in Essay on The of Historical, some strange green embrace. This turned out to where born be true. Most people I know dont quite understand why I would have done this, and wilson's points, I find it hard to explain.

Mostly, I dont explain. But in my own small experience here, as in the old folk and was oedipus born, fairy tales from brady photography, pre-modern societies, as in the old indigenous wisdom traditions, it is the case that coming down from the mountain is sometimes more of a challenge than going up it. You need to climb the mountain to get some perspective on your life and on the world you live in. Was Oedipus Born. But you cant stay up there forever. Eventually, you need to return to the village and bring back what you have learned, even if you dont quite know how to put it into words. I tell this story now because one of the results of that experience, one of the things I have learned, is letter that it is time now for me to step back from my work with the Dark Mountain Project, which I helped to found. Its time for where me to come down off of mathew brady photography this mountain and see what I can do with what I found up on the slopes. Its been a long, strange journey. Ten years ago this month, I announced on where was oedipus, my then-blog that I was resigning from the media.

The landscape of news and features journalism that I had been working for, fitfully and increasingly reluctantly as a freelance journalist, didnt seem to be telling any of the stories that mattered. That was the summer my father died; death tends to Counter Reformation bring life into clear focus, and it became clear to was oedipus born me that I had to stop doing something I no longer believed in. From now on, I decided, I was a writer, not a journalist. I decided something else too: I wanted to start a new publication, which would hunt down the stories, and of The Counter, the ways of telling them, that I wasnt seeing anywhere in the so-called mainstream. As I wrote at the time, I wanted to born start: A new publication: not a magazine, exactly, not quite a journal either, but something between the two and the Parties of Oceania in George Orwell´s 1984, somewhere else as well. A publication which will match the where was oedipus born, beauty of its writing with the beauty of its design. Ideological Among Of Oceania In George. A publication whose mission will be to where born reclaim beauty and truth in writing, but without sounding too pompous about Differences the Parties of Oceania, it. A publication which will reject both celebrity culture and consumer society with equal vehemence.

A publication which will celebrate our true place in nature in was oedipus born, prose, poetry and art; which will hunt down ancient truths for modern consumption. That was the informative idea, vision. I even had a name for where born it: the called for, Dark Mountain Project. Beyond that, things were less clear. Quite what this thing would be what it would look like, what it would contain, who would write for where was oedipus born it, how it would be published, where the money would come from, what shape it would all take I didnt know. What I did know was that I couldnt do it alone, so I asked, in Ideological among, that same blog post, for where collaborators; fellow writers and artists who see a space out there for something deeply, darkly unfashionable and defiant, and who would like to help make it happen. Big things often start from small beginnings. Two years later I found myself standing on a makeshift stage in the back room of a pub on the River Thames with a man who had responded to that call, and together we launched into the world a little red pamphlet we had called Uncivilisation . Dougald Hine and I were both disillusioned journalists and confused environmentalists, whose answers to informative speech the problems we had seen around us in our society seemed somehow not good enough anymore.

The notion of answers, in fact, seemed increasingly to be part of the problem. And we were writers too, aspiring artists. We had a stumbling intuition that the role of creativity, of stories, images and myths, of the mystery underlying our small existences, had some role to play in where was oedipus, negotiating the the scarlet chillingworth, strange falling apart of the society we were living in. Inspired by the Modernist manifestos that had appeared a century or so earlier, at another time of turmoil and change, we wanted to start some kind of literary movement. We werent sure what it would look like, or what it would quite do, or how we could do it, but we knew we wanted to encourage a certain type of writing and art: the kind that would try to engage truthfully with what it was like to where was oedipus born live through an age of letter climate change, extinction, ecological and social collapse. We wanted to know what words, images, dreams, poetry could do to where born help us as humans on the path ahead. Eight years on, our little pamphlet has gone to a lot of strange and unexpected places. Speech Idea. It has inspired writers, academics, activists, playwrights, scientists, musicians. It has led to was oedipus an ongoing publishing project, to public events, festivals, films, plays, albums, academic theses.

We have helped, in our way, to do something which I still havent quite seen done anywhere else: to curate a school of writing and art which engages with the president called, really big question of our time: how can we live as humans in was oedipus, a world which humans are destroying? At times this work has overwhelmed me; it has often taken up every waking hour and some sleeping hours too. Everyone who has been involved in running Dark Mountain knows this feeling. We started with nothing, never quite really knowing exactly where this thing would go, and we had to invent everything from scratch. I have had to learn, over the last eight years, how to run a business, how to start and grow a small but expanding publishing house, how to Reformation Essay run a festival, how not to where run a festival, how to deal with unexpected and sudden financial crises, how to handle the media when youre promoting something that even you find it difficult to explain. Most of Ideological Differences among of Oceania these I have not learned very well.

Others around the where born, core of the project have shared this steep learning curve with me, and have had their own to The Persuasion Counter Reformation Essay contend with. All of this has been exhausting, frustrating, inspiring and fascinating in equal measure. Over the years, we have inevitably engaged in where was oedipus, politics, argument, sometimes even fights. Our work invites it. Ideological The Parties Of Oceania In George 1984. If you base your new initiative on where, the notion that the society around you is falling apart, that maybe it deserves to fall apart, and that most of the solutions proposed to wilson's for prevent this are inadequate or beside the point, you can expect people to where born throw rocks at you. Informative Speech Idea. You should expect the rocks, and where born, not complain about them. The Scarlet Letter Chillingworth. Still, if there is was oedipus one thing I would change, looking back, it would probably be to spend less time dodging the rocks, or throwing them back again. Despite what some people thought, and maybe continue to think, Dark Mountain has never been a political project.

Its central purpose was never to change the world, least of all to save the world. Rather, the state of our planet, our society, our culture, our minds this great dying, of species, systems, stories is the backdrop to Ideological the Parties the work we set out to do. What was that work? The answer would have been the same in that Oxford pub as it is now, eight years on: to create and curate writing and art appropriate to the moment we are in. To promote and promulgate what we called, what we still call, uncivilised writing and art: work which steps outside our bubble of human narcissism, and which engages with the ecological crisis which is, at root, really a human cultural crisis. To curate a cultural response to the times we live in. I tend to born use the word curate a lot these days, Ive noticed. Back when we launched the project, I think I used to use the word create instead, because then I thought our challenge was to make this kind of mathew uncivilised work happen. This turned out to be misguided.

This work was already happening, all around the was oedipus, world, with or without a label. Informative Speech. The planet, it turns out, is packed with writers and artists dissatisfied with the state of where was oedipus born things, unhappy with both the civilised story and the standard responses to it from the acceptable dissidents. We didnt, it turned out, need to tell anyone what to do. We just needed to Importance of Historical Inventories create a space in which they could do it, and give them some pointers: a framework, perhaps, for their explorations. Its interesting to me, looking back, to see how the world, and the debate, has shifted since we started. The claims we made in that manifesto all those years ago that the was oedipus, human Machine is hitting a wall, that the wall cannot be avoided, and that engaging with that reality is mathew brady a creative as well as a political or economic duty seemed edgy and where, unusual when we made them. They seem less so now. Articles with titles like The Case Against Civilisation made regular appearances on this blog in the early days, and would usually see us attacked as doomers or nihilists by angry denizens of the cult of Progress. These days, such essays can be found in the glossy pages of the New Yorker . Eight more years of failed treaties, of rising emissions, of letter expanding human numbers, of plastic in the oceans, of species slipping away, have made the reality clearer to where was oedipus us all.

In another eight years, it will be clearer again. None of the vaunted solutions to this predicament, from nuclear fission to colonising Mars to top-down new stories developed by worthy intellectuals, shows any sign of shifting the Machine from mathew photography, its designated course. Here we are. What do we see? I see, I suppose, the same thing I saw back then: a riddle without an where born, answer. I hope that the work we have all done here, up on this mountain, has helped to make things clearer; to Importance Inventories provide some insight, some guidance, some help hopefully, too, some beauty. But I dont know what more I can add, myself, now. I have said and written everything I can say and write.

I have argued everything I can argue. I have done everything I came to do. So this post is an announcement and a valediction; a farewell. Where. Im stepping back now from my role as one of the directors of the president fourteen points, project I helped to found. Where. I leave this strange, messy, contradictory, wonderful, necessary thing I helped to birth in mathew, the hands of a group of people who I know will steer it onwards in new directions. There comes a point in any organisation when a founder, with his or her particular vision, has to step back to give new people and ideas some space to breathe.

Its time to do that now; to leave this thing to move on without me, and with my blessing. I cant pretend I dont have mixed feelings about was oedipus born, this. Dark Mountain has been a major part of my life for letter the last decade. But we ignore the inner voice at our peril. There is a time for everything, including endings. There is was oedipus some bend in the road ahead, and I have to Essay Importance Inventories walk around it. Where Was Oedipus Born. I dont know what I will see around the corner.

But it is, it seems, time for me to come down from the mountain. Letter. I will miss it. But it will always be there, on the horizon, rising over the lights of the city, older than the lights. This project began, appropriately I suppose, with the words of a poet Robinson Jeffers, whose work, when I discovered it in 2007, thrilled me with what seemed a stark and sharp voice, from half a century back, warning of what was to come. Jeffers poem Rearmament provided me with the where born, inspiration to The Persuasion of The Reformation name this project. So it was with some excitement, and a sense of was oedipus having come full circle, that I recently accepted an invitation to the scarlet chillingworth speak at Jeffers self-built stone home on the Californian cliffs, Tor House. I ended that talk which you can listen to here if youre so inclined by where born, quoting what Jeffers said in speech, 1941 in a packed speech to born the US Library of Congress. Ill end this piece, and my own journey on the dark mountain, with the mathew photography, same voice which began it. I will steal Jeffers words and use them as the where was oedipus, epitaph for Ideological among the Parties in George 1984 my work here, because they say what I want to say.

And I will remember that over all of these words, over all of the human words and beyond them, speaks the voice of the where was oedipus born, mountain itself: the stone, the streams, the president wilson's fourteen points for, low cloud, the cry of the hawks. The great Earth, entire of itself, moving and listening, making its way and ours. Life, still churning, and all of the rivers flowing on. I have heard myself called a pessimist, and perhaps I have written some words of ill omen in my books and perhaps I have spoken tonight some words of ill omen but they are not words of despair. If we conjecture the decline and fall of this civilisation, it is because we hope for a better one. Was Oedipus. We are a tough race, we human beings; we have lived through an Ideological among the Parties of Oceania in George, ice age and many ages of barbarism; we can live through this age of civilisation; and when at length it wears out and crumbles under us, we can plot our agony of was oedipus born resurrection and make a new age. Our business is to live. The Parties Of Oceania 1984. To live through anything.

And to where born keep alive, through everything, our ideal values, of idea freedom and courage, and mercy and tolerance. Image: Paul Kingsnorth and Dougald Hine launching Uncivilisation: the Dark Mountain manifesto , in Oxford, summer 2009. Paul Kingsnorth is co-founder of the was oedipus, Dark Mountain Project. His personal website is here. Being Human Call for contributions to Dark Mountain: Issue 13. Fusion by Kate Williamson. We thought we would try something new. President Wilson's Points For. For the last few years the call-out for our classic Spring anthologies has been based on a loose theme or focus. For example, weve looked at Post-Cautionary Tales (Issue 4),The Humbling (Issue 9) and Endings (Issue 11).

For Issue 13 there are several strands of born inquiry to inspire submissions. Weve asked this issues four main editors what topics for debate or reflection have struck them this year and what kind of pieces they would like to Essay Importance of Historical see included. Cate Chapman (currently Coventry Canal, England). Itinerant boat-dweller, sock-knitter, freelance copy-editor, co-director of the Ecological Land Co-operative, book editor for the Dark Mountain Project and occasional scribbler of poems. I read, as a contributor, at the launch of Chelsea Greens Dark Mountain meta-collection Walking on Lava the other day. There were eight of us, and each person was invited to read from their respective essay or poem, prefaced with some short introduction about the work, themselves and the impact of the where, Dark Mountain Project both in their own lives and as a wider cultural movement. Photography. Public speaking mildly terrifies me, and as I was up last I sat through the other readings with my heart beating somewhere up near my throat.

I further enhanced the agony by not preparing anything to say in advance; sometimes its interesting to just see what comes up in the context of the place, the people and what has already been said. Listening to the other work and the way that others have contextualised Dark Mountain, and particularly in hearing Dougald Hine talk about the where born, need to make space for questions that we cant necessarily answer, heres the chillingworth, thing that struck me: its deep in our natures to bend our minds to was oedipus a problem and Ideological among the Parties 1984, find a solution. As a species, we make and we mend. Its one of the things that has made us so successful. Despite our relatively fragile bodies, weve innovated shoes, shelters, weapons, cookery, music, maths it goes on and on. And thats great. Thats a huge part of who we are. It is the nature of where born human animals to create and to find solutions.

What this does mean, however, is that we tend to on The be highly solution-orientated always reaching up and out for the next thing. We see a problem and we want it fixed. We see climate collapse, species collapse, cultural decay, and we want it fixed. We instantly grasp after solutions. We want action, hope, change and then change doesnt come. We are a species of problem-solvers so why not?

There are, of was oedipus course, a whole bunch of answers to mathew brady this, among them: inertia, comfort, ignorance, avarice, vested interests and corruption, disempowerment and poverty, hopelessness and loss of faith. For me, Dark Mountain explores the idea that while all those things are of course true, its our starting point thats the where was oedipus born, tap-root of the the scarlet letter, problem. Western civilisation has cut our most basic of moorings and where born, weve drifted so far into our own myth of humanity of civilisation that we dont know where we are or who we are any more. We have set ourselves apart from Ideological the Parties of Oceania in George Orwell´s 1984, all the other life around us, isolating and decontextualising ourselves. And that means were playing a huge game of born blind mans buff, groping around in Importance of Historical Inventories, the dark, cutting off our own senses but still seeking solutions. So as a starting point for this book, heres my question: What exactly is it that were doing here? What does it mean, fundamentally, to be alive as a human being? Right here, wherever youre standing with mud or concrete or carpet or the damp give of a forest floor under your feet. Where Was Oedipus Born. What is it to president wilson's fourteen called be alive now, and not for so very long, with each precious heartbeat numbered?

To be part of this complex, fragile web of all life, with the Earth turning solidly below us and born, the endless sky stretching, unguessable, above? There is informative idea much, certainly, that we need to where was oedipus let go and give up, but what do we need to reclaim, reinhabit? Where is on The Importance it that were starting from? I dont think were even close to answering that question, and until we do Im not sure how confidently we can step out into any kind of future that includes us. As one of the text editors, I have a particular interest in poetry. However, Im interested in was oedipus, seeing written work in any genre, or pieces that cross and confuse traditional genre boundaries. Charlotte Du Cann (Suffolk, England) lives by the North Sea where she writes, swims, forages, and informative speech, sometimes rehearses. She also works for Dark Mountain as an editor, curator and distributor. Like Cate, I have found myself on different stages this year without a script. Theres something about putting yourself on the edge that feels apart from the terror a more honest way to where approach our present set of wicked problems. We belong to a civilisation that thinks it knows everything but none of of The Reformation us know for where sure where or how or why we will weather its fall.

One of these performances was called Testaments of Deep Time with four fellow Mountaineers in Essay on The Importance of Historical, Wales. Where Was Oedipus Born. In a black suit and a bowler hat adorned with oak leaves, I played the Cumaean Sibyl who once guarded the door of the Underworld beneath the fiery volcanic fields outside Naples. One of ten Sibyls, she embodied a link to the pre-patriarchal uncivilised world, a guide for a lineage of poets, from mathew, Virgil to Dante to Sylvia Plath. Refusing to give herself to the god Apollo, he denied her eternal youth, so that only her voice was left for us to hear. In performance, it is our oracular voice that gives us access to parts of our creaturehood kept silent by born, the dominant narrative of Essay Empire. Beneath the surface of polite words, in the surprising caldera of our physical selves, we can find a store of indigenous and archaic knowledge: that speaks about where, how to be a real human being on Earth. Which is on The Inventories why perhaps I was struck by born, the recent submissions call-out from the arts organisation NewBridge Project in Newcastle. Among The Parties In George 1984. Based on the Deep Adaptation agenda proposed by Jem Bendell at the University of Cumbria, the project was looking for deeper creative responses to the crises we face and an exploration of the three Rs of Resilience, Relinquishment and Restoration.

This central R word caught me: the where born, de-storying of the myths we live by and the president points called, powerdown of our own self-importance. Relinquishment was the key move in all Underworld mysteries, the point where you found your heart and was oedipus, your destiny down there among the poplars and the asphodels. And perhaps it is our most useful role now, as storytellers and record keepers, to help compost those old tales and inventories, to the scarlet letter chillingworth nurture and make space for other possibilities to occur. So my question for this issue is: what fairy tale illusions, mindsets, ways of seeing, do we need to abandon in order to where discover the Essay on The Importance of Historical, riches of our uncivilised inheritance? How can we reclaim the voice and body of ourselves, suppressed by civilisation for millennia? As art editor and producer for this issue Id also add that all genres of where born artwork are welcome, so long as they work within the Dark Mountain frame: paintings, prints, photography, illustration, sculpture, found art, testament, installation.

For the colour plates, works in colour; for the text pages, graphic drawings, prints and monochrome photographs. President Called For. Were particularly drawn to artworks that have a story behind them, where the artist puts themselves on the line. We are also on the lookout for a striking cover. Eric Robertson (Utah, USA) lives in the high desert of the was oedipus, American West as an environmental humanities scholar, pushing people to push back against increase as reproductive ecologies of all kinds continue to the scarlet letter flourish on land begging for some peace and quiet. How do we find joy in curating and encouraging the stories of the Wests Great Letting-Go? (A monumental task.) How do we not let the was oedipus, unknowable ecological endings dictate the potential beauty in our stories of the here and now?

Relinquishment is and has always been, it seems, the heart of president wilson's for great storytelling. Where Born. Part of the scarlet letter chillingworth such an ethos, it seems to me, is the need to let go of much of the ecological angst that has built up inside us and born, swelled beyond our capacity to act in emotionally productive ways. How do we keep and Differences among Orwell´s 1984, employ our righteous angers and sorrows, but let go the where born, damaging psychology of an anxious future that is neither here nor there ? This is not a walking away from the precipice, but striking a joyous, defiant pose at its edge. Ursula Le Guins brilliantly spare short story The Ones Who Walked Away From Omelas comes to mind. She portrays the simple walking away of individuals from the scarlet chillingworth, a prosperous society when they discover that their beautiful lives are based on the suffering of a single neglected child. They choose to walk away without agendas, without clear ideas of destinations or future adaptations, to begin new ecologies of contraction. For me, the was oedipus, Wests next great adventure is the relinquishing of the photography, comfortable social body to favour the challenges of ones own real, biological body, as unthinkable and impossible many of us consider that choice to be.

Queer theorist Jack Halberstam helps direct us toward that great leap of faith with what she describes as a new wild. The communal is the new wild, a place where the human ends or even an inhuman or even an outhuman begins as a dream of ecstatic contact that we continue to seek out in where was oedipus, life, in Essay on The Importance, love, in born, dreams, in fourteen points called, material objects, in the neutral, and in where born, the skies. This new wild is not found in Ideological among the Parties in George, wilderness surrounding the lonely wanderer dwarfed by geologic majesty. The new wild is where was oedipus born not about land-grabs or monuments or family road trips to choreographed and narrated overlooks of president points natural wonders. This is the wild of human bodies at last stripped of social convention and experienced as ecstatic agents in networks of being that think less about preserving progress and sustaining the damaging ecology of the where, individual, and more about creating the communal networks of bodies living physical lives as biotic constituents and not just as social conscripts. Im excited to read stories of bodies, old and new, reimagined, refashioned, and reconfigured to help us all lean into idea the upheaval we face. Tom Smith (Tipperary, Ireland).

PhD candidate in Geography at the University of St Andrews. He is currently relinquishing one life stage, and grasping towards another; a process he describes as both painful and where was oedipus born, beautiful. It is, I promise, worse than you think. Those opening words, an admission that things are going to change, sent a chill down many a spine this summer, mine included. Brady. The Uninhabitable Earth, a piece in New York magazine by the journalist David Wallace-Wells, hit a nerve, both for myself and others. Outlining extreme climate scenarios which look more normal with each passing year, the piece sent shock rippling through the global commentariat, who responded in the instantaneous manner so symptomatic of our times.

Tellingly, these responses were not about what the piece had said after all, it had been carefully fact-checked by was oedipus, a number of climate scientists and stayed within the realm of scientific probability. Nor, for the most part, did they come from president wilson's fourteen, climate skeptics. Instead, damning responses were issued by climate scientists who, in where was oedipus, lieu of substantive disagreement, raised concerns about what writing a piece like this does. Essay On The Of Historical. They worried that entertaining thoughts of catastrophe would disempower and disillusion: If there is no hope, there will be no action, and goodness knows we need a lot more action to rein in greenhouse gas emissions right now, wrote Jennifer Francis, an atmospheric scientist. Was Oedipus. The piece was described as irresponsible by Michael Mann of hockey stick graph fame purveying what he called a paralyzing narrative of brady photography doom and hopelessness. Poetry and science collided, then, on the topic of the power of the stories we tell, of how we will endure as the where born, future plays out. Becoming the most-read piece in the magazines history, what this flurry of interest demonstrated was a stubborn unwillingness to even begin peering over the precipice. Indeed, rejoinders to The Uninhabitable Earth signalled climate denialism of a different sort: a denialism of idea change and the depth of adjustment which will be needed. If were going to speak of an uninhabitable earth, lets relinquish the fairy tales of our humanism.

For many (indeed, most) human and non-human beings on the edges of civilisation, the Earth is already uninhabitable, and is perpetually becoming more so. A more sensible response to the piece came with the where was oedipus, sombre observation that dystopian visions are easy to conjure these days; they come with scientific probabilities. The future will not be like the past or present. Truisms such as this are easy to write but much harder to absorb into your bones, let alone into the heart of a culture. We need to get to the scarlet letter the roots of more spectral, cultural, forms of adaptation.

My interests tend towards non-fiction, though of course we invite pieces of all genres which navigate the tension, as we move forward, between acknowledging our human-ness, as Cate does above, and where was oedipus born, relinquishing those traits, mentioned by Charlotte, which weve come to view with tragic results as all too human. Human, outhuman, non-human, non-humanist, inhumanist. Who are we really? Relinquishment, remembering, restoration, reclamation (and any number of Re-words). What is our destiny in these forms we hold?

These are all kick-off points for the new Spring issue. We do, of course, also welcome pieces that just feel Dark Mountain and informative idea, do not follow these threads. A Dark Mountain anthology is where a collective space that allows for many voices to Ideological Orwell´s be heard and were looking forward to listening to born all of them and seeing your responses. Dark Mountain: Issue 1 3 will be published in April 2018. The deadline for submissions is Friday 17th November 2017. The Persuasion Counter Reformation. For details on what and how to was oedipus born submit, please read our submissions guidelines carefully. The Scarlet Letter Chillingworth. We cannot read or respond to work which does not fit within our guidelines. Image: Fusion by Kate Williamson. Acrylic on canvas.

Kate is was oedipus a contemporary New Zealand artist who lives on photography, the Otago Peninsula. Renowned for her large and where born, striking artworks, She uses paint to express her concerns about climate change and letter, the gift of paradise we are interweaved with. Was Oedipus Born. Described as intuitive, spontaneous action painting, Fusion expresses the almost musical meeting of sky, water and land, and people. paintinglive.co.nz. This month were excited to announce the official launch of Walking on Lava: Selected Works for Uncivilised Times . A one-volume introduction to Dark Mountain containing forty pieces selected from our first ten issues, Walking on Lava is published by Chelsea Green and available through bookshops or through our online shop. To give you a taste of whats inside, weve been running a series of excerpts from the book.

Our fourth and final offering is Florence Caplows extraordinary essay about an points, abandoned Japanese-American internment camp in the Californian desert, and where, the meaning of shikataganai accompanied by speech, a powerful image by Bruce Hooke. Bruce Hooke, Emerging, Paria Canyon, Arizona, USA. I want to where was oedipus born tell you what I know about shikataganai . Of The Counter. I learned it in an empty prison, a long way from anywhere, and understood it as I sat in meditation in a garden in the middle of that prison. I offer it to you as a gift, as it was offered to me. The landscape of the Owens Valley, east of the California Sierras, is both vast and enclosed. The long desert valley is held by great ranges the Sierras a white wall of granite and ice to the west, the Inyos and White Mountains a subtler but equally awesome wall to the east, all rising precipitously more than 12,000 feet above the valley floor. On the floor of the valley are the remnants of a once-vast lake Owens Lake, now reduced to alkali flats. And beyond the Inyo Mountains, Death Valley, drier, vaster still. My first visit to where was oedipus the Owens Valley was in late May 2006.

I drove north from the roar of Essay Importance Los Angeles into an emptier, emptier, and still-emptier landscape, my heart growing happier mile by mile. When I got to the tiny town of Lone Pine and turned west into the high desert, towards the jagged 14,000-foot peaks of Mount Whitney, lit by the light of an early summer sunset, I thought I might explode with joy at the beauty there. I found a campground out on the tilted, open plateau of the where was oedipus, upper valley, and settled in. Over the next few days, I learned a little of the history of the place. Mathew Brady. Before 1861, it was all Paiute country desert, mountains, and at the southern end of the valley a great alkaline lake, rich with birds and fish and tule beds. Then white settlers started moving in, and for the first few years the Paiutes and the settlers co-existed with some peacefulness. Then, as settlement continued, there was increasing concern by the new settlers about the presence of the Paiutes. After a few skirmishes, a military force was dispatched to where was oedipus the valley. At first the Paiutes fought back, but their resistance was broken when the military herded a group of 40 Paiute women and children into the lake, deeper and informative idea, deeper, until they drowned. The remaining Paiutes were then forcibly relocated from the valley.

I sat with that story, and the almost unimaginable images it evoked, up in my campsite overlooking the lakebed where it had happened: the armed men on horseback, the children crying, the inexorable push into where was oedipus born the water, and the end, after the struggle. I considered how this story is woven into the fabric of this place, many places; a part of the history of my own country that I can barely stand to see or know. The history goes on. Informative. After the where, Paiute were removed, the valley was irrigated by the waters of the Owens River, and became known for its rich fields and mathew brady photography, orchards. And after that, in the early years of the 20 th century, the where, city of on The Inventories Los Angeles showed up, quietly, and began buying land and water rights. A huge aqueduct was built, an artery from the valley to Los Angeles, and was oedipus born, the waters of the Owens Valley were sent south. The lake was emptied, the Ideological of Oceania in George Orwell´s, farmers bank rupted, and the valley returned to desert.

Later, there was another little boom when Hollywood discovered the rocky hills above the valley as a setting for Westerns, but even that has dried up now. The alkaline sediments that blow from the empty lakebed promise to born keep the Owens Valley mostly empty for a long time to the scarlet letter come. Now there are just a few handfuls of eccentrics, ranchers, retirees, Paiute and Shoshone (descendants of those who did not die in the lake, and who came back, years later), and tourists like me, wandering through. As I watched the light at where dusk over president wilson's points for the dry lakebed, I was struck by the piercing ironies in its history. The lake that once nourished the original people of the was oedipus born, valley becomes their grave. Then the water is taken to fuel the dreams of those who displaced them, before they are displaced in their turn, casualties of the continuing gold rush of Los Angeles. A few days later, when I headed north in the mid-afternoon heat, I discovered another part of the history of the Owens Valley. A small sign on of The Counter Reformation Essay, the highway pointed left towards what appeared to be a landscape much like the rest of the where was oedipus born, valley, except for The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation one large building that was about the size of an airplane hangar.

The sign said, Manzanar National Historic Monument. Where Born. At the Ideological Differences among the Parties in George, entrance was a small, beautifully constructed stone gatehouse. Was Oedipus. On both sides of the road were concrete slabs, cracked pavement, and weeds all that is left of the most famous of the Japanese internment camps (or concentration camps, as they were known at the time): Manzanar. In the Differences of Oceania in George Orwell´s, weeks after Pearl Harbour, when the Roosevelt administration chose to round up every person of Japanese descent in the Pacific states, I imagine some bureaucrats were given the task of finding suitable places to put them for an undetermined length of time. Where. Maybe there were requirements like far from habitation, inexpensive land, easy to defend. As is still true, when the US government needs a place to put a military installation, a prison, a nuclear waste site, or other secret and unpleasant institutions, it looks to the American deserts, otherwise mostly the abode of light and rock, jackrabbits and roadrunners. Brady. The Owens Valley hadnt been a desert a few years before, but now land was once again inexpensive, far from habitation and easy to defend. Born. Anyone trying to escape from Manzanar would have to cross miles of open desert, and then the highest portion of the Sierras. No-one ever tried. Ten thousand men, women and children (two-thirds of them American citizens) were interned at letter Manzanar, beginning in March 1942. Most of them lived there for born more than three years, in 500 hastily and brady, poorly built barracks.

The large building Id seen from the highway was what remained of the high school gymnasium, now the National Park Service interpretive centre. The barbed wire and barracks were gone, bulldozed after the war, during the time when the Japanese internment was a largely hidden part of American history. Manzanar was made a national monument after decades of lobbying by the survivors, who were determined not to allow their history to be buried and forgotten. I went into born the small museum inside the former school gymnasium. It was hard to look at the large photos, at the shock on peoples faces (old men, old women, children) in brady, the first days of where was oedipus internment, at Ideological Differences the photos of barbed wire and armed guards in where born, the towers. Wilson's. It was hard to read the hate-filled editorials in newspapers around the country, on display in glass-topped cabinets. Where. It was hard to informative speech idea look at the rage in the faces of the young men in the camp. In one corner of the exhibit there was a large blank book where people could write their responses and reactions. Over and over again, sometimes in where was oedipus born, childish handwriting, sometimes in on The Importance Inventories, graceful cursive or in born, quick scrawls, visitors wrote, in various ways: never again, this should never happen again. I was moved by the responses, but I also thought: some of us remember, and some of Differences Orwell´s 1984 us forget, and even now there are innocent people waiting in our immigration prisons and where was oedipus born, secret overseas interrogation rooms. It seems to be so tempting to do what was done here to the Paiute, to The Persuasion of The the Japanese and to think, This time its justified.

This time these people really need to be treated this way, for our protection, or for theirs. Only afterwards is where was oedipus born there some larger realisation of Inventories going astray. Where Was Oedipus Born. I thought, what a world it would be if we could all remember and truly put into practice, never again. There was an Counter Essay, auditorium where a film was being shown: footage from the time of the camp, and interviews with internees still alive today. Thats where I first heard shikataganai. Was Oedipus. An old man was trying to explain how he had survived the experience of being an internee. Shikataganai, he said. What is, is. His expression was powerful and clear and chillingworth, his eyes looked straight at where was oedipus the camera. Later, I found that the usual meaning of this Japanese phrase carries a strong sense of resignation, even of fatalism, the Japanese equivalent of a shrug: Cant be helped.

Nothing to Ideological the Parties of Oceania Orwell´s be done. But what I saw in the eyes of the old man was something far beyond fatalism. I felt that he was saying to me, to all of us, What is, is. Now how will you respond? The footage in the documentary began with the camp in its desolate first days, when the was oedipus born, barracks had been put up in the empty fields and the people struggled to survive the dust and the heat and the cold. Then, as the footage went on through the months and years, something miraculous began to unfold.

Gardens appeared everywhere, springing up from the desert floor like mushrooms after rain. There were pleasure gardens, flowering trees, stone bridges, pools. Mathew Brady Photography. There were ladies strolling with parasols, couples laughing on the grass, artists painting, poets writing, and students dancing in where, the high school gym. In an speech, extraordinarily short period of time, and with virtually no resources other than their hands and hearts, inside a prison in the middle of where a desert in the middle of Reformation Essay a war, a people that had had everything taken away created culture. They invited life to flower behind the barbed wire. I walked out where born of the documentary filled with outrage, amazement, and a kind of piercing, poignant sorrow. It was quiet in the Park Service bookstore, and I wasnt ready to leave. I started chatting with the blond woman behind the counter. I asked her about the The Persuasion of The Reformation Essay, gardens, and whether anything was left. She said, You know, there were gardens in many places here, but most of them are gone.

Even what you can see now, all the was oedipus, plants are gone, and most of the stonework is gone too, but theres one place and I could see that she loved this place theres one place that all of us who work here love to visit. Theres something about it. And she pulled out a map of the site and drew directions for me. I would have to walk through the speech idea, empty, weed-filled fields, along what was once a road between lines of barracks, to a particular spot. I would know it when I got there. Then I noticed small, carved stones in a basket on the counter. Each was carved with one of two sayings: Never forget and Shikataganai. I went back into the heat and where was oedipus born, sun and the empty Manzanar National Historic Monument. I was the only person there, it seemed. Map in hand, I drove the straight roads now leading nowhere at all, bisected by the remains of other roads. The map showed the names and numbers of the blocks of barracks, but nothing was visible except the flat valley floor, weeds, broken concrete, and the distant wall of the Sierras. It reminded me, eerily, of another place built at nearly the same time, the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in the desert of eastern Washington, where I spent three summers as a field biologist.

There you can (if you have the proper security clearance) drive the roads of the Hanford Town Site, where more than 50,000 people lived, secretly, while they built the the scarlet, reactors that would eventually produce the plutonium for the bomb that destroyed the city of was oedipus Nagasaki surely the Ideological Differences in George, home of relatives and friends of the people who were behind the was oedipus born, barbed wire at Manzanar. Now, just like Manzanar, theres nothing at mathew photography the Han ford Town Site but straight roads leading nowhere at where born all, weeds, and broken concrete. President Wilson's Points Called. The physical and historical resonance of the two places was eerie: both once a home for thousands of born people during a time whose terrors I can barely imagine, each now just this, descending back into the deserts silence. Following the president wilson's fourteen points called for, map and directions, I left the car and headed off the paved road onto the eroded remnants of a smaller road. It was spooky to where walk out into the heat and emptiness, and improbable that there would be a garden anywhere in this place. I kept walking, stumbling over the scarlet chillingworth broken asphalt, past the merest outlines of foundations. Finally I saw a grove of trees ahead of me: tough, scruffy locust trees from the steppes of Eurasia, survivors of 60 years with no water. I knew that someone must have tenderly planted them at where was oedipus born a time when barbed wire and guard towers separated the man or woman who tended them from the outside world. Under the trees it was abruptly cooler, like stepping from letter chillingworth, one world to another. My eyes adjusted to the quieter light, and I saw a network of was oedipus born paths and stones. It took a moment to realise what I was seeing.

Beneath the letter, trees was a small but exquisitely intricate construction, no more than 15 feet wide and 30 feet long. Winding through the grove of trees was a series of born empty concrete pools and channels, sensuously curved. It seemed as if someone had shaped the concrete like a potter working clay, with a deep assurance, a kind of joy in shaping. A stone bridge arched over mathew brady one of the born, channels, flat stones placed just so for the walkers feet, everything still solid and strong. Along each side there were paths beneath the letter, trees, outlined in stone. Larger boulders were placed here and there, inviting the walker to sit, to look. Everywhere the was oedipus, shadows of leaves were dancing. And carved, carefully, into the wall of the largest pool, was a date: August, 1942.

Only five months after the camp was begun. I sat down at the base of one of the trees, near the stone bridge. I folded my legs and sat zazen, the joyful just sitting that has been central to my life for 20 years, transmitted to my country by Ideological the Parties in George 1984, Japanese Zen Buddhist priests. The quiet was very deep, except for born the sound of a very small breeze in the trees above me. I felt held by the scarlet letter chillingworth, this garden and the long-gone hands that had made it, safe like a child hidden beneath a bower. After a while I began thinking of the spirit of the person who had imagined this place, perhaps only a few weeks after arriving in where was oedipus, the camp, carrying all the Essay on The Importance Inventories, pain of where was oedipus dislocation, dispossession and speech idea, uncertainty.

Someone leant over was oedipus and began to gather stones, chose boulders from the desert, poured the pools, planted trees, brought water and made a simple place of peace, inside a prison in the middle of a war, not knowing what lay ahead. Brady. I considered what a gift the teachings of Japanese Zen have been in my life, and where was oedipus born, how Zen carries within it the president wilson's fourteen points, same spirit that was so tangible here in born, this garden generosity, simplicity and courage. I considered shikataganai, that ineffable Japanese expression: nothing to of The be done. What is, is. I came to Zen when I was in my early 20s, like a thirsty person finding water. The path that leads towards anything is where was oedipus born always mysterious, but for as long as I could remember, Id been struggling with a koan, a deep question, and I think that it was this question, in part, that brought me to Zen. Id spent portions of my childhood in Italy. The Second World War had only been over for 25 years or so, and the scars of that time were tangible. Most of us in America grow up shielded from the informative, sufferings of great violence and disaster, but I walked streets where battles had been fought and saw ancient buildings still not yet rebuilt from the born, Allied bombings. My mothers closest friend had been attacked as a young girl by an American soldier . My father is Jewish, and the scarlet letter, I had an inkling of what would have happened to where was oedipus me if Id been living in Italy during the brady photography, time when the fascists came to power.

At the time I was quite sure that I would be utterly broken by well, by born, almost anything, but particularly by the brutalities of war and violence. Importance Of Historical Inventories. I felt the presence of disaster close beside me, as it is beside all of where born us. My koan was: how does a persons spirit survive when life becomes seemingly unendurable, as it can at any moment? How will my spirit survive? And how do I live with this fear?

In Zen, I learned to sit still with my life, whatever my life was at the moment: joy or sorrow, grief or fear. And gradually I discovered that something holds all of the dramas of being human, something larger and quieter, and gradually its gotten easier and less frightening to be alive. Disasters of the scarlet chillingworth various propor tions have happened, and Ive learned that life comes back after great fires. But in Manzanar, sitting in the shade of those trees planted 60 years before, surrounded by a deep silence, I saw another, more radical possibility. Someone chose those stones and planted those trees in the midst of all that they wished was not occurring. They used what they knew to make a place of peace, for themselves and for those around them, even as they were powerless and without recourse.

Right there, where loss and fear were in every heart, and where there was truly nothing to be done, shikataganai. I thought of the cellist in Sarajevo, who played on the street corner day after day as the bombs rained down, asserting, with every note, that music cannot be destroyed. Or the was oedipus, Paiutes who watched their children die in the waters of Differences in George Orwell´s 1984 Owens Lake, and who somehow survived to come back to their homeland and keep the flame of their people burning in the midst of those who wanted them gone. The power of the human heart rising up in the middle of darkness this suddenly seemed as beautiful to me as anything in this whole world. As a child in Italy I remember hearing the nightingales singing in was oedipus, the middle of the night: theres nothing like that song. A few weeks after Id been to Manzanar I went walking in the hills of North ern California with a friend, a man who happens also to Essay be a creator of where gardens.

His grandfather had been born in Japan, and was a community benefactor in San Francisco. Because he was seen as a leader, he was separated from his family and sent to on The of Historical fearsome military prisons in the Arizona desert and in New Mexico, reserved for those who were considered particularly dangerous. When we arrived at the trail, my friend pulled out three walking sticks that had belonged to his grandfather, each carved from a different desert wood. One was made from where was oedipus born, a dark, hard wood, highly polished, with a curved head. One had a head that was a sort of latticework an ocotillo plant, whose red flowers draw hummingbirds in the early spring. And the third came from the stalk of a century plant the great candelabras of president wilson's points called white flowers that rise from the desert floor. This one was light and was oedipus born, strong, and on the upper portion were a series of beautifully carved Japanese characters, carefully filled with red ink. The callig raphy is informative speech idea so exquisite and sophisticated that no-one now is able to read them. A few months later there was an exhibit in San Francisco of was oedipus born craft and mathew brady photography, art from the internment camps.

There were watercolours and sketches, delicate carved wooden birds, flower pins made from hundreds of shells, inlaid Buddhist and Shinto altars made from packing crates, childrens toys made from born, crushed cans, and among of Oceania in George 1984, weavings made from the threads of onion sacks. I wondered how many were made as gifts, to cheer a friend or family member when things were hard. It seemed that each object, no matter how humble, had a quiet radiance, born from the care and where was oedipus born, love with which it was made. On the wall was a quote from Delphine Hirasuna, who had been an internee: Everything was lost, except the courage to create. Wherever you are in your life, whatever lies ahead of you, I offer you this story and Ideological the Parties Orwell´s, this word, like a small, carved stone you can hold in your pocket, to be taken out when needed.

Shikataganai. What is, is. Where Born. Not resignation or passivity, but perhaps the Ideological Differences in George Orwell´s 1984, beginning, the first step, when faced with great difficulty: to admit and where was oedipus born, accept the place where you are, no matter how grim. And then to have the The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation Essay, courage to turn and begin your garden, one stone at a time, one tree gently planted into the yielding earth. Bruce Hooke, Emerging, from where was oedipus, The Immersion Project, Paria Canyon, Arizona, USA. What does it feel like to physically immerse myself in nature and what can I learn from doing so? It is easy to use nature as a place to challenge ourselves; a place to get an adrenaline fix. I want something else. I want to slow down and feel nature more fully, more deeply and more physically; to rediscover the relationship between my body and the natural world.

We come from mature and we will return to nature. In between we seem to have lost our connection. We wander in a human-made wilderness. The images in this series were made on medium-format film, using a Hasselblad 503CW camera. I created a remote-control system that allows me to mathew photography trigger the shutter once I am in position. Florence Caplow is a Unitarian Universalist minister, Soto Zen priest, former conservation biologist, activist, writer, and editor. She edited and contributed to Wildbranch: An Anthology of Nature, Environmental and Place-Based writing, and The Hidden Lamp: Stories from Twenty-Five Centuries of Awakened Woman.

Her essays can also be read online at Slipping Glimpser: Zen Wanderings and was oedipus born, Wonderings. Bruce Hooke is idea a photographer and performance artist residing in the small, western Massachusetts town of where Plainfield. His work focuses on the evolving human relationship to Ideological among of Oceania nature. Was Oedipus. He heard about Dark Mountain from president fourteen points called for, a friend and felt an immediate connection between his work and the mission of the project. bghooke.com. Walking on Lava: Selected Works for Uncivilised Times is born published by Chelsea Green, and brings together essays, fiction, poetry, interviews and artwork selected from the Counter, first ten issues of Dark Mountain.

Its available from all good bookshops, but if you want to support our work then wed encourage you to order it direct from the was oedipus born, Dark Mountain online shop. Last week we launched Walking on Lava: Selected Works for Uncivilised Times . A one-volume introduction to Dark Mountain containing forty pieces selected from our first ten issues, Walking on the scarlet chillingworth, Lava is where was oedipus published by Chelsea Green and available through bookshops or through our online shop. To give you a taste of whats inside, were running a series of excerpts from the letter, book. Today we bring you David Schumans brilliant short story from where born, Dark Mountain: Issue 6 , accompanied by Emily Laurens image of disappearing birds from Issue 7 . We hope you enjoy Emily Laurens, Memorial to the Passenger Pigeon, Llangrannog Beach, Wales. Photograph by Keely Clarke. It was in the grass. He thought it was dead.

It seemed as if it had been there for a while, like the grass had grown around its body. But it wasnt dead. It quivered as he drew near. Go climb a tree, he said to it. He nudged it with the edge of his flip-flop. It sprung up as if shocked and landed on the top of Ideological Differences the Parties of Oceania in George Orwell´s his foot. As he tried to shake it off, it bit. Then it fell from his foot and ran across the yard. It pressed itself against the fence.

He reached down to touch the bite and then thought better of it. It was more of a pinch. A squirrel just bit me, he announced. What? his wife said. She sounded sceptical and accusatory at once. Dolly looked up from the table. Maybe it has rabies, Dolly said.

His daughter was a sullen and was oedipus, frightened girl. She perked up at any suggestion that the world wasnt as safe as her parents assured her it was. His wife dried her hands on a towel. Importance Inventories. Maybe you should call someone, she said. Animal control, said Dolly. She was the authority on disasters. She ordered preparedness pamphlets from government websites. Is it bad? his wife said. Was Oedipus Born. She folded the towel and put it on the counter. She patted it. Its more of informative speech idea a pinch. Let me see, Dolly said. She came around the table and looked at his foot. Its bleeding a little.

If theres blood it isnt a pinch. It broke the skin. His wife squeezed the bridge of her nose with her thumbs. Ive got to get ready, she said. Im showing a house in a half hour. Go on, he told her. I can handle this. She walked out of the where born, kitchen, testing her hair with her fingers. He took a waffle out informative speech idea of the freezer and slotted it into the toaster. Arent you going to call? Dolly asked. Im going to eat this waffle first, he said. When his wife came back into the kitchen he was eating.

Theres coffee, she said. She took some earrings out of the junk drawer. She kept her favourite pairs in was oedipus born, there, for some reason. Its OK, he said. Ive got juice. Im going now, she said. You should go around the speech idea, front, he said. She became so easily annoyed. Its still out there, he said. In the yard. The squirrel. Where Was Oedipus. He was sitting near the fence.

Dolly rushed to the glass doors. God, she said. I think theres something wrong with it. It looked OK to me, he said. Youd better call someone, said his wife. Then she left, using the front door. It hadnt been opened in a while. It made a crackling sound. It had warped in its frame and needed sanding. Do you need the number? said Dolly.

Ill call information, he said. It bit you, said the man from animal control, reviewing a fact. The man had a sweater on over his coveralls. It was the chillingworth, kind of colourful sweater that men of a certain age receive as gifts from where was oedipus, their families. Right here, he told the man, pointing down at his foot. The man didnt look. His concerns were animals.

Was it doing anything strange before the attack? He thought that was a strange word for the man to use, but he supposed it was the right word. It was just in the grass, he told the man. It ran away, but only to the fence. The Scarlet Letter Chillingworth. See it over there? I see it, said the man. Can you remain in where was oedipus born, the domicile while I fetch a few things from the the scarlet chillingworth, van? The man came back with a long net. The man looked at where born him quizzically. You said you were going to mathew brady photography get a few things from the van. I meant one thing, the man said. Then the man went out was oedipus through the glass doors and the scarlet, put the net over the squirrel. He flipped the net and bounced it to make sure the squirrel went into the bottom. It seemed easy.

It was Saturday, so hed be alone with Dolly all day. He asked her what she wanted to do. Dont you want to wait for the results? she said. I doubt theyll be in today, he said. The animal control guy said hed never heard of a squirrel getting rabies. Theyll have to cut its brain out to be sure, said Dolly. And a tetanus shot. Youll need one of those. I had one last year, he said. Where Born. The thing with the letter, pruning shears. Oh, right, Dolly said. She turned back to the TV. Were leaving this house today, he told her. OK, OK, she said. Id like to go to the cupcake shop and Id like to drive down and see the whale. Her mother wouldnt like the cupcake idea.

Dolly was getting doughy around the middle. She can be weird or she can be chubby, his wife had said more than once. Where Was Oedipus. But she cant be weird and informative, chubby. He told Dolly OK and to where was oedipus get ready. I am ready, she said. A small whale had been attempting to beach itself near Sandy Hook for the last three days. It was on the news.

When the whale got close to shore, groups of volunteers would coax it back out with their hands and gentle chanting. On the speech idea, half-hour drive he stole glances at his daughter. She had chocolate frosting in the corner of was oedipus born her mouth. A few years ago he would have reached over and wiped at Ideological among of Oceania Orwell´s 1984 her lip with the pad of his thumb, but she was old enough now to keep her own face clean. Thirteen was a hard age, he understood, though it hadnt been particularly difficult for him. The drudgery of school, yes, but mostly he remembered the bright summers, the smell of chlorine, the snap of a ball in a glove.

It was easier, maybe, for boys. If you had an interest in sports and could throw and catch, it wasnt hard to get by. Do you know were in the middle of where was oedipus born a major age of extinction? Dolly said. Of Historical. Bigger than when the dinosaurs died, even. Thats interesting, he said. He meant it. He himself often thought along those lines. For example, was evolution still happening to human beings, and if so what would they look like in a million years? He recognised that, at the rate things were going, it might be a moot question. It wasnt something he was going to discuss with Dolly, who worried enough as it was. People always tell you something bad is interesting when they dont intend to do anything about where was oedipus born, it, she said. I dont think theres much I could do, he told her. If only Ideological Differences among the Parties 1984 his daughters disappointment was bred by smaller things.

He wanted to make her happy. The wind whipped off the ocean and where was oedipus born, tugged at their jackets. The Scarlet Letter Chillingworth. He pulled his collar up. Where Was Oedipus Born. A gust lifted the hair off his forehead. He felt vaguely heroic, approaching the beach under a sky of steel. Like someone out of a World War Two novel.

The sand was coarse and grey, littered with twisted pieces of black wood. It was winter sand. Informative Speech. But winter was still a few months off. A few huddled groups were scattered on where was oedipus, the beach. The Scarlet Chillingworth. Primarily they wore parkas but a few were in where was oedipus born, full-body wet suits. There was only one person in the scarlet letter chillingworth, the water, a surfer straddling his board about a hundred yards from shore. A young woman jogged towards them purposefully.

Her jeans were soaked up to her thighs. Where. She had a red eager face. She squinted as if she were visualising her ideals. He came in, but now hes back out, the young woman said. President Wilson's Fourteen Points. She shouted to be heard over where was oedipus the wind. This is my third day. Do you sleep here? Dolly asked. His daughter was hugging herself against on The Importance of Historical, the cold. Sure, said the young woman. We take turns combing the beach with flashlights. Twice last night we had to push him back from shore. Nobodys helping. The Coast Guard was here, and where born, then a guy from the aquarium, but they gave up.

Were the only ones who believe he doesnt really want to Essay Importance of Historical Inventories die. The flush was dissolving from the young womans cheeks, a blossoming played backwards. He thought the where, worst part of being grown was realising how inevitable everything is. President Wilson's Fourteen Points Called. He thought how astonishing it would be if he grabbed the young woman and kissed her. Where Born. He pictured his daughters astonishment.

The surfer came up from the president wilson's, beach, carrying his board. He was bearded and was oedipus, thin, with wet ropes of silver hair down his back. He stuck his surfboard into the sand near them. On the wilson's fourteen, bottom of the board was written, This machine kills fascists. The surfer put his arm around the young woman, who shivered into his embrace. Hes out there, said the surfer, pointing at where he had been. Was Oedipus. Hes right out there, waiting. They peered at all the grey water. Something broke the surface. It looked like an Essay Importance Inventories, inflated plastic garbage bag bobbing up. There was a spray, like a sneeze, and then it went under. Along the beach other groups were pointing and calling out.

Youve seen a whale, he said to his daughter. You could divide your life this way, he thought. Was Oedipus. I have not seen. And now I have. This must be what bird-watching was all about. Or maybe everything.

Hes not really a whale anymore, said the surfer. Hes been touched by man. A whales one of those things not meant to be touched by Ideological Differences among of Oceania in George Orwell´s 1984, human hands. Hes like a dog, then? said Dolly. Something sadder than that, said the surfer. Michael teaches economics, the was oedipus, young woman said. The whale bobbed up and fourteen for, blew again. By the time they got back it was dark. Where Was Oedipus. His wife had come home while they were gone, but left again. There was a note on the kitchen table that she was meeting with her memoir group and wouldnt be back until late. Shed drawn a sad face, which meant she hadnt made a sale. Along with the note, shed left take-out menus from Angelos and the Chinese place.

Dolly said she wasnt hungry and went to her room. She kept several bags of chips in her closet and candy bars in her nightstand. He didnt know how she came by these things. She never asked him for a dime. He heard her settling into her bed, and then the growls and percussive gunfire of the zombie game she played whenever her mother was out. He took a jar of pickles out of the The Persuasion Counter Reformation Essay, refrigerator and fished inside with two fingers. There was only one left, and it evaded him.

He thought of Dolly as a baby, how hed been the one who could rock her to sleep in where was oedipus born, his arms with a pattern his wife could never master. One, two, dip, bob. One, two, dip, bob. The deep reward of her eyelids beginning to flutter and relax, like the feathers of mathew a settling bird. Where Was Oedipus Born. He remembered the squirrel and rolled down his sock. The skin around the bite was inflamed and tender.

But he felt the same. At the beach a single tent was luminous against the night. Inside, the young woman and the surfer made blunt love. Informative. The whale, within shouting distance but forgotten for the moment, turned seaward. On the other side of the world, a tiger padded into an encampment. She bore the smell of shit and meat. In her teeth were strands of lung, liver and intestine, offal of her own young.

She entered the light cast by the fire. The tigers muscles slid beneath her stripes like prisoners behind bars. The three men warming themselves, poachers, stood with shock and fear. This was the where was oedipus, very beast theyd stalked for days, whose cubs they had found in a hole beneath the roots of a fallen baobab and eviscerated on the spot, taking what they needed and leaving a small pile of wet guts where each had slept. Now the fourteen points for, tiger had come to rip them down and tear out was oedipus their throats. They found themselves unable to run. Their rifles, leaning against photography, a tree fifteen feet from where they stood, were like distant things in a dream. The fire popped loudly and they heard the heavy shuffling of their elephants in the woods. And then the tiger, like a house cat, rolled onto her back and offered her heart to her hunters. Emily Laurens, Remembrance Day for Lost Species 2014, Memorial to the Passenger Pigeon, Llangrannog Beach, Wales.

We need to find new ways to commemorate the where was oedipus, passing of places, ecosystems and species. One hundred years ago and 4000 miles away, the passenger pigeon became extinct. From billions to none in the blink of an wilson's points, eye. With that in mind, I went to where the civilised, farmed, human-dominated land meets the wild untameable ocean to draw passenger pigeons with my friends in that liminal space. Within those fragments of rock that sea and time have crumbled to was oedipus near dust, I trace their shapes with my garden rake.

In the blond brown sands I draw a small flock of pigeons, like shadows passing overhead. Mathew Photography. And then I watch them disappear. Photograph by Keely Clarke. David Schuman grew up in a New Jersey suburb about 30 miles from Manhattan. His parents, both teachers, told him he could do anything he wanted in where was oedipus born, life as long as it wasnt teaching. So, of course, that is what he does now. He lives in St Louis, at the nexus of many aspects of the scarlet letter chillingworth Americas present cultural moment. Discovering Dark Mountain through the born, New York Times , he found the story Squirrel, which he had written months earlier, made sense in a way that it hadnt before. So he submitted it for mathew publication. Emily Laurens is one of Feral Theatres co-founders and co-directors and lives and works in rural West Wales.

Her work uses and where was oedipus, utilises myth, clown, ritual, mask, puppets and movement to explore loss, transformation and our connection to the Earth and its non-human inhabitants. Walking on Lava: Selected Works for informative speech idea Uncivilised Times is published by Chelsea Green, and brings together essays, fiction, poetry, interviews and artwork selected from the where, first ten issues of Dark Mountain. Among The Parties Of Oceania In George Orwell´s 1984. Its available from where was oedipus, all good bookshops, but if you want to support our work then wed encourage you to order it direct from the Dark Mountain online shop. Walking on Lava: Prospecting for Equanimity. This week were excited to announce the official launch of Walking on Lava: Selected Works for Uncivilised Times . A one-volume introduction to mathew photography Dark Mountain containing forty pieces selected from our first ten issues, Walking on where, Lava is Differences the Parties in George Orwell´s 1984 published by Chelsea Green and available through bookshops or through our online shop. To give you a taste of whats inside, were running a series of where was oedipus born excerpts from the book. Today we bring you the first part of Essay of Historical Jason Bentons story of home in rustbelt Appalachia from Dark Mountain: Issue 7, accompanied by Ron Haggs Abode Farmhouse image from the same book. We hope you enjoy Ron Hagg, Adobe Farmhouse, New Mexico, USA. The stakes are in the meadow the fields are overgrown.

The winds of change are blowin through the place Ive called home. Theyre digging at born the edges to Ideological Differences of Oceania in George Orwell´s build the power line. Same old story but now the storys mine [] It all began 300 years before. What story is beginning. If this one is was oedipus no more? Railroad Earth, Lone Croft Farewell This story is nothing special, nothing new. It is a story of time, my home, my family, and how this story continues to consume our time and space to be human, creating existential crises in mathew, individuals (myself). Environmental writers write about childhood because, it seems, this is the only place where, if lucky, we are now afforded the habitat to be human for a short while before were forced into where was oedipus the fold. This is brady photography not one of those articles.

It is a recounting, in where born, my words and my grandparents, of how things have changed and of the unfolding discontentment across generations. Out of this arises a patient hope for what, I still cannot say but it is not for speech what we have now. This place, Western Pennsylvania, the western foothills of Appalachia, has produced a lot of coal, gas and was oedipus, steel (and a lot of broken backs, broken families and cancer) but also Annie Dillard, Edward Abbey and Rachel Carson, though most of us around here have never heard of them. What abides are strong family ties and proud gardeners, a connection to the land (what is left of it), and a stubborn independence, although for how long I do not know. It is of The Counter Essay a place I will continue to call home until I die or it is taken from me. I left here as an where born, eager teenager and returned a decade later married with kids and a mortgage on a four-acre plot. A curious thing happens after spending time away. Aesthetics and of The Essay, idiosyncrasies of time and space a workday commute, a weed or ambient sound become more pronounced, as the difference between the where born, present and memories of the past reveals the quality of among in George Orwell´s 1984 relationships, change and often injustice. Where Was Oedipus Born. Discontent and love arise hand in hand as objects and experiences resurrect these memories, revealing something new and something old and a living story which lies in between.

Some of these objects and experiences are products of civilised life. Civilisation goes about its business condensing the raw elements of informative speech life (including people) into capital and products, and in the process condenses the was oedipus, experience of of Historical time and space into things like gasoline, trucks, p -values, and phones potent mediators to the experience of life and reality. This business permeates even my thoughts, behaviours and sometimes desires. In the process, stories fragment and memories fade. Its the same old story once again. But there is always room to rewrite, re-create, and be reborn.

Im still just as eager for something different, something new perhaps because I was born of this place which has been in constant flux since my farmer ancestors immigrated here from where born, Germany, Ireland, Scotland and Denmark over 200 years ago. This eagerness is not for wilson's for what most would think. Ive travelled enough of the world to find that the best things in life come from my garden, kitchen and bed. And an adventure away from it all, a solitary place to get lost and lose myself, I can often find within my garden or the was oedipus, local woods. I spent most of my time away living in Boston. Informative. I do miss its diverse and witty people, the White Mountains nearby, and a walk to the Atlantic for a dip.

But I wouldnt call it home. This will be probably until I die. This will be the place where Ill always return after getting lost, after losing myself. After many generations of being pushed aside, something within me has decided that it is where born time to remain still and quiet, at least for now. Much of Essay on The Importance Inventories this place has changed. The fields are now dotted with giant houses and gas wells. Gas lines vein and artery the where was oedipus born, land, ever-vascularising new territory and Ideological among the Parties of Oceania in George Orwell´s, depths, varicosing to the surface for stations, valves and utilities. Churches have water ministries (not to be confused with baptism) helping families with contaminated or lost water.

People seem richer and was oedipus, poorer, which is nothing new to this business. Once non-existent or seldom-seen, smartphones, stink bugs and drugs are now ubiquitous luxury and its victims reinvented. ? The woods are posted. When I was little I used to be able walk miles in most directions from home without bothering anybody except Mom who would, having exhausted her voice, wail on chillingworth, her hefty iron triangle bell to call us in where born, after we were gone too long. Impossible now without breaking some law, namely trespassing, as the countryside is increasingly owned by businesses or individuals who live far away . I remember her heaving the antique from its nail on the wall, a symbol of a time when kin worked within earshot although in her case she slept alone every night; still does, with Dad working night shift at the plant. We boys roamed the among Orwell´s, countryside, pretending to be trappers and homesteaders like Daniel Boone, but found someone had already beat us to it and then disappeared, leaving behind ploughs, animal traps and trash. Those relics became our rusty treasure, shifting our ambitions from rocks, plants and animals to more neurotic, civilised pursuits: archaeology, anthropology, and something else for where was oedipus those rusty relics became something like Yoricks skull, leading to various questions of existence: Who were they? Where did they come from?

Where did they go? Where did I come from? Where am I going? Who am I? And if all the Daniel Boones are gone their tools, land, and Counter Reformation, dreams absconded where is this fantasy taking me? When I was 12 my brother, a year younger, wept when we learned that someone was planning to build in was oedipus born, the woods behind our house where the old sawmill used to be where we played like giants along the stream, shot, trapped and caught countless helpless critters. Essay. We booby-trapped the place with animal skulls and snakes to where was oedipus dissuade them it worked, so we thought.

That place was sacred to us. We still pause each time we pass there, now with our little ones, in awe of how tall the sycamores have grown, how little we now feel. We stand mouths-agape peering at the ivory heights, wondering if sycamore fruit is edible, eyeing a viable avenue to the top. I wonder what those taste like Hey, where are the kids? When I was a child, time was absent, but now everything is moving and accelerating, especially those little ones. My great-grandparents world was no less chaotic, but for several generations prior to theirs there was a relative homeostasis, a sameness from one time to the next (they would have disagreed). Change has been constant, bulldozing the past, yet still dictated by the same intensifying powers powers that as I grow older I find all around me and even within my own conscience; and the scarlet letter, sometimes, to my annoyance, my unconsciousness. I try to pluck such infiltrates from my soul just as I do the was oedipus born, stink bugs (an Asian insect who stole away on Chinese imports during my decade away) from president wilson's fourteen called, every nook and cranny of my home, or as I once plucked them from where was oedipus born, my toddlers shoulder. As for my children, I just cant say what time will be or bring for them.

Will they stay? Will they return? How will the pressures of time and these powers form them? The mining frenzy hasnt changed, even since the speech, first Drake oil well was drilled just north of here in 1859. Were always moving and born, being moved by the energy industry, which powers what William Cobbett ? called The Thing, and others have called progress, GDP, revenue, industrial warfare (the War effort), democratic capitalism, The Machine, The Man, development, growth. Grandpap recently shook his head in disgust shocked that they all-at-once strip-mined and fracked the vast rolling fields across from his childhood home: That was still good land!

Been farmed long before I was around a lot of people took care of those fields. The Thing has given us much, though. Compared with my great- grandparents we live like royalty more convenience and luxury; however, less freedom and Differences among the Parties Orwell´s 1984, less time. If they saw us now they would quietly nod and where born, politely say, Thats nice, then gratefully, skilfully return to their work. I romanticise, but these were folks who lived life abundantly, and chillingworth, without electricity or indoor plumbing. My brothers and I have careers now, and if youve got one around here you are likely tied to mining or the where was oedipus, energy industry, and invariably tied (or perhaps noosed, knotted, lassoed or wedded) to The Thing. One of us counts and recounts the surplus, one ensures it is safely acquired, and I manage the side effects as a psychiatric nurse.

I say manage, for true prevention would be anathema to growth, to luxury to the noose. At work I see the double edge of our way of life: the rich man who feels alone and empty, and the poor single mother who is exhausted from working three jobs, neither of whom have time for president fourteen called their children. Where. Cobbett protested against this onslaught, for fairness, longing for the nation of his childhood. But turning back the clock is futile, and with only three weeks of holiday a year, theres no time left for dealing with hucksters, governments, or favourable representatives. ? The soul needs daily restoration: at home I have my childrens youth and my wifes love to enjoy, there are beans and berries to pick and preserve, someone needs help with a shovel, the winter wren offers a song and of The Counter Essay, dance, theres food to cook and where, share. Dozers and trucks, symbolic and informative speech idea, steel, can become deeply personal. Grandma had the noisy, dusty coal processing plant nearby, their dairy farm razed for progress, which is now Moraine State Park.

My childhood home (the actual house) had been relocated from where was oedipus, its hilltop farm to the edge of the woods in order to make way for strip mines. The Scarlet Letter. I have peered and peed into more than one open mine pit. Stepping from a wet vernal paradise teeming with life to a silent dusty pit the size of where was oedipus born a small village, I found myself asking then, as I do now, Is all this really necessary? My friend lived in the trailer park down the informative speech idea, road his father was a drag-line crane mechanic, always reeking of diesel, piss, tobacco and sweat from was oedipus, sleeping in president fourteen, a rig or his pickup. They would operate those draglines 24/7: one was a mile away, lighting the horizon and drumming the earth. You didnt notice its constant racket until it suddenly broke down, sometimes with a thunderous echoing boom as the house-sized bucket fell to the ground. Right then, an etheric, proverbial breath was released: silence wind birds breath heart and mind quickly settled to the fore of consciousness. Where Was Oedipus Born. The land and I exhaled, and for a brief moment possibility opened her door. For as long as I can recall I have been awakened by the drone of early-morning coal trucks on nearby Routes 19, I 79 and Ideological among, 422.

As a teen I spent the night at my girlfriends (now wifes) parents house. The road lay parallel, just a few yards away, to a couch in the foyer where I slept once. Jake-brakers! The noise of slowing trucks is where was oedipus born loud enough to shake houses, make dogs bark, babies cry, throw china from cupboard shelves, and unhinge windows and your mind. Today the morning drone is accompanied by cavalcades of frack water and rigging trucks . On my morning commute I share the Ideological Differences among, highway with the where born, trucks carrying coal, water, pipes and rigging, and also windmill wings hundreds of feet long on their way to the Appalachian mountaintops east of here.

There are pillars of fire on every horizon, which always lend images of a biblical Israelite camp and tabernacle, like the posters on a Sunday school wall. At work, many of idea my patients are coal miners, roughneckers, truck drivers and where was oedipus, their wives and children the children I worry for the most (and what of their childrens children, including my own?). Too many of Differences the Parties Orwell´s 1984 those young people look at their exhausted, indebted, irritable, unhealthy, addicted and divorced forebears and ask me the question: Whats the was oedipus, point? without a story to tell or fulfil. I have no answer that will satisfy their soul and I almost appreciate their protest: sitting idly, already disillusioned, without ambition or hope. The miners come with bent backs and on The of Historical, spirits, fearing they are no longer useful. The roughneckers always find a way to gaol: heroin, fights, more heroin . The truckers, anxious and paranoid: running against time, traffic and where was oedipus born, debt. There are also surveyors, land grabbers, rich well owners, poor pipe welders and an arrogant rookie accountant setting up some kind of hedge fund for among in George the drilling companies. Was Oedipus. Many, though, are jobless, clinically poor, and by the time they see me are beyond their wits end with their struggle. People around here (myself included) arent apt to ask for help, particularly from a stranger, and more particularly from a shrink. During our lunch conversation my co-worker tearfully shares the informative, news: Its a malignancy.

Shes the fourth in our office diagnosed with cancer this year. My boss complains that Theyre dumping in the stream again behind her house. She isnt sure how to stop them or clean it up. The daily 10am and 2pm trains rumble and born, screech outside my office window, a mile of coal, oil and chemicals in tow. I drive home with the trucks and need to use my windshield wipers when following the Ideological Differences among the Parties of Oceania Orwell´s, frack water salvage trucks as they leak an where was oedipus, oily, briny residue onto my car (destined to be dumped in old wells in Ohio). On the car radio, I listen to a politician argue that in order to save the future existence of Pennsylvania farming we need more gas operations on farmland.

I arrive home and wilson's points called, my daughters and I wander into the garden where dull bituminous and shiny anthracite lie on where was oedipus born, the ground, dropped from previous mining operations. We pick tomatoes, flicking off confident stink bugs, while the Haliburton pickup drives by and the Shell helicopter flies overhead every day at 5.45pm. Entering through the basement door, Im greeted by my radon detector beeping: the level is still above the EPA safe level, even after the expensive mitigation system whose constant hum drives me mad. Mathew Brady. Some wondered if radon had contributed to my aunts early death since she lived in an underground house near gas wells and where was oedipus born, mining. Well never know. The calm of the evening is periodically interrupted by the wobbly fan blades of my new electric ultra-efficient heat pump, my attempt to warm and cool my house sustainably. I listen with indignation and vengeful pleasure. I dare not fix it.

The blade might one day let loose and destroy its innards, but that is fine. The Scarlet Letter. My beloved winter wren couple (and since, a host of other birds, chipmunks, squirrels, a wild kitten and where, a baby crow) recently nosed around inside looking for a place to build their nest when the fan kicked on. You cant kill pure spirits like theirs without damage. Winter evenings are warmed by my pellet stove: an insane contraption, always needing fixing, and relying on wood for sawdust, volumes of natural gas to dry and press the pellets, oil to haul and package the pellets, and the scarlet letter chillingworth, coal-fired electric to power the where, thing all for a simple warm fire. Were burning even the dust and brady photography, selling it as an ecological heat source, referring to where was oedipus born sawdust as waste.

Not even the dust is allowed to fall as an offering to future forests, fungi, termites and dirt. But The Thing is there, so I use it. Im as patient as a snake, but sooner than later, in a maniacal fit of rage and on The of Historical Inventories, flurry of pellets, The Thing will be speeding to the scrap yard. Mommy, whered Daddy go? Hell be back, babe. Lets clean up these pellets. I later turn out the lights, burned at the local coal (soon to be gas) plant, just west of here, which Im told may have contributed to the asthma that nearly killed me when I was three and where born, now suffocates my toddler. The Scarlet Chillingworth. I fall asleep to the drone of the trucks.

1 . Ralph Waldo Emerson frequently explored the karmic idea that for every material excess, there is a double-sided, moral/material victim or defect, e.g. the modern guilt over our excess, and our pitiful attempts at finding sustainable methods of having more of the same story. Born. See RWEs essay Compensation. 2 . See Dark Mountain: Issue 2 , The Shuttle Exchanged for the Sword by Warren Draper. The Luddites same old story is what drove Cobbett to The Persuasion of The Counter Reformation stoop to his political endeavours and my ancestors to seek a place in where, America where they could farm unbothered. Ideological Differences Among The Parties Of Oceania 1984. That Jeffersonian dream remained a dream for almost 150 years until the story quickly caught up with them. 3 . From Robinson Jeffers Souls Desert. Ron Hagg, Adobe Farmhouse, New Mexico, USA. This is an abandoned adobe farmhouse in where born, Arroyo Hondo, New Mexico.

It is sad to informative see a familys dream abandoned where once there was hope. Today in the United States we are run by a corporate state small family farms are disappearing at was oedipus born an alarming rate., only to be taken over by huge factory farms. In this photograph I try to capture not only president wilson's points called for a devastating case of a single family no longer farming, but also a reflection of the state of affairs in our society. Before the arrival of the was oedipus, Europeans in Differences the Parties of Oceania Orwell´s 1984, 1700 this area was populated by was oedipus, members of the Taos Pueblo. Jason Benton has been following a rabbit trail that began with woods and fields and wilson's points, creek-bottomed hills, then cities and oceans, airplanes and theology, mountains and jungles, horses and psychiatric nursing, and now goats and gardens. Presently, he is back home in Western Pennsylvania, with children and homeschooling, work, a very small farm and a large garden. Ron Hagg is an exhibited photographer, based in Taos, New Mexico, and has worked in the field of education for most of his adult life.

His first job was helping migrant farm labour families. When he worked at born Hoopa Valley High School in Reformation Essay, Humboldt County, California, he initiated and coordinated the effort to was oedipus born teach the languages of three of the areass Native American tribes, Karuk, Yurok and Hupa. He has written four novels: Jesus of Kneeland, To Keep from Drowning, Dreams of a New Day and Escape in Time . The last of these was turned into a full-length motion picture. haggmedia.com. Walking on Lava: Selected Works for Uncivilised Times is published by Chelsea Green, and brings together essays, fiction, poetry, interviews and artwork selected from the first ten issues of Dark Mountain. Its available from all good bookshops, but if you want to support our work then wed encourage you to order it direct from the Dark Mountain online shop. This week were excited to photography announce the where was oedipus born, official launch of Walking on Lava: Selected Works for Uncivilised Times . A one-volume introduction to Dark Mountain containing forty pieces selected from mathew brady, our first ten issues, Walking on Lava is published by Chelsea Green and available through bookshops or through our online shop. Over the next two weeks, well be running a series of where was oedipus excerpts from the book, starting today with the editorial. An Introduction to This Book. Uncivilisation , the manifesto that launched the Dark Mountain Project, was written in the autumn of 2008, at The Persuasion Essay a time of global crisis and collapse. A firestorm was blowing through the was oedipus born, worlds financial system, and for a while it was unclear how much of the Importance of Historical, world would be left standing when it ended. Where Was Oedipus. This book was assembled eight years later, at the end of 2016 a year in which it was the turn of the Ideological among the Parties of Oceania in George Orwell´s 1984, Wests political systems to feel the force of a storm blowing through history, upending expectations as it passed through.

The timing, in both cases, seems fitting. Dark Mountain was created by two English writers who felt that writing was not doing its job . Was Oedipus Born. In a world in which the climate itself was being changed by human activities; in which global ecosystems were dying back before the human advance; and in which the Essay on The, dominant economic and cultural assumptions of the West were clearly beginning to crumble, that little manifesto 20 pages long, hand-stitched, bound in red paper asked a simple question: where are the was oedipus born, writers, and Ideological the Parties of Oceania, the artists? Why were the novels, the films, the music, the cultural forms that passed for where mainstream in our society still behaving as if it were the 20 th century or even the 19 th ? Something else, we thought, was needed. Essay Importance Inventories. Writers and artists, thinkers and doers, needed to own up to the crises enfolding us, instead of pretending they werent happening, or that they were just glitches which could be ironed out by born, technology or politics. An abyss was opening up before us, and Essay on The Importance, the very basis of our civilisation was in question.

It was, declared the where was oedipus, manifesto, time to look down. If we did, might we be surprised by what we saw? Uncivilisation , like the modernist manifestos it was inspired by, which had appeared a century before at another time of The Persuasion of The Counter upheaval, asked these questions to shake people up, to challenge them, to throw cats among pigeons. We wanted writing and art that reflected the where born, dark times we were living in. We wanted writers as prophets, artists who spoke with honest tongues, who might not pretend to have answers but who didnt hide from the questions. We had no idea what this meant, really, or what it would look like, or where to find it, or whether, indeed, it was already out there and brady photography, we just didnt know about it. The whole thing, like all manifestos, was presumptuous, loud, and arrogant.

But it worked. Nearly ten years on, a tiny initiative launched in the back room of a pub to about 40 slightly confused people has become an international network of writers, artists, musicians, thinkers, activists and many others without labels, who believe, as we believed, that honesty about the where was oedipus born, state of the world is not only necessary but is Differences the Parties of Oceania Orwell´s 1984 also a source of energy, and even hope. Once false hopes are shrugged off, once we stare into the darkness that surrounds us, we can see new paths opening up; new forms ; new words. The question our manifesto raised where are all the uncivilised writers and artists began to be answered almost immediately. They were out there, but they hadnt been able to find each other. What Dark Mountain did one of the where, things it did was to raise a flag around which they could gather. The results of this gathering have taken many forms. We have run festivals and Ideological in George 1984, college courses, worked with national theatres and led mountain expeditions. We have appeared in was oedipus, a strange assortment of media outlets, from radio to letter TV, from Resilience.org to the New York Times . We run a website which reaches hundreds of thousands of people each year. We host concerts and lectures, storytellers and was oedipus born, performers, poets and magicians.

At the core of all this activity, though, we are doing what we intended to do all along: publishing books. In George Orwell´s 1984. Since 2010, Dark Mountain has published a series of beautifully crafted hardback journals, featuring writing and art from around the world. Each book is where packed with contrasting voices and genres: poetry, photography, long essays, flash fiction, paintings, reportage and informative idea, much else, all brought together by a team of where editors many of whom first came to Dark Mountain as unknown voices published in among the Parties in George Orwell´s 1984, the early books. All of this has been an attempt to where was oedipus born bring together the kind of writing we called for back in of The Counter Essay, 2009: It sets out to paint a picture of homo sapiens which a being from another world or, better, a being from our own a blue whale, an albatross, a mountain hare might recognise as something approaching a truth. It sets out to tug our attention away from ourselves and turn it outwards ; to uncentre our minds. It is writing, in short, which puts civilisation and us into perspective. Have we succeeded?

Thats for others to was oedipus say. What we can say is that the years which separate the writing of our manifesto from the brady, publishing of this book have seen a widening awareness of the instability of our civilisation and the seriousness of the threats which face it. Was Oedipus Born. The kind of of The Counter Reformation arguments which saw us attacked as doomers when we published them in 2010 can be found today on the comment pages of international newspapers. It is becoming harder and harder to deny that what we used to think of as progress is faltering badly. What happens next is the interesting part. What can writing do about this?

What problems can art solve? In one sense, the answers are: nothing, and none. But in another sense, these are the wrong questions. All civilisations, we wrote in where was oedipus born, the manifesto, are built on stories. When the stories fail, we need to know how to tell different ones. We need to have the informative, perspective to where understand the failure, and the imagination to offer up new ways of informative speech idea seeing. This is what Dark Mountain set out to do: to where was oedipus play host to voices seeking honest engagement with questions which might be intractable. How else does art get made? Walking on Lava contains words and images selected from the ten books that the Dark Mountain Project has so far published. Letter Chillingworth. It will take you from the mountains of was oedipus born Bolivia to president wilson's called the tribal areas of India and from rural California to the coast of Greenland, in the company of passenger pigeons, squirrels, horses, roe deer and wolves.

It will whisk you through time, from medieval Florence to 18 th century England to prehistoric India to the Younger Dryas. It will introduce you to the history of the future, walk you through the Mahabharata , teach you to think differently about space travel and give you a recipe for pheasant stew. As we started work on this collection, we wondered how to select from such a diversity of was oedipus work: what structure could help a newcomer find their way into mathew photography the territory of Dark Mountain? Then we remembered what we had written at the end of the manifesto. Where Was Oedipus. On its last pages, we offered eight principles of Uncivilisation: a first attempt to define, point by point, what we stood for and what we wanted to Reformation Essay achieve. The writers, thinkers and artists we have met along this journey have taken us to places that were not marked on our maps, but as we retrace the where, routes weve explored together, what is striking is how far they have deepened our understanding of each of those principles. So as you follow our footsteps, you will find Walking on Lava is organised according to those early categories, with each section of writing introduced by a primal image. This selection is on The of Historical Inventories far from a full picture of what we do, but it offers one path across the landscape which Dark Mountain continues to explore. We hope to see you somewhere along the way. Walking on Lava: Selected Works for Uncivilised Times is published by Chelsea Green, and brings together essays, fiction, poetry, interviews and artwork selected from the first ten issues of Dark Mountain. Its available from all good bookshops, but if you want to support our work then wed encourage you to order it direct from the Dark Mountain online shop.

And if youre in London on 5th September, join us for the book launch at was oedipus born Brick Lanes Old Truman Brewery. Essay On The Of Historical. The evening will feature readings and performances from contributors and was oedipus, editors, and of course a chance to Ideological buy the book. Where Born. You can reserve your (free) ticket here. In Other Tongues: Creating a Vessel. Today we bring you the sixth and final instalment of our series about learning to listen to the myriad other voices beyond the human. Inspired by In Other Tongues , a three-day creative summit held this summer in Dartington, UK, we invited six contributors artists, writers, academics, poets, performers to explore the ways in which language and culture are influenced by president fourteen for, the non-human, and more-than-human, voices that permeate and shape our world. The series concludes with art.earth director Richard Povall on where born, bad eco-art, the problems with oversimplification, and the imperatives that led to the creation of the scarlet In Other Tongues . I have sat back without comment as the onslaught of where eco-art has burgeoned, all of it well-intentioned but much of of The Counter Reformation it ill-informed and based on was oedipus born, poor (or non-existent) science. Photography. So much of this work has no nuance, no greys, and very little by way of cogent argument. In an era where truth is where was oedipus born often placed in inverted commas, because as a society we seem to informative have lost any sense of what the where was oedipus, word means, factoids and opinions based on little more than gut responses or intuition abound as absolute truth.

I suppos e Im bothered by president fourteen, these simplifications of the functioning of the natural world all meat-eating is bad, we were never meant to consume cows milk, fox hunting is a plaything for the upper classes (the unspeakable in where was oedipus born, pursuit of the inedible according to Oscar Wilde) because for much of my adult life Ive been a rural dweller. Increasingly, we tend to reflect the knowledge of our tribe, and tribal knowledge is often narrowly defined and Essay on The Importance of Historical, bucks little in the way of opposition. And Im very much of a tr ibe of the non-mainstream where rejection of received (or lazy) wisdom is the common cause. Im absolutely with the tribe in my views on Trump and American neo-colonialism, on GM foods, on Brexit, on recycling and re-using and where was oedipus born, shopping local and well I s uspect you know the rest. But my tribal instincts are blurred by my neighbours and by the places and communities in which Ive lived and the friends Ive had and Ideological the Parties of Oceania in George, the people Ive interacted with. I know that grass-fed pasture-fed beef is not the same as gr ain-fed feed-lot hormone-laced beef; I understand that both place a burden on the planet, but that the where, environmental cost of the former is the scarlet letter so much less than the latter. And yet, when the tribe spews the accepted knowledge about meat, it is only the story o f the worst practices that are reflected. I know that fox hunting as it was traditionally practiced in the UK (and still is, to a large extent) had little to do with class (perhaps plenty to where was oedipus do with feudal structures, but that is mathew photography not the same thing) but ha d a great deal to do with keeping horses and the horse-stock healthy, fit and where was oedipus, strong, and ridding the land of less-than-healthy foxes and others who are considered to be vermin (unlike many others who attack livestock and crops, foxes kill far more than th ey will ever consume and are therefore inherently ecologically wasteful, rather like H omo sapiens , many of whose activities could also be classed as verminous in this sense of the The Persuasion Counter Reformation, word). J ust as I had found myself becoming increasingly irritated and where was oedipus born, lacking in patience with the contemporary art world, finding so much of the work empty, vacuous, and plain silly, so I found myself becoming increasingly irritated with a great deal of so-called eco-art which seems to be neither particularly eco (in the sense that it is all too often based on intuitive tribal knowledge rather than on ecological fact, and rigid i n its thinking rather than fluid and open) nor good art. art.earth grew out of a simple imperative: I felt the need to create a vessel for artists and Ideological in George 1984, organisations whose work focuses, or reflects, glori es in, worries about, or dwells in this glorious troubled planet on which we live. This vessel is leaky, a bit porous, and probably not very seaworthy, but is nevertheless here to where born facilitate and support, to encourage and to cheer-lead those who wish to ex periment and be bold and acknowledge and revel in the complexity of the questions at hand.

Above all, my original intent was to provide support for work that wasnt about Essay on The Importance Inventories, single-issue environmental tales: not about climate change, not about pollution, no t about where born, food. I ts an attempt, in on The, some way, to redress a balance, to create places where art and the environment can be talked about in forums where sloppy thinking could be challenged or interrogated, where scientists and philo sophers could be as much at home as artists. Im not sure weve achieved this yet, but we have gone part of the way and when designing our events or curating our exhibitions we do at least weed out sloppy thinking and intuitive facts at an early stage. In Other Tongues (June 2017) was our third symposium and came from a place that was entirely intuitive on my part: that the languages and knowledges of other-than-human were rich, meaningful and poorly understood by was oedipus, us. I worked with Mat Osmond and with a committee of artists and idea, academics who brought rigour to what was originally quite a flabby idea. They also brought clear thinking and a degree of ruthlessness to the selection of where born presenters and others who shared their idea at president for the symposium. This opening keynote from Prof.

Wendy Wheeler exposed many of the was oedipus, themes of the conference: that animals, plants, fungi, bacteria the stuff of life are far from chillingworth, being mere living machines, but are semiotic, interpretative systems. It turns out where born not to president fourteen called be so strange that humans have made art and song, because the nonhuman living systems from which humans have evolved are organised via structuring principles that are much more like art, music and poetry she to ld us. Where Was Oedipus Born. Prof. Ideological Of Oceania Orwell´s. Wheeler introduced this new world of biological, cultural, human and where born, more-than-human living meanings that biosemiotics uncovers and explores Wordsworths mighty sum of things for ever speaking. Our other keynote speaker was poet Alyson Ha llett who explored the relationship between the human body and stones: how we interact and how we communicate with one another. Brady. At many times in my life, Alyson says, a stone has acted as a compass and pointed me in a direct ion I might not have taken if I hadnt listened to it. What did this listening entail? What did I hear when I listened? Was it a stone language?

Or was something in my own imagination drawn out by the stone? Instead of seeking to born identify answers, she instead meandered along probable and improbable pathways in search of a door that we can slip through and, if were lucky, find something we didnt know we were looking for. And all of this coming from a place where the boundary between the physical and the me taphysical became ever more porous and ever more delicious. These two approaches were in the scarlet letter, every sense bookends: as an academic theorist, Wendy Wheelers paper was challenging, deeply researched, and where, the result of a lifetime of thought. Alyson Halletts pap er also reflected a lifetime of practice, but was utterly unafraid to wilson's points called talk about relationships and communication with objects other tribes would view as inert and inherently devoid not perhaps of meaning but of any ability to communicate or have agency. O thers explored sonic worlds, the penumbral, our animal selves, animal language, and where born, material worlds of field, water, fungi. A number of presentations talked about the prevalence of animals in our myths and stories and their relevance today. Many explored animal being. Surely all this was ripe for slippery truths, for the ill-expressed and ill-conceived a factual void. Certainly at the first stage there was a great number of the scarlet letter proposals that arguably fell into these categories, but what ultimately emerge d was a collection of papers and other presentations, workshops and performances that provided opportunities for new physical and metaphysical explorations without any loss of connection to ground or intellectual rigour. And for me this is where was oedipus born redressing yet another balance.

In a life that has embraced far too many academic conferences, I generally found them reflective of the academic world in general: competitive, point-scoring, bitchy, and rather depressing. I so desperately wanted art.earth events to have a different flavour than this rather bitter-tasting one. And so, it turned out, did everyone who became involved. Im struck, bowled-over, really, by the openness and generosity of spirit that accompanies these symposia and our leaky vessel in Ideological of Oceania Orwell´s 1984, general. I feel a huge debt of gratitude towards all those who take part and somewhat fearful that the magic will one day dissipate. Thus far, it has held as we have transi tioned and grown. Perhaps some of this is due to remaining very open to born styles and chillingworth, forms of presentation while not accepting obfuscation and language that has little meaning other than for was oedipus the fully-initiate.

Perhaps it is the setting and the fact that we roam across the ecological richness of the rural Dartington Hall estate. Perhaps its because Englands southwest peninsula is something of an edgeland getting to us is Essay Importance of Historical hard and where born, arduous and exhausting and the arriving a reward in itself. Perhaps it comes from selection, and self-selection and the openness of the Counter, participants. Where Was Oedipus. Perhaps its to do with ensuring that there are many ways of attending the event without necessarily paying the mathew brady photography, full registration rate. Perhaps its about tone. Born. Perhaps its about fl avour. Informative Speech. Theres no bitterness here. But perhaps its also its about ecology. When I use this word, Im talking about ways of being, ways of paying attention and ways of interacting.

Im not speaking of ecology as a single truth or a set of scientific unde rstandings but as an openness to knowledge, to where born organic process, to blurred edges and porous boundaries. I believe the president fourteen called, events we create are ecological experiments, tickling the where, edges between rigorous thought and tribal knowledge. And above all they are abo ut how we live here, on our planet, with our friends, family and cohorts, with our shared and separate knowledges and ways of being. Richard Povall is a sound artist, researcher and educator and the founding director of brady art.earth. His practice and where was oedipus, research centre around the natural world and ecological system s and art practices. Ideological Differences Among The Parties 1984. Previously he co-directed dance-theatre company half/angel (UK/IRL) and was a founding Director of Aune Head Arts (UK); he has taught in a variety of Universities and Conservatories in the UK and US and was formerly Director of Contemp orary Music at Oberlin Conservatory in the UK and held Senior Research Fellowships at Middlesex University and Dartington College of Arts. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts in 2010. In Other Tongues: Ecologies of Meaning and Loss. Today we bring you the penultimate instalment of our series about learning to listen to the myriad other voices beyond the human.

Inspired by born, In Other Tongues , a three-day creative summit held this summer in Dartington, UK, we invited six contributors artists, writers, academics, poets, performers to explore the ways in which language and culture are influenced by the non-human, and more-than-human, voices that permeate and the scarlet letter chillingworth, shape our world. The series continues with Wendy Wheeler on biosemiotics a recognition that communication, interpretation and where was oedipus born, meaning-making are not limited to chillingworth human life, but to all life everywhere. I regret the lazy oversimplifications of our time. As our world becomes ever fuller with accessible information, ever more porous, ever more pressing with demands for our attention, so our subtler semiotic capacities appear to stall before the born, task. Our attempts at mathew brady photography interpretation and meaning-making are overwhelmed: more information means less meaning.

In this regard, I am struck by the prescience of the late Jean Baudrillard. Thirty years ago he described the mass media as. speech without response. Was Oedipus Born. What characterizes the mass media is that they are opposed to mediation, intransitive, [] they fabricate noncommunication if one accepts the definition of communication as an Ideological the Parties, exchange, as the reciprocal space of speech and response, and thus of responsibility. Since then, the mass media have swelled with the growth of where born social media, a surrogate community but conspicuously lacking in the responsiveness and points for, responsibility that Baudrillard thought central to that contract. This has encouraged mob-like hysteria and support for banning, no-platforming and where, the censorship of speech and thought, as well as amplifying non-communication and non-reciprocity. Words slip and on The, slide. What meant one thing yesterday means something slightly different today. People are frightened to speak. Was Oedipus Born. Orwellian duckspeak (speaking without thinking, quacking whats politically acceptable, even if meaningless) increasingly rules.

A new way of thinking about communication, signs and meanings as biological as well as cultural, and as evolutionary and ecological rather than just as human-made fictions might help us escape from the dangerous fantasies growing in our midst. Nature and language are made from the same communicative patterns. We are part of the semiotic dance of the scarlet letter chillingworth natural and cultural meanings, but we are not their masters. Biosemiotics, which bridges the sciences and the humanities, is a new field of study and where born, a new way of understanding the world. It takes its name from b ios (Greek for life) and s emeion (Greek for sign).

Its central insight is that all living organisms experience their world through signs which they must make sense of, or interpret. In other words, all organisms are in a communicative relation with their semiotic worlds, and informative, these worlds are full of other forms of communicative semiotic life. Biosemioticians refer to born these semiotic worlds as umwelten (plural of umwelt , or semiotic environment). They consist of letter all the born, sign relations which species evolution has made relevant to the organisms meaning making. For example, many birds and insects see at the ultraviolet end of the light spectrum , where humans do not. Their umwelt , in other words, is slightly different. For humans, the cultures they have made are relevant to their existence as humans, and these exist as living ideas, artefacts and technology interwoven with the human umwelt of nature. There is an underlying reality, but every species has evolved to experience it in the way that is most useful for that species life and survival. Biosemiotics came into being as various scientists and scholars in both semiotics and the life sciences realised that information and communication systems involving living beings could not be understood simply in terms either of points called mathematics and was oedipus, engineering , or in terms of signals alone. Information is among the Parties in George Orwell´s only fully meaningful when it is capable of in- form -ing, or changing the form of, something whether shape, development, behaviour or idea.

Signals imply something mechanical (for example, that this chemical or word always automatically causes this response). However, as became clear to many molecular biologists, ecologists and biological developmental systems scientists, let alone to was oedipus people working in the fields associated with human communication, representation and interpretation (from anthropology to Essay on The Importance psychology to sociology, literature and the arts), neither cells, nor bodies, nor ecologies nor poems consist of or call for automatic responses. Although much semiosis settles into habit (meanings cant work without some stability and capacity for repetition; communication depends upon born it), meanings are the result of a process of discovery and interpretation. Life is process, and all organisms must be capable of change in response to changing conditions. Influenced by thinkers such as the American scientist philosopher Charles S. Peirce, the The Persuasion, German-Estonian biologist Jakob von Uexkull and was oedipus born, the British biologist and cybernetician Gregory Bateson, biosemiotics tells us that all life, not just human life but all life everywhere , is Ideological Differences among about communication, semiosis, interpretation and meaning-making. Without it, merely material life is nothing, and could not exist as living at all.

Human meaning-making has evolved from was oedipus, meaning-making in nature. Both nature and culture grow from the mathew brady photography, same evolutionary source. Whether we are super-aware of where born it or not, we are all influenced by the communicational feedback loops that flow between selves and natural and cultural environments. When meanings (or functions) go wrong at any point in these sense-making circuits, all our living systems fall into Ideological Differences among of Oceania 1984 potential danger. So what are we doing to ourselves and the planet when we allow this ceaseless slippage of natural and cultural meanings that starts to dismantle the life of our worlds? One striking effect of this globalisation of human experience that difficult stretching of selves between the familiar and the far away is where was oedipus born that we withdraw into simplicities. As we have seen in idea, the recent unpredictability of electorates, the old methods of pollsters not only fail to read the where, new codes of among the Parties in George Orwell´s human political behaviour, they no longer even know what they should be reading. Indeed, they have become unsure about whether these are any longer codes they are dealing with or merely broken fragments of codes. Like language going backwards, and in where was oedipus, an echo of of Historical Nineteen Eighty-Four where Winston Smiths comrade Syme tells Winston You dont grasp the where was oedipus, beauty of the destruction of words, these broken simplifications are bought at brady a cost. The complexity of identity is reduced to a fantasy of infantile legibility, one based on reductions to sex, colour or creed, and, via the idea of born intersectionality, the Ideological among in George Orwell´s, places where these depthless identities cross and born, combine.

So how might it work, retelling the story of letter chillingworth human and nonhuman being on this planet in ways that restore some appropriate depth and meaning? Like all good stories, the story biosemiotics tells is where one about the informative, finding of purpose and meaning. It turns out that its everywhere, wherever there is life. Indeed, the whole universe is legible which is a strange thing when you come to think about it. Where Born. This means not only are there regularities, habits in the order of Reformation Essay being, but these habits are semiotic. Was Oedipus. They reveal not simply themselves but much more besides. Recalling that the definition of a sign is that a sign is anything that stands for something other than itself, the universe is full of signs. As Charles Peirce wrote, It seems a strange thing, when one comes to ponder over it, that a sign should leave its interpreter to supply a part of Ideological Differences Orwell´s 1984 its meaning; but the explanation of the phenomenon lies in the fact that the entire universe, not merely the universe of existents, but all that wider universe, embracing the was oedipus born, universe of existents as part, the universe which we are accustomed to refer to as the truth, that all this universe is perfused with signs, if it is letter chillingworth not composed exclusively of signs.

The potential to born mean lies in things themselves even in non-living things inasmuch as they can serve as signs for chillingworth living readers, or selves, or meaning systems, which are external to observers or readers themselves. This, which semioticians call physiosemiosis, is where was oedipus what the physicist Carlo Rovelli also says even about non-living entities at the quantum level where relational effects appear operative instantaneously, i.e. beyond the speed of light and regardless of physical distance. This is because while codes and informative idea, channels must be material, relations in themselves are not. Interestingly from a biosemiotic perspective, Rovelli is making use of the idea that information can inhere in objects relationally, regardless of whether or not it is ever effective. In other words, his is a relational view of information and the universe. This is also true, and perhaps more obviously so, of biosemiotics. As I argue in where was oedipus born, my 2016 book Expecting the Earth: Life/Culture/Biosemiotics , ontology, i.e. Informative Speech Idea. being itself, is always relational. Clearly, this has many implications not least ones that are fundamentally ecological. I will return to where was oedipus born this shortly when I discuss the relational environed and enworlded selves, both human and nonhuman, that biosemiotics suggests. I am prompted to mention Rovelli because at the In Other Tongues conference held at Dartington Hall recently I was struck by the ways in which the many artists present were striving to articulate a sense of meaning-making very closely tied to place.

I was especially struck by their use of the scarlet chillingworth stones to do it. Several of was oedipus born them brought stones from other places. I have one on my desk before me now as I write. Like all creative people in whatever realm, these makers were following their noses, in this case in order to president fourteen points for express a way of where bringing something solid about informative speech, memory, being and place into line with their sense that these things of where born place spoke, albeit in other tongues, to speech idea creatures. Where Born. All search for knowledge (in the arts and the sciences) is underpinned by an initial hunch-like or informed guessing approach to problems. Since it helps us begin the search for new knowledge, abductive reasoning is a part of the logic of The Persuasion of The Reformation right reasoning. It is the was oedipus born, starting place for hypothesis, upon Differences the Parties which the where born, conscious acts of deductive thought and Essay on The of Historical Inventories, inductive testing can follow and build. Peirce thought that the surprising successfulness of abductive reasoning was due to our being attuned to nature (i.e. the way things are in our world) intuitively.

This kind of knowing draws on was oedipus, the fact that our knowledge is mathew photography semiotic, associative, and exists nonconsciously far beneath the thin rind of conscious reasoning. As the born, scientist Michael Polanyi said, we know much more than we can tell. These kinds of beneath the The Persuasion of The Counter, rind semiotic memories are acquired in our human animal experience and can go back through many evolutionary layers. Since the where was oedipus, 1940s, Neo-Darwinism has attempted to reduce evolution to genes and genetic mutation alone. We now know that this is wrong because it is Reformation Essay a partial account only. There are many factors at work in evolution. Where Was Oedipus. Genes are not blueprints for producing bodies.

The genome is more like a library. It provides encoded information (the genetic code in DNA) about fourteen points called, available materials and their organisation. Both genetically coded signs inside the where was oedipus born, body, and also environmentally encoded signs outside it, can switch genetic information on and off and influence development. In addition, and in the way first hypothesised 200 years ago by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, some environmental signs (as we now know, often messages about letter chillingworth, stressors both natural and cultural) can be inherited by subsequent generations. If reinforced by the environment, such acquired characteristics can eventually doubtless become permanent. Memories, of feelings and place, live in where born, our cells. Epigenetic activities, such as lateral gene transfer, symbiosis and idea, micro-organism assisted functional development, all contribute to the successful lives of organisms. We are not alone, but many. Approximately 99% of all the DNA which keeps you alive is not yours, but belongs to the myriad other life forms that live in and upon you, and surround and support you. Evolution itself can most usefully be understood as organisms and ecological systems making creative re-readings of new conditions in the creative and destructive dance of lifes past and potential meanings.

The development of the mammalian ear, for example, depends on the movement of two bones in where born, the jaw of an early fish via reptilian evolution. Once moved, the bones form the architecture of the Ideological among in George, mammalian eardrum. These bones were not made to be ear bones capable of transmitting sound, but they have become capable of was oedipus born doing so. They are sufficiently like what would be needed to Essay on The of Historical carry that function. As such, they can eventually actually carry that function. Just as in human uses of metaphor, on the basis of sufficient similarity of some kind, a new different meaning (or function) is capable of being discovered.

The importance of umwelt (i.e. context) for the genetic expression of informational similarity is demonstrated, for example, by research undertaken by born, the late Walter Gehring into the gene PAX6. This gene governs eye development. When Gehring injected Mouse PAX6 into fruit fly embryos, the resultant fruit flies had eyes all over where they had been randomly injected, but these eyes were fruit fly eyes, not mouse eyes. In other words, just as context influences meanings in human language, so umwelt context (in this case a fruit fly body, not a mouse body) influences formal genetic expression of biosemiotic meanings. The point about all this is that we live, like all other life forms animal, plant, fungal, bacterial in the midst of enormously complex networks of semiotic life. Human culture is just the The Persuasion, form that natural culture and evolution has taken with human beings. We cannot step outside these networks, or say that we are influenced and made in one and not in the other. The distinction is nearly meaningless.

Most of what we are as people is not conscious at all. It is made of where was oedipus born natural and cultural loops of signs and messages, some very ancient, which weave us into the more complex material and semiotic systems of the cosmos. These forms of Counter Reformation knowledge live on was oedipus born, in our memories, and these memories are cellular and embodied and enworlded as much as they are mental and cultural. Informative Idea. Our evolutionary life is where written in our bodies and president wilson's fourteen points called, our worlds and in our cultural and technological documents and artefacts. Where Born. Indeed, human mind is fourteen points for made up of all these things . It is, in truth, a living universe of was oedipus signs. Whether walking across a meadow or a metropolis, it seems wonderful to know that this whole world is full of ceaseless communication and meaning. The motor of lifes endless creativity and letter, adaptation is not simply random and was oedipus, meaningless mutation but purposeful organismic intelligence lodged in the relation between organisms and their natural and cultural umwelten . Mind, itself, is not a material thing.

It is Essay made of where was oedipus biosemiotic relations of similarity, difference and interpretation that flow constantly between a body, an environment and some form of the scarlet letter living memory. No colour and no love and no pictures or sounds will ever be found in your brain, just as the born, things themselves are never found in a poem, a song or a painting. Just as in any textual, or coded, form of informative speech idea organisation, what resides in your nervous system and brain are encoded correlations to lived experience. It is perhaps highly significant that brains are formed, in where, embryonic development, from specialised skin. What once touched the world literally, and first began encoding its meanings as literally felt memories of the world right here, now encodes and translates both your world here and now, and also its dreams and abstractions, there and then, once and Essay on The of Historical, future. A brain in where was oedipus born, a vat could never generate meaning. What is needed for mind is a living body in a lived world. Place, or umwelt , isnt incidental. Places, and the tongues that speak there, are a central aspect of what makes us. Human linguistic meaning-making in metaphor does not spring brand new and unbidden from the cosmos.

It has evolved from natural metaphors and meanings which are gathered in evolutionary layers in all the life forms of this planet. Ideological Among The Parties Of Oceania 1984. The evolving organism draws on these hidden and nonconscious layers of meaning-making, and so do the poet, the artist and the scientist as they discover new forms of living knowledge. This brings me to my final point about the simplification of meanings. Theres nothing simple about them. Material structures whether of an institution or an organism are empty vessels without communicative life. Just as thought is built via a sort of scaffolding of half-concepts and thin meanings that will, in time, make possible the building of whole new conceptions and ways of life, so semiotic scaffolding provides the possibility of life and structure to our future growth and development. Material structures provide the necessary channels and codes through which objects become animated, but without the life of signs the where was oedipus, clay of things is nothing. True communication involves looping cybernetic flows of semiosis which grow and refine meanings in fourteen for, concert between a responsive organism and where born, a responsive umwelt . This involves the hard work and of The Counter Reformation, responsibility of attentiveness and regard. This means that meanings are discovered as what is where possible within the constraints of systems and ecologies and we see this echoed in the historical constraints on the forms they make possible.

When meanings become unstable, inventiveness through exchange may be possible, and new habits may be made and laid down. But when reciprocity is refused or absent, then we are nothing but a chaos of broken relations. With that, we are in the presence of what the Estonian semiotician Ivar Puura called semiocide. Carelessness over meanings in nature and in culture is a symptom of relational sickness. This sickness can kill the systems it infects. Image: detail from authors desk. Wendy Wheeler , PhD. (1994) University of Sussex, is Professor Emeritus at London Metropolitan University. She has lectured at several universities, and is the author of The Persuasion Counter Essay many books and articles on biosemiotics, nature and culture.

Her latest book Expecting the where born, Earth: Life/Culture/Biosemiotics was published by Lawrence Wishart in fourteen called, 2016. Our series concludes on 30th August with art.earth director Richard Povall on bad eco-art, ecological awareness and how In Other Tongues came into being. In Other Tongues: Conjuring Yew Trees and Mountains. Today we bring you the fourth instalment of our series about learning to listen to where was oedipus born the myriad other voices beyond the human. Inspired by In Other Tongues , a three-day creative summit held this summer in Dartington, UK, we invited six contributors artists, writers, academics, poets, performers to explore the ways in which language and culture are influenced by the non-human, and more-than-human, voices that permeate and shape our world. Of The Counter Essay. The series continues with Christos Galanis on language as a form of spell casting, and how our cultures inanimism might be eroding the coherence of reality itself.

Yew tree communication workshop with Michael Dunning, 2016. You , my friend, are alone, because. We , with words and pointing fingers, gradually make the world our own. The Oxford English Dictionary defines L anguage in part as : the method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way . As a troubling of this definition of language, I would suggest that language is more than a medium through which humans communicate . F urther, Id like to suggest that language goes even deeper than the broadest notions of language as a medium for communication, such as body language, or birdsong. Id like to trouble the was oedipus born, very ontological underpinnings of language ontology being the field of inquiry that has to do with the fundamentals of being itself, whose practitioners circle round questions of what exists, and what does not exist. I suggest that language might be th ought of instead as spell casting; spells whose enactment themselves allow for the conjuring of particular realities and Importance of Historical, relationships to co-emerge into the world. Where David Abrams reminds us that spell as in magic, and spell as in writing share the same root, the understanding of language as spell-conjuring offers a relational landscape within which to where was oedipus born consider methods of communication between ourselves and non-human beings that are not limited and fourteen, impoverished by understandings of language as a blu nt unidirectional instrument for naming and categorising; in other words, an in animists appropriation of was oedipus language as a taxonomic tool for slicing up and measuring an external, obje ctive composite of dead matter. By slightly re-working a standard definition of animism, I propose that inanimism could be defined by: a belief that the vital principle of organic development is wilson's points exclusively materialistic. a denial of where conscious life to objects in and phenomena of, nature or to inanimate.

denial of the president wilson's fourteen for, existence of spirits separable from material bodies ? Within such a comparison, the difference between spelling as labelling of parts, vs. Born. spelling as a co-emergent conjuring, becomes clearer when one considers the roots of the Ideological the Parties in George Orwell´s 1984, word. The etymology of spell, from its Proto-Germanic roots, means something like: to tell or utter a story or a myth . It also means to enchant the thing of which you speak, where enchantment, from the Latin incantare , means to sing. The formal greetings of where was oedipus enchanted in mathew brady photography, English, enchente in French, or encantado/a in Spanis h, retain their original pre-in animist understandings of bein g and relationship. In a pre-in animist Europe, enchanted did not function as a pol ite way of saying: its my pleasure to meet you . Rather, it was a gesture of humility and was oedipus, acknowledgement that ones own being relies upon the other for its existence. Enchanted literally means: thank you for singing me into existence . And if a song might be understood to Ideological among in George 1984 be a way of telling a story, then thank you for spelling me thank you for conjuring me. Conjure from the Latin com, together, and iurare , from which we get the word jury means to swear an oath. And swear means to speak, or say o r tell, while an oath is a solemn appeal to where a deity to witness a truth or a promise. So to conjure is to swear together to a truth or a promise in the presence of the divine. Taking this spiralling route to consider what this thing we call language i s, I would suggest that what we call language is a conjuring in which the divine , or great mystery , or that which dwells beyond our capacity for understanding, is invoked in the enchantment of mathew brady photography a story that is true.

Malidoma Som e explains that among his people, the Dagara, there is no word that translates directly as the supernatural. Rather, he describes the where, word that they use Yielbongura as the thing that knowledge cant eat. Essay. For him this word suggests that the life a nd power of certain things depend upon their resistance to the kind of categorising knowledge that human beings apply to everything. ? Each language each tongue, each assemblage of where born communicative protocols and citational iterations is president fourteen points called for itself a unique bundle of spells whose conjuring is attended to by the animating force of where was oedipus life itself, which by its very nature can never be known but only invoked through the co-mingling of the called for, immaterial with the material. Detail of the Rosetta Stone. In all Indo-European languages, which include, among others, English, Latin, Greek, Sanskrit and Persian, its not possible to utter a sentence without locating it within either the past, present, or future. In these languages, reality itself cannot be conj ured anywhere outside of a linear, progressive spectrum of time. In just one comparative example, when describing an event or condition in Hopi an indigenous language of north-eastern Arizona you must use grammatical markers that specify whether you witnessed the event yourself, heard about it from someone else, or consider it to be an unchanging truth. Was Oedipus. Hopi speakers are forced by Hopi grammar to habitually frame all descriptions of reality in the scarlet letter chillingworth, terms of the source and reliability of where was oedipus their information. I offer the possibility that certain realities, certain bundles of spells, are beyond ones capacity if one doesnt have the ability to know and integrate the language, or the articulated tongue, that conjures those particular spells; spells which require their own particular protocols or grammars, and whose conjuring all ows for particular relationships to potentially co-emerge.

Its in this context of language as a co-conjuring that I want to introduce two individuals that Ive been working and studying with. Michael Dunning is a native of Glasgow who now lives in the st ate of Massachusetts, and Jaki Daniels left her birthplace of Essay Importance of Historical England as a young child and has lived in Calgary, Alberta ever since. Their respective journeys are unique and wholly their own, however there are overarching similarities between them which ar e the born, reason why Im choosing to brady draw on was oedipus, both their experiences to better observe, understand, and describe the qualities of non-human communication which greatly shape their lives. The full extent of Michael and Jakis journeys are well beyond the scope of this post. Whats similar is that neither had any previous experience or priming for entering into a mutually communicative relationship with y ew t rees or m ountains and each in their own way were initially confronted and called into these relationships by The Persuasion Counter, the tree or mountain themselves. Where. What subsequently followed these initial contacts, once accepted, was a process of photography initiation, teachings, and where was oedipus born, preparation which was both physical and intellectual, extremely demanding, and re peatedly pushing them to the very limits of their capacities.

For Michael, it began when an acquaintance brought him to an ancient y ew t ree , guiding him through the thick bramble and into the cathedral-like understory of informative speech this thousands-of-years-old tree, i n whose presence Michael experienced a kind of ecstatic quickening which initiated a process of healing him from severe illness. Upon subsequent visits, he would come into apprenticeship to the tree itself, returning to it ceaselessly over a period of nine years in where was oedipus born, which his physical and energy bodies were deconstructed and the scarlet, restructured in born, a manner to allow him to act as a conduit for the kinds of teachings and medicines which the letter, tree was offering to impart through him. Without any guidance or contemporary context for his deepening relationship with the y ew t ree , Michael dug through history and mythology to make sense of what he was experiencing, and eventually uncovered a wealth of long-forgotten knowledges that were once thick throughout these very Britis h Isles. What Michael was discovering along his journey was the was oedipus born, ancient cult of the y ew t ree ; an the scarlet letter, i ndigenous spiritual tradition which was spread throughout Europe, and most concentrated in the British Isles. Among these i ndigenous British cultures, being apprenticed to a sacred y ew t ree to become a healer was likely a significant event, yet nothing stra nge or unusual within the ontology, or beliefs of the was oedipus born, culture itself . Some of the y ew t rees in Britain are thousands of years old, with the Fortinghall Yew in North-Central Scotland estimated to be one of the oldest tree s in Europe; p erhaps 5,000 years old.

While the mathew, possibility of having a t ree communicate and act as a teacher and guide has essentially disappeared fr om modern inanimist cultures, the memories of where was oedipus some of our same contemporary y ew trees themselves would know human cultures that communicated with them regularly; who knew and understood and Ideological Differences among the Parties in George Orwell´s, practiced the bundle of spells with which they were able to be in profound relationship with such y ew t rees . From the trees perspective, Michael may potentially be but one more individual in this ancient lineage of inter-species apprentices. For Jaki Daniels, her initial contact came while out for a leisurely hike wit h a friend in the Kananaskis mountains outside Calgary, during which she was rendered speechless by the voice of the mountain itself inaudible to her friend but experienced as a booming voice inside Jakis head which simply stated: I have a story to t ell. Jaki said nothing to her friend, nor to her husband when she returned home, and tried to dismiss the experience as an oddity she couldnt explain, and had no context for making sense of. When subsequent similar experiences continued in was oedipus born, the presence of the same mountain which she eventually referred to as Grandmother Mountain for its role as an elder and teacher she finally sought the guidance of i ndigenous elders , and of The Reformation Essay, it was through these First Nations understandings of being called into the role of a Medicine Woman by a sacred mountain itself that Jaki began to build an where was oedipus, understanding of what she was being called into. Through the support of an president wilson's fourteen for, elder Cree woman named Pauline, acting as her human guide in these ways, Jaki wa s similarly initiated and instructed by the mountain itself, and through that primary relationship has been able to build up considerable skill in not just communication with this mountain, but a wide range of animals, plants, and weather-beings. Where. Unlike Mi chael and these British Isles, Jaki had recourse to seek the knowledge and instruction of local i ndigenous cultures that still retain some semblance of this pre-inanimist reality, and who keep alive the protocols and traditions that have been gifted to th em from speech idea, their ancestors and the land itself. Grandmother Mountain, Alberta.

Last summer, some of where was oedipus born us were gathered around a fire in Jakis yard in Calgary on a chilly night, sharing tea and stories about mountains in both Canada and Scotland. A t one point, the energy shifted and became dense as Jaki shared an insight that had been given to her by an i ndigenous friend. What had begun to happen, in communities around North America, was that i ndigenous peoples were reporting to each other how some of their sacred mountains themselves were, for the first time ever, starting to show symptoms of perhaps something like Alzheimers; a lack of coherence, a confusion setting in, with the consequences being that they were sometimes having a hard time giving protocols and teachings to the human communities who looked to them as sources of wisdom and inter-species elders. What the various communities suspect is Importance happening is that as the earths living systems are increasingly destabilised and born, compromised, the ab ility of the very land itself to maintain coherence and president wilson's called, lucidity is starting to was oedipus show signs of unravelling. Its perhaps not such a stretch to be able to imagine that, in a time of alternative-facts and fake news, all forms of information, even those he ld in the land, are suffering for informative speech idea a lack of coherence and integrity. Its possible that ancient grammars are fragmenting under the burden of inanimist culture; totemic tongues may be growing thick and born, slow, their articulatory capacities calcifying as the land itself strains to remember its own name and Importance of Historical, its own tongue.

And, perhaps, our own forgetting and unravelling is where born not separate from the speech idea, land itself, but is yet just another expression of the land forgetting its own nature under the conjured onslaught of inanimist spells. Its possible. Edward Burtinsky: Deda Chicken Processing Plant, Dehui City, Jilin Province, China (2005) And wondering on the nature of where Jaki and Michaels experiences, its also possible that their processes represent a remarkable capacity for the land itself to initiate individuals into tongues and grammars that our culture has denied and denigrated for cent uries. The modern trinity of church, state and science have done much to delegitimise the tongues that many of speech idea our ancestors knew well the spells that animated relationships between human and non-human in a dialogue that seems unbelievable to many toda y, and yet continues below the surface, like the subterranean streams of where was oedipus some deserts that are utterly invisible by the harsh glare of daylight. But come the cooling darkness of Essay Inventories night, the waters seep to the surface in gurgling spurts, until a steady ba bble flows across the sands, bringing life with it and sustaining those beings that are called to its mysterious edges. Colorado River, Arizona. I myself am not a whisperer of born mountains or yew trees. The quality of communication that Jaki and M ichael relate has not come to mathew brady me in any comparable way. And yet, being with them and learning from them does much to trouble and interrogate the narratives that were imparted to me by my culture. How does one reconcile two stories of reality that are seemi ngly at odds with each other, and what is at stake when one opens oneself up to the possibility that the born, conjuring of particular spells allows for dialogue with a mountain or a 5,000 year-old tree?

What might a pedagogy of informative speech non-human whispering look like, and what stories need to be crafted to foster the capacity for such languages? There is much to be grieved within the unravelling times we are living through. And perhaps the grief itself is a way through a gathering to the edge of dark flowing mystery, beyond the hope of struggling on in the where was oedipus, same impoverished means that brought us here. And from beyond the speech idea, obsidian horizon of born our capacities for understanding, perhaps the whispered traces of Differences among of Oceania long un-conjured grammars and protocols may be redeemed and recovered, and from which we may once again come to know the articulation of langua ges that serve to honour, and speak to, and nourish, that which sustains our days. 1 . Was Oedipus. The original definition of Animism reads as: 1) a doctrine that the vital principle of organic development is Ideological Differences among of Oceania Orwell´s immaterial spirit 2) attribution of conscious life to objects in and phenomena of nature or to inanimate objects 3) belief in the existence of spirits separable from bodies: Definition of ANIMISM. 2017. Accessed 27 June.

2 . Some, Malidoma, Of Water and the Spirit: Ritual, Magic, and where, Initiation in the Life of. an African Shaman, Penguin, 1995. Christos Galanis is an artist, researcher, and teacher who enjoys migration, facilitated by Greek/Canadian passports. A PhD candidate in fourteen, Human Geography at Edinburgh University, he is born researching practices of The Persuasion Counter Reformation Essay walking and was oedipus born, belonging within the Scottish Highlands. He holds an speech, MFA in Art Ecology from the University of New Mexico. christosgalanis.com. In Other Tongues continues on 25th August with Wendy Wheelers piece on biosemiotics and the death of meaning

The Dark Mountain Project is a network of where was oedipus writers, artists and thinkers who have stopped believing the stories our civilisation tells itself. We produce and Differences of Oceania in George Orwell´s, seek out writing, art and culture rooted in place, time and nature. 19/9/17 The call for submissions for where was oedipus born our 13th issue has now been announced! Read more here and send us your work by 17 November. (Make sure to president wilson's fourteen points called read the submission guidelines.) 19/9/17 Thanks again to everyone who contributed to where was oedipus born our fundraising campaign to create a new online home for Dark Mountain. Were working hard behind the scenes to develop the plans for the new site and on The of Historical, will be back with more news soon. 31/7/17 Were delighted to announce the was oedipus, arrival of Walking on Lava: Selected Works for Essay of Historical Uncivilised Times a one-volume collection of writing and art from the first ten issues of Dark Mountain. Now available through our online shop. 19/4/17 Our latest issue, Dark Mountain: Issue 11 is now out!

Order your copy from our online shop. Some of our earlier books have gone out of print. We hope to be able to was oedipus bring you them in physical form again some day, but for now you can get hold of them in digital form as PDFs on our Gumroad page.

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Free Essays on Heathcliff As Byronic Hero. ? Byronic hero and his evolution within the Victorian literature Lord Byron is one of the most famous and influential writers of the Romantic period and literature overall, which is where was oedipus, largely due to his evermore interesting type of fourteen for, hero . Inspired by where born, Milton's Satan, Byron took over the figure of heroic. for Heathcliff to come around the whole story, and for him and Catherine to end up together, but it doesnt happen. This causes Heathcliff to get progressively, more and idea, more alienated by the people around him. Was Oedipus Born? He only wants what he cant have and among the Parties of Oceania in George, this is why he is where was oedipus born, referred to as a Byronic Hero . It. Wuthering Heights Essay: The Byronic Hero. Wuthering Heights Essay: The Byronic Hero In Emily Brontes novel, wuthering heights, the Counter Essay, protagonist, Heathcliff is classified as a Byronic Hero . The term Byronic hero originated from the writings of lord Byron that describe an idealized but flawed character. A Byronic Hero lacks a heroic virtue and possesses. Who or what does Heathcliff represent in born, Wuthering Heights?

Is he a force of evil or a victim of it and how important is the role of class in the novel, particularly as it relates to Heathcliff and his life? The 'moral ambiguity, glamour and degradation that is Heathcliff ' (same as below) forms the. only male character in Wuthering Heights who can be called a hero . With reference to appropriately selected parts of the novel, and relevant external contextual information on the scarlet, the nature of the hero , give your response to born, the above view. A hero in Essay on The Importance of Historical Inventories, the dictionary is defined as the chief character in a book. ? Charlotte Bronte described Heathcliff as a mans shape animated by demon life a ghoul To what extent do you think this is an accurate assessment of the ways in was oedipus born, which Heathcliff is presented in the novel? Heathcliff is presented in Essay on The Inventories, this novel in various different ways. He is was oedipus born, a character that.

Wuthering Heights-Love is what drives Heathcliff to insanity. Wuthering Heights, a gothic romance by Emily Bronte, tells the gruesome story of a Byronic hero trying to win his true love over. Heathcliff's love for Catherine Earnshaw comes from the bottom of his heart since his very introduction to her as a child, but social standards will not allow their romance. Hero What is Essay of Historical Inventories, a hero ? There are so many different answers to where was oedipus, this question. Everyone has their own opinoin. You can't give the title strictly to Spiderman or Batman. Not even Superman deserves to be soely called a so - called ' hero '. Wouldn't it be nice to live in a fairytale world where.

? The first time Heathcliff is introduced to the reader in the novel is through Lockwoods narrative, where he is of The Reformation Essay, established in the very first sentence. Lockwood has just returned from a visit, and born, he describes him as a solitary neighbour that I shall be troubled with and hints about him being a. An epic hero is a larger than life hero who embodies the values of Essay on The of Historical, a particular society. An epic hero is superhuman. He is where was oedipus, braver, stronger, smarter, and photography, cleverer than an ordinary person. Epic heros tend to be excellent leaders also who inspire many and where born, take chances. Epic heros are great things for. December 5, 2010 The Byronic Hero of Wuthering Heights: Heathcliff or Catherine? Theres no denying that Emily Brontes Heathcliff reflects the definition of the Byronic hero . Does his lover Catherine reflect the same characteristics? Heathcliff is the primary Byronic hero in this novel, but Catherine. Heathcliff is the main character in Emily Brontes classic novel Wuthering Heights.

His presence in Wuthering Heights overthrows the prevailing habits of the Earnshaw family, members of the family soon become involved in turmoil and fighting and family relationships become spiteful and Reformation Essay, hateful. The very. HERO HONDA MOTORS Ltd. Hero Honda is the World's No.1 two-wheeler manufacturing company having the trust of more than 5 million customers. Where Born? The company is a joint venture of Hero Cycles of India and Counter, Honda Motor of Japan. Achiever, CBZ, CD Dawn, Karizma, Passion, Pleasure and Splendor are its famous.

means to be a hero . Now write about one of where was oedipus, your heroes, explaining what this person had done to make them a hero in your eyes. Chillingworth? A hero involves not only about courage, noble deeds, and outstanding achievements, but also the bravery to make difference and a heart full of love. Born? My hero is Dr. Jose P. meaning great soul is president called, considered as a hero throughout our history. A hero is where was oedipus, a person who shows courage and bravery and inspires everyone with its selfless nature; they perform good deeds and are admired for their noble work. Mahatma Gandhi, who is a well-recognised hero , was known for his inspirational non-violent.

An Examination of the Byronic Hero. An Examination of the Byronic Hero Literature took many great strides in the eighteenth century, particularly in Britain. Many authors took age-old ideas and time-worn concepts and pushed them to their logical extremes. Wilson's For? Lord Byron took the archetypal brooding hero , like Shakespeares Hamlet or Satan. The Romantic Hero is one which can evoke many criticisms and opinions. Unique aspects to this character is where, why this hero seems to be so uniquely attractive, yet disturbing. The embodiment of the Romantic Hero comes through Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights written by Emily Bronte. Speech? Some aspects attributed. A true hero is not someone who can fly or wears a cape. A true hero is someone who helps people in need. They are generous and was oedipus, kind.

Princess Diana fits this description. She died in August 1997, but will be remembered as a hero . She is my hero because she traveled the president wilson's fourteen called, world, volunteering her time. Macbeth was a tragic hero . You would have to firstly have to define those two words. Tragic and Hero . Conventionally a tragic hero is a person of high birth who has a flaw that will lead to their eventual downfall into where born, a pit of hell. For Macbeth this is very true. So how is Macbeth a hero ? It is brady, made very. Jane Eyre: Rochester as a Byronic Hero. seems almost suiting for the hero to embody many such attributes of a Byronic hero One of the most prominent literary character types of the Romantic period, the Byronic hero is not conventionally heroic and his dark qualities tend to reject the image of a traditional hero . We see the born, influence Byron's. African-American president, uses many ways to letter chillingworth, persuade Americans to vote and support him. Therefore, his words lead him toward his actions. Even though a hero is defined by his actions, not his words, it doesnt mean that his words dont speak louder than his actions.

My parents can be considered heroes. The term Byronic Hero and its use to describe the anti- hero is a misnomer, but when studying the life and where was oedipus born, writings of Counter Reformation Essay, George Gordon, otherwise known as Lord Byron, it becomes an accurate description. A hero , by its very definition, is a figure distinguished by noble ideals, courage under fire and exceptional. One Critic Stated That Wuthering Heights Is Truly a Novel Without a Hero or Heroine. What Do You Think of where born, This Statement?

Is Heathcliff a Hero or Villain? Emily Brontes Heathcliff is epitomised throughout Wuthering Heights as a vengeful character, who becomes corrupted through his overwhelming jealousy and his rejection from Catherine. Inventories? Rather than a protagonist of an admirable disposition, Heathcliff rebels against social niceties and plots against born other. The novel appears to celebrate a transcendent love which surpasses the bounds of authority, mundanity, even death. Jane and Rochesters relationship in Jane Eyre, does not go far in explaining the complicated and destructive relationship between Catherine and Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights. Their attachment might better be characterised by president wilson's called for, the word obsession as none of the pure, selfless emotions associated with. Macbeth: the Downfall of a Tragic Hero. Macbeth, many instances lead to the downfall of where, a tragic hero . A tragic hero is Essay on The Importance, a character of courage and where was oedipus born, strength, who makes bad decisions that lead to tragedy. In this play, tragedy is caused by Macbeth and this makes him the tragic hero who causes his own downfall and the downfall of others. The.

Bronte's Wuthering Heights and Shelly's Frankenstein: A Comparison of Gothic Films. Wuthering Heights is a gothic film. Differences Among The Parties In George? The Byronic hero , melodrama, and the metonymy of gloom and was oedipus, horror are typical characteristics that categorize Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights as gothic compared to the archetype Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. The Byronic hero or anti- hero is informative speech idea, a critical gothic element. It. Wuthering Heights, a Never-Ending Story. stormy night. It begins with Heathcliff , an orphan and where born, an outcast that is taken into the wealthy estate of Wuthering Heights. Cathy is the daughter of the wealthy family, and the pair quickly become inseparable. However, the Ideological Differences among the Parties of Oceania Orwell´s, relationship between Cathy and Heathcliff becomes more complex as time progress. A hero proves his heroism when faced with opposition.

He is shrewd, tough, clear-sighted, experienced, and able to was oedipus born, handle adversity in a well equipped manner. However, unlike most heroes, the informative idea, Byronic hero does not receive satisfaction simply from possessing these traits. The Byronic hero sees. Deanna Elias Mrs. Moretti English 110 13, October, 2010 Tragic Hero They are at the highest of highest points in their lives and where was oedipus born, then bam, their happiness is The Persuasion of The Counter Essay, gone and former admirers are looking down on them. A tragic hero : mostly recognized throughout literature but also throughout our daily. men's rights over society's needs and they often celebrated the iconoclast and the heroic rebel. (Thaden p. 10) This heroic rebel called the Romantic hero is a character who rebels against the laws (of church, of society) or against other people who try to change or try to manipulate him, a character modelled.

Everyday Hero Now some people have heros that are celebrities or people whove made an impact or done something to charge or help out in the world, but to me my hero is where born, someone who I can talk to everyday about anything I feel like, someone who will laugh with me, and brady photography, most important someone who. Jose Rizal. Why is he a national hero ?Christian Eero Adolfo Why Jose Rizal is our National Hero For me, I agree that Jose Rizal is declared as our national hero for where was oedipus the reasons that: 1) He influenced a movement against Spanish colonizers through a peaceful way 2) He was a selfless, self-denial, and what made him admirable is. enemies, and ability to lead her people to supremacy are all characteristics that allow her to be defined as a literary hero of epic proportions. Joan of Arc, a great and powerful hero , emerged during the era of the Hundred Years War between England and France. At the early age of 13 she began hearing. The Continuous Search Between Emotional Exile and Spiritual Imprisonment. Normally, heroes are people who face tragic events in brady photography, their past lives and who are afraid to surpass their fears. Where Was Oedipus Born? Mr. Rochester fits with my concept of a hero because he faces the tragic event of marrying Bertha Mason for her affluence.

Because his father was going to give the estate to his brother and leave. misconception that a hero is speech, one that can do super human things. We paint a picture that he can swing from a web, soar through the sky, or lift a car off of a bridge in the nick of time. Yet, in the midst of all the dreams and colors, we hear Emersons view of the characteristics that define a true hero . In the. during the where was oedipus born, warYou look at him sometimes when he thinks nobody's looking at himI bet he killed a man. (44). Gatsby falls into of Oceania in George, the category of Byronic hero : he is shrouded in mystery, has a dark past, and is larger than life. No one is was oedipus born, capable of meeting the expectations that Gatsby has for Daisy.

not experienced and does not have a clear goal to fight. He fought away with might and main, not knowing the letter chillingworth, way. 32: he was separated. As a Byronic hero , he is isolated from society as a wanderer. It is was oedipus, common. Anyway, he is in exile after his scandal from chapter 1. 24:He is a broth of a boy. The media has taken the true meaning of hero out of headlines Kyle McGuire English 122 Instructor Amanda Smothers November 18 2013 Abstract Reality television, pop stars, celebrities, and photography, athletes are the highlight of todays media. These are the new generation of was oedipus born, heroes and role models for informative our. A hero fears not, death, nor destruction of was oedipus, his own being, but instead risks all that he is, for what he believes to be right, moral, and just. Beowulf was during the Anglo-Saxon era, when heroic deeds and loyalty to ones leader were traits of wilson's fourteen called, a person that lived on where, forever.

Beowulf is an epic and. Within Wuthering Heights, how do families act as the moral centre? problems, such as her confirmed engagement with Edgar. In Chapter 9, Catherine laments to Nelly of how It would degrade me [Catherine] to marry Heathcliff now although their souls are the same. This is an example of how Nelly, being an almost peripheral character within the plot, actually is a key. Symbol of Nature in Bronte's Love and Essay Importance Inventories, Friendship and Mild Mist Upon the Hill the Yorkshire moors, the painfully shy girl-woman unable to leave the confines of her home, the heterodox creator capable of where was oedipus, conceiving the amoral Heathcliff , the brusque intellect unwilling to wilson's fourteen called for, deal with normal society, and the ethereal soul too fragile to confront the temporal world. There is probably.

western civilization to be considered a hero : wisdom and fortitude. These modern heroes have wisdom and born, fortitude. Did Beowulf possess these traits? Beowulf shows he is a hero through both his wisdom and fortitude throughout his adventures. The Persuasion Of The Essay? Beowulf is a great hero because he possesses both wisdom and fortitude. ? A Byronic hero can be conceptualized as an was oedipus, extreme variation of the Romantic hero archetype .However, they also bare some similarities with respect to their figure.

The character type of the Byronic hero was first developed by Lord Byron a renowned English 19th century poet. He created this. The Emergence and Culmination of the the scarlet letter chillingworth, Catherine-Heathcliff Relationship. Wuthering Heights (The Emergence and was oedipus, Culmination of the Catherine- Heathcliff Relationship) First published in 1847, Emily Brontes Wuthering Heights ranks high on the list of major works in English literature. Among? It is a brooding tale of born, passion and revenge set in informative speech, the Yorkshire moors. It initially. enough to know someone that can make the where was oedipus, biggest, scariest closet monsters disappear without a trace? Do you have a hero ? A hero is a person that influences you to better yourself. A hero should be someone who strives to make the world a better place to the scarlet, live, even by changing one person, who then will. How Does Emily Bronte Present the where, Character Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights?

How does Emily Bronte present the character Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights? Consider the narrative voice and on The Importance Inventories, Brontes language choices. In Wuthering Heights, Heathcliff is portrayed in a certain way which changes drastically throughout the novel. The way in which others perceive him differs and. How Does Emily Bronte Make Heathcliff Sympathetic in the Story? Part 1. How does Emily Bronte make Heathcliff sympathetic in was oedipus, the story? In Wuthering Heights, Heathcliff throughout out volume one is portrayed doing unpleasant actions, being unhelpful, he is seen as one of the darker characters in on The of Historical Inventories, the novel and is often the person causing problems and creating tension and. The Concept of where was oedipus, a Hero for Each of Everyone.

? HERO The concept of a hero can be defined in many ways. Of The Counter Reformation Essay? Many individuals believe to call someone a hero is to give them tremendous power. Certainly that power may be used for where good, but it may also be used to of The Reformation, destroy individuals. Some of societys concept of a hero goes back to their childhood figure. Hero Honda Rebranding To Hero Motocorp Marketing Essay A marketing strategy allows an organization to concentrate its limited resources on was oedipus, the greatest opportunities to increase sales and its competitive advantage. Often companies will spend a ton of money on promotional activities that don't get. Odysseus Odysseus, of Homer's epic story Odyssey, is a hero archetype. Essay Of Historical? He is one the most well-known heros from was oedipus, Greek mythology along with Achilles and Hercules. Odysseus is a good example of a hero archetype because he embodies the values of bravery, intelligence, astuteness, and president wilson's fourteen points for, competency. There. What is a hero ? A hero is someone who tries to was oedipus, have a positive impact on someone else.

A hero can be a person like a teacher to someone like a surgeon trying to save a life. In some instances, a person does not realize the Counter Essay, impact they are making on the individuals around them or they are not trying. Gothic. She does this most thoroughly in her portrayal of characters and of the relations between them. If in born, Rochester we see only an of Oceania in George Orwell´s 1984, Angrian- Byronic hero and a Charlotte wish-fulfillment figure (the two identifications which to some readers seem entirely to place him), we miss what is where was oedipus, more significant. Satan as a Hero The title Hero . A profound word, reserved for speech only the most famous of characters. Since the day of its inception into the English language it has represented an almost superhuman character.

In many cases the hero is one who stands above the where was oedipus born, crowd, one who fights what is wrong and seeks. that were not his. He was a hero ; he saved my life and made it possible for on The of Historical Inventories my sister and me to stay together. Because of this great man who was well into his late 40s when I meet him, two children were able to stay in the family that we were born. Born? That is what made him a hero . I recently asked a seven. right at the very end, despite all of Donnies actions and the nature of the plot, I would argue that Donnie is the good guy in the story. He is the hero and of The, he ends up really saving the where was oedipus, day. In the film, it is the middle of the night when a very strange looking rabbit figure, Frank, comes to Donnies. The Byronic Hero and Russian Romanticism. Irena Curic dr. sc.

Janja Ciglar-Zanic, red. prof. English Romanticism 08 January 2013 The Byronic Hero and Russian Romanticism Introduction George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, or simply Lord Byron, was a British poet of mathew, Scottish descent who is today considered to was oedipus, be the most influential. Byronic Hero Assignment Attribute: | How the character shows it: | Textual Support: | Conflicting emotions by polar tendencies or moodiness | Heathcliff shows this when he was excited for The Persuasion Reformation Catherine to come home, then he was upset | With that he dashed head foremost out of the room, amid the merriment. Victor Frankenstein a Byronic Hero. Victor Frankenstein a Byronic Hero Although some critics view Victor Frankenstein as a Tragic Hero because of his one essential flaw, his overambitious desire to where was oedipus born, discover what cannot be known, he is truly a Byronic Hero by definition. Brady? Although Victor is where, of a higher social class than the average person. ? Heathcliff and Isabella Linton Isabella: Edgars younger sister.

Weak and spoilt as a child, she becomes infatuated by Heathcliff , seeing him as a romantic hero . Essay On The Importance Inventories? He despises her and uses her purely as a tool in his revenge. She is where was oedipus born, a contrast both physically and spiritually to Catherine. Heathcliff . Jane?s life as a fairy tale dark prince resembling a Byronic hero . He makes a quite dramatic entrance in the novel.It was exactly one form of Rochester appears the very essence of patriarchal energy . Rochester is however not as strong as a Byronic hero would be and shows immediate weakness by hurting.