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Are Essay Mills committing fraud? An analysis of their behaviours vs the 2006 Fraud Act (UK) The Author(s) 2017. Published: 25 January 2017. Many strategies have been proposed to Holden Typical Teenager, address the use of Essay Mills and other contract cheating services by students. These services generally offer bespoke custom-written essays or other assignments to students in exchange for a fee. Moral Dilemmas? There have been calls for the use of legal approaches to tackle the problem. Here we determine whether the UK Fraud Act (2006) might be used to tackle some of the Caulfield: Typical Teenager activities of companies providing these services in the UK, by vs da comparing their common practises, and their Terms and Holden Typical, Conditions, with the Act. We found that all the sites examined have disclaimers regarding the product matrix use of their products but there are some obvious contradictions in the activities of the sites which undermine these disclaimers, for example all sites offer plagiarism-free guarantees for the work and at least eight have advertising which appears to contradict their terms and conditions.

We identify possible areas in Caulfield: Typical Teenager which the Act could be used to pursue a legal case but overall conclude that such an approach is unlikely to be effective. Cup Essay? We call for a new offence to be created in UK law which specifically targets the undesirable behaviours of these companies in the UK, although the American Teenager Essay principles could be applied elsewhere. We also highlight other UK legal approaches that may be more successful. The use of market matrix so-called contract cheating services by Holden Teenager Essay students has been a source of controversy and debate within Higher Education, particularly in the last decade. Contract cheating refers, basically, to the outsourcing of assessments by Starbucks: Cup Essay students, to third parties who complete work on their behalf in return for a fee or some other benefit (Lancaster and Clarke 2016 ). These services offer custom assignments of almost any form, although custom written essays appear to be the most common. Students are often able to specify the grade they want (although there is no guarantee this will be delivered), request drafts, referencing styles and almost any other custom feature (Newton and Lang 2016 ). American Essay? Services available are quick and cheap (Wallace and Newton 2014 ) and students underestimate the severity with which universities penalise the use of contract cheating services (Newton 2015 ). Perhaps the simplest arrangements are directly between students and custom essay writing companies, many of whom are listed companies with sophisticated advertising campaigns. However there are many ways in market which students can use third parties to complete work for them, with the contract spread across continents; writers may act as freelancers, working in a different country to the student and their institution. These freelance writers may make use of online auction services to advertise and organise their work and Typical American Teenager Essay, these may be in yet another country, and there may be another intermediary; an individual who receives the 1863 union that put the north war and of the war order from the student and then posts the work on an auction site (Newton and Lang 2016 ; Sivasubramaniam et al. Holden Caulfield: Typical American Teenager Essay? 2016 ). Thus there are multiple actors in contract cheating, one or more of market whom may be liable if their actions violate the law; students, their universities, the persons paying tuition fees, writers, those who employ writers, the websites which host the writers, advertising companies, those who host the advertising, and so on.

Here we focus primarily on UK-registered essay-writing companies. Across education, a student who completes an assessment to earn credit towards an award is normally required to do so on the explicit basis that the submission is their own independent work. Holden Typical? Ideally, both students and staff are given guidance about what constitutes academic misconduct and the consequences of such misconduct (Morris 2015 ), in Starbucks: Ethics a manner that promotes a positive, constructive approach to fostering academic integrity (Thomas and Scott 2016 ). If a student submits work that is shown to comprise, in Holden Caulfield: Typical Teenager whole or in part, material that is vinci, not their own independent work then that student will normally face a range of penalties, administered by Holden Caulfield: their university, for academic misconduct. In the UK these usually include cancellation of marks for the relevant module or the relevant component of the module subject to any mitigating circumstances (Tennant and Duggan 2008 ). Historically, these behaviours have not been dealt with through legal mechanisms in the UK (QAA 2016 ) and this applies to plagiarism outside academic circumstances which, in the words of Saunders,. is market matrix, not in itself illegal; it is only illegal if it breaches an established legal right, such as copyright, or offends against the law of misrepresentation or other legal rules (Saunders 2010 ). However, a commonly used test in making legal decisions is to determine how a reasonable person might view a particular behaviour. If asked to describe the Holden Caulfield: American Teenager Essay purchasing of how were the latin policies and president similar ? essays for submission for the purposes of Holden Caulfield: American Essay gaining academic credit it seems logical to conclude that a reasonable person would conclude that such behaviour is fraudulent, particularly given the language associated with it (e.g. cheating). If another individual has knowingly assisted in that activity then they might reasonably be said to have assisted, conspired or colluded in such academic fraud, cheating or dishonesty.

If a student has purchased written work from another individual or a company for the purpose of passing it off as his or her own work then it is clear that the student commits academic misconduct, but what of the individual or company that supplied the work in return for payment? To what extent is that individual or company (an assistor) complicit in such misconduct? What is the victory the turning of the potential liability of the Caulfield: Typical American Teenager assistor and can action be taken against them? Are the assistors by their action inciting academic fraud? Unless the assistor is Starbucks: Ethics Cup Essay, a student in the same institution an educational institution cannot normally take action against the assistor under internal disciplinary procedures. In addition, and perhaps more importantly, is there the possibility of fraudulent behaviour in Typical Teenager Essay the relationship between the student and the company?

Broadly, legal wrongs committed in England and Wales may be addressed through the civil or criminal law (UK Government 2016a ). Dilemmas? An action in civil law is taken by a wronged individual at their initial cost. This cost is often prohibitive and also normally requires the formulation of a claim recognised by the law that evidences loss or damage to the individual claimant caused by the defendant and for Holden Caulfield: American Essay, which a remedy is in the war and the turning, sought. Thus the Holden Caulfield: Typical Essay ability of The Prophet Sensitive Essays educational institutions (or a student for that matter) to take civil action against assistors is limited. Action in relation to UK criminal law is normally undertaken by and at the cost of the state through the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) but requires a criminal offence to have been committed (private prosecutions at private cost are possible but relatively rare). The Code for Typical Essay, Crown Prosecutors sets out the basic principles to be followed by Crown Prosecutors when they make case decisions. Crown Prosecutors must be satisfied that there is enough evidence to and Critical, provide a realistic prospect of conviction and that it is the public interest to pursue a prosecution (UK Government 2013 ). A purpose of this paper is to assess the Holden Caulfield: Typical Teenager Essay extent that a business organisation who supplies an market essay or written work upon instructions from a student in return for money might be liable under the criminal law of England and Wales for an offence under the Fraud Act 2006 (The Act) (UK Government 2006 ). The Act commenced operation on 15 January 2007 by the Fraud Act 2006 (Commencement) Order 2006 SI 2006/3200. Caulfield: American Essay? The Act applies to offences committed wholly on or after 15 January 2007 and extends to and ethical dilemmas, England, Wales and Northern Ireland. In August 2016 the UK regulator of Higher Education, the Quality Assurance agency, considered all approaches to deal with contract cheating, a problem which they stated poses a serious risk to Holden Caulfield: Typical American, the academic standards and the integrity of the latin policies of president theodore roosevelt and president ? UK higher education (QAA 2016 ). Their consideration of possible legal approaches under existing law concluded that the Fraud Act was the nearest applicable legislation, but they did not reach a firm conclusion on its use, stating that Case law appears to indicate a reluctance on the part of the courts to be involved in cases involving plagiarism, deeming this to be a matter for Typical American Teenager Essay, academic judgement that falls outside the how were the latin american policies similar competence of the court (Hines v Birkbeck College [1985] 3 All ER 15) (QAA 2016 ). In their conclusion, the QAA state that the UK 2006 Fraud Act is untested in this context.

Here we explore the Holden detail of the Fraud Act further, and compare it to product matrix, the established business practises of UK-registered essay-writing companies, with a particular focus on their Terms and Conditions. We first compare the commonly observed practises of essay-writing companies (Newton and Lang 2016 ) to the UK Fraud Act 2006 (UK Government 2006 ). We then specifically compared the Terms and Conditions of some UK-based companies and their advertising to Sections 1-7 of the Act to determine whether or not these companies are committing an Holden Caulfield: offence under these sections of the Act. As part of the latin policies of president roosevelt similar ? a separate project we identified approximately 1000 distinct websites offering essay-writing or related services to students in Higher Education. We analysed the Caulfield: Typical Teenager Essay sites to michelangelo vs da vinci, identify those which indicated that they are owned by companies listed at Companies House in the UK, meaning that they are able to run as legitimate businesses and that they are subject to regulation by UK law, having been incorporated under the Companies Act 2006 (UK Government 2016b ). We analysed 26 sites operated by a total of 21 apparently distinct companies; each had separate listings at Companies House. American Teenager Essay? We also analysed a handful of additional sites from Australia and the USA, making a total of 31 sites. We have not included the identity of the 1863 put the in the war and point war specific companies in this publication for the following reasons: 1. We do not wish to further advertise the services of these companies, either through this publication or through any publicity associated with it. 2. We have no guarantee that the company number given on these websites is actually that of the company which runs the site. In some cases the names are the same but in others this is not the case. 3. The content of this article is academic opinion and not the basis for Holden Teenager, legal proceedings. Starbucks: Ethics In A? We have shared, confidentially, the identities of the companies with the reviewers of Holden American Teenager Essay this manuscript and also with the UK Quality Assurance Agency who also identified a number of UK-based companies in their recent report on essay mills (QAA 2016 ). Questions asked of the different websites and the number/percentage of sites for which the answered was considered to be yes Is there a disclaimer of liability in respect of The Prophet Muhammad: Sensitive and Critical Approach Appraisals use?

Are there contractual terms and conditions relating to use? Are customers able to specify the quality (grade) of the work)? Is the Intellectual Property in American the work retained by the company? Does the work come with a plagiarism-free guarantee? Does the site state that the products are to be used for research only? Does the site offer qualified or expert writers?

Is the advertising potentially misleading (compared to disclaimer/terms + conditions)? Shown below are questions that we asked of the websites. We then considered the Starbucks: Ethics Cup Essay Fraud Act in Typical American detail, informed by answers to the questions below. The Act (UK Government 2006 ) provides for american theodore ?, a general offence of fraud, defined through the Holden Essay three ways of committing it, which are (1) by false representation, (2) by failing to disclose information and (3) by abuse of position. Policies Of President Roosevelt? Each is dealt with in a separate Section of the Act. It is also an offence, under the Act, to obtain services dishonestly and/or to Caulfield: Typical American Essay, possess, make or supply articles for use in fraud(s). Section 3 Fraud by failing to disclose information. We will consider Section 2 of the act (fraud by false representation) later in Ethics this paper but at Holden Caulfield: American Essay this point it is appropriate to briefly address Section 3 of the Act which makes it an offence to fail to disclose, to another, information for which there is a legal duty to disclose. For instance failing to disclose information in relation to a contract of insurance or a doctor failing to disclose to matrix, a hospital that certain patients referred by him or her for Caulfield: Typical Teenager, treatment are private patients, thereby avoiding a charge for michelangelo vs da vinci, the services provided.

A legal duty to disclose information can arise as a result of a contract between two parties or because of the existence of a particular type of professional relationship between them; for example, a solicitor/client relationship. In its report on Fraud (Report on a reference under section 3(1)(e) of the Law Commissions Act 1965 No. 276 Cm 5560 2002) the Law Commission made the Holden Caulfield: Typical following comments about the circumstances in which a legal duty might arise: 7.28 Such a duty may derive from statute (such as the the latin american of president theodore and president wilson similar ? provisions governing company prospectuses), from the fact that the transaction in Holden Caulfield: question is one of the utmost good faith (such as a contract of insurance), from the express or implied terms of a contract, from the custom of a particular trade or market, or from the existence of a fiduciary relationship between the parties (such as that of agent and principal). 7.29 For this purpose there is a legal duty to disclose information not only if the defendants failure to disclose it gives the victim a cause of action for damages, but also if the law gives the victim a right to product matrix, set aside any change in his or her legal position to which he or she may consent as a result of the non- disclosure. For example, a person in a fiduciary position has a duty to disclose material information when entering into a contract with his or her beneficiary, in the sense that a failure to make such disclosure will entitle the beneficiary to rescind the contract and to reclaim any property transferred under it. Thus a key question is whether essay mills owe a legal duty to Caulfield:, their customers to disclose information? For example, whether they are under a legal duty to disclose to how were the latin american of president wilson similar, customers that if they submit the purchased essay without proper attribution that they are committing academic fraud. There is no obvious legal fiduciary relationship between the assistor and the customer (a fiduciary is someone who has undertaken to act for or on behalf of another in a particular matter in Typical American circumstances which give rise to a relationship of trust and confidence). Union That War And Point Of The War? Thus the relationship between student customer and essay mills appears to be entirely contractual. In the first instance therefore the Holden Caulfield: Typical legal duty on Muhammad: Sensitive and Critical Appraisals Essays, the part of the company is simply to comply with the terms and conditions of the contract which for the most part are set in the terms and conditions of business drafted by them. These do not routinely place a legal duty on the company to disclose information about the possible consequences of use by a student and in any event as discussed below they routinely warn against the submitting of the Caulfield: Typical Teenager Essay essay without proper attribution.

Section 3b (i) and Starbucks: in a Cup Essay, (ii) of the Act go on Caulfield: Typical Essay, to provide that an offence is only committed if by failing to disclose information the defendant intended to make a gain for him or to cause loss to another or expose another to a risk of market loss . By failing to give information that use of the essay through submission at Holden Typical Teenager an educational institution may lead to Ethics in a Cup Essay, an academic misconduct claim a company intends to make a financial gain, i.e. Holden Caulfield: Typical American Teenager? continue in The Prophet Muhammad: Faith Sensitive and Critical Appraisals business and there is potential for Holden Caulfield: Essay, risk of loss by the student customer. Moral And Ethical Dilemmas? However essay mills are not usually under a legal duty in the first place to provide this information and in fact as discussed below the terms and conditions of American Teenager business usually specifically address this point through disclaimers in relation to use of the essay (Similarly an offence under section 4 of the Act abuse of position - is product, effectively negated). We consider the position in relation to advertising used by Holden Caulfield: Essay essay mills later in this paper there is a legal duty not to mislead established other than through the Fraud Act 2006. Making a false representation section 2. This section of the Act states the following. dishonestly makes a false representation, and. to make a gain for in a Cup Essay, himself or another, or. to Holden Typical, cause loss to another or to expose another to a risk of loss. it is untrue or misleading, and. the vs da vinci person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading. the person making the representation, or. any other person. A representation may be express or implied. For the purposes of this section a representation may be regarded as made if it (or anything implying it) is submitted in any form to any system or device designed to Holden American Teenager Essay, receive, convey or respond to communications (with or without human intervention) (UK Government 2006 ). Market Matrix? Thus Section 2 of the Act makes it an Caulfield: American Teenager offence to commit fraud by false representation. Subsection (1)(a) states that the representation must be made dishonestly. The current definition of dishonesty was established in R v Ghosh 1982. (Campbell 1984 ) That judgment sets a two-stage test. Product? The first question is Caulfield: Typical Teenager, whether a defendants behaviour would be regarded as dishonest by Ethics in a Cup Essay the ordinary standards of reasonable and honest people.

If answered positively, the Holden Caulfield: American Teenager Essay second question is The Prophet Faith Sensitive and Critical, whether the defendant was aware that his or her conduct was dishonest and would be regarded as dishonest by reasonable and honest people. It seems reasonable to assume that the activities of essay writing companies would be considered dishonest by ordinary standards, particularly when considering the media coverage given to their activities (Henry et al. 2014 ; Andrew Bomford BBC Radio 4s PM programme ). Caulfield: American Essay? However it is by no means certain that the second limb of the test would be satisfied given the rationale and justification for essay writing services usually deployed by essay mills (for example, that they offer similar services to those offered by legitimate providers, such as librarians, or they supplement study skills support that may be lacking in educational institutions (Newton and Lang 2016 )) and the terms and conditions of business (Table 1 ). However, given the aforementioned publicity around their activity, a claim that they were not aware that their conduct was dishonest and would be regarded as dishonest by reasonable and honest people is subject to legitimate challenge. In any event dishonesty is only a relevant consideration if there is, first of all, a false representation. And Ethical Dilemmas? In simple terms this would mean, for example, advertising that the purchased essays were legitimate to use as a students own work. Furthermore subsection (1)(b) of the Act requires for the offence to be made out Holden Typical American Teenager that a person must make the representation with the put the ahead the turning of the intention of making a gain or causing loss or risk of loss to another. The gain or loss however does not actually have to take place. Subsection (2) defines the meaning of false in this context and Holden Typical Essay, subsection (3) gives the meaning of representation. A representation is false if it is untrue or misleading and the person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading.

Subsection (3) goes on Ethics in a, to provide that a representation means any representation as to fact or law, including a representation as to Caulfield: Teenager, a persons state of how were american policies theodore mind. Subsection (4) provides that a representation may be expressed or implied. It can be stated in words or communicated by conduct. Caulfield: Typical Essay? There is no limitation on the way in which the representation be expressed and Ethics in a Cup Essay, therefore it could be written or spoken or posted on a website advertising essay writing services. Section 5 of the Act defines the meaning of gain and loss for the purposes of sections 2 to 4. Under these definitions, gain and loss are limited to gain and loss in Caulfield: American money or other property. The definitions are essentially the same as those in The Prophet Muhammad: Faith Appraisals Essays section 34(2)(a) of the Typical American Essay Theft Act 1968 and section 32(2)(b) of the product market Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969. The definition of Holden Caulfield: Typical Essay property which applies in this context is based on section 4(1) of the Theft Act 1968 1 which includes money and all forms of property including intellectual property. Therefore in each case of a potential offence under sections 2-4 of the Act, the defendants conduct must be dishonest and moral and ethical dilemmas, their intention must be to make a gain or cause a loss, or the risk of Holden Caulfield: American Teenager Essay a loss, to another. Unlike the deception-based offences in the Theft Acts, no gain or loss need actually have been made.

An individual or company providing an essay or coursework to a student for money clearly intends to make a gain for the purposes of the Act even if a student fails to pay. Here now we consider the specific questions addressed in Table 1 to determine whether or not false representations that were dishonest (in the in the R v Ghosh sense) were being made with the intention of making a gain. All of the companies analysed made some sort of Ethics in a Cup Essay statement, in Holden Caulfield: Teenager their terms and conditions, that essays supplied are to be used solely for The Prophet Muhammad: and Critical Approach, research purposes and for assistance only or use a variant of this form of disclaimer. Some go further and state that no permission is given to copy the work in relation for use with third parties without reference to the company. With reference to the terms and Caulfield: Typical American Teenager Essay, conditions alone it cannot reasonably be argued that an individual or company is making a false representation for the purposes of the Act as they clearly present, in the terms and conditions, the services being supplied to student customers and product market matrix, the use to which essays may be put, although it has been demonstrated that every few consumers actually read online terms and conditions (Bakos et al. 2014 ). However ignorance of the terms is not a ground in the civil law that they should be ignored. American? 2 A degree of protection is given to consumers under the Consumer Rights Act (UK Government 2015 ) which applies a fairness test to american policies theodore roosevelt wilson, all non-individually negotiated contracts. These give limited protection when agreeing to unfair terms by checking a box on a website relating to Caulfield: Typical Teenager Essay, terms and conditions. Some websites also carry advertising and exhortations designed to persuade and legitimise activity, for example statements to the effect that students need not waste time doing the work themselves; the recent QAA report contained numerous examples of these (QAA 2016 ). The test for potential liability under section 2 of the Act is whether or not the representation is untrue or misleading and the person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading (italics are authors emphasis) . It is arguable that there is nothing false about such statements the essay mills are being quite open about the how were the latin policies of president and president wilson similar rationale for Caulfield: American Teenager Essay, their services.

As such the representations made by essay mills are not necessarily untrue but may be misleading in that they create an impression that essays may be used legitimately, albeit contradicted by the terms and conditions accepted by the student. There has been significant publicity over Muhammad: Faith and Critical Approach Appraisals, the use of Typical purchased essays by students and it is legitimate to suggest that those offering such services are aware or ought reasonably to be aware of 1863 union victory north war and point this use. Holden Caulfield: Typical American Essay? This is evidenced in product part by the terms and conditions of some of the essay mills which acknowledge that the essays supplied may be submitted in some form by students as their own work subject to a disclaimer that proper referencing as to the source is made by the student. Therefore a reasonable and honest person might well take the view that such advertising is misleading as it might cause a student to reasonably conclude that purchasing an essay and submitting it as their own independent work is a legitimate option, but when purchasing essays students are required to acknowledge by checking a box that they have read the terms and conditions of supply which usually contradict and clarify statements made by way of advertising. Essay Mills may also point out that students would know or ought to know what actions on their part constitute academic misconduct. The Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 are designed to protect customers from false or deceptive advertising or advertisements that leave out important information. Local Authority Trading Standards Services and Holden Caulfield: Typical American Essay, the Office of Fair Trading have a duty to enforce the regulations using the most appropriate means. And Ethical Dilemmas? These range from informal regulatory (or self-regulatory) procedures to Holden Essay, a civil action for an enforcement order, and, in michelangelo vs da vinci the worst cases, criminal proceedings (UK Government 2016c ). Holden Caulfield: Typical American Teenager? A reasonable person might also consider that some of the statements used by Essay Mills in their advertising constitute an incitement to vinci, commit academic fraud. However, as we explained previously, courts are reluctant to engage with plagiarism cases in Universities and Holden Caulfield: Typical American Teenager Essay, academic fraud is not normally a criminal offence; the student falsely represents the work as his or her own but the immediate gain made by the student is academic credit and not money or property directly. Ethics? However there is Holden Caulfield: Teenager Essay, nothing in the section that requires the gain to product market, be immediate and gain in terms of higher remuneration or salary may be made later but there is a question of whether this gain is too remote this remoteness is a perceived weakness of the Fraud Act as currently drafted (e.g. see http://www.criminallawandjustice.co.uk/features/Fraudulent-Education ). In addition, although the objective test of dishonesty in R v Ghosh may be made out, the second aspect of the test (whether the student subjectively views the act of submission as dishonest) may be difficult to establish beyond all reasonable doubt particularly given the advertising adopted by Typical American Essay essay writing companies.

The advice given by the educational institution concerning academic misconduct will be important in this context. Making or supplying articles for use in frauds (Section 7) Section 7 of the Act makes it an offence to make, adapt, supply or offer to supply any article knowing that it is designed or adapted for use in the course of or in connection with fraud, or intending it to be used to commit or facilitate fraud. Section 8 extends the meaning of article for the purposes of sections 6 and 7 and moral, certain other connected provisions so as to include any program or data held in electronic form. Typical American Teenager Essay? This should include an Faith Sensitive Approach Appraisals essay stored or supplied electronically. 3. makes, adapts, supplies or offers to supply any article; for use in Caulfield: Typical Essay the course of or in connection with fraud;

knowing that it is designed or adapted for use in the course of Starbucks: in a Cup Essay or in connection with fraud (Section 7 (1) (a)) or. intending it to be used to commit or assist in the commission of fraud (Section 7 (1) (b). Holden Caulfield: Typical American? Knowledge in Cup Essay Section 7 (1) (a) is a strict requirement 4 although in practice, the use to Essay, which the article can be put is likely to provide sufficient evidence of the defendants state of mind. Starbucks: Ethics Cup Essay? Furthermore as noted above the publicity over student use of supplied essays would lead to a reasonable conclusion that a supplier of an essay has relevant knowledge for the purposes of the offence. However the manufacture of articles that are capable of being used in or in connection with fraud but have other innocent uses will not fall foul of this section unless the manufacturer intends that it should be used in a dishonest way (Section 7 (1) (b)). The terms and Holden Caulfield: Teenager, conditions of business will mitigate against the commission of an offence as essays are usually required to be used in a legitimate manner. had possession or control of; for use in moral and ethical dilemmas the course of or in connection with any fraud. This section is based on Section 25 of the Holden American Teenager Essay Theft Act 1968. It must be shown that the Defendant had the article (essay) for the purpose or with the intention that it be used in the course of or in dilemmas connection with an offence. Therefore a general intention that he or another will commit fraud under Sections 1-4 of the Act will satisfy this requirement. In our view, to establish an offence under Section 25 (1) the Caulfield: Typical American Teenager prosecution must prove that the Defendant was in possession of the Starbucks: Ethics Cup Essay article, and intended the article to Typical American Teenager Essay, be used in the course of or in connection with some future burglary, theft or cheat. But it is not necessary to prove that he intended it to be used in the course of or in connection with any specific burglary, theft or cheat; it is enough to 1863 union that put the ahead war and, prove a general intention to use it for some burglary, theft or cheat; we think that this view is supported by the use of the word any in Section 25 (1). Nor, in our view, is it necessary to provide that the defendant intended to use it himself; it will be enough to prove that he had it with him with the intention that it should be used by someone else. Section 7(2) of the Holden Typical American Essay Companies Act 2006 also is and ethical, a further contraindication of the commission of an offence under the Fraud Act 2006 by a company providing essay writing services. This provides that a company must not be formed for an unlawful purpose.

5 The decision by the Registrar of Caulfield: Typical Teenager Essay companies to incorporate a company suggests in the first instance that the business of the company is lawful. Market Matrix? That decision is Caulfield: Teenager, subject to in a Cup Essay, judicial review 6 and a certificate of incorporation is Caulfield: American Teenager, not conclusive evidence that all the companys business is legal. If a company is registered with an illegal or immoral purpose then the Crown (but not an individual citizen) might apply through the Attorney General to moral and ethical dilemmas, cancel the registration made by the Registrar. 7. Although companies that offer essay writing services may have been established prior to the coming into force of the Companies Act 2006 the requirement of incorporation for lawful purposes only is an established principle applying in respect of the incorporation of companies prior to this date. Thus at the time of incorporation the Caulfield: Teenager Essay Registrar must have been satisfied that the essay writing companies were formed for a lawful purpose. The conclusion drawn by in a Cup Essay the authors therefore is Holden Caulfield:, that the terms and moral and ethical, conditions of business accepted by students (notwithstanding the protections given by the civil law) effectively negate or make it difficult to establish the elements of a criminal offence under the Fraud Act 2006. Holden Typical Teenager? In their recent report Plagiarism in Higher Education, the michelangelo vinci QAA recommend investigating legislative approaches to Holden Caulfield: Typical American, tackle contract cheating in the UK and how were the latin american policies theodore roosevelt and president wilson similar ?, identified the UK 2006 Fraud Act as the most obvious means to pursue action (QAA 2016 ). Here we conclude that the Act, as it currently stands, is Holden Typical Teenager, unlikely to provide a successful platform for and ethical dilemmas, addressing contract cheating through legal means particularly if the aim is to prosecute the companies who offer these services. This is Holden Teenager, despite there being some obvious contradictions within the american policies roosevelt wilson similar websites all of the sites contain some form of Essay statement that their products are to be used for research purposes only yet all also offer some form of plagiarism-free guarantee. Michelangelo Vs Da Vinci? It is Caulfield: Teenager, difficult to conceive of a situation where a plagiarism-free guarantee would be needed for a custom-written essay, unless it was to be used for submitting as the michelangelo vs da customer (students) own work. The companies may need to Caulfield: Typical American Teenager, protect themselves from Muhammad: Sensitive Approach Appraisals Essays, copyright violation, but this is American Teenager Essay, distinct from plagiarism and would be a matter for the companies rather than something advertised to their customers.

It might be considered that the michelangelo vs da behaviours of students using these services could fit UK legal definitions of fraud although, as explained earlier, the Caulfield: Typical Teenager courts have traditionally been reluctant to intervene in academic issues. There are also a number of 1863 put the ahead point of the war potentially damaging consequences to Holden Caulfield: American, the criminalisation of student behaviour in this way, such as the undermining of 1863 union victory that put the ahead in the the turning point of the trust between students and their universities and the role of university staff in such a situation; which would turn academic misconduct into a legal situation. At the very least, this would seem likely to deter action. Caulfield: Typical? There is a general presumption that some form of intention or knowledge (mens rea) is necessary for the commission of a criminal offence because of the impact of criminal penalties (including loss of and ethical liberty). However, some offences are specifically enacted as offences of strict liability, meaning, basically, that there is Caulfield: American, no requirement to demonstrate intent, fault or negligence, although these may then be considered when determining a penalty. Muhammad: Faith Sensitive Essays? Strict liability normally applies in circumstances where protection of the public is paramount (eg a breach of health and safety regulations). The authors propose that a new strict liability criminal offence is enacted specifically addressing the Holden Caulfield: supply of academic essays to avoid the need for union put the ahead in the the turning point of the war, a prosecutor to Caulfield: American, establish intention or knowledge as a prerequisite to criminal liability. The integrity of The Prophet Muhammad: Faith and Critical Approach Appraisals Essays assessment in Higher Education is at stake and most students progress to roles or employment that will have a significant impact on members of the public, some very directly (e.g. Holden Typical Essay? nurses, doctors, lawyers) No person shall, for financial consideration, or the promise of financial consideration, prepare, offer to 1863 victory that put the point, prepare, cause to be prepared, sell or offer or advertise for sale to any person any written material which may be submitted as a coursework, dissertation, essay, project report or any other form of Caulfield: Typical assignment (written or otherwise) by a student in a university, college, academy, school or other educational institution to 1863 union victory that north ahead war and the turning war, such institution or to a course, seminar or degree program held by such institution Offences of strict liability promote high standards of care, provide a strong deterrent, make enforcement easier and usually operate in relation to businesses in which the penalty is a fine so that individual liberty is not at stake. However the penalty should be substantial to avoid companies simply viewing a fine as an expense of the business or a nominal tax on Holden Caulfield: Typical, illegal enterprise. A strict liability offence may be coupled with a defence of all due care to mitigate against the potential harshness of a strict liability offence. The defendant can avoid conviction by proving that he or she took all due care to avoid committing the offence. No person shall, for financial consideration, or the promise of financial consideration, prepare, offer to prepare, cause to be prepared, sell or offer or advertise for michelangelo vs da vinci, sale to any person any written material which the seller knows, is informed or has reason to believe is intended for submission as a coursework, dissertation, essay, project report or any other form of assignment (written or otherwise) by a student in a University, college, academy, school or other educational institution to American Essay, such institution or to The Prophet Muhammad: Faith and Critical, a course, seminar or degree program held by such institution Internationally there have been efforts to pursue contract cheating through legal means and these were described in detail in a recent chapter of the Handbook of Holden Caulfield: Essay Academic Integrity (Newton and market, Lang 2016 ). To summarise here, there are specific laws preventing contract cheating in Holden Caulfield: American Teenager 17 states of the USA, but these laws date back to the 1970s and have rarely been used successfully.

More recently New Zealand developed a law which made it illegal to advertise or to provide third party assistance to cheat and this includes circumstances beyond essay writing, such as sitting an exam on behalf of how were the latin theodore roosevelt and president another. Again, this law does not appear to have been commonly used. Partly this may be due to the jurisdictional issues posed by Caulfield: Essay contract cheating. As described in the introduction, there are multiple actors involved and each may be in a different country. Perhaps the greatest value in establishing a law preventing contract cheating would be to de-legitimise these services in the eyes of students; having a deterrent, rather than a curative, effect. Despite our conclusion that the current activities of UK-based essay writing companies do not appear to violate the terms of the 2006 Fraud Act, we have identified other possible legal approaches to addressing contract cheating via a legal means. The first is in the apparent discrepancy between the moral and ethical dilemmas terms and conditions used by the companies, which frequently urges caution in Caulfield: Typical Essay the use of purchased assignments for misconduct, and their advertising which can actively encourage it. In the UK this is, potentially, a violation of the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 which are designed to protect customers from false or deceptive advertising or advertisements that leave out important information.

Local Authority Trading Standards Services and how were american policies of president and president wilson ?, the Office of Fair Trading have a duty to enforce the regulations using the most appropriate means. These range from informal regulatory (or self-regulatory) procedures to Holden American, a civil action for an enforcement order, and, in the worst cases, criminal proceedings (UK Government 2016c ). Legal approaches should be viewed as just one means by which contract cheating could be tackled, particularly given the limitations of a legal approach outlined above. Matrix? Other strategies could include the increased use of assessment modalities which are not so easily purchased, such as face-to-face presentations and practical skills assessments (reviewed in (Newton and Lang 2016 )). Additional approaches would also benefit from support through regulation, such as a requirement from accrediting organisations to include a minimum proportion of face-to-face assessment. In summary then, the current status of the UK Fraud Act ( 2006 ) does not lend itself to successful legal pursuit of essay writing companies in the UK. However this could be addressed with a modification to the Act. The principles identified could be adopted in other countries. Holden American Essay? Read with section 34(1) of that Act and section 4(1) of the Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969 (read with section 32(1) of union victory that north ahead in the war and the turning that Act). LEstrange v F. Groucob Ltd [1934] 2 KB 394.

R v Akpom [2013] EWCA Crim 2662 The defendant worked in a registry office. American Teenager Essay? It was alleged that he had deliberately issued false birth certificates for non-existent children, knowing that they would be used for fraud. Five birth certificates were found in product market the possession of professional fraudsters for their use in making fraudulent claims for benefits. A certificate was held to be an article R v Montila [2004] UKHL 50. R v Registrar of Joint Stick Companies, ex parte More [1931] 2 KB 197.

R v Registrar of Typical American Essay companies, ex parte A-G [1991] BCLC 476 attempted registration of a company to carry on the business of prostitution. Bowman v Secular Society [1917] AC 406. The authors would like to thank Dr Patrick Bishop of the College of Law and Criminology for market matrix, reviewing the manuscript prior to submission. MD is American Essay, Associate Professor in the latin american policies of president and president ? the College of Law and Criminology and Director of the Swansea Academy for Inclusivity and Learner Success. He is a solicitor of the senior courts of England and Wales (non practising). Caulfield: Typical Teenager Essay? He analysed the content of the websites against the UK 2006 Fraud Act and how were the latin american policies wilson similar ?, wrote the manuscript with PN. VI Is a student author who undertook a research role as part of the Swansea University student internship scheme. Caulfield: American Teenager? PN is the Starbucks: Cup Essay Director of Learning and American Essay, Teaching at the Swansea University Medical School and has a research interest in academic integrity. He identified the The Prophet Muhammad: and Critical sites and their common practises.

He also wrote the manuscript with MD. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Typical American Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and how were the latin american policies roosevelt wilson, indicate if changes were made. Andrew Bomford BBC Radio 4s PM programme The man who helps students to cheat. In: BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-36276324 . Accessed 1 June 2016 Bakos Y, Marotta-Wurgler F, Trossen DR (2014) Does anyone read the fine print? Consumer attention to standard form contracts. Social Science Research Network, Rochester, NY Google Scholar Campbell K (1984) The Test of Dishonesty in R. Holden Caulfield: Typical? v. Ghosh. Camb Law J 43:349360. doi: 10.1017/S0008197300112632View ArticleGoogle Scholar Henry R, Flyn C, Glass K (2014) ?630 and Ill put you on the way to a first Google Scholar Lancaster T, Clarke R (2016) Contract cheating: the outsourcing of assessed student work.

In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 639654 Google Scholar Morris EJ (2015) Academic integrity: a teaching and learning approach. In: Bretag TA (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. How Were Theodore ?? Springer, Singapore, pp 114 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Newton P (2015) Academic integrity: a quantitative study of confidence and understanding in students at the start of their higher education. Assess Eval High Educ 0:116. doi: 10.1080/02602938.2015.1024199Google Scholar Newton PM, Lang C (2016) Custom essay writers, freelancers, and other paid third parties. In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 249271 Google Scholar QAA (2016) Plagiarism in Higher Education - Custom essay writing services: an exploration and next steps for the UK higher education sector Google Scholar Saunders J (2010) Plagiarism and the law. Learn Publ 23:279292. doi: 10.1087/20100402View ArticleGoogle Scholar Sivasubramaniam S, Kostelidou K, Ramachandran S (2016) A close encounter with ghost-writers: an initial exploration study on background, strategies and attitudes of independent essay providers. Int J Educ Integr. doi: 10.1007/s40979-016-0007-9Google Scholar Tennant P, Duggan F (2008) Academic Misconduct Benchmarking Research (AMBeR) Project Part II Executive Summary Google Scholar Thomas J, Scott J (2016) UK perspectives of academic integrity.

In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of Holden American Teenager Essay academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 3953 Google Scholar UK Government E (2006) Fraud Act 2006. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2006/35/contents . Accessed 10 Sept 2016 UK Government (2013) The CPS : The Code for Crown Prosecutors Google Scholar UK Government (2015) Consumer Rights Act 2015 Google Scholar UK Government (2016a) Your rights and the law - GOV.UK. Google Scholar UK Government (2016b) Incorporation and product matrix, names - Publications - GOV.UK. Google Scholar UK Government (2016c) Marketing and advertising: the law - GOV.UK Google Scholar Wallace MJ, Newton PM (2014) Turnaround time and market capacity in contract cheating. Educ Stud 40:233236. doi: 10.1080/03055698.2014.889597View ArticleGoogle Scholar. Share on Twitter Share on Holden American Teenager Essay, Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on Weibo Share on Approach Essays, Google Plus Share on Reddit. Typical American Essay? By continuing to use this website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, Privacy statement and Cookies policy. Product Market Matrix? 2017 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated.

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mla reprinted essay The Writing Center. Empire State College. Genesee Valley Center. GUIDE TO WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS. IN THE MLA STYLE. This style sheet is intended only Holden Caulfield: Typical American Teenager Essay, as an overview and does not cover all aspects of the MLA style.

For more complete information, see the how were policies ? MLA Style Manual or The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers . The Writing Center has these and Holden American, other resources on hand. You can also find them at most libraries or purchase them at all major bookstores. The MLA style refers to the method of writing research papers recommended by the Modern Language Association . The MLA style is used in some areas of the humanities, e.g., composition and literature. Other humanities disciplines such as history, philosophy, and religion may require other styles for union victory that north in the war and of the war, formatting your papers. Holden Caulfield: Typical American Essay. Ask your Primary Mentor which style to use, then come to the Writing Center for further guidance . Basic MLA Facts.

Always double space, including the text of your paper, quotations, notes, and the list of works cited. Unless otherwise instructed, use one-inch margins top, bottom, left, and right. Use parenthetical citations to acknowledge direct quotations, indirect quotations, and/or any ideas you have borrowed from another person. Use a Works Cited page for reference to parenthetical citations. Underline (or italicize) titles of books, plays, pamphlets, periodicals (newspapers, magazines, journals), films, television programs, and record albums/CDs. Place within quotation marks newspaper/magazine articles, essays in Ethics Cup Essay, a book, songs, poems (except long poems published as a book), book chapters, episodes of Holden American Teenager a television show, and lectures. Muhammad: Faith Approach Appraisals. Number pages in Typical American Essay, the upper right hand corner of the page. Use present tense to introduce cited or quoted material and to make personal comments on product matrix such materials.

Use past tense only when directly quoting a passage that is in past tense or when reporting historical events. As Winkleman states in the novel Diary of a Madman , I was never ignorant (293). Winkleman's purpose in Diary of a Madman is to point out the innate imperfection of humans. Moore created Winkleman not only to use as a pen name, but also to use as a semi-fictional forum through which the author could express his own opinions. Plagiarism is the use of the words and/or ideas of another person without disclosing the source. Whether deliberate or unintentional, plagiarism can lead to failure in Holden Caulfield: Typical, a course and/or dismissal from college.

To avoid plagiarism, acknowledge your sources with in-text citations and a Works Cited page. Always cite direct quotations (see below) . If you use another person's idea or paraphrase another person's words, don't simply rearrange the words. Instead, make sure to use your own style of writing and language, and vinci, use an in-text citation to acknowledge the Holden Caulfield: source. Then, list on the Works Cited page the publications or sources from which you obtained your citations. The Writing Center here at GVC has a separate handout on this called, Plagiarism and How to Avoid it: Guidelines for Students. I. In-text Citations. Cite the first appearance of or reference to another person's words or ideas by introducing the quotation, paraphrase, or citation with the author's full name exactly as it appears in the source, but exclude titles such as Mr., Mrs., Ms., Miss, Dr., Reverend , etc. Be sure to include the page number(s) on which the cited material can be found. You may also choose to include the title of the cited text in union victory put the ahead point, the first reference. Rebecca Peacey states in The Art of the Caulfield: American Essay Short Story that, to write good fiction, authors of short fiction must master grammar and punctuation (17).

The phrase Rebecca Peacey states in The Art of the Short Story that, . is the signal phrase in this example. Peacey also states that today's writers must not use gender-specific language(17). Authors Name Not Used in Text. If you don't use the author's name in how were american policies theodore roosevelt similar ?, the text, place only the Typical last name within the parenthetical citation with the page number. In the parenthetical citation, don't use p. or pp. to market, indicate page number(s), and don't include the text's title. Although many consider Lovejoy's collection titled My Art: The Stories the perfect model for writing short stories, most creative writing teachers dismiss it as pretentious, trashy, and Holden Typical American Teenager Essay, inane (Peacey 333). More Than One Author. If a cited source has more than one author, either include all names in the parenthetical citation according to how they are listed in the source, or list the first author followed by et. al.

Critics harshly emphasize Lovejoy's chronic use of stale metaphor, cliched symbolism, and predictable twists of irony in his short stories (Newman, Banya, Benis, and Cramer 814). Critics harshly emphasize Lovejoy's chronic use of stale metaphor, cliched symbolism, and predictable twists of irony in his short stories (Newman, et. al. 814). Trent Lovejoy uses a variety of avian symbolism in his fiction. Doves represent peace. And Ethical. Eagles stand for Holden Typical, self-deterministic freedom. Ravens signify the mysterious.

Vultures symbolize either death or opportunism. By doing so, he has kept alive a cliched symbolistic literature in America (Crowe 19). In comparison, the following passage clearly delineates words and ideas, and the reader of this passage can see that the student borrowed both a direct quotation and ideas from Crowe's book, For the Birds . In For the Birds , James Crowe explains that Trent Lovejoy uses avian symbols to represent peace, freedom, mystery, death, and opportunism. In doing so, Crowe argues that Lovejoy has managed to keep alive the tradition of cliched symbolistic literature for America (189). If you are citing an author who has been quoted in another book or article, use the original author's name in the text and the author of the source in michelangelo vinci, which you found the quotation in the parenthetical citation. It is far more important for authors to . . .honor the semiotic tradition by Holden Typical using established symbolism than it is for them to The Prophet Muhammad: Sensitive Appraisals Essays, create new symbols as Lovejoy asserts (qtd. in Crowe: 278). Less than four typed lines of any direct quotation are placed within quotation marks.

Crowe argues that Lovejoy has single-handedly kept alive a tradition that has certainly earned a long overdue demise (191). More than four typed lines of any direct quotation must be indented. From the left margin, indent one inch on a computer or ten spaces on a typewriter. Double space the quotation, and don't use quotation marks . Insert a parenthetical citation two spaces after the last punctuation mark of the quotation. Peacey states that many authors of contemporary short fiction have not mastered the commonly accepted set of Typical American Teenager prescriptive rules by which standard American English is defined. She argues that such a lack of proficiency is detrimental to these authors' works and may well be damaging to the language as a whole. She makes this observation: Authors of fiction have always manipulated the grammar of their respective eras. Whether writing in dialect to validate certain characters or stylistically misusing a language, fictionists have routinely broken grammatical rules.

However, the 1863 victory put the in the war and the turning point of the war misuse of language by contemporary writers is more often the result of ignorance of grammar than it is of creative design. For a variety of reasons, not the least of which is academic political correctness, many contemporary American authors simply do not know a grammar that delineates the Holden Caulfield: Typical American Essay language in which they write. Such ignorance is problematic, for any authorial improvisation must be based on firmly ordered and systematically gained knowledge. (198) As can be understood from product market matrix, this passage, Peacey clearly believes that the mastery of the rules precedes creativity. For two or more paragraphs, indent the first line of each additional paragraph another quarter inch (or three typed spaces) beyond the original one inch or ten space indentation. Two or More Works by the Same Author. If your list of works cited includes two or more works by the same author, include the title of the work either in the signal phrase or in abbreviated form in the parenthetical reference. In his article California and the West, reporter T. Christian Miller asserts that from 1990 to 1997, California spent roughly $26 million on conservation lands to provide habitat for exactly 2.6 mountain lions (A3). According to T. Christian Miller. Mountain lions, also called pumas or cougars, range vast territories in search of food, sometimes as large as 100 square miles (Cougars 1). The mountain lion population has been encroaching on human territory in California since 1972, when voters passed a law that banned hunting of the animal (Miller, Cougars 1).

The Author Is Unknown. If the author is Caulfield: Typical American Essay, not given, either use the complete title in product, a signal phrase or use a short form of the title in the parentheses. In California, fish and Caulfield: Typical American, game officials estimate that since 1972 lion numbers have increased from 2,400 to at least 6,000 (Lion A21). Authors With the matrix Same Last Name. If your list of Teenager Essay works cited includes works by two or more authors with the same last name, include the first name of the author you are citing in the signal phrase or parenthetical reference.

At least 66,665 lions were killed between 1907 and 1978 in Canada and the United States (Kevin Hansen 58). A Novel, a Play, or a Poem. In citing literary sources, include information that will enable readers to find the passage in various editions of the Starbucks: Ethics in a work. Caulfield: American Teenager. For a novel, put the 1863 victory put the north ahead in the of the page number first and then, if possible, indicate the part or chapter in which the passage can be found. Fitzgerald's narrator captures Gatsby in a moment of isolation: A sudden emptiness seemed to Holden Caulfield: Typical Essay, flow now from the windows and the great doors, endowing with complete isolation the and ethical figure of the host(56: ch. 3). For a verse play, list the act, scene, and line numbers, separated by Holden Caulfield: Typical American Essay periods. Policies Theodore And President Wilson Similar. Use Arabic numerals unless your instructor prefers Roman numerals. In his famous advice to Holden Typical Essay, the players, Hamlet defines the purpose of product theater, . . . Caulfield: Essay. whose end, both at the first and now, was and is, to hold, as 'twere, the mirror up to nature (3.2.21-23).

For a poem, cite the part (if there are a number of parts) and the line numbers, separated by periods. When Homer's Odysseus comes to the hall of Circe, he finds his men . Ethics Cup Essay. . Typical. . mild / in the latin american policies of president theodore similar, her soft spell, fed on her drug of evil (10.209-11). If the book of the Bible that you are citing does not appear in the signal phrase, include it in parentheses along with the chapter and Caulfield: American Essay, verse numbers. Consider the words of Solomon: If your enemy is hungry, give him bread to eat; and if he is Faith Approach Appraisals, thirsty, give him water to drink (Prov. 25.21).

Two or More Works. To cite more than one source to document a particular point, separate the Holden Caulfield: American Teenager citations with a semicolon. The dangers of mountain lions to humans have been well documented (Rychnovsky 40; Seidensticker 114; Williams30). A Work without Page Numbers. You may omit the how were the latin american policies theodore roosevelt and president wilson similar ? page number if a work has no page numbers. Some electronic sources use paragraph numbers instead of page numbers. For such sources, use the abbreviation par. or pars. in Holden Caulfield:, the parentheses: (Smith, par.

4) . An Electronic Source. To cite an electronic source in the text of your paper, follow the same rules as for print sources. If the source has an author and and Critical Appraisals, there is a page number, provide both. Using historical writings about leprosy as an example, Demaitre argues that . American. . . the difference between curability and treatability is not a modern invention (29). A clip of the film Demolition d'un mur demonstrates that cinema is all about transformation, not mere movement (Routt, sec. 1). Volti writes, As with all significant innovations, the product matrix history of the automobile shows that technological advance is fueled by more than economic calculation. According to a Web page sponsored by the Children's Defense Fund, fourteen American children die from gunfire each day (Child) II. Use of Ellipsis Points. When you omit a word, phrase, sentence, or paragraph from a quoted passage, you must use ellipsis points, or three spaced periods, to Essay, indicate that your quotation does not completely reproduce the original.

If you omit a word or a phrase at the beginning or in the middle of a quoted sentence, use three periods with one space between each period to 1863 that put the war and war, indicate the omission. Moore states that . . . a pseudonym provides . . Holden Typical Teenager Essay. . an invaluable tool to express one's own opinion (214). Use four ellipsis points to indicate the omission of an entire sentence within a quotation. Peacey claims that . . . although a living language is constantly changing . . . 1863 Put The Ahead In The War And The Turning Of The. . Typical American Teenager Essay. It is the author's duty to be aware of the and ethical dilemmas language's grammatical conventions as well as to be knowledgeable of its linguistic history (7). Use four spaced periods to Holden American Teenager Essay, indicate an omission at the end of a direct quotation.

If a parenthetical reference directly follows the quotation, the last period follows the parentheses. Lovejoy argues that . . Market Matrix. . authors are duty-bound to carry on the semiotic tradition as it is Holden Caulfield: Typical American Teenager Essay, inherited from those authors who precede them . . . (4). If no parenthetical reference follows the 1863 union that put the north in the war and of the omission, end the quotation with four spaced periods enclosed by an ending quotation mark. Lovejoy argues on page four in his introduction of My Art: The Stories that . . . the author is duty-bound to carry on Caulfield: Typical Essay the semiotic tradition as presented to him by those authors who precede him . . . . III. The Works Cited Page. The Works Cited page immediately follows the text of the paper. Alphabetize by the authors' last names. When there is no author but there is an editor, alphabetize by the editor's last name. If you don't know the name of an 1863 that put the ahead war and point, author or editor, alphabetize by the first important word in American Teenager, the title of the work cited. Center the title Works Cited one inch from the top of the sheet.

Double space between the in a Cup Essay title and the first entry. Place the first line of each entry flush with the left margin. Indent succeeding lines one-half inch (computer-formatted) or five spaces (typed). Double space each entry, and double space between entries. Use two spaces after periods and one space after other punctuation marks. Remember, you must always have a Works Cited page as well as in-text citations to avoid plagiarism . Begin each reference at the left hand margin. List the Typical Essay author's last name first, then the first name followed by a period. Type two spaces, then list the title of the book underlined and with the first letter of all major words capitalized. A period follows (not underlined). Next list the place (city) of publication followed by a colon, one space, the publisher followed by a comma, and michelangelo vinci, the year of publication followed by a period. Omit the words Publishing Company and Inc . from the publisher's name.

If the reference is more than one line in Holden American Essay, length, indent one-half inch (computer formatted) or five spaces (typed) all lines following the first. Double space all lines. Book by one Author. Hyde, Bernard. Product Matrix. Perspectives on Literature: The New Historical Criticism in America . Peoria: Bancroft, 1992. Britt, Ponsiby. Representation of Indigenous North American Mammalia in Twentieth Century American Humor . Frostbite Falls: Rockland UP, 1963. ---. Holden Caulfield: Teenager. Character Stereotypes in Cold War American Literature . Frostbite Falls: Rockland UP, 1967. Books by The Prophet Faith Sensitive and Critical Essays two or more authors -- list authors as they are listed in the book. Reverse only the first author's name.

Ciccone, Eva, Lorna Smith, and Natasha Fatale. Caulfield: Typical American Teenager Essay. Femininity and Feminism in Literature: Two Views . Boston: Singleton, 1991. If a book has more than three authors, either list all authors as shown above or list only the first author followed by a comma, a space, then et al . Jones, Sarah, Michael Williams, Charles Porter, William Mayer, and Anthony Rofollo. Scenes in a Coffee Shop . Toronto: Middleman, 1996. Jones, Sarah, et al.

Scenes in a Coffee Shop . Toronto: Middleman, 1996. List any book beyond the first edition by including the edition two spaces after the Muhammad: Sensitive Appraisals Essays period which concludes the title. Do not underline the Caulfield: American Teenager designation for the edition. Young, Keith. Symbols of Morality . 4th ed. Scranton: Crowell, 1976. For an and ethical dilemmas, author's work cited in Holden American, a textbook, anthology, or other full-length work, list according to the author of the cited work within the anthology. Typically, such a cited work would be an article, an essay, a short story, or a poem, so enclose the title of the in a Cup Essay cited work within quotation marks. However, underline the title if the work was originally published as a book.

Always underline the title of the anthology, which immediately follows the title of the work. Caulfield: American Teenager. Include the page numbers of the anthology in Muhammad: and Critical Essays, which the cited work appears. An entry for Holden Caulfield: Typical American Teenager, an editor is similar to Starbucks:, that for an author except that the name is followed by American Teenager a comma and the abbreviation ed. for editor. If there is more than one editor, use the Starbucks: in a abbreviation eds. for editors. Kitchen, Judith, and Mary Paumier Jones, eds. In Short: A Collection of Caulfield: American Brief Creative Nonfiction . New York: Norton, 1996. Author with an 1863 union victory north war and war, Editor. Begin with the author and title, followed by the name of the editor.

In this case the abbreviation Ed. means Edited by, so it is the same for one or multiple editors. Wells, Ida B. The Memphis Diary . Holden American Essay. Ed. Miriam DeCosta-Willis. Boston: Beacon, 1995. List the moral dilemmas entry under the name of the author, not the translator. After the title, write Trans. (for Translated by) and the name of the translator.

Mahfouz, Naguib. Arabian Nights and Days . Trans. Denys Johnson-Davies. New York: Doubleday, 1995. Begin with the Caulfield: title. Alphabetize the entry by the first word of the title other than A, An, or The. Oxford Essential World Atlas . New York: Oxford UP, 1996. Edition Other Than the First. If you are citing an edition other than the Muhammad: Faith and Critical Appraisals first, include the number of the edition after the title: 2nd ed., 3rd ed., and so on. Boyce, David George.

The Irish Question and British Politics, 1868-1996 . Caulfield: Typical American Teenager. 2nd ed. How Were The Latin Policies Theodore Roosevelt ?. New York: St. Martin's, 1996. Include the total number of volumes before the Typical Essay city and of president theodore similar, publisher, using the abbreviation vols. Conway, Jill Ker, ed. Written by Herself . 2 vols. New York: Random, 1996. Conway, Jill Ker, ed. Written by Caulfield: Essay Herself . Vol. 2. New York: Random, 1996.

2 vols. Encyclopedia or Dictionary. Articles in well-known dictionaries and encyclopedias are handled in abbreviated form. Simply list the author of the article (if there is one), the title of the article, the title of the reference work, the edition number, if any, and the date of the edition. Sonata.

Encyclopaedia Britannica . 15th ed. 1997. The Bible is not included in the list of works cited. If you want to indicate the version of the how were the latin policies of president theodore and president Bible you are citing, do so in your in-text citation. Work in an Anthology. Present the information in this order, with each item followed by a period: author of the Holden Caulfield: selection; title of the selection; title of the union victory that north war and the turning of the anthology; editor of the anthology, preceded by Ed. (meaning Edited by); city, publisher, and date; page numbers on which the selection appears. Malouf, David. The Kyogle Line. The Oxford Book of Travel Stories . Ed. Patricia Craig. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

390-96. Rodriguez, Richard. Teenager Essay. Late Victorians. Harper's Oct. 1990: 57-66. Rpt. in The Best American Essays 1991. Ed. Joyce Carol Oates. New York: Ticknor, 1991. 119-34. Two or More Works From the Same Anthology.

If you wish, you may cross-reference two or more works from the same anthology. Provide a separate entry for the anthology with complete publication information. Craig, Patricia, ed. The Oxford Book of Travel Stories . Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996. Then list each selection separately, giving the author and title of the the latin american theodore and president wilson similar selection followed by a cross-reference to the anthology. The cross-reference should include the last name of the editor of the anthology and Caulfield:, the page numbers in the anthology on union victory that put the north ahead point which the selection appears. Desai, Anita. Holden Caulfield: Typical American Essay. Scholar and Gypsy. Craig 251-73. Malouf, David.

The Kyogle Line. Craig 390-96. Foreword, Introduction, Preface, or Afterword. If in market, your paper you quote from one of these elements, begin with the Holden Caulfield: Typical name of the writer of market that element. Then identify the Holden Caulfield: American Essay element being cited, neither underlined nor in quotation marks, followed by the title of the complete book, the book's author, and the book's editor, if any. Vs Da Vinci. After the publication information, give the page numbers on Caulfield: Typical which the foreword, introduction, preface, or afterword appears. Kennedy, Edward M. Foreword. Moral Dilemmas. Make a Difference . Henry W. Foster, Jr., and Alice Greenwood. Holden Caulfield: American Teenager. New York: Scribner, 1997.

9-15. Book with a Title within Its Title. If the and ethical dilemmas book title contains a title normally underlined (or italicized), neither underline (nor italicize) the internal title nor place it in quotation marks. Vanderham, Paul. James Joyce and Censorship: The Trials of Holden Typical American Ulysses . And Ethical Dilemmas. New York: New York UP, 1997. Faulkner, Dewey R. Holden American Teenager Essay. Twentieth Century Interpretations of michelangelo The Pardoner's Tale . Englewood Cliffs: Spectrum-Prentice, 1973. Before the publication information, cite the series name as it appears on Caulfield: Teenager Essay the title page followed by moral and ethical dilemmas the series number, if any. Malena, Anne. The Dynamics of Identity in Francophone Caribbean Narrative . American Essay. Francophone Cultures and Muhammad: Faith Sensitive Essays, Literatures Ser. 24.

New York: Lang, 1998. After the title of the book, cite the Holden Caulfield: Typical American Teenager original publication date followed by the current publication information. If the matrix republished book contains new material, such as an introduction or afterword, include that information after the original date. McClintock, Walter. Old Indian Trails . Caulfield: Typical American Essay. 1926. Foreword William Least Heat Moon. Boston: Houghton, 1992. If a book was published by an imprint of a publishing company, cite the name of the imprint followed by a hyphen and the publisher's name.

The name of the imprint usually precedes the publisher's name on the title page. Coles, Robert. The Latin American Of President Roosevelt Wilson Similar. The Moral Intelligence of Children: How to Raise a Moral Child . New York: Plume-Random, 1997. List the entry under the name of the author, not the translator. After the title, write Trans. (for Translated by) and the name of the translator. Mahfouz, Naguib. Holden Typical. Arabian Nights and Days . Trans. Denys Johnson-Davies. New York: Doubleday, 1995. Periodicals are publications such as newspapers, magazines, and journals. Generally, list the author(s), title of article in quotation marks, name of the journal underlined, series number (if relevant), volume number (for journals), issue number (if needed), date of publication, and inclusive page numbers not preceded by how were the latin of president theodore roosevelt similar p. or pp.

If the article is not published on consecutive pages, include only the page number on which the article first appears, followed by a + sign with no space in between. Many scholarly journals are paged continuously throughout the Holden Typical Teenager year. The year's first issue begins on page one, and subsequent issues begin on the page where the issue preceding them ends. Therefore, listing the month of publication is unnecessary. Instead, list the volume number followed by the year of publication in parentheses.

Then include a colon followed by page number(s) on which the Starbucks: Ethics in a article appears. Gregory, Norman. Australian Aboriginal Dialects. The Journal of Modern Languages 75 (1987): 74-101. However, some journals page each issue separately. In such cases, include in the bibliographic citation the volume number immediately followed by a period, which is immediately followed by the issue number. Douglas, Oliver. Gentrification of Rural Lands: Migration Beyond the Suburb.

The American Quarterly 18.2 (1969): 12-24. Ziffel, Arnold. Confessions of an Overeater. Pound Watchers Weekly 8 June 1970: 14-17. Douglas, Lisa. To Live on Holden Caulfield: Typical Essay Park Avenue. Michelangelo Vinci. Urban Life Sept.

1970: 36-44. List the author(s); title of the Holden Caulfield: article in Starbucks: Ethics Cup Essay, quotation marks, name of newspaper as it appears on the masthead omitting any introductory article such as the, the complete date of publication -- day, month, and year, a colon, and a page number(s) (including section designation such as A and B or 1 and 2 if included) as listed in the newspaper. If the newspaper does not print the article on consecutive pages, use a plus (+) sign to indicate the article is to be found on more than one page. Omit any volume or issue numbers. Charles, Raymond. School Administration Closes Middle School Library.

The Chronicle of S Learning 12 Sept. 1990: A1-A6. Wilbert, Kenneth. Holden Typical Teenager Essay. Writer Searches America for Ethics in a Cup Essay, Lost Hope. Holden. Mecklenburg Tribune 24 Aug. 1987, sec. 2: 1+. IV. Computer Sources.

Include information as required below. If some of this information is not available, e.g. , author's name, include the information which you do have. Many research sources are now published as databases on CD-ROMS. Generally, the information you need to cite such sources is much the same as you need for The Prophet Essays, print sources; however, there are some differences. Entire CD-ROM Database.

Hughes, Keith. Typical American Teenager Essay. Exploring the The Prophet and Critical Approach Appraisals Internet . Holden Caulfield: Typical American Essay. 2nd ed. Product Market. CD-ROM. Holden Typical Essay. New York: BDM, 1994. Part of a CD-ROM Database. Cited work originally published as an essay, article, short story, poem, or other short work. Smythe, Leslie. Oh, Burden of Brittania. Cramden Anthology of Victorian Poetry . CD-ROM.

London: Ivory Tower UP, 1993. Cited work originally published as a full-length work. Fox, James. Dalton's Lament . The Modern Reader's CD Library . CD-ROM. Michelangelo Vinci. New York: Mayfield, 1996. Franco, William. Khmer Rouge Documented Their Own Atrocities. New York Times , 17 April 1994: 1+.

New York Times Ondisc . CD-ROM. UMI-Proquest, Jan. 1995. Cite an entire diskette as you would a book, but include the Holden source medium as with CD-ROMS. Lovejoy, Trent.

On Writing Short Fiction: Notes from the Master . Ethics. Diskette. New York: Narcissus, 1993. If your source is a story, article, poem, or other work published as part of the diskette, indicate diskette as the source medium. Cited work originally published as an essay, article, short story, poem, or other short work. Smythe, Leslie. Oh, Burden of Brittania. Typical American Teenager Essay. Cramden Anthology of Victorian Poetry . Diskette. London: Ivory Tower UP, 1993.

Cited work originally published as a full-length work. Fox, James. Dalton's Lament . The Latin Roosevelt And President. The Modern Reader's Library . Diskette. New York: Mayfield, 1996. If the source cited from Caulfield: American Essay, a diskette also has a printed source, cite the printed source first. Frank, Richard. The Four Pennies. Pacific Monthly , April 1994: 48+.

New American Authors: 1994 . Diskette. New York: Clairmont, 1994. V. Online Sources. Online information is unlike published information in that it exists only in an electronic environment and is often subject to day-to-day change. The following information is adapted from: Harnack, Andrew and Eugene Kleppinger. The Latin American Policies Roosevelt Similar ?. Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Resources . New York: Bedford/St. Martins, 2000.

For writers creating in-text citations and Works Cited lists for online sources, the MLA Handbook provides the following recommendations: Download or print any online material you plan to use, in case it becomes inaccessible later. Don't introduce a hyphen at the break of a URL between two lines. If you must divide a URL between two lines, break it only after a slash (/). World Wide Web Site. When you document sources from the World Wide Web, the MLA suggests that your Works Cited entries contain as many items from the Holden Caulfield: American Essay following list as are relevant and american policies of president theodore and president wilson, available: Name of the author, editor, compiler, translator, or site maintainer (if available and Caulfield: Typical, relevant), alphabetized by last name and followed by any appropriate abbreviations, such as ed. ; Title of a poem, short story, article or other short work within a book, scholarly project, database, or periodical, in quotation marks; Title of a book, in italics or underlined; Publication information for any print version; Title of a scholarly project, database, or periodical, or professional or personal site (in italics or underlined), or, for a professional or personal site with no title, a description such as home page; Name of the editor of market matrix a scholarly project or database (if known); Version number (if not part of the title) or, for a journal, the volume, issue, or other identifying number; Name of the institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the Web site; Date you accessed the source; and Holden Caulfield: American, URL (in angle brackets). Although no single entry will contain all these items of and ethical information, most Works Cited entries for Caulfield: American Essay, Web sources will include the following basic information: Author's name (last name first).

Document title. Date of matrix Internet publication. Date of access URL. Shapiro, Herbert. Holden Caulfield: American Teenager Essay. Professional Communications. Spring 1999. 6 Nov.

2001 http://www1.esc.edu/personalfac/hshapiro/professional_communications/default.htm An online book may be the electronic text of part or all of a printed book, or a book-length document available only on the Internet ( e.g. , a work of hyperfiction). Bird, Isabella L. A Lady's Life in The Prophet Approach, the Rocky Mountains . New York, 1881. Victorian Women Writers Project . Ed. Perry Willett. 27 May 1999. Indiana U. 4 Oct. 1999 http://www.indiana.edu/letrs/vwwp/bird/rocky.html. Harnack, Andrew, and Eugene Kleppinger.

Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Resources . Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000. Holden Typical American Essay. 5 Jan. 1863 That Put The Ahead Point War. 2000 http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online. Article in Holden Typical American, an Electronic Journal (ejournal) Joyce, Michael. On the Birthday of the vs da vinci Stranger (in memory of John Hawkes).

Evergreen Review 5 Mar 1999. 12 May 1999 http://evergreenreview.com/evexcite/joyce/index_ns.html. Article in an Electronic Magazine (ezine) Adler, Jerry. Ghost of Everest. Newsweek 17 May 1999. 19 May 1999. http://newsweek.com/nwsrv/issue/20_99a/printed/us/so/so0120_1.htm. Wren, Christopher. A Body on Holden Caulfield: Typical Essay Mt. Everest, a Mystery Half-Solved. New York Times on the Web 5 May 1999.

13 May 1999 http://search.nytimes.com/search/daily/bin/fastweb?getdoc+site+site 33726+0+wAAA+%22George%7Emallory%22. Bush, George. Vs Da. Principles of Ethical Conduct for Government Officers and Employees. Executive Order 12674 of Typical Teenager April 12 1989 (as modified by E. How Were American Of President Roosevelt. O. 12731). Part 1. 26 Aug 1997. 18 May 1999 http://www.usoge.gov/exorders/eo12674.html.

Scholarly Project or Information Database. Center for Reformation and Renaissance Studies . American. Ed. Laura E. Hunt and William Barek. May 1998. University of Toronto. Muhammad: Faith Sensitive Appraisals Essays. 11 May 1999 http://CITD.SCAR.UTORONTO.CA/crrs/index.html. The Internet Movie Database . Holden Teenager Essay. May 1999. Internet Movie Database Ltd. 11 May 1999 http://us.imbd.com. Mortimer, Gail. The William Faulkner Society Home Page . 16 Sept.

1999. William Faulkner Soc. 1 Oct. 1999 http://utep.edu/mortimer/faulkner/mainfaulkner.htm. NAIC Online . 29 Sept. 1999. National Association of how were american theodore roosevelt and president wilson ? Investors Corporation. 1 Oct. 1999. http://www.betterinvesting.org.

Cite an E-Mail source as you would a memo or a personal letter. Hill, Sharon. New Directions for Holden American Teenager Essay, Education. E-Mail to edu.users. 4 Sept. 1997. Include the product market matrix following information if your mentor requires a complete address.

Hill, Sharon. New Directions for Holden, Education. E-Mail to edu.users. Internet. 4 Sept. 1997. Available http://shill@sescva.nc.edu.

MLA format for a research paper does not require a table of contents, an outline, or an abstract. MLA format also does not require a title page. Instead, include the necessary information on the first page of the text as seen below: Your last name and page number a half-inch from the top of the page on moral and ethical dilemmas the right side (to run continually throughout your paper). Format a one-inch margin for the top, bottom, and sides of the rest of the document. Double-spacing of text is required. Place your name, mentor's name, course name, and date on the left, all in the order shown. Center your title (you may place it in bold print). If your mentor does require a title page, ask which style she or he prefers. Mentor Tom McElroy. ENL 202 American Literature.

American Literature and the Perpetuation of Stereotyping Language. The Europeans erroneously thought North American aboriginals to Caulfield: Typical American, be Asians and The Prophet Sensitive Approach, consequently classified them as Indians. American. Since then, Euro-American society has used unflattering variations of of president wilson that term, including Injuns and Injiins, to describe these indigenous peoples. However, these are the more innocuous of the sobriquets Euro-Americans have foisted upon Native Americans over the years. Considering their Christian selves to Holden Typical Essay, be of the chosen people, early settlers deprecated native Americans by classifying them as savages, heathens, and market, barbarians. This style guide was produced with the aid of the Caulfield: Teenager Essay MLA Handbook for Writers of Research papers 5th ed . Dilemmas. It is intended only as a brief guide to MLA citation methods.

Complete information can be found in the above mentioned text. Always consult your mentor before you start to Typical American, write .

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VIEW JOBS 10/3/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-01T00:00 h3Job Description/h3divpClose date: September 19, 2017/ppStart date: strong10/13/2017/strong/ppEnd date: strong3/12/2019/strongstrong /strong/ppDuration: 17nbsp;months/ppHours per week: 40/ppTask order #HBITS-05-04847/ppThis is a full-time position./ppHours are: strong8:30-5:00, negotiable/strong/ppJob location is strongAlbany/strong, NY/ppnbsp;/ppstrongJob Description:/strong./ppThe consultant must be able to apply expert knowledge of Java and related technologies described herein to successfully complete the Starbucks: Cup Essay following tasks:br /- Participate in Joint Application Development session to Caulfield: Teenager, assist in the formulation of victory that north in the, Use Case analysis deliverables.br /- Interpret Use Case requirements, seek clarification from Holden Typical Essay, Business Analysts as needed and estimate, propose, prototype and develop a solution that integrates within the product existing technology stack and framework.br /- Provide J2EE, JBoss Enterprise Application Server, SOA web services, Red Hat Apache web server, Linux, Oracle 11g, Drools rules engine, MQ Series/Message Broker development expertise.nbsp; Perform development activities as requested.br /- Provide work breakdown structures to American, articulate tasks, level of effort and Faith Sensitive Approach Essays, dependencies between tasks and report progress.br /- Provide troubleshooting and end-user support/problem resolutionbr /- Provide technical documentation, solution prototypes, conduct demonstrations of work in progress and completed work to business subject matter experts and other technical staff as span class=long-wordrequested/required./spanbr /- Assist in configuration, performance tuning and troubleshooting of Red Hat Apache web and JBoss application server settingsbr /-- Ensure that projects follow the NYS ITS architecture standards and best practices and conduct technical reviews to ensure compliancebr /- Provide day-to-day technical guidance and hands-on support to the development project teams for Typical Essay, activities related to matrix, the definition, design, construction, testing, performance tuning and certification of Holden Teenager, applications.br /nbsp;/ppnbsp;/ppstrongnbsp;/strongstrongSpecialist/strong/ppstrong- Experience in the usage and support of 1863 union that war and the turning point of the, a collection of Holden Typical American, development platforms, technical architectures, or business applications and Starbucks: Ethics in a, products that run on those platforms, beyond that of a Programmer- The Authorized User may seek Specialists in the following areas (list is not exhaustive):bull; Backup and Recoverybull; Securitybr /Expertbr /84+ Months: Candidate is able to provide leadership of Holden Caulfield: Essay, large teams and/or extensive industry experience and is considered at the top of product matrix, his/her field#x200B;/strong/ppnbsp;/ppstrongRequired Qualifications/strong:/ppstrong1.nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;84 months experience developing enterprise level Java web application software solutions in Caulfield: Typical Essay, all phases of the product Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC).nbsp;br /2.nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;84 months experience with Struts or Spring and Liferay nbsp;nbsp;br /3.nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;60 or more months experience developing Java applications using WebSphere Message Broker flows. 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If so, please list the in a start and Holden Caulfield: American Essay, end date for moral, each absence./ppnbsp;/ppWhat dates can you interview for this position that are at least 7 days after the due date (see due date above)?/ppnbsp;/ppDo you have a Skype ID? If so, please provide it. Holden Typical Essay! If not, please get one ASAP, it is Starbucks: Cup Essay, free. Caulfield: American! A Skype interview will be required as part of the hiring process./ppnbsp;/ppIf selected, you will need to the latin of president theodore wilson similar, start the job within 10 days./ppnbsp;/ppIf selected, you will need to pass a background investigation (BGI)./p/divh3Company Description/h3divLogic House Ltd., was incorporated in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in Holden Caulfield: Typical American Teenager Essay, 1990. It is a small business which provides a comprehensive range of management and technical services for the development of Muhammad: Sensitive and Critical Appraisals Essays, information systems. Caulfield: Typical! Logic House has experienced continuous growth, due in large measure to our history of michelangelo, successful service engagements. Holden Caulfield: Typical! Operating from Pennsylvania and California, Logic House has earned a reputation for providing quality professional services in a timely and Starbucks: Ethics in a, cost effective manner./div Logic House Ltd Albany NY. Technical Architect / Oracle, Struts, Spring, Hibernate. 1. Holden American Teenager Essay! Resume Copy paste or upload your resume.

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Animal-Assisted Therapy Essay Sample. Statement of the Problem and Purpose of the Holden Caulfield: American Essay, Study. By the year 2030, the 1863 victory that put the the turning, nursing home population was estimated to reach 5.3 million, while the entire elderly community would probably be at 13.8 million (Cox, 1993). The growing elderly population translated to the growing need for efficient assistance and treatment strategies. Typical American Essay. In response to this need, there has been increasing attention given to animal-assisted therapy. Having pets was observed to moral and ethical impact humans of different ages through the bond they were able to create with each other (Swabe, 1999). The intent of this research is to analyze the effect of utilizing of pet therapies to address the physiological and psychological health problems of the elderly population. Findings from this study will provide the Caulfield: American, significance of pet therapy in vs da the wide array of treatment and intervention strategies that were employed for Holden Caulfield:, the said population. Most of the current research that existed to measure the impact of pet therapy on humans was limited to short-term (6 months or less) period of studies. There was a gap in the literature when it came to the long-term effects of pet therapy with the quality of Starbucks: Ethics, life of the elderly population. Quality of life could be understood in terms of physiological and psychological pain.

Physiological aspects included the elders#8217; pain, blood pressure, heart rate, and cortisol levels. Holden Caulfield: American Teenager. On the other hand, the effects of pet therapy on the psychological aspects included social interaction, depression, motivation and joy. The Latin American. The purpose of this study will be to test the theories of pet therapy that relates pet therapy to the physiological and psychological effects on the quality of Caulfield: Essay, life of the elderly, controlling for the period of time the matrix, participants could interact with the pets and observing the changes that they could undergo at the nursing home. Pet therapy would be generally defined an intervention wherein animals becomes a part of the treatment procedure of the patients (All et al., 1999) and the progress or the lack of it in terms of the physiological and psychological health of the participants will be statistically analyzed in the study. Identification of Variables. Pet therapy will be considered as the independent variable in this study. The pets are non-bounded trained dogs accompanied by a certified animal assisted therapy (AAT) handler. The presence of the Holden Caulfield: Typical Essay, handler was minimized in regards to their effect on participants. The dependent variable will be the physiological and 1863 victory that put the north ahead, psychological effects of the independent variable on the quality of life of the elderly population. The following research questions would be used to guide the research for Typical American, a quantitative research study of the effect of Cup Essay, pet therapy on the physiological and Holden Typical Teenager, psychological effects of the patients: How did animal assisted therapy influence the physiological and psychological health of the quality of how were the latin american of president theodore wilson ?, life of the elderly?

Was there a difference determined between short term and Holden Caulfield: Typical American, long term effects of animal assisted therapy? Will AAT have lasting effects (i.e. Union Victory That Put The War And Of The. once the pet is removed)? Will these effects be positive or negative? Hypotheses, Assumption and Scope. There will be a significant and positive in the physiological and psychological aspects of the quality of life in American Essay the elderly population. Long-term AAT will have a beneficial effect on the aspects of quality of life, which includes improvements in blood pressure, heart rate, pain, stress, depression and others. This research study has the assumption that animals have an effect on product market matrix human beings. The scope of Caulfield: Teenager Essay, this study involved an exploration of the and ethical, long-term effects that these animals had on the participants.

It would also be focused on the changes physiological and psychological health of the elderly as a result to animal contact. There were a number of Teenager, significant theories that explored the relationship of animals and product matrix, humans. In this study, the long-term effects of animal-assisted therapy would be observed and analyzed according to their impact in the physiological and psychological health of the elderly. This would be done through a combination of the exchange theory and the general effect theory. The Exchange theory explained the Holden Typical Teenager, numerous studies that were geared towards the effectiveness of pet therapy.

According to this theory, people engage in relationships wherein the benefits outweighed the american of president theodore roosevelt similar, costs (Graham, 2000). Studies concerning human-animal relationships zeroed in on children, the disabled, the elderly and other special population groups. Pets gave valuable relationships to such groups because of the Holden American Essay, elements of and ethical, companionship, tactile simulation, safety and non-judgmental support they provide (Graham, 2000). This theory provided a starting point as to why pet therapy was a feasible intervention used for providing assistance and treatment for the elderly. General Effect Theory. There were therapeutic theories that were focused on the healing effect of animal-human relationships to the patients. There was no theory that encompassed the benefits that were gained from AAT (Graham, 2000). A general effect theory by James Serpell was proposed to suggest the therapeutic value of AAT.

Instrumental . Typical American Teenager Essay. Under this theory, the Starbucks: Ethics, instrumental approach was applicable for those who were physically and mentally challenged. This resulted in Holden Caulfield: Typical Essay the lack of self-esteem. The animals functioned as an extension of moral, themselves. It was perceived to increase confidence and self-esteem among them (Graham, 2000). This was widely observed for horses and Caulfield: Typical Essay, dogs. Passive . This involved watching animals such as fishes and birds. The absorption that was involved in the animal activity induced a state of relaxation for the patients (Graham, 2000).

However, these benefits were observed to be short-termed and The Prophet Muhammad: Faith Sensitive and Critical, lasted as long as the animals were observed. Holden Typical American Essay. Since the activities of Muhammad: Faith Sensitive and Critical, animals, compared to humans were unpredictable and random, they could sustain a persons interest. Caulfield: American Essay. Anthromorphic . This category involved animals as pet companions wherein there was a bonding potential between the patient and the animal (Graham, 2002). There was a significant therapeutic benefit because the animal was initially perceived as another person. Attachment, devotion and love towards a person could be directed towards the animal. The psychological and physical well being was hinged on the feeling that they were respected, needed and and ethical dilemmas, loved by the others (Graham, 2002).

Animals seemed to effectively supply this. The research would focus evaluating whether the anthromorphic of the general effect theory when examining the effect of AAT on the physiological and psychological well-being of the participants. Definition of Typical Essay, Terms. Michelangelo Vs Da. Elderly patient population They are individuals who were aged 65 and above and Typical Teenager, were considered as one of the fastest growing groups in the population that need assistance and treatment (Cox, 1993). Assisted living A type of Ethics in a, long-term care facility for elderly or disabled people who are able to get around on their own but who may need help with some activities of daily living, or simply prefer the convenience of having their meals in a central cafeteria and having nursing staff on call (medicinenet.com) Animal assisted therapy A direct intervention that included pet visitation. Animal became a part of the treatment process or the treatment team that was designed to promote the improvement of the physical, social, emotional and cognitive functioning of the patient (All et al., 1999). It was divided into three categories: the provision pets as companions for people living alone or in assisted living facilities, the provision of American Essay, resident pets for resident of institutions, the provision of visiting animals to stimulate the moral dilemmas, residents interests (All et al., 1999).

Quality of life (based on physiological and psychological) The quality of life for elderly people were observed in Holden Essay terms of Ethics in a Cup Essay, physical environmental factors, subjective satisfaction, socio-economic factors, personality factors and health status factors. Health status factors were further classified into the physical well-being, functional ability and mental health of the elderly person (Bond Corner, 2004). Holden Typical American Essay. Personality factors included the the latin of president roosevelt and president wilson similar, psychological well-being, morale, life satisfaction and happiness of the elderly person (Bond Corner, 2004). It was also understood as the basic provisions for happiness (Bond Corner, 2004). Long-term study In contrast to Holden Caulfield: Typical American Teenager short term studies that were conducted within a period of six months or less, anything that was more than six months was considered a long term period by 1863 union victory north ahead in the war and of the which a study would be conducted. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE. Caulfield:. Background for in a, Pet Keeping.

The human penchant for keeping animals as pets was considered to be universal and dated back to the period wherein livestock and animal husbandry was practiced (Swabe, 1999). Humans and Caulfield: Typical Teenager, animals had developed from a functional to a therapeutic relationship with each other. Pet-keeping was more than acquiring or keeping an animal as a pet. It was something that could provide as an how were wilson similar, emotional crush to their owners for the absence of human relationships and more commonly, a pure need for companionship (Swabe, 1999). The Need of the Elderly. The elderly population had been increasing in number of the population of many countries. Typical American Teenager. Health care literature responded through the increase in focus in successful ageing and treatments for disorders occurring in later in life (Pachana, 1999). The ageing process was perceived to encompass biological, psychological and social aspects of the being. There were new levels of psychological and biological disorders that were encountered during this stage. There were so many areas by which the elderly needed medical attention for. The discovery of different treatments and interventions were significant in addressing the need of this group.

Animals were seen to play an important part in society. Approximately more than half of the households in the United States had a companion animal and half of them had more than one animal in product market matrix their homes (All et al., 1999). The earliest record of animals used in the healthcare industry was by Florence Nightingale in 1860 (All et al., 1999). She suggested that small pets provided companionship and pleasure for the sick patients that were confined in their beds for a long time. York Retreat was the first institution that recorded the therapeutic use of Caulfield: Typical Teenager Essay, animals for patients with psychiatric problems (All et al., 1999). Product Market Matrix. Animals were often used as a means of intervention for different levels of care, from pediatrics to geriatrics, and Caulfield: American, from prevention to of president roosevelt and president wilson similar ? healing. This was an approach that as based on Caulfield: Teenager Essay human-animal bond that used a holistic approach to care for individuals with chronic illnesses and disabilities. The earliest pet therapy programs included the pets of volunteers that were brought to hospitals, nursing homes and long-term care facilities on a regular basis (Heimlich, 2001). Such programs were already designed to provide positive therapeutic outcomes to improve the quality of life of the patients.

Most of the how were american of president, physical effects of human-animal interaction reflected that pets were effective in reducing the persons blood pressure (Heimlich, 2001). Cole and his colleagues (2007) conducted a study based on the assumption that AAT improved physiological and psychological aspects in patients that were hypertensive. Their study was made to determine whether a 12-minute hospital visit with a therapy dog could improve the hemodynamic measures of the patient and decrease state anxiety for Caulfield: Typical American Essay, patients with advanced levels of heart failure. They found out that AAT improved the cardiopulmonary pressures, neurohormone levels and anxiety in the patients that were hospitalized with heart failure (Cole et al., 2007). There was a study wherein adult college students with depression were exposed to AAT and yielded positive results (Parshall, 2003). They used the Beck Depression Inventory to measure the depression of the students. Compared to the latin american of president and president wilson ? the group that did not experience AAT, the group that had this experienced showed significant improvements in their moods. Similar to the therapeutic effects gardening could provide for Holden American Teenager, the patients, animals were also positively associated with patients that were institutionalized (Pachana, 2002). Some nursing care facilities had resident companion animals that were in The Prophet the premises.

These animals included tropical fishes, hamsters, dogs, cats and Caulfield: American Teenager Essay, birds. AAT was something that went beyond the causal interactions between pets and people. 1863 Union Ahead In The Point War. It was conducted to Caulfield: Essay cause the prescribed effect on patients according to professional standards (Pachana, 2002). Animal-assisted activities (AAA) were perceived to vinci impact the well-being of patients. Physical benefits included the moderation of the blood pressure changes and survival of heart attacks (Pachana, 2002). There were decreased risks of cardiovascular diseases and the improve aspects of mobility. Studies reflected that when older adults did not own a pet, they had experienced more stressful life events in comparison to Holden Caulfield: American Teenager pet owners (Pachana, 2002). A study of patients with Alzheimers disease even reflected that the how were the latin policies theodore roosevelt and president ?, presence of Holden Teenager, a dog improved communicative behavior for of president roosevelt similar, the patients (Pachana, 2002). Kawamura and his colleagues (2007) conducted a long-term study that theorized that AAT had a significant effect on patients with dementia. Pet visitations were conducted twice a month.

The participants were able to freely feed, hold and play with the dogs. Results of the study reflected that the motor function increase over the 12 months of observation and improvements in the mental functions were also observed (Kawamura et al., 2007). The review of related literature reflected the impact animals had on people, especially when they were sick and prone to physiological and psychological disorders. The study will be conducted within a quantitative research design. This was a design that was meant for the discovery of developing knowledge through the employment of strategies of inquiry in the form of experiments or surveys (Creswell, 2003). The aim of quantitative approaches will be to identify a cause and effect or perform reduction of specific variables, hypotheses and questions. The data collection of this research design involved predetermined instruments that would yield statistical data. The aim of the quantitative research design would be to construct statistical models to classify what was being observed. Since the researcher of this study was already aware of what was to be determined, this research design was utilized.

This design would function to test the hypothesis of the American Teenager Essay, research through seeking precise measurement and analysis of concepts. The aim of this research would be to measure the effect of how were policies and president similar, animal-assisted therapy on the quality of life of the elderly population. The effect of this study could be statistically qualified according to Typical American the construction of what the quality of life was. The quality of life was classified in aspects of the individuals physiological and The Prophet Muhammad: Sensitive and Critical, psychological health. The measurement of the persons well being required the use of statistical data analysis in order to present valid and objective results for the effectiveness of AAT. The sample size would be determined according to the population of the nursing home or long-term care facility that would be selected in Holden Caulfield: Teenager this study. It the population will be feasible for the researcher to handle, the sample would be as large as the entire population of the nursing home or care facility. However, if the population is too large, random sampling would be conducted. A questionnaire would be designed based on the existing studies that were created on AAT.

However, the questionnaire would be customized in order to fit the objectives of this study, which is to measure the quality of life of the patients. The questionnaire was a tool that provided quantitative and market, numeric description of the attitudes and opinion of the population (Creswell, 2003). The nursing staff will chart the weekly psychosocial observations that were observed from the participants. The nursing staff needed to be the same individuals that would do this week after week. The notes of the resident nurses would serve as the observation notes that would track the progress or the lack of it for the patients. At the beginning of the study, the participants would undergo a physical check-up that would determine the state of their physiological well being. Essay. This would serve as the baseline for the studys results. This same physical examinations would be determined in the middle and market matrix, the end of the data collection period of the study.

Included in these physiological test measurements would be the employment of saliva tests to determine the cortisol levels of the patients. Method for Protection of Caulfield: American, Human Subjects. Patients who would serve as participants need to sign a basic professional information statement and informed consent before participating in this study (Chandler, 2005). The description the study in terms of what were required of the patients would be explained before the consent would be signed. It was also considered to product market be unethical to exclude other treatments in order to prove AAT is successful (Parshall, 2003).

Instead, it should be viewed as a supplement to other proven methods. Obvious issues of Caulfield: Essay, allergies to animals, potential injuries from the animal like biting should be considered carefully. The data analysis, which would be utilized, would involve a logistic regression analysis using SPSS. This was something that mirrored the victory that in the the turning of the, successful studies that were conducted in the past (Kawamura et al., 2007). The regression analysis involved a statistical technique that identified the Holden Caulfield: Teenager, relationship between two or more variables. Muhammad: And Critical Essays. This tool provided an equation for the relationship between the variables. Caulfield: Typical Teenager Essay. In this case, the analysis would be conducted to policies theodore roosevelt wilson similar ? show a relationship between AAT and the quality of life of the elderly population.

The regression analysis would reveal the dependence of the dependent variable for the independent variable. The data that would be analyzed through this method included the observation notes and the physiological tests that would be conducted the resident nurses. The tests would be compared over a period of time. Other data analysis methods that would be employed included the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) and the Brief World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-BREF) to analyze the significant impact of AAT on the quality of life perception of the patients based on observations and self-reported results (Villalta-Hill et al., 2009). The data that would be analyzed would be the self-directed questionnaire that would be disseminated by the researcher for the participants.

APPLICABILITY TO NURSING. It was important for the nursing community to Holden Typical American Teenager Essay be develop an awareness for the effectiveness and Cup Essay, implications of the AAT intervention for the elderly. It is perceived play a growing role in Holden Caulfield: Teenager Essay healthcare. It is important to understand such implications in order to benefit from the positive effects that this therapy could have on the patients. Since nurses served as the front liners to dilemmas providing healthcare, they would also be the ones that would closely work with the patients and facilitate AAT. Their knowledge as to AATs effect on the patients well being would be beneficial for Typical, the patient and for their profession. This study will benefit the area of geriatric nursing because of the implications that it will produce for michelangelo vinci, the effect of AAT on the quality of life of the elderly population in terms of physiological and psychological development.

All, A. Typical American. C., Loving, G. Starbucks: In A Cup Essay. L., Crane, L. L. (1999). Animals, horseback riding and implications for rehabilitation therapy. The Journal of Typical Essay, Rehabilitation, 65 (3), 49. Bond, J. and Corner, L. (2004). The quality of life and older people. England: Open University Press . Chandler, C. (2005).

Animal assisted Therapy in Counseling . Michelangelo Vs Da Vinci. New York: Routledge. Cox, C. (1993). The frail elderly: Problems, needs, and community responses . Westport, CT: Auburn House Paperback. Cole, K., et al., (2007). Animal-assisted therapy in patients hospitalized with heart failure. American Association of Critical-Care Nurses 16, p. 575-585. Typical American. Creswell, J. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches . California: Sage. Fine, A. (2006) Handbook on animal-assisted therapy . Moral. USA: Elsevier. Graham, B. (2000).

Creature comfort: Animals that heal. New York: Promethus Books. Holden Typical American Teenager. Heimlich, K. The Prophet Muhammad: Faith Approach Essays. (2001). Holden Caulfield: American. Animal-assisted therapy and the severely disabled child: A quantitative study. The Journal of Rehabilitation, 67 (4), 48+. Kawamura, N., Niiyama, M., Niiyama, H. (2007). Matrix. Long-term evaluation of animal-assisted therapy for institutionalized elderly people: A preliminary result. Psychogeriatrics 7 (1), p. 8-13. Pachana, N. A. (1999). Developments in clinical interventions for older adults: A review.

New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 28 (2), 107. Pachana, N. (2002). Designing therapeutic environments for residential care facilities, in Geriatric Residential Care. Hill, R. et al (Eds). Essay. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Parshall, D. P. Moral And Ethical Dilemmas. (2003).

Research and reflection: Animal-assisted therapy in mental health settings. Typical Essay. Counseling and Values, 48 (1), 47+. Swabe, J. (1999). Animals,disease, and human society: Human-animal relations and the rise of veterinary medicine . Michelangelo Vs Da Vinci. London: Routledge. Villalta-Gil, V. et al. Holden Caulfield: Teenager Essay. (2009). Dog-assisted therapy in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia inpatients Anthrozoos 22 (2), 149-159. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Animal-Assisted Therapy. essay editing for how were the latin policies of president theodore roosevelt and president wilson similar, only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Animal-Assisted Therapy.

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D. H. Lawrence Lawrence, D. Caulfield: Teenager. H. (Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism) - Essay. Lawrence, D. H. 1885-1930. (Full name David Herbert Lawrence. Also wrote under the pseudonym Lawrence H. Davison) English novelist, poet, short story writer, essayist, critic, and translator. The following entry presents criticism of Lawrence's poetry.

See also D. H. Lawrence Short Story Criticism and D. H. Lawrence Poetry Criticism . Highly acclaimed as a forerunner in Cup Essay, adapting psychological themes for literary purposes in such novels as Sons and Lovers, The Rainbow, Women in Love, and Lady Chatterley's Lover, Lawrence's status as a poet is among the most heatedly disputed topics of twentieth-century literature. Much of the debate stems from the perception that Lawrence published a large quantity of poetry that is often considered very uneven in quality. Although many of his detractors concede that Lawrence wrote several classic poems, they claim that these works are the exceptions rather than the rule when compared to Essay, the bulk of poems Lawrence published. Many of his defenders, however, claim that Lawrence's body of poetry constitutes one unified work in which no one piece can be isolated from the whole, and that Lawrence's occasional lapses of poetic technique are minor when weighed against dilemmas, his thematic concerns and the instantaneous nature of his poems. His poetic work is often described as visionary, prophetic, and Romantic in intent. American. Furthermore, Lawrence insisted that his work be read as an autobiography as well as a manifesto for the latin of president theodore roosevelt and president similar ?, the Utopia he envisioned, a new heaven and earth that rejected Victorian prudishness and rampant industrialization in favor of Holden Caulfield: a more primitive blood-wisdom and sexual freedom. Despite disagreements over his rank among twentieth-century poets, Lawrence's influence is michelangelo vs da, noted in the works of American such writers as Galway Kinnell, Denise Levertov, Karl Shapiro, Ted Hughes, Adrienne Rich, and Robert Bly. The fourth child of an illiterate coal miner and his wife, a former school teacher, Lawrence was raised in the colliery town of Eastwood, Nottinghamshire. Temperamentally alienated from how were the latin american theodore wilson his environment, he grew to hate the debilitating mine work that he blamed for his father's debased condition. Lawrence won a scholarship to the local grammar school and later to Nottingham University College. He taught school at Coyden for three years, during which time Ford Madox Ford published some of Lawrence's poems in Caulfield: American Teenager Essay, the English Review.

The onset of tuberculosis forced Lawrence to resign from teaching in 1911, and 1863 union victory ahead in the of the war that same year he published his first novel, The White Peacock, which received positive critical reviews. When he was twenty-seven, Lawrence eloped with Frieda von Richtofen Weekly, the wife of one of his college professors. The couple's erotic and emotional life during their first years together is chronicled in Look! We Have Come Through! After their marriage, the Lawrences lived briefly in Germany, Austria, Italy, Sicily, England, France, Australia, Mexico, and in the southwestern United States, where Lawrence hoped to establish a Utopian community. These locales provided the settings of many of his novels written during the 1920s, and also inspired his books of travel sketches. In 1930, Lawrence entered a sanitorium in Vence, France, in an attempt to cure the tuberculosis that afflicted him throughout his adult life.

He died soon after. Like his fiction, most of Lawrence's poetry is intensely personal. His earliest poetry, which he began writing in his twenties, adhered to traditional poetic forms and is seldom as highly regarded as his later free-verse works. His first four volumes Love Poems and Others, Amores, New Poems, and Bay display Lawrence's adherence to traditional rhyme schemes. Poems from these volumes were placed by Lawrence in the Rhyming Poems section of The Collected Poems of D. H. Lawrence. These poems are often compared to Caulfield: Typical, the poetry of Thomas Hardy, who was an acknowledged influence on Lawrence, in their reliance on regional dialects and subject matter. Look! We Have Come Through! marks a departure in Lawrence's poetics from closed forms to free verse forms that display Lawrence's affinity for in a Cup Essay, the work of American poet Walt Whitman. Birds, Beasts, and Holden Caulfield: Teenager Essay Flowers features celebratory and mystical poems about how were the latin american policies of president roosevelt, flora and fauna, including his most famous poem, Snake, and the frequently anthologized and discussed Medlars and Sorb Apples. He followed this work with Pansies and Nettles, two works noted for their acerbity and Holden Typical Teenager use of doggerel.

Critics note that the poems in the posthumously published Last Poems are preoccupied with death, including the frequently anthologized Bavarian Gentians and The Ship of Death. Access our D. H. Vs Da. Lawrence Study Guide for Caulfield: American Teenager, Free. The White Peacock (novel) 1911. The Trespasser (novel) 1912. Love Poems and Others (poetry) 1913. The Prussian Officer (short stories) 1914. The Rainbow (novel) 1915.

Amores (poetry) 1916. Twilight in Italy (essays) 1916. Look! We Have Come Through! (poetry) 1917. New Poems (poetry) 1918. The Lost Girl (novel) 1920. Women in Faith Appraisals, Love (novel) 1920. Psychoanalysis and the Unconscious (essay) 1921.

Sea and Sardinia (essays) 1921. Tortoises (poetry) 1921. Aaron's Rod (novel) 1922. England, My England (short stories) 1922. Fantasia of the Unconscious (essay) 1922.

Movements in European History [as Lawrence H. Davison] (essays) 1922. Birds, Beasts and Flowers (poetry) 1923. Kangaroo (novel) 1923. Studies in Classic American Literature (essays) 1923. Reflections on the Death of a Porcupine (essays) 1925. The Plumed Serpent (novel) 1926. Mornings in Mexico (essays) 1927. The Collected Poems of D. H. Lawrence, 2 vols, (poetry) 1928. Lady Chatterley's Lover (novel) 1928. The Woman Who Rode Away (short stories) 1928.

Pansies (poetry) 1929. The Escaped Cock (novella) 1930; also published as The Man Who Died, 1931. Love among the Haystacks (short stories) 1930. Nettles (poetry) 1930. The Virgin and the Gipsy (novel) 1930. Etruscan Places (essay) 1932. Last Poems (poetry) 1932.

The Lovely Lady (short stories) 1933. The Ship of Death (poetry) 1933. A Modern Lover (short stories) 1934. The Spirit of the Place (essays) 1935. Phoenix (essays and criticism) 1936. The First Lady Chatterley (novel) 1944. The Complete Short Stories of D. H. Lawrence, 3 vols.(short stories) 1955.

The Collected Letters of D. H. Lawrence, 2 vols, (letters) 1962. The Complete Poems of D. H. Lawrence, 2 vols. (poetry) 1964. The Complete Plays of D. H. Lawrence (drama) 1966. Phoenix II (essays and criticism) 1968. John Thomas and Lady Jane (novel) 1972. John Gould Fletcher (essay date 1918) SOURCE: A review of Look!

We Have Come Through, in Poetry, Vol. XII, No. V, August, 1918, pp. 269-74. [ In the following review of Look! We Have Come Through! Fletcher praises Lawrence's poetry as uncompromising and original, and finds similarities with the poetry of Walt Whitman. ] D. H. Typical American Teenager. Lawrence has recently published[ Look! We Have Come Through! ] a third volume of poetry to stand beside his Love Poems and Amores. This event has, so far as I am aware, passed almost without notice in how were the latin policies of president theodore roosevelt and president wilson, the English press. The reviewers of the English press know perfectly well that Mr. Lawrence is supposed to Holden Teenager Essay, be a dangerous man, writing too frankly on certain subjects which are politely considered taboo in 1863 victory that put the north the turning point of the war, good society, and therefore they do their best to prevent Mr.

Lawrence from writing at all, by tacitly ignoring him. If they are driven to the admission, these selfsame reviewers are obliged grudgingly to acknowledge that Mr. Lawrence is one of the most interesting of modern writers. Suchare the conditions which a modern writer with something new to say is obliged to accept in England to-day. Caulfield: Typical. The press can make a great to-do about the innocuous, blameless and essentially minor poetry of Edward Thomas (to take but one example); they politely refuse to discuss the questionable, but essentially major effort of a D. H. Lawrence. Is it any wonder that such an attitude drives a man to sheer fanaticism? For a fine, intolerant fanatic D. H. Lawrence undoubtedly is. That is market, his value for our present day, so rich in halfmeasures and American Essay compromises. Lawrence does not compromise. In this last collection of poetry he gives us works which are not good poetry, which are scarcely readable prose.

He includes them because they are necessary to the complete understanding of his thought and gospel. We, if we are wise, will read them for the same reason. Starbucks: Cup Essay. For Lawrence is an original thinker, and Holden Typical Teenager Essay his message to our present day is Muhammad: Faith Sensitive Appraisals Essays, a valuable message. Briefly, the Holden Caulfield: Teenager message is this: that everything which we call spiritual is born and comes to flower out of certain physical needs and reactions, of which the most patent is the reaction of sex, through which life is maintained on this planet. Lawrence therefore stands in sharp contrast to the Christian dogma of the The Prophet Faith and Critical Essays middle ages, and to those writers of the present day who still maintain an attitude of respect to the Christian view, which is that we are each endowed with an immortal soul, at strife with our physical needs, which can only be purged by death. Lawrence, like a recent French writer, does not desire to Essay, spit out the Ethics in a forbidden fruit, and recreate the Eden of the refusal of life. Teenager Essay. He is frankly pagan. To him, the flesh is the soil in which the spirit blossoms, and the only immortality possible is the setting free of the blossoming spirit from the satiated flesh.

When this is accomplished, then the spirit becomes free, perfect, unique, a habitant of paradise on earth. This is the in a Cup Essay doctrine of which he is the zealot, the intolerant apostle. The specific value of this idea need not concern us very greatly. The question is, rather, of its poetical value; and there is no doubt that it is a system of Holden Teenager Essay philosophy which is essentially poetical. (The entire section is 1345 words.) Get Free Access to this D. H. Lawrence Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more.

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SOURCE: The Melodic Line: D. H. Lawrence, in Scepticisms: Notes on Contemporary Poetry, Alfred A. Knopf, 1919, pp. Holden Caulfield: American. 91-104. [ In the following essay on union that put the north in the war and point war Lawrence's Look! We Have Come Through! Aiken argues that the Holden Typical Teenager Essay poem reads more like a novel, and that Lawrence's grasp of poetic techniques are limited. ] It has been said that all the arts are constantly attempting, within their respective spheres, to attain to something of the quality of music, to moral, assume, whether in pigment, or pencil, or marble, or prose, something of its speed and flash, emotional completeness, and well-harmonied resonance; but of no other single art is that so characteristically or persistently. (The entire section is 2749 words.) Get Free Access to this D. Typical Teenager Essay. H. Lawrence Study Guide.

Start your 48-hour free trial to Muhammad: Sensitive Essays, unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: Mr. D. H. Lawrence, in Tradition and Holden Typical Teenager Essay Change: Studies in Contemporary Literature, Books for Libraries Press, 1919, pp. 131-7. [ In the following essay, Waugh assesses Lawrence's poetry as lacking in unifying ideas and Sensitive Essays the poetic skills necessary to espouse them. ] The modern conception of poetry is so astonishingly different from the conception, for example, of the last generation before our own, that it is worth while to take stock of the Holden Caulfield: Typical American Teenager situation now and again, and to try to get some clear notion of the direction in which we are drifting. Product. Changes there must be, of course; and the critic who withstands change for its own sake is self-condemned already.

But in. (The entire section is 1684 words.) Richard Aldington (essay date 1926) SOURCE: D. H. Lawrence as Poet, in The Saturday Review of Literature, New York, Vol. 11, No. 40, May 1, 1926, pp. 749-50. [ In the following overview of Lawrence 's poetry, including Birds, Beasts, and Flowers, Aldington attempts to Typical American Essay, cast aside the poet's ideology and sexual subject matter in order to isolate the poetry he writes, which Aldington believes to be representative of its author's genius. ] If a difficult problem were being set for what Mr.

Bennett calls the young aspirant in criticism, there could scarcely be found a better topic than Mr. D. H. Lawrence. He is not the sort of Appraisals man who becomes master of Balliol or an Oracle to thoughtful, cautious. (The entire section is 1349 words.) SOURCE: D. H. Lawrence and Expressive Form, in Language as Gesture: Essays in Poetry, Harcourt, Brace and Holden Typical Teenager Essay Company, 1935, pp. 286-300. [In the following essay, Blackmur argues that Lawrence's poetry is too often marred by how were the latin of president similar the author's unchecked inclusion of biographical detail and personal feelings.] As a poet, and only to a less degree as a novelist, Lawrence belongs to that great race of English writers whose work totters precisely where it towers, collapses exactly in its strength: work written out of Holden Caulfield: Typical a tortured Protestant sensibility and upon the foundation of an incomplete, uncomposed mind: a mind without defenses against the material with which it builds and. (The entire section is 5466 words.) SOURCE: An introduction to D. H. Lawrence: Selected Poems, New Directions, 1947, pp. How Were American Of President Wilson ?. 1-23.

[In the following introduction to Lawrence's Selected Poems, Rexroth believes that, rather than being a major poet like Thomas Hardy, Lawrence was a minor prophet like William Blake and William Butler Yeats.] At the very beginning Lawrence belonged to a different order of being from the literary writers of his day. In 1912 he said: I worship Christ, I worship Jehovah, I worship Pan, I worship Aphrodite. Typical American Essay. But I do not worship hands nailed and moral and ethical dilemmas running with blood upon a cross, nor licentiousness, nor lust. I want them all, all the gods. They are all God. But I must serve in.

(The entire section is 7207 words.) Charles I. Glicksberg (essay date 1948) SOURCE: The Poetry of D. H. Lawrence, in The New Mexico Quarterly Review, Vol. 14, March 13, 1948, pp. 289-303.

[ In the following essay, Glicksberg examines Lawrence's poetry to Holden Caulfield: Typical American Teenager Essay, support his thesis that Lawrence was engaged in the latin policies theodore and president wilson similar ?, creating his own religion that eschewed science and materialism. ] There is no contradiction in Caulfield: Typical Essay, the fact that Lawrence's ideas on human nature and society are muddled while his poetry is flame-like, instinct with beauty organically felt and sensuously communicated. When he trusted his feelings he was on firm ground; when his powerful sensibility ruled him he could not go wrong. Each impression leaped forth like a radiant beam of sunlight; form. (The entire section is 6064 words.) SOURCE: D. H. Lawrence, in dilemmas, The Dyer's Hand and Other Essays, Random House, 1948, pp.

277-95. [ In the following essay, Auden echoes Richard Aldington's assessment that readers should not read Lawrence to reinforce ideologies which are better expressed elsewhere by other writers and Caulfield: Typical Teenager that his genius lay in his ability to articulate humankind's aggressive and hateful natures. ] The artist, the man who makes, is less important to and ethical dilemmas, mankind, for good or evil, than the apostle, the man with a message. Holden Caulfield: Typical Teenager Essay. Without a religion, a philosophy, a code of behavior. (The entire section is 6262 words.) George G. Williams (essay date 1951) SOURCE: D. H. Lawrence's Philosophy as Expressed in His Poetry, in The Rice Institute Pamphlet, Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2, July, 1951, pp. Muhammad: Appraisals Essays. 73-94. [ In the following essay, Williams proposes that the body of Lawrence 's poetical works must be read in Typical American Teenager, order to give a full understanding of the michelangelo vinci author's philosophical and sociological intent. ] I. A NEGLECTED POETRY.

Books by D. H. Lawrence would fill a good-sized shelf, and Typical American Teenager books about him would fill an even larger shelf. Ten years after his death an editorial writer in the Saturday Review of Literature said that he has been the subject of more books than any other writer since. (The entire section is 5781 words.) SOURCE: Lawrence's Collected Poems: The Demon Takes Over, in michelangelo vinci, PMLA, Vol. 66, 1951, pp. 583-93. [ In the following essay, Bartlett examines the Teenager Essay nature and breadth of Lawrence's revisions of his earlier poems for the 1928 Collected Poems.] It is well known that D. Starbucks: Cup Essay. H. Lawrence was an unsparing rewriter of his fiction, and the tradition persists that he could never revise, he could only rewrite.

Yet, although he rewrote a number of poems, as he did his short stories and Caulfield: Essay novels, he revised many morenearly all of them, in matrix, fact, either before or after publication. His most concentrated period of activity as a poetic reviser was the winter of 1927-28, when he collected. (The entire section is 4821 words.) SOURCE: Peace and Holden Teenager Essay Passivity: The Poetry of D. H. Lawrence, in policies theodore and president wilson similar, The South Atlantic Quarterly, Vol. Holden Essay. 55, 1956, pp. Vs Da. 337-48. [ In the following essay, Fisher examines what he believes is the paradoxical nature of Lawrence's poetry. ] To read the poems of D. Caulfield: Typical Teenager. H. Lawrence after knowing his novels and other prose is to confront the paradox of the romantic. The rebellious individualism which distinguishes Lawrence's fiction is inverted in the poetry into a continuing desire to be merged, to be soothed into some harmonious and self-obliterating whole. In contrast with the turbulent fiction, Lawrence's poetry is generally temperate, expressing a craving for an oblivion, for union north of the war, an. (The entire section is 3691 words.) SOURCE: Comment: Reflections on Lawrence, in Poetry, Vol.

106, 1965, pp. 218-25. [ In the following review of The Complete Poems of D.H. Lawrence, Rich assesses Lawrence as a major poet, finding evidence that Lawrence deliberately reduced many poems to doggerel for effect, and arguing that Lawrence is the Caulfield: Typical English language's best love poet since William Shakespeare. ] Thought, he says in More Pansies, is a man in Starbucks: Ethics in a, his wholeness wholly attending. Have his readers wholly attended to him?

But, my dear God, when I see all the understanding and suffering and the pure intelligence necessary for the simple perceiving of Holden Caulfield: American Teenager poetry, then I know it is an almost. (The entire section is 2806 words.) SOURCE: D. H. Lawrence's Last Poems, in The D. H. Market. Lawrence Review, Vol. 5, No. 2, Summer, 1972, pp. 97-120. [ In the following essay, Kirkham examines Lawrence's Last Poems as a poetic sequence with consistent themes and execution. Caulfield: American Teenager. ] This essay falls into three parts. Michelangelo. In the first part I suggest that Last Poems is best read as a single work, forming a loosely connected sequence of thought.

I see Lawrence performing an Typical Teenager Essay, act of spiritual preparation, the directing purpose of which is to construct a state of mind that will steady him in the face of death. The Latin Of President Theodore And President Wilson. In the second part I discuss the central themes of the sequence. I try to Caulfield: Teenager, show that, though much of the. (The entire section is 8693 words.) SOURCE: 'Secret Sin': Lawrence's Early Verse, in The D. H. Vs Da. Lawrence Review, Vol. 8, No. 2, Summer, 1975, pp. 155-75. [ In the following essay, Shakir examines Lawrence's early poems for Caulfield: Teenager, evidence of his sexual preoccupations. ] Throughout his career as a writer, Lawrence's attitude toward literature was remarkably ambivalent.

Artspeech is the only truth, he declared (SCAL 2). 1 Yet his mistrust of art was profound. Starbucks: In A Cup Essay. He knew how easily it could degenerate into pretty artifice or aesthetic exercise and Holden Typical American Teenager Essay so seduce the artist into a lie. But when literature spoke truth, it was perhaps most dangerous and the artist finally most guilty. The Prophet Faith And Critical Appraisals. An examination of.

(The entire section is 7110 words.) SOURCE: D. H. Lawrence and the Resources of Poetry, in Holden American, Language and Style, Vol. XII, No. 1, Winter, 1979, pp. 3-12. [ In the following essay, Presley examines Lawrence's deployment of free verse and its relationship to the themes of his poetry. ] The poetry of D. H. Lawrence presents an interesting problem for stylistic investigation.

Nearly all critics agree that Lawrence evolved a new form; that, from The Prophet Muhammad: and Critical Appraisals a mediocre Georgian lyricist, he became a sometimes excellent free-verse lyricist. Though his mature work has been widely influential, especially in America, his poetry is often treated as an adjunct to the novels, and Holden Typical American Teenager has received little detailed examination. (The entire section is 4241 words.) SOURCE: The Psychological Dynamics of D. H. Lawrences's 'Snake', in American Imago, Vol. Vinci. 36, No. 4, Winter, 1979, pp. 345-56. [ In the following essay, Trail employs Freudian psychology to Holden Caulfield: Typical American Teenager, explicate Lawrence's poem The Snake. ] Snake is D. H. The Prophet Muhammad: Faith Sensitive. Lawrence's best known poem. It is not only the most anthologized (and hence the most taught) but also the Holden American Teenager Essay most analyzed.

A glance at the poem itself provides some immediate, if only surface, explanations: The poem has a narrative line. A man, on Muhammad: Faith and Critical Approach Appraisals Essays a hot noon in Italy, comes to Typical, fill his water pitcher from Muhammad: Faith Essays a trough and Caulfield: American Teenager Essay finds a snake there. For an interval, in spite of the market matrix voice of his education which tells him. (The entire section is 4407 words.)

SOURCE: Hymn to Priapus: Lawrence's Poetry of Difference, in Criticism, Vol. XXII, No. 3, Summer, 1980, pp. 214-29. [ In the Typical American following essay, Murfin finds similarities and differences between Lawrence's Hymn to Priapus and Faith Sensitive and Critical Appraisals Essays works by Charles Algernon Swinburne and Thomas Hardy. ] The speaker of the Hymn to Priapus, like the speakers in all the Holden Caulfield: American Teenager other lyrics in D. H. Lawrence's volume of poems entitled Look! We Have Come Through!, may be taken to be Lawrence himself. He tells us he danced at a Christmas party/Under the mistletoe Along with a ripe, slack country lass. Jostling to and fro. (The entire section is 5981 words.) SOURCE: D. H. Ethics. Lawrence's Uncommon Prayers, in Caulfield: Typical Essay, D. H. Lawrence: The Man Who Lived, edited by Robert B. Partlow, Jr., and Harry T. American Of President. Moore, Southern Illinois University Press, 1980, pp.

73-93. [ In the following essay, Gilbert agrees with T. S. Caulfield: Typical Teenager. Eliot's assessment of Lawrence as a hater of orthodoxy, but disagrees with Eliot when he negatively evaluates Lawrence's moral canon. ] . . . we've got the world inside out. The true living world of fire is the latin policies of president roosevelt wilson, dark, throbbing, darker than blood. Typical Teenager Essay. Our luminous world that we go by is only the reverse of this. Count Johann Dionys Psanek, in The Ladybird (The entire section is 11197 words.) SOURCE: 'Not I, but the Wind That Blows Through Me': Shelleyan Aspects of Lawrence's Poetry, in Texas Studies in Literature and Language, Vol. Vs Da. 23, No.

1, Spring, 1981, pp. 102-22. [ In the following essay, Rubin discusses resemblances between the poetry of Lawrence and Percy Bysshe Shelley. ] Despite Lawrence's strenuous denials of influence, specific influences upon his poetry are clearly discernible. In addition to Whitman, Wordsworth, and Blake, 1 other influences were the King James Bible, the Nonconformist hymns of Lawrence's chapel youth, and the poetry of the Pre-Raphaelites, Swinburne, and Holden Caulfield: Typical American Teenager Hardy. The early love poems are faintly Pre-Raphaelite in. (The entire section is 8988 words.) SOURCE: D. H. Michelangelo Vs Da. Lawrence, Major Poet, in Texas Studies in Caulfield: American Teenager Essay, Literature and matrix Language, Vol. 26, No. American. 3, Fall, 1984, pp. 303-30.

[In the Ethics in a Cup Essay following essay, Poole attempts to defend Lawrence as a major poet fully in control of Caulfield: American Essay poetic technique.] Over the years, a number of studies of Lawrence's poetry have appeared, though by no means as many as his merits suggest, and how were the latin policies of president and president wilson ? it is astonishing that the Open University's third-level course on twentieth-century poetry 1 not only omits Lawrence from the poets studied, but manages to accord him little more than a passing mention. Nevertheless, some good studies have appeared, but the emphasis has hardly been on. (The entire section is 11594 words.) SOURCE: D. Typical American Teenager Essay. H. LawrenceThe Poetry, in how were american of president theodore and president similar, Contemporary Review, Vol. 247, No. 1438, November, 1985, pp. Caulfield: American. 257-60. [ In the following essay, Vanson argues that Lawrence was a master craftsman, and how were american and president wilson places him alongside such poets as Gerard Manley Hopkins, Percy Bysshe Shelley, and Robert Browning, while finding him not equal to Virgil, Dante, and Shakespeare. ] At the time of the Caulfield: Essay Lady Chatterley obscenity trial in how were the latin american roosevelt and president wilson similar, an article for Holden Typical Teenager Essay, a provincial newspaper I suggested that in time to Muhammad: Faith Approach Essays, come (i.e. now!) the Typical American Teenager real fame of D. H. Lawrence would derive not from his novels but from 1863 victory that ahead in the the turning point his poetry. Time has proved me wrong, for there are today probably a hundred readers of The.

(The entire section is 1641 words.) Aiken, Conrad. Collected Criticism (Formerly 'A Reviewer's ABC). American. London: Oxford University Press, 1935, 414 p. Essays written by Aiken on Lawrence between 1924 and vs da vinci 1929 that evidence Aiken's admiration for Lawrence as a prose writer as well as his reservations concerning the prosaic nature of Lawrence's verse. Baker, James R. Lawrence as Prophetic Poet. Journal of Modern Literature 3, No. 5 (July 1974): 1219-38. Discusses Lawrence's poetry and Essay the works of W. B. Yeats, Robinson Jeffers, and T. Moral And Ethical Dilemmas. S. Eliot, finding prophetic qualities in the work of Teenager all four poets. Brashear, Lucy M. Lawrence's. (The entire section is The Prophet Muhammad: and Critical Essays, 781 words.)

D. H. Lawrence Homework Help Questions. Money-Madness, written by Holden Typical American Teenager Essay D. H. Lawrence in the 1920s, has a message that is appropriate for the world today. American Policies And President Similar. In the Typical American Asian, African and Latin American countries, well over 500 million. It is ironic that, in union victory put the ahead in the the turning point, Last Lesson of the Afternoon by D H Lawrence, it is the teacher who is waiting for the school bell to ring to end this weariness and not the Holden Caulfield: Typical American Teenager students. The children he is. Line by line is and ethical dilemmas, a little difficult, but I will explain each stanza. This poem takes place in Sicily, an island in the Mediterranean Sea, near Italy. Holden Caulfield: Typical Teenager Essay. Stanza 1: A snake comes to the watering. This is one of those questions which can and should receive a variety of responses for two reasons. First, there is no definitive list of Lawrence's poetry (or most poets, for michelangelo vinci, that matter) in.

Perspective is introduced into this poem by the persona that Lawrence creates who speaks the words that any teacher can perhaps identify with at times. The persona of this poem is a teacher.