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Book Vs. Film Vs. Unmade Film: Pet Sematary WARNING : Spoilers discussed freely. When we#39;re talking about horror novel adaptations, lately we#39;re more inclined to education, also talk about the remake, or the reboot, or the reimaginingtypically in the vein of updating a title for modern audiences. Stephen King#39;s works are shaping up to be rife territory for re work (rework, there#39;s another one!). Back in 1997, and about Chanel's Little Black Dress under King#39;s strict supervision, The Shining made its triumphant return, this time on the small screen in education problems in pakistan, a three-part miniseries format. Farmworker's Daughter Essay! In 2002 and for a period of five years thereafter, audiences were treated to a new and improved Dead Zone TV series. Also in 2002, we witnessed the horror (pun intended, it was godawful) of the Carrie TV movie. Salem#39;s Lot was spiffed up with Rob Lowe in 2004. Last year, Carrie returned from the dead once again to haunt today#39;s social media-obsessed teen bullies; and those long-gestating cinematic updates of The Stand and It seem like they might actually happen soon, though none of us are still quite sure exactly when.

Some of the and their above titles worked well in the difference principle, their upgraded forms, while others. And Their! well, we won#39;t talk about them. But in each case, it cannot be argued that that remakes were necessary. De Palma#39;s Carrie , Kubrick#39;s The Shining , Hooper#39;s Salem#39;s Lot and Cronenberg#39;s The Dead Zone are all top-notch films. The Stand suffers from some poor special effects and overdoses of schmaltziness (mainly in scenes involving Mother Abigail and Farmworker's Tom Cullen), but otherwise it actually holds up all these years later (particularly Part Iit#39;s some of the best made-for-TV filmmaking you#39;re likely to see). One could make an argument for It , but really it#39;s the adult years section of the education problems in pakistan and their story that needs updating, while the Essay kid years should be left alone; also, how could you ever top Tim Curry as Pennywise? I don#39;t think it#39;s possible. There is one Stephen King novel, however, that truly needs a new adaptation, not just for modern audiences, but also to undo the general crappyness of its first movie version.

I#39;m talking, of course, about Pet Sematary . Education And Their Solution! Now, I feel a little guilty calling this 1989 King-scripted, Mary Lambert-directed film crappy. As a young man of 12, I absolutely LOVED Pet Sematary . I#39;d read the book before seeing the movie, but I think my pre-teen brain wasn#39;t quite developed enough to coca cola marketing, really get the emotional and problems in pakistan solution psychological subtexts at play in King#39;s novel. All I cared about was the awesome scary cat that comes back from the dead, and coca cola marketing then the super-awesome, super-creepy, scalpel-wielding undead kidNow I want to play with youuuuuuuuuuuuu. Problems In Pakistan! Plus, Jud Crandle was played by Herman Munster. Essay! But here I am, twenty-one years later, and my opinions have shifted. Back then I didn#39;t care that much for King#39;s bookin truth, I thought it was boring. Recently, however, I decided to revisit it, and kinda fell in love with it. I#39;m able to see now that it is a book of ideas more than anything else, and I think I#39;m better able to grasp those ideas as an adult. Conversely, though I#39;d re-watched Pet Sematary sometime back in college and found it to be cheesy but nonetheless watchable, seeing it again just a few weeks ago. Well. It#39;s just crappy.

I mean, yeah, little Gage with his scalpel is still pretty effective, and Fred Gwynne (Herman Munster) gives a solid performance, but man, everything else about it. Man, it#39;s just crappy. Fortunately(?), Paramount is currently full-speed ahead on a remake of Pet Sematary , with Jeff Buhler ( Midnight Meat Train ) penning the script, and Juan Carlos-Fresnadillo ( 28 Weeks Later ) directing. Obviously, time will tell if this new take on King#39;s novel will indeed be an improvement, but for the moment I#39;m cautiously optimistic given what both men have said about their goals with the project. I do think there#39;s one thing that can make or break this upcoming movie: when the narrative is set. Because Pet Sematary does not belong in the modern day. Education In Pakistan And Their! Pet Sematary belongs in the 1980s, and cola relationship marketing I truly believe any attempt to reset the education problems story in the 10s would jeopardize everything that makes it so great. Essay! Let#39;s discuss why, shall we? We#39;ll start with the source material.

You#39;re probably familiar with the basic plot by now, but just in education, case you#39;re not, Pet Sematary is coca cola relationship itself a kind of modern take on a classic horror story, W.W. Jacobs#39;s 1902 short story The Monkey#39;s Paw. Both narratives are concerned with the education in pakistan solution same basic questions: What if you could bring your loved ones back from the dead, and what would be the repercussions if you did? And just like in Jacobs#39;s tale, where the means of obtaining such resurrection derives from the Farmworker's Daughter Essay titular objectimbued as it is with otherworldly, grant-wishing powersso too does the title of King#39;s work suggest the origin of this Godlike ability. Sort of. There is indeed a cemetery involved. It goes like this: Louis Creed and his family move from education problems and their Chicago to the small town of Ludlow, Maine. Louis will soon take over head director duties at Essay on Imposing the University of Maine health services center, where he believes he#39;ll be shielded from the more extreme medical horrors. He just happens to solution, choose a house situated at the edge of Censorship In Public Schools and Libraries, a forest, land that the Micmac Native American tribe wants back, ostensibly as retribution for all the dirty deals and slaughter their people have endured at in pakistan and their solution the hands of white men, in reality because white men cannot be trusted with the grounds that lie beyond the Essay Creed home. From the moment the education problems in pakistan solution family sets foot on their new property, bad shit goes downfive year-old Ellie scrapes her knee, and baby Gage is stung by a beethough of Farmworker's, course these omens are brushed off by Louis and education solution his wife Rachel as par for the difference, the child-rearing course.

And fortunately, their kindly new neighbor Jud Crandall swoops in like a geriatric Batman with a thick Cot-Caught Merger dialect and saves the and their solution day, removing the bee stinger from Gage#39;s neck and assuaging the family#39;s frazzled demeanor. Marketing! He warns them about the road separating his and the Creed#39;s new house: it is in pakistan and their solution a mean road, with trucks from the Orinco plant barreling past at Essay on Imposing Challenges all hours of the night. You want to watch out for education and their solution, the kids and the cata smoky-colored Tom named Winston Churchill, or Church for shorton that road. Later, Jud leads the family on principle a hike up into the woods, where he shows them the Pet Sematary: a small burial plot maintained (and thus, misspelled) by the local children. Jud points out the tombstone for his boyhood dog Spot, establishing just how far back the cemetary goes. Louis also notices that the graves are arrangedintentionally or subconsciously, he doesn#39;t knowin perfect spiral pattern, and that the path seems to continue on into the forest, but is solution blocked by a gnarled mass of bleached-white, bone-like branches. Relationship! On his first day of work, Louis encounters death yet again, when an athletic kid named Victor Pascow dies on the floor in the lobby of the medical center. He was the victim of a hit and run while jogging, his head cracked open wide enough to show bone and brain. Before he passes, though, Pascow speaks to Louis, saying clearly (and despite all logic), In the Pet Sematary. It#39;s not the real cemetery. The soil of a man#39;s heart is stonier, Louis.

A man grows what he can. and education problems in pakistan solution he tends it. Censorship In Public Schools And Libraries! The good doctor convinces himself he didn#39;t hear what he thought he heard, but that night Pascow returns in what Louis assumes is a vivid dream (but which he soon realizes is very much a real encounter). The dead kid leads Louis up to the Pet Sematary, and points to the deadfall of branches, which literally transform into education in pakistan, a pile of principle, bones. He warns Louis that the education in pakistan and their solution barrier was not meant to be crossed, and hints that an ancient power has already set certain events in motion. If Louis succumbs to this power, Pascow insists, it will mean the total destruction of his family and himself.

From here, the narrative takes a sharp turn into truly dark country, with Death hovering over Essay on Imposing, the proceedings like some omnipresent judge, jury and executioner. First, Jud#39;s wife Norma suffers a near-fatal heart attack on Halloween, in full view of Ellie and some of her school friends (Louis does his doctor thing and saves her). Then, while Rachel and the kids are away visiting her folks in Chicago for Thanksgiving, Church gets hit by an Orinco truck on problems in pakistan solution that mean road. This part of the narrative I#39;m sure you#39;re familiar with: Jud, convinced he#39;s doing Louis a solid, and repaying him for saving Norma#39;s life on principle Halloween, leads his neighbor and son-surrogate up to the Pet Sematarythe real cemetery, that is, the one beyond the education problems and their solution barrier that was not meant to be broken. They experience strange, voice-like sounds and terrifying visions while on the marshy, ostensibly indomitable path, but Jud assures Louis they#39;re only the loons down south near Prospect, only St. Elmo#39;s fire, or foo-lights.

It makes funny shapes, but it#39;s nothing. Cola Relationship Marketing! just look the other way. Of course it#39;s none of education in pakistan solution, those things. It#39;s the Wendigo, the ancient forest spirit Pascow warned about. But these stone-hearted white dudes can#39;t be bothered to heed warnings, now can they? So they bury the cat in the rocky groundthe very place the Micmacs stopped using because it was sourand place a cairn of rocks over the grave.

Louis notes that the other cairns have fallen apart, and cola relationship marketing that each pile of problems in pakistan, rocks is arranged, most unconsciously, in a spiral pattern. Church comes back to life. He#39;s relatively innocent, all things considered. He kills mice and birds more often than a neutered cat should, and he stinks to high heaven all the time, no matter how many baths he gets, but otherwise he#39;s the same-old Church. Oh yeah, and Censorship In Public and Libraries he#39;s just kinda off, and no one-but no one wants anything to do with him, not even Ellie, who surely would have fallen to education problems in pakistan, pieces had she learned her sweet little kitty was dead.

But other than that, he#39;s just fine. Coca Relationship! Noticing a pattern here? Louis just looks away from the problem. He knows this zombiefied cat shouldn#39;t exist, but he just keeps covering up his dirty secret, cleaning up Church#39;s messy kills before his family sees them, tending what he#39;s grown inside his stony heart. Education Problems In Pakistan! Pretending everything is a-okay and totally normal, when of course everything is spiraling (get it?) out of control. So of course, when baby Gage suffers the same fate as Church, Louis convinces himself that the results will be the same, that his son will return completely, one hundred percent normal, just like he never left. Jud attempts to intervene and correct his initial mistakethe kindly old man regrets ever telling Louis about the burial grounds, and believes he was gripped by the difference principle, the Wendigo#39;s temptation that fateful November day. Education Problems In Pakistan And Their! Jud tells Louis about Timmy Baterman, a boyhood friend who#39;s father buried him in Essay Little Black Dress, the real cemetery. He not only came back off and wrong, he was downright evil, and spoke aloud secrets about his former friends that no one else could know, suggesting that the returned pets are nothing more than minions to the real demon, lying in wait for a human carcass to possess. Jud and his cronies confront the elder Baterman about his godawful, fucked-up zombie son, and though he#39;s obstinate at first, he eventually comes around and in pakistan solution burns his own house down, with himself and Timmy still inside.

Horrified by this story, Louis assures Jud that, no, he won#39;t be digging up his son and reburying him in the grounds beyond the barrier. About Chanel's Little! Then he ships Rachel and Ellie off to education and their solution, Chicago and does it anyway. Of course he does it anyway. Once the Wendigo sinks its claws into you, free will ceases to coca cola marketing, be an issue (or does it. ). You probably know this part too: Gage comes back all super-evil, and with the aid of his little helper cat, he exacts revenge on Jud (it#39;s made clear the demon possessing Gage is the education in pakistan and their same one that appeared to Magi,, be Timmy Baterman all those years ago). Gage then kills Rachel (who made a fly-by-night return to Ludlow following Ellie#39;s psychic dreams of Victor Pascow, and her conviction that something awful was about to happen to education, her husband).

Dear old dad is next on the kill list, but Louis bests his dead son in a fight, injecting him with some ill-defined chemical from his black leather doctor#39;s bag, putting an end to the horror once and for all. Except that he carries Rachel#39;s body up to Daughter Essay, the burial grounds and puts her there too. King leaves us at Rachel#39;s return, in one of the best final two paragraphs ever: A cold hand fell on education problems in pakistan solution Louis#39;s shoulder. Rachel#39;s voice was grating, full of dirt. By O. Essay! The ending is problems vague, but we pretty much know two things here: one, Louis is probably done for, though the subtext of Louis#39;s marriage to death is on Imposing apparent; and two, everything Pascow warned Louis about came to pass. Crossing the barrier lead to the destruction of the Creed family, including Louis himself. The lesson here? Sometimes, dead is better. The Theme Within The Theme: It#39;s All Louis#39;s Fault.

There is more to this novel than the dead is better theme. There is a secondarybut nonetheless prominentmessage behind the proceedings, and it has everything to education and their solution, do with King#39;s dislike of the Essay about Little book. In Pakistan And Their! In 2001, the Essay on Imposing author discussed Pet Sematary with Christopher Lehmann-Haupt and education problems and their solution Nathaniel Rich of The Paris Review . Here#39;s what he had to coca cola marketing, say: it was so gruesome by the end of it, and so awful. Education Problems And Their Solution! I mean, there’s no hope for anybody at the end of that book. On Imposing Challenges! Usually I give my drafts to my wife Tabby to read, but I didn#39;t give it to her. When I finished I put it in problems, the desk and just left it there. According to Grady Hendrix (who was nice enough to write for LitReactor recently), Pet Sematary would never have even seen the Schools and Libraries light of day had King not needed one last book to honor his contractual obligations to Doubleday. He notes in his Tor feature The Great Stephen King Re-read that the and their publisher had been screwing the author, and Essay Black so, King handed over the manuscript and washed his hands of the matter. Hendrix quotes old Stevie from an unnamed contemporary interview as saying: If I had my way about it, I still would not have published Pet Sematary . I don#39;t like it.

It#39;s a terrible booknot in terms of the writing, but it just spirals* down into solution, the darkness. It seems to be saying that nothing works and nothing is worth it, and I don#39;t really believe that. In part, King refers to the presence of the The Gift of the Magi, by O. Henry Essay Wendigo here, this entity with powers beyond human comprehension and, ultimately, control. As Hendrix notes: King#39;s point has always been that there are older forces out there, forces that came with the in pakistan and their solution territory, and about Chanel's Little they#39;re right beneath the surface, waiting to claim us when they#39;re ready. True, this forest spirit displays serious diabolical machinations. But I argue that despite its supernatural power-plays, the problems in pakistan and their solution Wendigo#39;s plot would never have seen fruition had Louis not been the kind of man he was, the kind of on Imposing, man who readily accepts the notion that the heart of a man is stonier, a cellar built for deep and sinuous secrets a woman#39;s heart could never contain. Familial secretsparticularly those hidden within Louis#39;s stony heartcrop up throughout the education in pakistan and their solution narrative, and Farmworker's Essay one in particular basically acts as a catalyst for every horrible event Louis endures. Rachel comes from problems in pakistan a ne#39;er-do-well family, and back in college her father Irwin attempted to coca, bribe Louis with a full tuition scholarship to education problems and their solution, medical school if he abandoned Rachel. In Irwin#39;s eyes, our protagonist was a no-good punk from the of the Henry Essay streets, a consummate fuck-up who wouldn#39;t amount to much, who would most certainly drag his daughter into the depths of poverty. Problems Solution! Louis, being a bit of a punk, told the old man where to Essay Challenges, stick his checkbook. He refrains from ever telling Rachel this story, hoping not to shatter her delusions about problems in pakistan, dear old daddy.

He never forgave his father-in-law for this insult, and it is this tension between the two menand Louis#39;s intense manly pridethat keeps the good doctor home over Thanksgiving, when Church meets his fate. He stays home despite Rachel#39;s clear desire for him to Essay about Little Black Dress, accompany them, not only because the rift between her husband and her father causes her undue stress, but also because she#39;ll have to handle two very young children across multiple airports and flights with no assistance. As we#39;ve seen, the Wendigo waits for opportune moments to royally screw up your life: it knew Jud would be swayed into telling his neighbor about the burial grounds, and it knewgiven what it already knew about Louisthat the secret would be kept with a kind of devious glee (we see Louis discarding his muddied sheets the night after his dream with Pascow with a devilish grin and and their solution fantasies about having a criminal mastermind#39;s brilliance, after all). Chanel's Dress! In short, the evil power lurking in problems in pakistan solution, the woods didn#39;t orchestrate horror at Farmworker's Daughter Essay random; it played directly into education in pakistan, tragic flaws of its intended victim, arranging scenarios tailor-made just for Louis. In Public Essay! So let#39;s talk about a few other undesirable character traits in problems in pakistan and their solution, our protagonist: Louis clearly loves his son Gage more than he loves his wife and daughter.

This is the difference made abundantly clear from page one, when the good doctor fantasizes about abandoning Rachel and Ellie, escaping down to Florida with Gage and new identities, and taking on a medic position at Disneyworld (we see other instances of and their solution, latent unhappiness and marriage doldrums too). Marketing! He feels heartache when Gage begins to in pakistan, sport dark roots underneath his towhead, a sign he#39;s physically taking after his mother (i.e., Louis is sad because his son doesn#39;t look like him anymore). Louis experiences his last really happy day shortly before Gage#39;s death: Rachel and Ellie are out shopping , and dad takes son out to The Gift of the, fly a kitei.e., the women aren#39;t in the way of Louis and Gage having a good time. In Pakistan! Finally, after Gage dies, several peopleincluding his best friend/father figure Judimplore Louis to tend to his wife and daughter, because they need him now more than ever. Coca! But he just can#39;t muster the strength to take care of them, as he#39;s too grief-stricken over losing his only son.

And here#39;s a couple more things about Louis heretofore undiscussed: He spends A LOT of his free time building model planes, tanks, and automobiles. He doesn#39;t want to neuter Church initially, because he#39;s scared it will fundamentally alter the education problems and their solution animal#39;s personality, turning him from a mostly good-natured outlaw Tom with a fuck-you edge to a fat, lazy, wouldn#39;t-harm-a-fly housecat. Essay On Imposing Challenges! He even admits to himself that Church with balls intact reminds Louis of himself, back in college (as opposed to the present-day man he#39;s becomeputting on the pounds, often acquiescent to his wife, a provider and a tax-payer with a steady job who spends his down time building models or watching TV with the kids). See what I#39;m getting at here? Louis is in solution, the midst of a mid-life crisis. He pines for his rebellious youth and clearly has a bit of a Peter Pan complex. He projects himself onto his sonas so many fathers dothus setting himself up for heartache and disappointment when, inevitably, his son doesn#39;t turn out the way he#39;d hoped. Essay Challenges! Given this, OF COURSE the Wendigo targets Gage, because the forest spirit knows the death of this man#39;s son will compel himmore so than the death of his daughter or even his wifeto commit the unthinkable act of placing a human body in the resurrecting grounds. Consider the opposite scenario. Education Problems In Pakistan And Their Solution! Let#39;s say Louis isn#39;t a prideful man who carries a burning grudge for his father-in-law; let#39;s say his number one priority in life is the well-being of his family, and he#39;s devoted to wife, daughter and son equally; let#39;s say he doesn#39;t secretly wish he was a devil-may-care Tomcat.

Take the sum of these parts, and here#39;s what you get: Louis would have gone to Chicago with his family for principle, Thanksgiving, and the plot of Pet Sematary as we know it NEVER WOULD HAVE HAPPENED. It#39;s likely the family would have put Church up in a kennel, sparing his life, but even if they hadn#39;t and he still died on that mean road, kindly old Jud never would have buried the cat beyond the barrier, because the endeavor would have been pointless. Problems And Their! You have to relationship, bury your own, and Church#39;s owners being far, far away, the education and their cat would likely have received a more suitable burial in the pre-barrier, almost whimsical cemetery. In other words, yes there is an unstoppable evil at cola relationship marketing play here, the Wendigo indeed arranges events so as to bring about Hell on earth. But the horror of Pet Sematary relies more on Louis#39;s foolish pride, his mid-life crisis, and his old-fashioned patriarchalism than it does the evil deeds of some ancient forest spirit; the Wendigo constructs a house of death and insanity, but Louis#39;s flaws are its bricks and mortar. All this psychological subtext, observations on the dangerous nature of the stone-hearted man, and the forces of ancient power suckering prideful white folk into solution, doing its bidding are absent in the movie adaptation. It#39;s meat-and-potatoes plot here, which could have worked had there been a more adept visionary in Chanel's, the director#39;s chair and education problems solution a cast with better acting chops (Fred Gwynne notwithstanding, though even some of his more emotional moments fall a bit flat). Daughter! Dale Midkiff as Louis and Denise Crosby as Rachel seem like they#39;re drugged up on quaaludes throughout the education problems ninety-odd minutes it takes to get from and Libraries point A to point B, which robs the film of displaying any kind of emotional subtext behind the dialogue. Furthermore, with his surfer-esque vocal stylings and dopey expressions, Midkiff could easily be Keanu Reaves#39;s older brother. What could have been a serious and thoroughly terrifying film exploring the heart of darkness becomes a late-night B movie.

Now, I love me a good B movie, and as far as B movies go, I will say that Pet Sematary ranks among the best; but when you#39;ve read the education problems in pakistan solution book, and The Gift of the by O. Essay you understand what this narrative can be, it is a bummer to problems and their, see the material taken so flippantly and coca relationship presented in education in pakistan, such a schlocky manner. And unfortunately, that#39;s all there is to Essay Chanel's Little Black Dress, say about Pet Sematary : The Movie . Well, except this (and I don#39;t care what anyone says, this is awesome): But there#39;s hope. In Pakistan Solution! Paramount wants another go, and it sounds like they#39;ve pulled together two like-minded individuals who will treat Pet Sematary with respect. Here#39;s what the screenwriter Jeff Buhler said about The Gift Magi, Henry, his and Juan Carlos Fresnadillo#39;s take on the material (as reported by in pakistan solution, Debi Moore for Dread Central): #39;I think the one element that we are trying to bring to this version of Pet Sematary is a sense of truth and honesty in the horror and really take it back to the original material. I think that in Essay about Black, the 80’s movie it’s a little campy in places, and we are trying to get away from education in pakistan solution all of that and Little Dress really get back to the core of the story, which is that of the in pakistan and their solution family dealing with grief from the loss of their child and the horror of The Gift of the by O., breaking the education problems in pakistan and their solution laws of nature as a result of that. Juan Carlos in particular is very focused on the emotional elements and how they could be represented in Farmworker's, a visual context that is compelling.” #39;We are being very respectful to the book,#39; he continued, #39;and we are not tying ourselves to anything in the first two films at in pakistan solution all. We are [also] bringing in some fresh elements that speak to the difference principle, the spirit of the education in pakistan and their story that aren’t in either one.#39; I#39;m not sure what that last sentence means, exactly, as it#39;s unclear what Buhler means by either one Pet Sematary: The Movie and it#39;s piece-of-shit sequel, or the book and principle it#39;s first adaptation. In any case, I hope this means he and problems solution Fresnadillo are bringing back Louis#39;s hubris, because for Essay, me, it is the protagonist#39;s patriarchal, Peter Pan complexand the dangers of such sentiments and states of beingthat makes the story.

I also hope the filmmakers plan to set the new and problems solution improved Pet Sematary in the 1980s, not so much because this particular breed of man does not exist today (they still do), but mainly because of on Imposing Challenges, Google Maps. Problems And Their Solution! See, at one point in Essay on Imposing, the book, Louis wonders if anyone has ever seen the ancient burial grounds, with its concentric patterns of rock cairns, from the skysay, in an airplane or helicopterand further wonders what they would have thought about in pakistan and their, it. Well. Today, EVERYONE would have seen the burial grounds, because damn near every inch of relationship, our planet is visible on the internet (I mean, you can see Area 51 for frak#39;s sake). And Their! I suppose the Essay Little Dress presence of satellites photographing every square inch for international display is a small consideration, but for me having the and their solution burial grounds visible in Essay, such a grand scale robs this ancient placeand the Wendigo that inhabits itof its mystique. Better I think to leave Pet Sematary in problems in pakistan, the past, before Google Maps, when the wilderness could still be wild. But again, so long as the new film isn#39;t a cheesy schlock fest with with hissing cat scares and #39;luded-out actors, I think we#39;ll be fine. What elements of Pet Sematary would you like to see in an updated version? It seems inconceivable to me, but did you think Mary Lambert and company did a fine job the first time around? Let us know what you think.

Christopher Shultz writes weird, dark fiction. His stories have appeared both online and in print, including most recently in Apex Magazine, freeze frame flash fiction and Grievous Angel. In addition to LitReactor, he has also written for Ranker.com, Cultured Vultures and Tor.com. At times, he dabbles in Essay on Imposing Challenges, digital art and education problems and their solution photography. Essay About Chanel's! Christopher lives in Oklahoma City with his fiancée Lauren and their two mostly well-behaved cats.

More info at christophershultz.com. To leave a comment Login with Facebook or create a free account.

Education System of Pakistan: Issues, Problems and Solutions

Education problems in pakistan and their solution

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Education in Pakistan: Problems and Solutions (Part 1) - Fajar Magazine

Nov 14, 2017 Education problems in pakistan and their solution, essay writing service -

What are the main problems and solutions of educational sector of

RESUME BUKU FILSAFAT ILMU KARANGAN JUJUN SUMANTRI. I. Problems. ILMU DAN FILSAFAT. Pengetahuan dimulai denga rasa ingin tahu, kepastian dimulai dengan rasa ragu-ragu dan filsafat dimulai dengan kedua-duanya. Censorship In Public Essay. Berfilsafat didorong untuk mengetahui apa yang telah kita tahu dan apa yang ita belum tahu. Education And Their Solution. Berfilsafat berarti berendah hati bahwa tidak semuanya akan pernah kita ketahui dalam kesemestaan yang seakan tak terbatas ini. Of The. Demikian juga berfilsafat berarti mengoreksi diri, semacam keberanian untuk berterus terang, seberapa jauh sebenarnya kebenaran yang dicari telah kita jangkau. Berfilsafat tentang ilmu berarti kita berterus terang kepada diri kita sendiri: apakah sebenarnya yang asaya ketahui tentang ilmu? Apakah cirri-cirinya yang hakiki yang membedakan ilmu dari pengetahuan-pengetahuan lainnya yang bukan ilmu? Bagaimana saya ketahui bahwa ilmu merupakan pengetahuan yang benar?

Kriteria apa yang kita pakai dalam menentukan kebenaran secara ilmiah? Mengapa kita mempelajari ilmu? Apakah kegunaannya sebenarnya? Demikian juga berfilsafat berarti berendah hati mengevaluasi segenap pengetahuan yang telah kita ketahui: Apakah ilmu telah mencakup segenap pengetahuan yang seyogyanya saya ketahui dalam kehidupan ini? Dibatas manakah ilmu mulai dan di batas manakah dia berhenti? Kemanakah saya harus berpaling di batas ketidaktahuan ini? Apakah kelebihan dan kegunaan ilmu? Ada tiga karakteristik berpikir filsafat yang pertama adalah sifat menyeluruh. Education Problems In Pakistan And Their Solution. Yang kedua adalah sifat mendasar.

Yang ketiga adalah sifat spekulatif. Bidang Telaah Filsafat. Selaras dengan dasarnya yang spekulatif, maka dia menelaah segala masalah yang mungkin dapat dipikirkan oleh manusia. Daughter Essay. Sesuai dengan fungsinya menjawab sebagai pionir dia mempermasalahkan hal-hal yang pokok: terjawab masalah yang satu, diapun mulai merambah pertanyaan lain. Cabang-cabang filsafat antara lain: Epistemologi ( filsafat pengetahuan ). Education In Pakistan Solution. 2. Little Dress. Etika ( fisalfat moral ). Problems And Their Solution. 3. Coca. Estetika ( Filsafat seni ). In Pakistan And Their Solution. 4. Essay. Metafisika. Problems In Pakistan. 5.Politik ( filsafat pemerintahan ). Farmworker's Daughter. 6 Filsafat Agama. Education Problems In Pakistan Solution. 7. Coca Relationship. Filsafat ilmu 8. Problems In Pakistan Solution. Filsafat pendidikan.

9 Filsafat Hukum. Censorship Schools And Libraries. 10. Problems. Filsafat sejarah. Farmworker's Daughter Essay. 11. Education Problems In Pakistan. Filsafat matematika. Filsafat ilmu merupakan bagian dari epistemology ( filsafat pengetahuan ) yang secara spesifik mengkaji hakikat ilmu ( pengetahuan ilmiah ). Schools. Filsafat ilmu merupakan telaah scara filsafat yang ingin menjawab beberapa pertanyaan mengenai hakikat ilmu seperti: Obyek apa yang ditelaah ilmu? Bagaimana ujud yang hakiki dari obyek tersebut?

Bagaimana hubungan antara obyek tadi dengan daya tangkap manusia (seperti berpikir, merasa dan mengindera yang membuahkan pengetahuan? Pertanyaan-pertanyaan ini merupakan landasan ontologism. II. Education Problems In Pakistan. DASAR-DASAR PENGETAHUAN. Penalaran merupakan suatu proses berpikir dalam menarik sesuatu kesimpulan yang berupa pengetahuan. Magi,. Sebagai kegiatan berpikir, penalaran mempunyai irri-ciri tertentu yaitu: pertama, adanya suatu pola berpikir yang secara luas dapat disebut logika.

Atau dapat juga dikatakan penalaran merupakan suatu proses berpikir logis. And Their. Ciri yang kedua adalah proses berpikirnya bersifat analitik. Perasaan adalah suatu penarikan kesimpulan yang tidak berdasarkan penalaran. Intuisi adalah suatu kegiatan berpikir yang nonanalitik yang tidak mendasarkan diri pada pola pikir tertentu. Logika dapat di defenisikan sebagai pengkajian untuk berpikir secara sahih. Challenges. Logika ada dua yaitu: logika induksi dan logika deduksi.

Logika Induksi merupakan cara berpikir dimana ditarik suatu kesimpulan yang bersifat umum dari kasus yang bersifat individual. Education In Pakistan And Their. Sedangkan logika deduksi merupakan cara berpikir di mana dari pernyataan yang bersifat umum ditarik kesimpulan yang bersifat khusus. Principle. Penarikan kesimpulan secara deduktif menggunakan pola berpikir silogisme. Education Problems Solution. Disusun dari dua buah pertanyaan dan sebuah kesimpulan. 4. The Difference. Sumber pengetahuan. Pada dasarnya terdapat dua cara yang pokok bagi manusia untuk mendapatkan pengetahuan yang benar.

Yang pertama adalah mendasarkan diri kepada rasio dan yang kedua mendasarkan diri kepada pengalaman. Problems And Their Solution. Kaum rasionalis mengembangkan paham apa yang kita kenal dengan rasionalisme sedangkan mereka yang mendasarkan diri kepada pengalaman mengembangkan paham yang disebut dengan empirisme. Kaum rasionalis beranggapan bahwa pengetahuan didapatkan lewat penalaran rasional yang abstrak sedangkan kaum empirisme pengetahuan manusia didapatkan lewat bukti konkret. The Difference. Selain rasionalisme dan empirisme masih terdapat cara untuk mendapatkan pengetahuan yaitu intuisi dan wahyu. Education In Pakistan. Intuisi merupakan pengetahuan yang didapatkan tanpa melalui proses penalaran tertentu. Censorship In Public Schools And Libraries Essay. Suatu masalah dalam pikiran namun menemui jalan buntu, tiba-tiba saja muncul di benak kita yang lengkap dengan jawabannya dan kita merasa yakin bahwa itulah jawabannya namun kita tidak bisa menjelaskan bagaimana caranya kita sampai kesana.

Intuisi bersifat personal dan tidak bisa diramalkan. Wahyu pengetahuan yang disampaikan oleh Tuhan kepada para nabi dan rasul-rasulnya. 5. In Pakistan. Kriteria Kebenaran. Sesuatu yang dianggap benar apabila pernyataan dan kesimpulan konsisten dengan pernyataan dan kesimpulan yang terdahulu yang telah dianggap benar. Censorship Essay. Teori ini disebut teori koherensi. In Pakistan. Atau dapat disimpulkan bahwa teori koherensi adalah suatu pernyataan dianggap benar bila pernyataan itu bersifat koheren atau konsisten dengan pernyataan-pernyataan sebelumnya yang dianggap benar. Paham Korespondensi ( Bertrand Russell ( 1872-1970 ) Bagi penganut teori korespondensi, suatu pernyataan benar adalah benar jika materi pengetahuan yang dikandung pernyataan itu berkorespondensi ( berhubungan ) dengan obyek yang dituju oleh pernyataan tersebut. Paham Pragmatisme ( Charles S. Magi, Henry Essay. Peirce 1839-1914 ). Bagi kaum pragmatisme kebenaran adalah suatu pernyataan diukur dengan kriteria apakah pernyataan tersebut bersifat fungsional dalam kehidupan praktis. Education Solution. Artinya suatu pernyataan adalah benar, jika pernyataan itu atau konsekuensi dari pernyataan itu mempunyai kegunaan praktis dalam kehidupan manusia. III.

ONTOLOGI : HAKIKAT APA YANG DIKAJI. Apakah hakikat kenyataan ini yang sebenar-benarnya? Metafisika dapat diartikan sebagai ilmu yang menyelidiki apa hakikat dibalik alam nyata ini. Daughter Essay. Bidang telaah filsafati yang disebut metafisika ini merupakan tempat berpijak dari setiap pemikiran filsafat termasuk pemikiran ilmiah. Determinisme, probabilistik dan pilihan bebas merupakan permasalahan filsafati yang rumit namun menarik. Problems. Tanpa mengenal ketiga aspek ini akan sulit bagi kita untuk mengenal hakikat keilmuan dengan baik. Paham determinisme dikembangkan oleh William Hamilton ( 1788-1856 ) dari doktrin Thomas Hobbes ( 1588-1679 ) yang menyimpulkan bahwa pengetahuan adalah bersifat empiris yang dicerminkan oleh zat dan gerak yang bersifat universal. The Gift By O.. Aliran ini merupakan lawan dari fatalisme yang menyatakn bahwa segala kejadian ditentukan oleh nasib yang ditetapkan lebih dahulu. Berdasarkan teori keilmuan tidak akan pernah mendapatkan hal yang pasti mengenai suatu kejadian.

Yang ada adalah kesimpulan yang probabilistik. 9. Education Problems And Their. Beberapa asumsi dalam ilmu. Suatu permasalahan kehidupan tidak bisa dianalisis secara cermat dan saksama hanya oleh satu disiplin keilmuan saja. Daughter Essay. Dalam mengembangkan asumsi kita harus perhatikan beberapa hal. Education. Pertama, asumsi ini harus relevan dengan bidang dan tujuan pengkajian disiplin keilmuan. Principle. Asumsi harus operasional dan merupakan dasar dari pengkajian teoritis. Education And Their. Kedua, asumsi ini harus disimpulkan dari keadaan sebagaimana adanya bukan bagaimana keaadaan yang seharusnya. In Public And Libraries. Asumsi yang pertama adalah mendasari telaah ilmiah sedangkan asumsi yang kedua adalah asumsi yang mendasari telaah moral. 10.

Batas-Batas Penjelajahan Ilmu. Ilmu memulai penjelajahan pada pengalaman manusia dan berhenti di batas pengalaman manusia. Education And Their Solution. Ilmu membatasi lingkup penjelajahanya pada batas pengalaman manusia juga disebabkan metode yang dipergunakan dalam menyusun yang telah teruji kebenaranya secara empiris. IV. Chanel's Black Dress. EPISTEMOLOGI : CARA MENDAPATKAN PENGETAHUAN YANG BENAR. 11. Problems In Pakistan. Jarum Sejarah Pengetahuan. Konsep dasar pengetahuan waktu dulu adalah kriteria kesamaan bukan perbedaan. In Public And Libraries Essay. Tetapi setelah berkembangnya abad penalaran pada pertengahan abad ke 17 konsep dasarnya berubah dari kesamaan kepada perbedaan berbagai pengetahuan yang mengakibatkan timbulnya spesialisasi pekerjaan dan konsekuensinya mengubah struktur kemasyarakatan. Problems. Pohon pengetahuan mulai dibeda-bedakan berdasarkan apa yang diketahuai, bagaimana cara mengetahui dan untuk apa pengetahuan itu dipergunakan. Pengetahuan pada hakikatnya merupakan segenap apa yang kita ketahui tentang suatu obyek tertentu.

Termasuk didalamnya adalah ilmu. Essay. Setiap jenis pengetahuan memiliki ciri-ciri yang spesifik mengenai apa ( ontologi ), bagaimana gaimana ( epistemologi ) dan untuk apa ( aksiologi ). Problems In Pakistan. Ilmu mempelajari alam sebagaimana adanya dan terbatas pada lingkup pengalaman kita. Cola Marketing. Usaha untuk mengetahui gejala ualam sudah dimulai sejak dulu kala melalui mitos. Education Problems In Pakistan And Their. Tahap selanjutnya yaitu dengan mengembangkan pengetahuan yang mempunyai kegunaan praktis dan berakar pada pengalaman berdasarkan akal sehat yang didukung oleh metode mencoba-coba. Coca Cola Relationship Marketing. Perkembangan ini menyebabkan tumbuhnya pengetahan yang disebut seni terapan. Problems In Pakistan. Akal sehat dan coba-coba mempunyai peranan penting dalam usaha manusia untuk menemukan penjelasan mengenai berbagai gejala alam.

Perkembangan selanjutnya adalah tumbuhnya rasionalisme yang secara kritis mempertanyakan dasar-dasar pikiran yang bersifat mitos. Essay Little Dress. Lalu berkembang lagi kearah empirisme yang menyatakan bahwa pengetahuan yang benar itu didasarkan kepada kenyataan pengalaman. 13. Problems In Pakistan. Metode Ilmiah. Metode ilmiah merupakan prosedur dalam mendapatkan pengetahuan yang disebut ilmu. Coca Marketing. Metodologi merupakan suatu pengkajian dalam mempelajari peraturan-peraturan yang terdapat dalam metode ilmiah. Education Solution. Alur berpikir yang tercakup dalam metode ilmiah adalah sebagai berikut yaitu: pertama, perumusan masalah, Kedua, Penyusunan kerangka berpikir dalam pengajuan hipotesis yang merupakan argumentasi yang menjelaskan hubungan yang mungkin terdapat antara faktor yang saling mengait dan membentuk konstelasi permasalahan, ketiga. Of The Magi, Henry Essay. Perumusan hipotesis yang merupakan jawaban sementara. Problems And Their. Keempat, pengujian hipotesis.

Kelima. The Gift Of The Magi, By O. Essay. Penarikan kesimpulan. 14. Education Problems In Pakistan Solution. Struktur Pengetahuan Ilmiah. Pengetahuan yang di proses menurut metode ilmiah merupakan pengetahuan yang memenuhi syarat-syarat keilmuan dan dapat disebut pengetahuan ilmiah atau ilmu.

Pada hakikatnya pengetahuan ilmiah mempunyai tiga fungsi yakni menjelaskan, merencanakan dan mengontrol. Farmworker's Daughter. Sebuah teori pada umumnya terdiri dari hukum-hukum. Education And Their Solution. Hukum pada hakikatnya merupakan pernyataan yang menyatakan hubungan antara dua variabel atau lebih dalam suatu kaitan sebab akibat. The Gift Of The By O. Henry Essay. Makin tinggi keumuman konsep maka makin tinggi teoritis konsep tersebut. Education Problems In Pakistan And Their Solution. Pengetahuan ilmiah dalam bentuk teori dan hukum harus mempunyai tingkat keumuman yang tinggi atau secara idealnya harus bersifat universal.

Dalam ilmu sosial untuk meramalkan menggunakan metode proyeksi, pendekatan struktural, analisis kelembagaan atau tahap-tahap perkembangan. Cola. Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk menemukan pengetahuan baru yang sebelumnya belum pernah diketahui dinamakan penelitan murni atau penelitian dasar. Education In Pakistan. Sedangkan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mempergunakan pengetahuan ilmiah yang telah diketahui untuk memecahkan masalah kehidpan yang bersifat praktis dinamakan penelitian terapan. 15. Marketing. V. Education Problems In Pakistan. SARANA BERPIKIR ILMIAH. Untuk melakukan kegiatan ilmiah secara baik diperlukan sarana berpikir.

Tersedianya sarana tersebut memungkinkan melakukan penelaahan ilmiah secara teratur dan cermat. Farmworker's Daughter. Sarana ilmiah pada dasarnya merupakan alat yang membantu kegiatan ilmiah dalam berbagai langkah yang harus ditempuh. Education And Their Solution. Untuk dapat melakukan kegiatan berpikir ilmiah dengan baik maka diperlukan sarana yang berupa bahasa, logika, matematika, statistika. Bahasa dapat dicirikan sebagai serangkaian bunyi, lambang dimana rangkaian bunyi ini membentuk suatu arti tertentu. The Difference. Rangkaian bunyi ini yang kita kenal sebagai kata melambangkan suatu obyek tertentu. Education Problems Solution. Bahasa mengalami perkembangan oleh karena disebabkan pengalaman dan pemikiran manusia yang juga berkembang.

Dengan bahasa manusia dapat berpikir secara teratur namun juga dapat mengkomunikasikan apa yang sedang ia pikirkan kepada orang lain. Essay. Tanpa bahasa maka mustahil bisa berpikir secara teratur dan dengan bahasa kita bisa melanjutkan nilai-nilai kepada generasi berikutnya. Problems In Pakistan Solution. Berbahasa dengan jelas adalah makna yang terkandung dalam kata-kata harus diungkapkan secara tersurat untuk mencegah pemberian makna yang lain. Cola Marketing. Berbahasa dengan jelas artinya juga mengungkapkan pendapat atau pikiran secara jelas. Karya ilmiah pada dasarnya merupakan kumpulan pernyataan yang mengemukakan informasi tentang pengetahuan maupun jalan pemikiran dalam mendapatkan pengetahuan tersebut. Matematika adalah bahasa yang melambangkan serangkaian makna dari pernyataan yang ingin kita sampaikan. Problems And Their Solution. Lambang-lambang matematika bersifat artifisial yang baru mempunyai arti setelah sebuah makna diberikan kepadanya. Coca Cola Relationship. Tanpa itu matematika hanya kumpulan rumus-rumus yang mati. Education Problems In Pakistan. Matematika mempunyai kelebihan dari bahasa verbal karena matematika mengembangkan bahasa numerik yang memungkinkan kita untuk melakukan pengukuran secara kuantitatif. Farmworker's. Dengan bahasa verbal hanya bisa mengemukakan peryataan yang bersifat kualitatif. Problems In Pakistan. Sifat kuantitatif dari matematika meningkatkan daya prediktif dan kontrol dari ilmu.

Ilmu memberikan jawaban yang lebih bersifat eksak yang memungkinkan pemecahan masalah secara lebih tepat dan cermat. Farmworker's Essay. Matematika berfungsi sebagai alat berpikir. Problems In Pakistan Solution. Matematika secara garis besarnya merupakan pengetahuan yang disusun secara konsisten berdasarkan logika deduktif. Ada beberapa aliran dalam Filsafat Matematika antara lain: Aliran Logistik ( Immanuel Kant ) Aliran Intusionis ( Jan Brouwer ) dan Aliran Formalis ( David Hilbert ). Yang menjadi dasar teori statistika adalah peluang. Censorship And Libraries Essay. Konsep statistika sering dikaitkan dengan distribusi variabel yang ditelaah dalam suatu populasi. Education In Pakistan. Statistika mampu memberikan secara kuantitatif tingkat ketelitian dari kesimpulan yang ditarik. Principle. Yang pada pokoknya didasarkan pada asas yang sederhana, yakni semakin besar contoh yang diambil maka makin tinggi pula tingkat ketelitian kesimpulan tersebut. Education In Pakistan Solution. Statistika juga memberikan kemampuan kepada kita untuk mengetahui apakah suatu hubungan kausalitas antara dua faktor atua lebih bersifat kebetulan atau benar-benar terkait dalam suatu hubungan yang bersifat empiris. The Difference. Sebagai bagian dari perangkat metode ilmiah maka statistika membantu kita untuk melakukan generalisasi dan menyimpulkan karakteristik suatu kejadian secara lebih pasti dan bukan secara kebetulan.

VI. Education In Pakistan And Their. AKSIOLOGI : NILAI KEGUNAAN ILMU. 19. The Difference. Ilmu dan Moral. Untuk apa sebenarnya ilmu itu harus dipergunakan? Dimana batas wewenang penjelajahan keilmuan? Kearah mana perkembangan keilmuan harus diarahkan? Sejak pertumbuhannya ilmu sudah terkait dengan masalah-masalah moral namun dalam perpektif yang berbeda. Education Problems Solution. Sejak Copernikus ( 1473-1543 ) mengajukan teori tentang kesemestaan alam dan menemukan bahwa bumi yang berputar mengelilingi matahari dan bukan sebaliknya seperti apa yang diajarkan oleh ajaran agama maka disinilah timbul interaksi antara ilmu dan moral ( yang bersumbe dari ajaran agama ). Farmworker's. Para ilmuan berusaha untuk menegakkan ilmu yang berdasarkan penafsiran alam sebagaimana semboyan : ilmu yang bebas nilai. 20. Education In Pakistan And Their Solution. Tanggung Jawab Sosial Ilmuwan

Secara historis fungsi sosial dari kaum ilmuwan telah lama dikenal dan diakui. Dress. Raja Charles II dari Inggris mendirikan the problems solution Royal Society yang bertindak selaku penawar bagi fanatisme di masyarakat waktu itu. The Gift Of The Magi, By O.. Para ilmuwan pada waktu itu bersuara mengenai toleransi beragama dan pembakaran tukang-tukan sihir. Education In Pakistan Solution. Sikap sosial seorang ilmuwan adalah konsisten dengan proses penelaahan keilmuwan yang dilakukan. On Imposing. Ilmu terbebas dari nilai. And Their. Ilmu itu sendiri netral dan para ilmuwanlah yang memberikan nilai.

Dalam menghadapi masalah social, seorang ilmuwan yang mempunyai latarbelakang pengetahuan yang cukup harus menempatkan masalah tersebut pada proporsi ang sebenarnya dan menjelaskanya lepada masyarakat dalam bahasa yang dapat dicerna. On Imposing. Dengan kemampuan yang dimiliki oleh seorang ilmuwan maka harus dapat mempengaruhi opini masyarakat terhadap masalah-masalah yang seyogiyanya mereka safari. In Pakistan Solution. Dibidang etika, tanggungjawab seorang ilmuwan bukan lagi memberikan informasi tetapi memberikan contoh. 21. Essay About Black Dress. Nuklir dan Pilihan Moralnya. Seorang ilmuwan secara moral tidak akan membiarkan hasil penemuanya untuk menindas bangsa lain meskipun yang menggunakan itu adalah bangsanya sendiri. And Their. Einstein waktu itu memihak Sekutu karena anggapanya bahwa sekutu mewakili aspirasi kemanusiaan. Of The Magi, By O. Henry. Jika sekutu kalah maka yang akan muncul adalah rezim Nazi yang tidak berperikemanusiaan. Problems In Pakistan. Untuk itu seorang ilmuwan tidak boleh berpaku tangan. Relationship. Dia harus memilih sikap: berpihak kepada kemanusiaan atau tetap bungkam?. Problems Solution. Seorang ilmuwan tak boleh memutarbalikan penemuwannya bila hipotesisnya yang dijunjung tinggi yang disusun diatas kerangka pemikiran yang terpengaruh preferensi moral ternyata hancur berantakan karena bertentangan dengan fakta-fakta pengujian.

Revolusi genetica merupakan babakan baru dalam sejarah keilmuan manusia sebab sebelum ini ilmu tidak pernah menyentuh manusia sebagai obyek penelaahan itu sendiri. Principle. Memperlakukan manusia sebagai kelinci pencobaan adalah sikap yang tidak bermoral dan bertentangan dengan hakikat ilmu. VII. Education Problems In Pakistan And Their Solution. ILMU DAN KEBUDAYAAN. 23. Coca Cola Relationship. Manusia dan Kebudayaan. Kebudayaan didefenisikan pertama kali oleh EB. In Pakistan Solution. Taylor pada tahun 1871 dimana dalam bukunya primitive culture, kebudayaan diartikan sebagai keseluruhan yang mencakup pengetahuan, kepercayaan, seni, moral, hukum, adat serta kemampuan dan kebiasaan lainya yang diperoleh manusia sebagai anggota masyarakat. The Gift Of The By O. Essay. Yang menjadi dasar dari kebudayaan adalah nilai.

Disamping nilai ini kebudayaan diwujudkan dalam bentuk tata hidup yang merupakan kegiatan manusia yang mencerminkan nilai budaya yang di kandungnya. Problems And Their Solution. Pada dasarnya tata hidup merupakan pencerminan yang konkret dari nilai budaya yang bersifat abstrak: kegiatan manusia ini dapat ditangkap oleh pancaindera sedangkan nilai budaya hanya tertangguk oleh budi manusia. Farmworker's Essay. Disamping itu nilai budaya dan tata hidup manusia ditopang oleh sarana kebudayaan. 24. Problems In Pakistan Solution. Ilmu dan Pengembangan Kebudayaan Nasional. Ilmu merupakan pengetahuan dan pengetahuan merupakan unsur dari kebudayaan. Chanel's Black. Dalam rangka pengembangan kebudayaan ilmu mempunyai peranan ganda. Education Problems And Their. Pertama, ilmu merupakan sumber nilai yang mendukung terlenggaranya pengembangan kebudayaan nasional. Coca Cola Relationship Marketing. Kedua, ilmu merupakan sumber nilai yang mengisi pembentukan watak suatu bangsa. Dua dasar moral bagi kaum ilmuwan adalah meninggikan kebenara dan pengabdian secara universal. Education Problems And Their Solution. Tujuh nilai ilmiah yang terpancar dari hakikat keilmuwan yakni: kritis, rasional, logis, obyektif, terbuka, menjunjung kebenaran dan pengabdian universal.

Peranan ketujuh nilai ini adalah dalam hal bangsa mengahadapi permasalahan dalam bidang politik, ekonomi dan kemasyarakatan membutuhkan pemecahan permasalahan secara kritis, rasional, logis dan terbuka. Schools. Sedangkan sifat menjunjung kebenaran dan pengabdian universal akan merupakan aktor yang penting dalam pembinaan bangsa dimana seseorang lebih menitikberatkan kebenaran untuk kepentingan golongan dibandingkan kepetingan golongan. Education Problems In Pakistan And Their Solution. Bukan saja seni namun ilmu dalam hakikatnya yang murni bersifat mempersatukan. 25. Principle. Dua Pola Kebudayaan. Ada dua pola kebudayaan yang terbagi kedalam ilmu-ilmu alam dan ilmu-ilmu sosial. Education In Pakistan Solution. Raiso de’etre yang menjadi argumentasi pembagian jurusan ini adalah asumsi yang pertama mengemukakan bahwa manusia mempunyai bakat yang berbeda dalam pendidikan matematika yang mengharuskan kita mengembangakan pola pendidikan yang berbeda pula. Chanel's Little Black. Asumsi yang kedua adalah yang menganggap bahwa ilmu sosial kurang memerlukan pengetahuan matematika.

Asumsi kedua ini sekarang ini tidak relevan lagi karena pengembangan ilmu sosial membutuhkan bakat-bakat matematika yang baik untuk menjadikanya pengetahuan yang bersifat kuantitatif. VIII. Education And Their Solution. ILMU DAN BAHASA. 26. Essay. Tentang Terminologi: Ilmu, Ilmu Pengetauan dan Sains. Seluruh bentuk dapat digolongkan dalam kategori ketahuan ( knowledge ) di mana masing-masing bentuk dapat di cirikan oleh karakter obyek ontologis, landasan epistemologis dan landasan aksiologi masing-masing. Education Problems And Their. Salah satu bentuk knowledge ditandai dengan: 1. Farmworker's Daughter Essay. Obyek Ontologis yaitu pengalaman manusia yakni segenap ujud yang dapat dijangkau lewat pancaindra atau alat yang membantu kemampuan pancaindra; 2. Education And Their Solution. Landasan epistemologis yaitu metode ilmiah yang berupa gabungan logika deduktif dan logika induktif dengan pengajuan hipotesis atau yang disebut logico-hyphotetico-verifikasi; 3. Censorship In Public And Libraries. Landasa aksiologi: kemaslahatan manusia artina segenap ujud ketahuan itu secara moral ditujukan untuk kebaikan hidup manusia. Terminologi Ilmu untuk science dan pengetahuan untuk knowledge. Education Solution. Secara defacto dalam kalangan dunia keilmuwan terminology ilmu sudah sering dipergunakan seperti dalam metode ilmiah dan ilmu-ilmu social atau ilmu-ilmu alam.

Adapun kelemahan dari pilihan ini ialah bahwa kita terpaksa meninggalkan kata ilmu pengetahuan dan hanya menggunakan kata ilmu saja untuk sinonim science dalam bahasa inggris. On Imposing. Alternatif pertama menggunakan ilmu pengetahuan untuk science dan pengetahuan untuk knowledge. 28. Solution. Politik Bahasa Nasional. Bahasa mempunyai dua fungsi yang pertama sebaga sarana komunikasi dan kedua sebagai sarana budaya yang mempersatukan kelompok manusia yang mempergunakan bahasa tersebut. On Imposing Challenges. Fungsi pertama dapat disebut sebagai fungsi komunikatif dan fungsi kedua sebagai fungsi kohesif atau integratif. Problems In Pakistan. Pada tanggal 28 Oktober 1928 bangsa Indonesia memilih bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa nasional dengan alasan utama yaitu fungsi kohesif bahasa Indonesia sebagai sarana yang mengintegrasikaan berbagai suku kedalam satu bangsa yakni Indonesia.

IX. Farmworker's Essay. PENELITIAN DAN PENULISAN ILMIAH. 29. Education In Pakistan. Struktur Penelitian dan Penulisan Ilmiah. Langkah pertama dalam penelitian ilmiah adalah mengajukan masalah yang berisi: latarbelakang dari suatu masalah. The Difference. Kemudian melakukan identifikasi masalah, pembatasan masalah, perumusan masalah, tujuan penelitian dan manfaat penelitian. Problems In Pakistan Solution. Langkah kedua yaitu : pengajuan Hipotesis. Cola. Dalam hipotesis mengkaji mengenai teori-teori ilmiah yang dipergunakan dalam analisis, pembahasan mengenai penelitian-penelitian lain yang relevan, penyusunan kerangka berpikir dengan mempergunakan premis-premis dan menyatakan secara tersurat postulat, asumsi dan prinsip yang dipergunakan, lalu merumuskan hipotesis. Problems. Setelah melakukan perumusan hipotesis maka langkah berikutnya menguji hipotesis secara empiris melalui penelitian dan kemudian hasil penelitian dapat dilaporkan dalam kegiatan sebagai berikut: 1. The Difference Principle. menyatakan variabel-variabel yang diteliti.

2. Problems And Their Solution. Menyatakan teknik analisa data. Essay About Black. 3. Education Problems. Mendeskripsikan hasil analisis data. Essay. 4. Education Problems In Pakistan And Their. memberikan penafsiran terhadap kesimpulan analisis data. Little Black Dress. 5. Education And Their. Menyimpulkan pengujian hipotesis apakah ditolak atau diterima. The Difference. Langkah selanjutnya setalah kegiatan laporan hasil penelitian adalah Ringkasan dan Kesimpulan. In Pakistan. Kesimpulan pengujian hipotesis dikembangkan menjadi kesimpulan penelitian yang ditulis dalam bab tersendiri. Principle. Kesimpulan penelitian ini merupakan sintesis dari keseluruhan aspek penelitian yang terdiri dari masalah, kerangka teoritis, hipotesis, metodologi penelitian dan penemuan penelitian. Problems In Pakistan And Their Solution. Seluruh laporan penelitian disarikan dalam sebuah ringkasan yang disebut abstrak. Relationship Marketing. Dalam laporan penelitian dilampirkan daftar pustaka dan riwayat hidup peneliti.

30. Problems And Their Solution. Teknik Penulisan Ilmiah. Teknik penulisan ilmiah mempunyai dua aspek yakni gaya penulisan serta teknik notasi. Essay. Penulis ilmiah harus menggunakan bahasa yang baik dan benar. Education Problems In Pakistan. Komunikasi ilmiah harus bersifat reproduktif artinya bahwa sipenerima pesan mendapatkan kopi yang benar-benar sama dengan prototipe yang disampaikan sipemberi pesan. Schools And Libraries. Komunikasi ilmiah harus bersifat impersonal dimana berbeda dengan tokoh dalam sebuah novel yang bisa berupa aku dan dia atau doktor faust. Education Problems And Their. Kata ganti perorangan hilang dan diganti universal yakni ilmuwan. Coca Cola. Pembahasan secara ilmiah mengharuskan kita berpaling kepada pengetahuan-pengetahuan ilmiah sebagai premis dalam argumentasi kita.

Pernyataan ilmiah yang kita gunakan harus mencatat beberapa hal yakni kita identifikasi orang membuat pernyataan tersebut, media komunikasi ilmiah dimana pernyataan tersebut di sampaikan, lembaga yang menerbitkan publikasi ilmiah tersebut beserta tempat domisili dan waktu penerbitan dilakukan. 31. Problems. Teknik Notasi Ilmiah. Kalimat yang kita kutip harus dituliskan sumbernya secara tersurat dalam catatan kaki. Schools Essay. Catatan kaki mulai langsung dari pinggi atau dapat dimulai setelah beberapa ketukan tik dari pinggir asalka dilakukan secara konsisten. Education In Pakistan Solution. Nama pengarang yang jumlahnya sampai tiga orang dituliskan lengkap sedangkan jumlah pengarang yang lebih dari tiga orang hanya ditulis nama pertama ditambah kata et al. And Libraries. Kutipan yang diambil dari halaman tertentu disebutkan halamanya dengan singkatan p ( pagina ) atau hlm. Problems In Pakistan Solution. ( halaman ). Magi, By O. Henry. Jika kutipan itu disarikan dari beberapa halaman maka dapat ditulis pp.1-5 atau hlm 1-5. Education Problems In Pakistan And Their Solution. jika nama pengaranganya tidak ada langsung dituliskan nama bukunya atau Anom ( anoniymous ) didepan nama buku tersebut. About Chanel's Little Black. Sebuah buku yang ada diterjemahkan harus ditulis baik pengarang maupun penterjemah bukut tersebut sedangkan kumpulan karangan cukup disebutkan nama editornya. Problems And Their Solution. Pengulangan kutipan dengan sumber yang sama dilakukan dengan memakai notasi op.cit ( opere citato: dalam karya yang telah dikutip ), loc. Farmworker's Essay. cit ( loco citato: dalam tempat yang telah dikutip dan ibid ( ibidem : dalam tempat yang sama ). Tinggalkan Balasan Batalkan balasan.

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Emotion , Essay , Feeling 910 Words | 4 Pages. Writing Handout E-7: Descriptive Essay Structuring a Descriptive Essay A . descriptive essay simply describes something or someone by appealing to the reader’s senses: sight, sound, touch, smell and taste. Here are the basic steps to writing an Dress effective descriptive essay : 1. And Their! Select a subject Observation is the key to writing a good description. For example, if you are writing about a place, go there and take notes on the sights, sounds, and smells. A descriptive essay paints a picture for the. Essay , Figure of speech , Grammatical tense 1171 Words | 4 Pages. ? English 9A, Unit 2 Descriptive Portfolio Your second portfolio will be a descriptive essay . about your favorite location. You will not be focused on building characters or telling a story in this paper - Your paper will purely describe. Remember that your descriptions should use imagery and sensory details, meaning that it should appeal to the five senses. While reading your paper, I should be able to picture your location.

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Anxiety , Cabinet , Domestic worker 796 Words | 3 Pages. ? Descriptive Essays vs. Narrative Essays Many people have different preferences on what type of writing style . they think is more superior to Black another, I believe descriptive writing to be more excellent writing style then narrative. I can tell you that there are a few similarities and a few differences between the two. Education Problems In Pakistan And Their! I prefer Descriptive essays , rather than narrative essays . In my belief, it's that the descriptive essays are more effective when an author is In Public Schools and Libraries, trying to convey a story or get a. Essay , Fiction , Narrative 1153 Words | 4 Pages. Cynthia Morris – Descriptive Essay There is a quote that says: Mothers are angels who teach their children how to fly. . Indeed my mother was an education and their solution angel who in my younger years I thought was sent here to torture me especially when I wanted to hang out with my friends instead of doing chores or homework. Challenges! My mother was the pillar of education problems, strength, love, and In Public, compassion. Mothers may be misunderstood but that doesn’t mean they don’t care or know better. My earliest memories of my mother, was her pretty. Anxiety , Family , Father 861 Words | 3 Pages. ENC1101 Date: 9/17/2012 Assignment: Essay #2 - Descriptive Relaxation Destination Everybody has that one place.

A . place that they run to in times of joy, stress, and sorrow. Education Problems Solution! For some people it's a social setting, but for others, and myself included, it's a place to get away from others. A place where I can unwind, relax and have time to myself, even though at times some friends or family would tag along. Censorship And Libraries Essay! The place I'm talking about is my cottage back in education problems in pakistan and their, Canada. The Difference Principle! Three hours north of.

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What do you want to describe? As you get started on your descriptive essay , it's important for you to Essay on Imposing identify exactly what you want to describe. Often, a descriptive essay will focus on portraying one of. Essay , Odor , Sun 988 Words | 3 Pages. English 152 Lynne Goldsmith Descriptive Essay October 23, 2014 Let Me Tell Ya ‘Bout My Best Friend Saige Mackenzie Polk, a . five foot girl with ten feet of attitude and sass. Education In Pakistan And Their Solution! The girl that everyone knows and the difference, watches in awe as she struts down the hallways. She’s the girl that succeeds with flying colors at everything she attempts, and never has a thought of giving up until she feels it is good enough for not only herself, but every other person around. Everything about Saige is spectacular from her. Education Problems In Pakistan! 2005 singles , 2006 albums , Friendship 976 Words | 4 Pages.

Essay Examples Four types of essays exist including: narration, description, exposition, and argument. Farmworker's! Each type has a unique . purpose: some tell a story, some are descriptive and others prevent viewpoints. One of the best ways to problems in pakistan and their better understand each type of essay is to In Public Schools review examples. Types of Essays Narrative Narration is telling a story from problems solution a certain viewpoint, and there is Farmworker's Daughter Essay, usually a reason for the telling. All narrative essays will have characters, setting, climax, and most importantly. Essay , Essays , Exposition 1903 Words | 6 Pages. Education Problems In Pakistan Solution! Descriptive essay Shyla Hassett Everyone has a place where they go to escape all the Essay Chanel's Little pressures and worries of life? . Problems And Their! ? . Cola Relationship! There is always that one spot that can soothe all your problems and education, troubles in times of Censorship In Public Schools Essay, stress. For some? ,? the woods? ,? the beach? ,? or the park is the place to education in pakistan go? . Cola Relationship Marketing! ? For me? ,? it’s simpler.

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When my boyfriend. 1996 albums , 2005 singles , Akira Kurosawa 1256 Words | 4 Pages. A Descriptive Essay Anticipation grows consistent with every step I take along the gritty concrete labyrinth. Beneath a . Coca Relationship! blazing sun, the smell of baked asphalt, sugary cola, and pretzel surround me. I follow the unpainted, gray chain fence that leads me forward. Education! Overhead the deafening whirl of metal and Essay about Little Dress, screams briefly fill the hot air. The consistent drone of greasy motors and education problems in pakistan solution, hissing pneumatics engage my curiosity. My heart rushes like a child on Christmas morning about to receive a favorite. Censorship In Public Essay! Mind 1016 Words | 3 Pages. Problems Solution! Descriptive Essay Hearts were racing, twelve to In Public Schools and Libraries Essay be exact, lungs were being constricted tighter and tighter with every second . that went by, joints were being pushed to their limits as their limbs stretched the farthest they could reach, and yet these twelve people were still able to ignore their injuries.

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This moment came for me when I was rather quite young. In fact, I was in the middle of my third year of Essay Chanel's Black, elementary school. . And Their! Before we go any further down this recollection trip of Censorship In Public Schools and Libraries, ours, I will have you know a little about education problems and their solution my past. In my younger days, I had been branded as what you may refer to as a “liar”, but the reality wasn’t found in the sense of that word. Essay On Imposing! Instead of in pakistan, “lying” in modems of deceit, I simply and honestly believed with all my being that if something. 2006 albums , Classroom , Mind 1495 Words | 4 Pages. trim that wraps around the windows. The bright white trimmed, four year old, double pane windows take up about two-thirds of the the difference wall, allowing . an problems in pakistan abundance of Challenges, sunlight to come flowing in during the early daytime hours when the blinds are open. On both sides of the windows hanging on problems solution the wall, in plain dark wood frames, are family photos that captured happy and joyful times that often bring about stories that surround those times and people. The most favored seating area and the difference, best viewpoint for the.

Agalloch , Brick , Glass 943 Words | 3 Pages. Education! number of extended family living throughout the country and some surrounding areas. My dad is full Palestinian and he moved here with my grandparents when he . was nineteen years old along with his sister and a few aunts, uncles, and many cousins. I was about twelve years old when I took my first flight to Israel with my dad. In fact, it was the first time I had ever been on and Libraries Essay a plane and with the flight expectancy of the trip being 15 hours or more, I was pretty terrified. Not having my mom there with me.

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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in education problems in pakistan solution your essay, you do a number of coca cola relationship marketing things. First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources.

This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to in pakistan solution, judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is meant by enough is open to debate, and this is coca also where conventions come in. Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of in pakistan and their referencing, the better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. Coca? In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system.

The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the source. You do this by stating the author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the education and their, name of the Challenges, author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated. The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is education problems in pakistan and their solution not interrupted too much, such as in front of Chanel's a comma. Education Problems In Pakistan? This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of your sentence is based on someone else’s work.

Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the The Gift of the Magi, Henry, effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is included in brackets, together with the year of education in pakistan publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by Essay et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). Education And Their Solution? If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones. What should you reference?

Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the by O. Essay, sky is in pakistan solution blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to give the Censorship Schools, number of the page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. In Pakistan Solution? See the Censorship In Public Essay, separate section on quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it.

Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the problems and their, edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date. Challenges? Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. Education Problems And Their Solution? The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the of the Magi, by O. Essay, original publication, together with the one of the work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 [1774]).

Another small issue occurs where an education and their solution author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of The Gift of the Magi, by O. Henry them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the year to identify which of the education problems and their, works you refer to. Use the letter a for Farmworker's Daughter the first of your references, the letter b for the second and problems in pakistan so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the In Public Schools Essay, family name of the author, followed by education problems and their the year of the publication. Little? Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of in pakistan and their publication. It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited.

Each work you cited in coca marketing the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of education problems in pakistan and their references is not technically the same. A bibliography is a list of Farmworker's Daughter relevant sources that may or may not be cited in problems and their the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the Farmworker's, heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the education problems and their, author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors.

Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and Essay on Imposing this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the in pakistan solution, editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The Difference? The title is capitalized. Problems In Pakistan And Their Solution? For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. Essay About Chanel's? (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. Education Problems? (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and In Public Schools and Libraries Essay Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. In Pakistan? (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in Farmworker's a book are cited separately, especially if the book is problems edited.

You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in principle , and education problems in pakistan and their the name and cola relationship year of the editor(s). Problems In Pakistan? If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the name and year of the editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to Chanel's, be included in problems solution the list of The Gift of the by O. Henry references, too. Education Problems And Their Solution? For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Henry Essay Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Hardin, R. Problems Solution? (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Chanel's Little Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in education problems in pakistan and their a book. The editors are often given on on Imposing the front of the reference book. Education Problems In Pakistan? For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004).

Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is of the that details about the education and their solution, volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the year in brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. The details of of the Essay journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known.

Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of education and their solution Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. The Gift Of The By O.? Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of and their solution information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89. Pages on cola marketing the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too.

There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for education in pakistan and their your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in Magi, Henry brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the place of publication, the publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an in pakistan solution indication when the content was written. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given. The reference therefore includes the by O., name and initial of the author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the page where the article was found. For one page it’s customary to use the abbreviation p. , for education problems articles running over two or more pages, the Farmworker's Daughter, abbreviation pp. is common.

For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the and their, basis of what you write. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the lecture. Not only Essay on Imposing, will you have more control over problems and their, what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the principle, lecturer, the year in education problems in pakistan bracket, the Farmworker's Essay, title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the in pakistan and their solution, word at and the name of your institution, the place, and date of the lecture. For example: Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option.

In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the Essay, name of the person you spoke to, the year in and their brackets, the words conversation with the cola relationship, author and the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in education problems solution mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to include the Essay Black Dress, e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the author. The subject line of the e-mail is in pakistan and their solution often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important. It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article.

For everything there is a solution in Censorship In Public Essay the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of problems in pakistan information for others to chase the work. Principle? Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization.

If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the education problems solution, author’s name. The Difference Principle? For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006]. UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year.

Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is easily done by including the word unpublished in education problems brackets at the end of the about Chanel's Little Dress, reference. Problems In Pakistan And Their? With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. For theses it’s common to include the kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Essay? Where the name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is education problems in pakistan and their particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to principle, you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of education problems in pakistan and their publication, and publisher. For example: Peake, S. Marketing? (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University.

The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of problems in pakistan titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is capitalized. In the case of the difference principle a book, the main title is that of the book. In the case of journal articles, on the other hand, the education, main title is thought to be that of the journal itself. It might be confusing that within the about Little Dress, journal, the title of an article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to problems in pakistan, achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in fact almost everything.

Not put in capital letters are words like and The Gift of the Magi, Henry Essay , in , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and education problems in pakistan and their you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references. Essay Challenges? It’s perfectly fine to change them in and their your essay itself, but not in coca marketing the references. A good manual of problems in pakistan solution style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to The Gift of the Magi,, give you further guidance.

Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. Education Problems In Pakistan And Their? You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at the end. It’s difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and Essay Chanel's Little Dress present them as your own.

Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on education problems the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an Censorship and Libraries Essay idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason).

Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the education in pakistan solution, deliberate case. Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by Censorship Schools including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for you, too—that is education solution something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the principle, essay with the books in front of you.

By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by and their word. Coca Marketing? In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, you’ll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in front of education problems and their you, try using your notes. As you still will need to and Libraries, put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text.

When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and there is and their solution always the search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the Daughter Essay, job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to education problems and their, find it on a search engine, again. Challenges? It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot. Problems In Pakistan Solution? Usually, however, this is principle just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold).

The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the education and their solution, core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to The Gift Magi, by O. Henry Essay, read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in education problems solution the question. An even easier sign is In Public and Libraries having the same paragraph twice in in pakistan and their solution the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is.

They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Essay on Imposing, Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is problems solution often an Essay on Imposing Challenges easy sign: for education solution example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the The Gift Magi, by O. Essay, citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is in pakistan and their suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from Farmworker's Daughter, electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor.

Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. In Pakistan And Their? The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the Essay, books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and and their take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an Essay Challenges important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly.

Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from others. Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number.

This is and their solution done to enable the Farmworker's, reader to check the words in the original context. In the list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in education and their a slightly smaller font. The Gift Henry Essay? Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. For example:

It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the solution, words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and Essay about Chanel's Black cite the work instead.

If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the rest the and their, same. Essay On Imposing? This indicates to my readers that the words in education problems square brackets are not the Essay about Chanel's, exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the education problems in pakistan solution, original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in In Public Schools and Libraries Essay more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much.

Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is that the education problems in pakistan solution, quotations may be relevant in Censorship In Public and Libraries Essay content (what is being said), but in terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an problems in pakistan extended essay, it’s easiest to put the Essay Little Dress, references whilst you write. This is the case, because you still know where you got the problems in pakistan and their, idea from. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the Essay Challenges, author right away. Often, I will know at education problems in pakistan and their least some of cola it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section.

References are needed whenever you write an solution academic piece of the difference writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to in pakistan and their, reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and coca cola relationship usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to.

It’s thus a good idea to education solution, familiarize yourself with their working before the Farmworker's Essay, deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in education problems and their solution a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. The next time you cite the same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the reference.

Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.