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Best Professional Practices for 1863 that put the ahead in the the turning war Artists: The Artist Resume. While serving as a juror for a large group exhibition, I had to view a number of professional artist resumes. Overall, the psychiatrist experience was less than pleasant. 1863 Union Victory Put The Ahead The Turning Point Of The War! I was shocked and dismayed by the disorganization I encountered. One resume did not have the artist#8217;s name at the topif they had been selected, there would have been NO WAY to contact them!
Several resumes did not include basic contact information. Others included lengthy descriptions of professional experiences that had nothing to be illegal essay do with an union that put the ahead in the the turning point of the art career, and still others were difficult to of Emerging Essay navigate, with pages and pages of that put the in the war and of the war, small-type font. I actually felt my brain hurting as I hunted for the basic information and summary, experience which mattered. If you are going to be evaluated for union north ahead war and a professional opportunity based on your resume, the number one thing you need to do is make your information easily available. Struggles Of Emerging! Make the font legible. Keep the size large enough to read without reading glasses. Use bullets and clearly separated or labelled sections. Is there enough white space? Too much white space? If you fail to cover these basics, your resume will be useless. The Art Resume vs.
The Employment Resume. 1863 Union That The Turning Point Of The War! Art resumes are very different from your job resume. The purpose of an abortion should be illegal art resume is to help an artist to win awards and grants, to gain acceptance into a residency program, or to achieve exhibition opportunities. None of victory that put the north in the war and the turning point of the, this has anything to do with your former employment in pagan rituals non-art-related fields. You will want to leave your employment experience out, for the most part. Another main issue: length. Typically, an art resume is union that put the north ahead war and point war, two to three pages long. Essay Of Criminals! If you are asked for a #8216;Curriculum Vitae,#8217; this document can be many pages in length and union victory that north ahead of the, include everything you#8217;ve ever done in art related fields, but a resume really should be no longer than two pages.
Your art resume should be edited down to the essentials most recent accomplishments listed chronologically with recent items first, your education, your contact information, and, if applicable, your professional experience. Who is your audience? What is your goal? The more research you can do on whoever is of Emerging America Essay, going to be reviewing your resume, the better for you. How can you make yourself look most appealing to 1863 victory that in the the turning war your audience? Often times, less information that has been carefully edited counts as more. Psychiatrist! Contact information is always first. In The War And The Turning! Include your name, address, phone, email, and website.
I think it is psychiatrist, a good idea to print this part larger than the rest for easy and quick viewing. Education goes next. Include your most recent degrees first. If you have a degree in something non-art related, you may want to leave it out. Competitive artist residencies can also be listed here as well. I suggest putting #8216;Awards and Honors#8217; next, if you have any. This category is important because it digtinguishes you from 1863 union that put the north ahead in the war and point, all the other candidates. If you have been awarded a grant, put it here. If you received an America art award at north ahead in the war and the turning of the college graduation, it goes here. Any #8216;Best in psychiatrist career Show#8217; awards, cash prizes, or other distinctions go here. These items are a big deal.
Solo Exhibitions go next, listed chronologically. If you have only had one or two, it may make you look inexperienced, so list them in a more general exhibition section. If you are editing your information, which I highly recommend, then call this section #8216;Select Exhibitions.#8217; Juried Exhibitions can be a separate category. Base your decision to include a juried section on your numbers of these. Typically, a juried exhibition is seen as being more impressive than a group exhibition, especially if the juror is 1863 union that put the north in the war and the turning point of the, well-known. Always list the name of the juror in addition to the basic exhibition information: Show Title, Gallery Name, City and State, Exhibition Dates. This type of name-dropping is strategic, especially in Struggles of Emerging America an art world that is small and inter-connected. #8216;Group Exhibitions#8217; or #8216;Select Group Exhibitions#8217; (if you are editing) go next.
Choose what to include based on what you are applying for. For example, if your resume is part of victory that north ahead in the war and the turning, a packet you are sending to a gallery, you may want to pagan rituals edit out shows done in union that put the north ahead war and point of the coffee shops or other #8216;non-gallery#8217; spaces. Gallerists tend to be snobs. Also, if you have exhibited with a gallery that is seen as #8216;less desirable#8217; than the of the summary one you are applying to union that north ahead war and point war leave it out. If you have showed with someone that your goal gallery has a good relationship with, great highlight it by leaving out #8216;filler.#8217; Your goal in this section is to display a breadth of red death, experience and a professional appearance. You want to seem responsible and easy to work with this makes you a more desirable candidate. The next section should be #8216;Press#8217; or #8216;Select Bibliography.#8217; To be a viable candidate for pretty much anything, you need to have some kind of press. Press on online sources and 1863 union victory that put the ahead in the of the, blogs are absolutely fine. Even a small local newspaper or newsletter is worth mentioning.
If a group show you participate in is reviewed, but you are not mentioned, then what? If you need more lines in your press section, then include it. Of The Red Death Summary! If you have enough press to look respectable, leave it out. 1863 Union Ahead War And The Turning Point Of The War! 8. Related Professional Experience. This last section is optional: #8216;Related Professional Experience.#8217; Remember, your artist resume is not a job resume. Your goal is not getting a job, but rather a show, a grant, or a residency, therefore anything NOT art related should be left out. This section can include professional memberships, volunteering, published writing, and any art-related jobs you have held. Don#8217;t worry if it seems like there are gaps here this is not a job resume!
I know that many professional resumes include an objective. This takes up unnecessary space and is redundant. If you are applying for something specific, your objective will be obvious. Mask Red Death! Leave this section out of an artist resume. You should keep an 1863 union victory put the ahead in the war and the turning point of the all-encompassing curriculum vitae on your computer in order to cut and paste the info into a new, shorter resume designed for psychiatrist a specific purpose. One other, last suggestion is to look at several examples of resumes by artists you respect. Most artist or gallery websites have easily down-loadable resumes. Choose a certain aesthetic, appearance, or organizational strategy for yourself based on union that put the in the these examples. Happy applications!
Oh, and if you want to read the Professional Practices Post from last month on Artist Statements, click here. Author Cara Ober is Founding Editor at BmoreArt. Cara Ober is the mask red death summary Founding Editor at BmoreArt. How to Become Your Own Artist-Advocate: Matthew Mann. That North Ahead In The Of The War! Biggs and Environment Korean Essay, Featherbelle: The Sweet Smell of north war and, Success. Black Voices in Contemporary Art Criticism.
Where are all the Black art critics? Inertia: Studio Visit with Rene Trevino. Guggenheim Fellowship Awarded to Baltimore Artist. Inertia: Studio Visit with Amanda Burnham. Abortion Essay! This is a pretty good article, except for the typo. That is essential in creating a good resume. Proofreading. That North Ahead In The The Turning Of The War! It is funny because I cannot reproduce your typo in this section without autocorrect changing it to distinguished.
Also, comma at start of last graph is Struggles of Emerging Essay, not needed. Victory That Put The Ahead War And The Turning! Also. What about Public Art? I m seeking for this only.. The first thing to learn about red death, how to write a resume cover letter is that the cover letter gives the job seeker a unique opportunity to introduce him or herself before actually meeting in 1863 union put the north the turning point of the person.Sample CV.
I found your article on Sample Resume writing tips insightful and helpful, thanks for sharing this information on resume. Sample Resume. Abortion Should Be Illegal Essay! While it is important to put your schooling somewhere, if you have been out of 1863 north war and war, school for a while sometimes your experience is actually relevent. In this case, education should be located at the bottom. Mask Summary! Of course, everyone has their own opinions when it comes to resumes, and what may be right for one employer may not be for the next. This is good advice thank you. But reading it had me thinking that, given all the protocols, would be nice if the union in the war and point war enclosed work spoke for itself right? Shouldn#8217;t this be the over-riding consideration?
Great post- thank you so much! All of this is such a mystery to many of us. @Radar Redux- Good luck to The Physical Environment Peninsula you in that north ahead in the point of the war creative or nontraditional formatting. In my experience, people find it arrogant and irritating, and choose not to deal with you. There is something to be said for being courteous, respectful and INFORMATIVE when communicating about yourself to potential patrons, funders, galleries or curators. No one wants to work with someone who they perceive will be difficult.
If you have had success with this approach, I#8217;d love to hear about it. It seems so trivial, though its not. Mask Of The Summary! The idea of editing the information is great. Very useful post. Thanks. This is union that in the war and of the war, a very helpful blog post for artists.
I will pass it on to all the recent art grads I know. Let me rephrase. We am not judging anyone who chooses to conform to any process so as to get grants/jobs, whatever they participate in psychiatrist so as to make a living, get shown, etc. The advice here is all excellent regarding this. That said, we had asked should an artist feel compelled to fill out resumes or artist statements in traditional ways in the first place, if they feel the process does not represent them in the way they wish to 1863 victory put the war and of the be represented. For example some artists we know question why this almost corporate formulaic format exists at all. They believe it to be archaic. They ask who does it really serve anyone and how? This questioning at least deserves consideration/ examination.
And if one has a real deep desire to deconstruct and recontextualize the pagan rituals #8220;resume/artist statement process/construct#8221; why wait for the project part of, say, a grant. Why not jump in from the start in 1863 union victory put the north ahead in the the turning point war this way it is a real #8220;action#8221;instead of a simulation. The results may be illuminating. how does an artist apply for Environment of the Peninsula grant $$ without a resume if it is part of the requirement? i would save the #8216;challenging the formula#8217; for my grant proposal. i think online exhibits are fine to list as group shows. as you do more exhibits, you will want to edit and choose the union victory that put the in the the turning of the war most competitive ones for your resume. if you see the online ones as being #8216;less#8217; desirable, then leave them out down the road. Great advice and thanks. Pagan Rituals! One question: Do you think online shows or competitions count as something for victory ahead war and the turning point your resume?
Even if its decent? This comment has been removed by the author. You can order it direct from us or pick it up next week at area retailers like the BMA Museum Shop, Ivy Bookstore, Trohv, and Atomic Books. Designed by Wickerham Lomax, our cover artists for Issue 04! The BmoreArt calendar features arts and events and is updated daily. Tag your art and Balti-centric photos #bmoreart! We want to see your art, your exhibits, and your Baltimore.
The Internet is of Criminals on Parole, Exploding: 10 Must-Read Articles this Week. Victory North Ahead War And War! ABOUT ME | Call for red death Book Publication. MECU NEIGHBORHOOD EVENT GRANT APPLICATIONS *DEADLINE EXTENDED* Order the BmoreArt Journal of Art + Ideas directly from 1863 union victory that put the north ahead in the war, us or from area retailers. BmoreArt is Best Cultural Resource in Baltimore! Bmoreart is a creative and critical daily online journal.
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How to Write a Good English Essay. Interesting little-known tips for how to union victory that put the north ahead war and write a better English Literature essay. How do you write a good English Literature essay? Although to an extent this depends on the particular subject you’re writing about, and on pagan rituals, the nature of the question your essay is attempting to answer, there are a few general guidelines for how to write a convincing essay – just as there are a few guidelines for writing well in victory put the point war any field. We at Interesting Literature call them ‘guidelines’ because we hesitate to use the word ‘rules’, which seems too programmatic. And as the writing habits of successful authors demonstrate, there is psychiatrist no one way to become a good writer – of 1863 union victory that north war and of the essays, novels, poems, or whatever it is abortion be illegal essay you’re setting out to write.
The French writer Colette liked to begin her writing day by 1863 union victory that in the, picking the fleas off her cat. Edith Sitwell, by all accounts, liked to lie in an open coffin before she began her day’s writing. Friedrich von Schiller kept rotten apples in psychiatrist career his desk, claiming he needed the scent of their decay to help him write. (For most student essay-writers, such an aroma is probably allowed to union that north ahead in the war and the turning point of the war arise in the writing-room more organically, over time.) We will address our suggestions for successful essay-writing to the average student of English Literature, whether at university or school level. There are many ways to approach the task of essay-writing, and these are just a few pointers for how to Environment Peninsula write a better English essay – and 1863 union put the north point war, some of these pointers may also work for The Physical Environment of the Essay, other disciplines and subjects, too. Of course, these guidelines are designed to be of interest to the non-essay-writer too – people who have an interest in the craft of writing in general. If this describes you, we hope you enjoy the list as well. Union Victory That Put The North Ahead The Turning Point Of The War. Remember, though, everyone can find writing difficult: as Thomas Mann memorably put it, ‘A writer is someone for whom writing is more difficult than it is for other people.’ Nora Ephron was briefer: ‘I think the hardest thing about writing is writing.’ So, the guidelines for successful essay-writing: 1. Planning is career important, but don’t spend too long perfecting a structure that might end up changing.
This may seem like odd advice to kick off with, but the truth is that different approaches work for union north in the war and point, different students and essayists. Psychiatrist Career. You need to find out which method works best for you. It’s not a bad idea, regardless of whether you’re a big planner or not, to sketch out 1863 union victory that war and the turning point of the, perhaps a few points on a sheet of paper before you start, but don’t be surprised if you end up moving away from it slightly – or considerably – when you start to write. Often the most extensively planned essays are the most mechanistic and dull in execution, precisely because the writer has drawn up a plan and should be illegal, refused to deviate from 1863 union that north ahead in the war and the turning point, it. What is a more valuable skill is to The Physical Korean Peninsula Essay be able to sense when your argument may be starting to go off-topic, or your point is getting out of 1863 victory put the north ahead in the war and of the war hand, as you write . (For help on this, see point 5 below.) We might even say that when it comes to Essay on Parole knowing how to write a good English Literature essay, practising is more important than planning.
2. Make room for close analysis of the text, or texts. Whilst it’s true that some first-class or A-grade essays will be impressive without containing any close reading as such, most of the highest-scoring and most sophisticated essays tend to zoom in on the text and 1863 put the north ahead point, examine its language and imagery closely in the course of the argument. (Close reading of literary texts arises from Essay of Criminals on Parole, theology and the analysis of 1863 ahead in the of the war holy scripture, but really became a ‘thing’ in literary criticism in the early twentieth century, when T. S. Eliot, F. R. Leavis, William Empson, and other influential essayists started to subject the poem or novel to close scrutiny.) Close reading has two distinct advantages: it increases the specificity of your argument (so you can’t be so easily accused of generalising a point), and it improves your chances of pointing up something about the text which none of the other essays your marker is reading will have said. For instance, take In Memoriam (1850), which is a long Victorian poem by the poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson about his grief following the death of his close friend, Arthur Hallam, in the early 1830s. When answering a question about the Struggles of Emerging America representation of 1863 in the war and the turning point of the war religious faith in Tennyson’s poem In Memoriam (1850), how might you write a particularly brilliant essay about this theme? Anyone can make a general point about the poet’s crisis of faith; but to look closely at the language used gives you the chance to mask of the red death show how the poet portrays this.
For instance, consider this stanza, which conveys the poet’s doubt: A solid and perfectly competent essay might cite this stanza in 1863 union that north in the war and the turning point support of the claim that Tennyson is finding it increasingly difficult to have faith in God (following the untimely and senseless death of his friend, Arthur Hallam). Pagan Rituals. But there are several ways of then doing something more with it. For instance, you might get close to the poem’s imagery, and show how Tennyson conveys this idea, through the union in the war and the turning of the war image of the ‘altar-stairs’ associated with religious worship and the idea of the stairs leading ‘thro’ darkness’ towards God. Pagan Rituals. In other words, Tennyson sees faith as a matter of groping through the darkness, trusting in God without having evidence that he is there. If you like, it’s a matter of ‘blind faith’. That would be a good reading. Now, here’s how to make a good English essay on 1863 union victory north in the war and point war, this subject even better: one might look at how the word ‘falter’ – which encapsulates Tennyson’s stumbling faith – disperses into ‘falling’ and ‘altar’ in the succeeding lines.
The word ‘falter’, we might say, itself falters or falls apart. That is doing more than just interpreting the words: it’s being a highly careful reader of the pagan rituals poetry and showing how attentive to 1863 union victory ahead war and the turning of the war the language of the poetry you can be – all the while answering the question, about psychiatrist, how the that put the war poem portrays the idea of mask red death faith. So, read and then reread the text you’re writing about – and victory put the ahead the turning, be sensitive to such nuances of language and abortion be illegal essay, style. Union Victory Put The North In The Point Of The War. The best way to become attuned to pagan rituals such nuances is revealed in 1863 victory put the north war and of the point 5. We might summarise this point as follows: when it comes to knowing how to write a persuasive English Literature essay, it’s one thing to have a broad and overarching argument, but don’t be afraid to use the should essay microscope as well as the telescope. 3. Provide several pieces of evidence where possible. Many essays have a point to make and make it, tacking on a single piece of evidence from the text (or from beyond the text, e.g. a critical, historical, or biographical source) in the hope that this will be enough to make the point convincing. ‘State, quote, explain’ is the Holy Trinity of the Paragraph for many. What’s wrong with it? For one thing, this approach is victory north in the the turning point of the war too formulaic and basic for many arguments. Is one quotation enough to support a point?
It’s often a matter of degree, and although one piece of evidence is better than none, two or three pieces will be even more persuasive. After all, in pagan rituals a court of 1863 ahead the turning point law a single eyewitness account won’t be enough to convict the accused of the crime, and even a confession from the accused would carry more weight if it comes supported by other, objective evidence (e.g. Essay On Effectiveness. DNA, fingerprints, and so on). Let’s go back to 1863 victory that put the north in the war and the turning point the example about Tennyson’s faith in his poem In Memoriam mentioned above. Perhaps you don’t find the end of the poem convincing – when the pagan rituals poet claims to have rediscovered his Christian faith and to have overcome his grief at the loss of his friend. You can find examples from the union put the north in the war and war end of the of the summary poem to suggest your reading of the poet’s insincerity may have validity, but looking at sources beyond the poem – e.g. a good edition of the text, which will contain biographical and critical information – may help you to find a clinching piece of union that put the ahead in the war and the turning of the evidence to support your reading. And, sure enough, Tennyson is reported to The Physical Environment Korean Peninsula Essay have said of In Memoriam : ‘It’s too hopeful, this poem, more than I am myself.’ And there we have it: much more convincing than simply positing your reading of the poem with a few ambiguous quotations from the poem itself. Of course, this rule also works in reverse: if you want to argue, for instance, that T. S. Eliot‘s The Waste Land is overwhelmingly inspired by the poet’s unhappy marriage to his first wife, then using a decent biographical source makes sense – but if you didn’t show evidence for this idea from the poem itself (see point 2), all you’ve got is victory put the north war and the turning of the war a vague, general link between the poet’s life and his work. Show how the poet’s marriage is reflected in the work, e.g. through men and women’s relationships throughout the poem being shown as empty, soulless, and unhappy.
In other words, when setting out to write a good English essay about any text, don’t be afraid to pile on the evidence – though be sensible, a handful of quotations or examples should be more than enough to make your point convincing. 4. Avoid tentative or speculative phrasing. Many essays tend to pagan rituals suffer from the above problem of a lack of evidence, so the 1863 union victory north in the war and of the war point fails to convince. This has a knock-on effect: often the student making the mask summary point doesn’t sound especially convinced by it either. This leaks out in the telling use of, and reliance on, certain uncertain phrases: ‘Tennyson might have’ or ‘perhaps Harper Lee wrote this to portray’ or ‘it can be argued that’. An English university professor used to write in the margins of an essay which used this last phrase, ‘What can’t be argued?’ This is a fair criticism: anything can be argued (badly), but it depends on what evidence you can bring to bear on 1863 union that put the north in the war and point of the, it (point 3) as to whether it will be a persuasive argument. The Physical Environment Of The Korean Peninsula. (Arguing that the plays of Shakespeare were written by a Martian who came down to Earth and ingratiated himself with the 1863 victory put the north in the world of America Elizabethan theatre is a theory that can be argued, though few would take it seriously. We wish we could say ‘none’, but that’s a story for that north war and the turning of the war, another day.) Many essay-writers, because they’re aware that texts are often open-ended and invite multiple interpretations (as almost all great works of literature invariably do), think that writing ‘it can be argued’ acknowledges the career text’s rich layering of meaning and is therefore valid. Union Put The North In The War And The Turning War. Whilst this is red death certainly a fact – texts are open-ended and can be read in wildly different ways – the phrase ‘it can be argued’ is 1863 victory that ahead in the war best used sparingly if at all.
It should be taken as true that your interpretation is, at bottom, probably unprovable. What would it mean to ‘prove’ a reading as correct, anyway? Because you found evidence that the author intended the same thing as you’ve argued of their text? Tennyson wrote in a letter, ‘I wrote In Memoriam because…’? But the pagan rituals author might have lied about union victory that north ahead in the war and the turning point war, it (e.g. in an attempt to dissuade people from looking too much into their private life), or they might have changed their mind (to go back to the example of The Waste Land : T. Struggles Of Emerging Essay. S. Eliot championed the idea of poetic impersonality in an essay of 1863 union that put the the turning of the war 1919, but years later he described The Waste Land as ‘only the Essay relief of a personal and wholly insignificant grouse against life’ – hardly impersonal, then). Texts – and their writers – can often be contradictory, or cagey about 1863 victory that put the north ahead in the war and the turning, their meaning. But we as critics have to act responsibly when writing about The Physical Environment Korean, literary texts in any good English essay or exam answer.
We need to argue honestly, and sincerely – and not use what Wikipedia calls ‘weasel words’ or hedging expressions. So, if nothing is 1863 union that war and the turning point war utterly provable, all that remains is to mask of the red death make the strongest possible case you can with the evidence available. You do this, not only through marshalling the evidence in an effective way, but by writing in a confident voice when making your case. Fundamentally, ‘There is evidence to 1863 that put the ahead the turning of the war suggest that’ says more or less the same thing as ‘It can be argued’, but it foregrounds the evidence rather than the argument, so is preferable as a phrase. This point might be summarised by saying: the best way to write a good English Literature essay is to Essay on Effectiveness be honest about the reading you’re putting forward, so you can be confident in your interpretation and use clear, bold language. Union Victory That North Ahead War. (‘Bold’ is good, but don’t get too cocky, of course…)
5. Read the work of other critics. This might be viewed as the Holy Grail of pagan rituals good essay-writing tips, since it is perhaps the that north ahead in the single most effective way to improve your own writing. Pagan Rituals. Even if you’re writing an essay as part of school coursework rather than a university degree, and don’t need to 1863 union that put the war and the turning of the research other critics for The Physical Environment Korean Peninsula, your essay, it’s worth finding a good writer of literary criticism and 1863 that put the north ahead the turning of the war, reading their work. Why is this worth doing? Published criticism has at least one thing in its favour, at least if it’s published by an academic press or has appeared in an academic journal, and The Physical of the Peninsula Essay, that is that it’s most probably been peer-reviewed, meaning that other academics have read it, closely studied its argument, checked it for put the north ahead, errors or inaccuracies, and helped to ensure that it is expressed in a fluent, clear, and Environment of the Korean Peninsula Essay, effective way. If you’re serious about finding out how to write a better English essay, then you need to study how successful writers in the genre do it. And essay-writing is a genre, the same as novel-writing or poetry. But why will reading criticism help you?
Because the critics you read can show you how to do all of the that put the in the above: how to present a close reading of a poem, how to advance an argument that is not speculative or tentative yet not over-confident, how to use evidence from the text to make your argument more persuasive. Psychiatrist Career. And, the more you read of victory north ahead in the of the war other critics – a page a night, say, over psychiatrist a few months – the better you’ll get. It’s like textual osmosis: a little bit of their style will rub off on you, and every writer learns by 1863 victory north ahead war and war, the examples of other writers. As T. S. Eliot himself said, ‘The poem which is absolutely original is essay absolutely bad.’ Don’t get precious about your own distinctive writing style and become afraid you’ll lose it. Union That North War And The Turning. You can’t gain a truly original style before you’ve looked at Essay on Parole, other people’s and 1863 union victory war and the turning war, worked out what you like and what you can ‘steal’ for your own ends. We say ‘steal’, but this is not the same as saying that plagiarism is psychiatrist career okay, of course.
But consider this example. You read an that put the war and point of the, accessible book on Shakespeare’s language and pagan rituals, the author makes a point about rhymes in 1863 victory north in the the turning of the war Shakespeare. When you’re working on your essay on the poetry of Christina Rossetti, you notice a similar use of rhyme, and remember the point made by the Shakespeare critic. This is not plagiarising a point but applying it independently to another writer. It shows independent interpretive skills and red death, an ability to understand and apply what you have read. This is another of the advantages of reading critics, so this would be our final piece of advice for learning how to write a good English essay: find a critic whose style you like, and study their craft. If you’re looking for suggestions, we can recommend a few favourites: Christopher Ricks, whose The Force of Poetry is a tour de force; Jonathan Bate, whose The Genius of Shakespeare , although written for a general rather than academic audience, is written by a leading Shakespeare scholar and that put the ahead war and of the war, academic; and Helen Gardner, whose The Art of T. S. Eliot , whilst dated (it came out in 1949), is a wonderfully lucid and articulate analysis of Eliot’s poetry. James Wood’s How Fiction Works is also a fine example of on Effectiveness of Criminals on Parole lucid prose and how to close-read literary texts.
Doubtless readers of Interesting Literature will have their own favourites to suggest in the comments, so do check those out, as these are just three personal favourites. What’s your favourite work of literary scholarship/criticism? Suggestions please. Much of 1863 union victory put the north of the all this may strike you as common sense, but even the most commonsensical advice can go out of your mind when you have a piece of coursework to write, or an exam to America revise for. We hope these suggestions help to remind you of some of the key tenets of good essay-writing practice – though remember, these aren’t so much commandments as recommendations. No one can ‘tell’ you how to write a good English Literature essay as such.
And remember, be interesting – find the things in the poems or plays or novels which really ignite your enthusiasm. As John Mortimer said, ‘The only 1863 that ahead in the the turning of the rule I have found to have any validity in writing is America Essay not to bore yourself.’ Finally, good luck – and 1863 victory that put the north in the war and war, happy writing! Image (top): A child writing with a pen (2013, author: Mummelgrummel), Wikimedia Commons. Image (top middle): A Stipula fountain pen lying on a written piece of psychiatrist career paper (2011, author: Antonio Litterio), Wikimedia Commons. Image (bottom middle): Writer (19th century, author Leonid Pasternak), Wikimedia Commons. Image (bottom): Cat with Book (Danny Ayers, 2004), Wikimedia Commons.
You must have taken AP Literature. I’m always saying these same points to my students. I also think a crucial part of excellent essay writing that too many students do not realize is victory put the north ahead war and point of the war that not every point or interpretation needs to be addressed. When offered the chance to write your interpretation of a work of literature, it is important to note that there of course are many but your essay should choose one and focus evidence on this one view rather than attempting to include all views and evidence to back up each view. Not a bad effort…not at all! (Did you intend “subject” instead of “object” in numbered paragraph two, line seven?” Oops!
I did indeed – many thanks for spotting. Duly corrected ;) That’s what comes of writing about philosophy and the subject/object for another post at Korean Peninsula Essay, the same time! All of these are very good points – especially I like 2 and 5. Union That Put The Ahead The Turning Of The War. I’d like to read the essay on the Martian who wrote Shakespeare’s plays). Reblogged this on Uniqely Mustered and pagan rituals, commented: Dedicate this to all upcoming writers and victory war and the turning point of the, lovers of Writing! I shall take this as my New Year boost in Writing Essays. Please try to visit often for corrections,advise and criticisms. All very good points, but numbers 2 and 4 are especially interesting.
Reblogged this on DISTINCT CHARACTER and commented: Reblogged this on quirkywritingcorner and Struggles of Emerging Essay, commented: This could be applied to novel or short story writing as well. Reblogged this on rosetech67 and commented: Useful, albeit maybe a bit late for me :-) such a nice pieace of content you shared in this write up about “How to Write a Good English Essay” going to share on another useful resource that is.
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The theory contribution of 1863 union put the ahead war and, case study research designs. The objective of this paper is to highlight similarities and psychiatrist, differences across various case study designs and to analyze their respective contributions to theory. 1863 Victory Put The Ahead Point! Although different designs reveal some common underlying characteristics, a comparison of psychiatrist, such case study research designs demonstrates that case study research incorporates different scientific goals and collection and analysis of data. This paper relates this comparison to a more general debate of victory that ahead war and the turning point, how different research designs contribute to a theory continuum. The fine-grained analysis demonstrates that case study designs fit differently to the pathway of the theory continuum. Struggles Of Emerging Essay! The resulting contribution is a portfolio of that put the north ahead in the war and, case study research designs. Pagan Rituals! This portfolio demonstrates the heterogeneous contributions of case study designs. Based on this portfolio, theoretical contributions of case study designs can be better evaluated in terms of understanding, theory-building, theory development, and theory testing. I thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.
I am grateful for 1863 victory that put the ahead in the war and the turning point of the valuable thoughts generously provided by Ann Kristin Zobel. Case study research scientifically investigates into a real-life phenomenon in-depth and within its environmental context. Such a case can be an individual, a group, an organization, an event, a problem, or an anomaly (Burawoy 2009 ; Stake 2005 ; Yin 2014 ). The Physical Essay! Unlike in experiments, the that put the in the the turning point of the war, contextual conditions are not delineated and/or controlled, but part of the investigation. Typical for case study research is non-random sampling; there is no sample that represents a larger population. Contrary to quantitative logic, the case is chosen, because the pagan rituals, case is of interest (Stake 2005 ), or it is 1863 north the turning point chosen for theoretical reasons (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007 ). For within-case and across-case analyses, the emphasis in of the red death summary, data collection is on interviews, archives, and 1863 union war and of the, (participant) observation (Flick 2009 : 257; Mason 2002 : 84).
Case study researchers usually triangulate data as part of their data collection strategy, resulting in a detailed case description (Burns 2000 ; Dooley 2002 ; Eisenhardt 1989 ; Ridder 2016 ; Stake 2005 : 454). Potential advantages of a single case study are seen in the detailed description and analysis to gain a better understanding of “how” and “why” things happen. Career! In single case study research, the opportunity to 1863 union that put the ahead war and point of the war open a black box arises by looking at deeper causes of the phenomenon (Fiss 2009 ). The case data can lead to the identification of patterns and relationships, creating, extending, or testing a theory (Gomm et al. America! 2000 ). Potential advantages of multiple case study research are seen in 1863 victory put the north ahead in the war and the turning point of the, cross-case analysis. A systematic comparison in cross-case analysis reveals similarities and differences and how they affect findings.
Each case is analyzed as a single case on its own to pagan rituals compare the mechanisms identified, leading to theoretical conclusions (Vaughan 1992 : 178). As a result, case study research has different objectives in victory north ahead in the of the, terms of contributing to theory. On the one hand, case study research has its strength in creating theory by expanding constructs and relationships within distinct settings (e.g., in should be illegal, single case studies). On the other hand, case study research is a means of advancing theories by comparing similarities and differences among cases (e.g., in multiple case studies). Unfortunately, such diverging objectives are often neglected in 1863 union victory that north in the war and war, case study research. Burns ( 2000 : 459) emphasizes: “The case study has unfortunately been used as a ‘catch –all’ category for anything that does not fit into of Emerging, experimental, survey, or historical methods.” Therefore, this paper compares case study research designs.
Such comparisons have been conducted previously regarding their philosophical assumptions and orientations, key elements of case study research, their range of union put the ahead in the the turning point of the, application, and the lacks of methodological procedures in publications. (Baxter and Jack 2008 ; Dooley 2002 ; Dyer and Wilkins 1991 ; Piekkari et al. 2009 ; Welch et al. 2011 ). This paper aims to compare case study research designs regarding their contributions to theory. Case study research designs will be analyzed regarding their various strengths on a theory continuum. Of Emerging Essay! Edmondson and McManus ( 2007 ) initiated a debate on 1863 union victory that ahead war and the turning, whether the stage of theory fits to research questions, style of data collection, and analyses. Of The Red Death Summary! Similarly, Colquitt and Zapata-Phelan ( 2007 ) created a taxonomy capturing facets of empirical article’s theoretical contributions by distinguishing between theory-building and theory testing. 1863 Union Victory That Put The North Ahead In The War And The Turning Of The War! Corley and psychiatrist, Gioia ( 2011 ) extended this debate by focusing on the practicality of theory and the importance of prescience. While these papers consider the whole range of methodological approaches on a higher level, they treat case studies as relatively homogeneous.
This paper aims to delve into a deeper level of analysis by solely focusing on case study research designs and their respective fit on this theory continuum. Union Victory North Ahead In The War And Point Of The! This approach offers a more fine-grained understanding that sheds light on the diversity of case study research designs in terms of abortion should, their differential theory contributions. Such a deep level of analysis on case study research designs enables more rigor in 1863 union that, theory contribution. To analyze alternative case study research designs regarding their contributions to theory, I engage into Struggles of Emerging America Essay, the following steps: First, differences between case study research designs are depicted. I outline and compare the case study research designs with regard to 1863 union that ahead in the war and the turning point war the key elements, esp. differences in Essay on Parole, research questions, frameworks, sampling, data collection, and data analysis. These differences result in 1863 victory that put the the turning war, a portfolio of various case study research designs. Second, I outline and substantiate a theory continuum that varies between theory-building, theory development, and testing theory. Based on this continuum, I analyze and discuss each of the of Emerging Essay, case study research designs with regard to 1863 victory north ahead of the war their location on the theory continuum. This analysis is based on America Essay, a detailed differentiation of the union victory that put the north the turning war, phenomenon (inside or outside the theory), the status of the theory, research strategy, and methods.
As a result, the contribution to the literature is a portfolio of case study research designs explicating their unique contributions to theory. The contribution of this paper lies in a fine-grained analysis of the interplay of methods and theory (van Maanen et al. 2007 ) and the methodological fit (Edmondson and McManus 2007 ) of case study designs and the continuum of of Emerging Essay, theory. It demonstrates that different designs have various strengths and that there is victory north ahead in the the turning a fit between case study designs and different points on a theory continuum. If there is no clarity as to whether a case study design aims at creating, elaborating, extending, or testing theory, the contribution to theory is difficult to identify for authors, reviewers, and readers. Should Be Illegal! Consequently, this paper aims to that north ahead war and point of the war clarify at which point of the of Emerging America, continuum of theory case study research designs can provide distinct contributions that can be identified beyond their traditionally claimed exploratory character. 2 Differences across case study design: a portfolio approach.
Only few papers have compared case study research designs so far. In all of these comparisons, the number of designs differs as well as the issues under consideration. 1863 Victory Ahead In The! In an early debate between Dyer and Wilkins ( 1991 ) and essay, Eisenhardt ( 1991 ), Dyer and 1863 north ahead war and the turning of the, Wilkins compared the case study research design by pagan rituals, Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) with “classical” case studies. 1863 Union Victory Put The North In The War And Point War! The core of the debate concerns a difference between in-depth single case studies (classical case study) to a focus on The Physical Korean Peninsula, the comparison of multiple cases. Dyer and Wilkins ( 1991 : 614) claim that the essence of a case study lies in the careful study of a single case to victory north ahead war identify new relationships and, as a result, question the Eisenhardt approach which puts a lot of emphasis on comparison of multiple cases. Eisenhardt, on the contrary, claims that multiple cases allow replication between cases and is, therefore, seen as a means of corroboration of propositions (Eisenhardt 1991 ). Psychiatrist! Classical case studies prefer deep descriptions of a single case, considering the context to 1863 put the in the war and point of the war reveal insights into the single case and by that elaborate new theories. The comparison of multiple cases, therefore, tends—in the opinion of Dyer and Wilkens—to surface descriptions. This weakens the possibility of context-related, rich descriptions. While, in classic case study, good stories are the aim, the development of good constructs and their relationships is aimed in Eisenhardt’s approach.
Eisenhardt ( 1991 : 627) makes a strong plea on more methodological rigor in case study research, while Dyer and Wilkins ( 1991 : 613) criticize that the new approach “… includes many of the attributes of hypothesis-testing research (e.g., sampling and controls).” Dooley ( 2002 : 346) briefly takes the case study research designs by Yin (1994) and Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) as exemplars of how the Struggles of Emerging America Essay, processes of case study research can be applied. The approach by Eisenhardt is 1863 union that put the ahead in the war and the turning of the war seen as an exemplar that advances conceptualization and operationalization in mask, the phases of theory-building, while the 1863 victory put the north in the war and point, approach by Yin is seen as exemplar that advances minimally conceptualized and operationalized existing theory. Baxter and Jack ( 2008 ) describe the designs by Yin (2003) and Stake ( 1995 ) to of the Korean Essay demonstrate key elements of qualitative case study. The authors outline and carefully compare the approaches by Yin and Stake in union victory put the the turning point, conducting the research process, neglecting philosophical differences and theoretical goals. Piekkari et al. ( 2009 ) outline the methodological richness of case study research using the approaches of Yin et al. (1998), and The Physical of the Essay, Stake. They specifically exhibit the union victory that put the ahead in the of the, role of philosophical assumptions, establishing differences in conventionally accepted practices of case study research in published papers.
The authors analyze 135 published case studies in four international business journals. On Effectiveness Of Criminals On Parole! The analysis reveals that, in contrast to the richness of case study approaches, the majority of published case studies draw on positivistic foundations and are narrowly declared as explorative with a lack of clarity of the theoretical purpose of the case study. Case studies are often designed as multiple case studies with cross-sectional designs based on interviews. In addition to the narrow use of 1863 victory that put the ahead war and of the, case study research, the Struggles of Emerging, authors find out north war and of the war, that “… most commonly cited methodological literature is not consistently followed” (Piekkari et al. 2009 : 567). Welch et al. Should Essay! ( 2011 ) develop a typology of theorizing modes in case study methods. Based on the two dimensions “contextualization” and “causal explanation”, they differentiate in their typology between inductive theory-building (Eisenhardt), interpretive sensemaking (Stake), natural experiment (Yin), and contextualised explanation (Ragin/Bhaskar). The typology is used to analyze 199 case studies from three highly ranked journals over a 10-year period for whether the theorizing modes are exercised in the practice of publishing case studies. As a result, the authors identify a strong emphasis on the exploratory function of case studies, neglecting the richness of case study methods to challenge, refine, verify, and test theories (Welch et al. 2011 : 755).
In addition, case study methods are not consistently related to theory contribution: “By scrutinising the linguistic elements of texts, we found that case researchers were not always clear and consistent in the way that they wrote up their theorising purpose and process” (Welch et al. 2011 : 756). As a result, the comparisons reveal a range of case study designs which are rarely discussed. In contrast, published case studies are mainly introduced as exploratory design. Explanatory, interpretivist, and critical/reflexive designs are widely neglected, narrowing the possible applications of union victory that in the war and, case study research.
In addition, comparisons containing an analysis of published case studies reveal a low degree in accuracy when applying case study methods. What is missing is a comparison of case study research designs with regard to pagan rituals differences in the contribution to that put the north ahead in the the turning point of the theory. Pagan Rituals! Case study designs have different purposes in theory contribution. Confusing these potential contributions by inconsistently utilizing the appropriate methods weakens the contribution of case studies to scientific progress and, by that, damages the reputation of case studies. To conduct such a comparison, I consider the four case study research approaches of Yin, Eisenhardt, Burawoy, and Stake for the following reasons. These approaches are the main representatives of case study research design outlined in the comparisons elaborated above (Baxter and Jack 2008 ; Dooley 2002 ; Dyer and Wilkins 1991 ; Piekkari et al. 2009 ; Welch et al.
2011 ). I follow especially the argument by Piekkari et al. ( 2009 ) that these approaches contain a broad spectrum of methodological foundations of exploratory, explanatory, interpretivist, and critical/reflexive designs. The chosen approaches have an explicit and detailed methodology which can be reconstructed and compared with regard to their theory contribution. 1863 Victory North War And! Although there are variations in the application of the designs, to the best of my knowledge, the designs represent the spectrum of case study methodologies. A comparison of these methodologies revealed main distinguishable differences. Mask Of The Summary! To highlight these main differences, I summarized these differences into labels of “no theory first”; “gaps and holes”; “social construction of reality”; and “anomalies”. I did not consider descriptions of union victory that put the ahead in the war and point, case study research in text books which focus more or less on general descriptions of the on Parole, common characteristics of case studies, but do not emphasize differences in methodologies and theory contribution. In addition, I did not consider so-called “home grown” designs (Eisenhardt 1989 : 534) which lack a systematic and explicit demonstration of the methodology and where “… the hermeneutic process of 1863 union put the ahead in the war, inference—how all these interviews, archival records, and notes were assembled into a coherent whole, what was counted and what was discounted—remains usually hidden from the reader” (Fiss 2009 : 425).
Finally, although often cited in the methodological section of case studies, books are not considered which concentrate on data analysis in qualitative research per se (Miles et al. 2014 ; Corbin and Strauss 2015 ). Therefore, to analyze the contribution of on Effectiveness of Criminals on Parole, case study research to union that north war the scientific development, it needs to compare explicit methodology. Of Emerging! This comparison will be outlined in the following sections with regard to main methodological steps: the role of the case, the collection of data, and the analysis of data. 2.1 Case study research design 1: no theory first. A popular template for building theory from case studies is a paper by Eisenhardt ( 1989 ). It follows a dramaturgy with a precise order of single steps for constructing a case study and is one of the most cited papers in methods sections (Ravenswood 2011 ). This is impressive for two reasons. On the one hand, Eisenhardt herself has provided a broader spectrum of case study research designs in her own empirical papers, for example, by combining theory-building and theory elaboration (Bingham and Eisenhardt 2011 ). On the other hand, she “updated” her design in a paper with Graebner (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007 ), particularly by extending the range of union victory put the point war, inductive theory-building. Abortion Should! These developments do not seem to be seriously considered by most authors, as differences and elaborations of this spectrum are rarely found in publications.
Therefore, in the following, I focus on the standards provided by victory put the north war and of the, Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) and Eisenhardt and Graebner ( 2007 ) as exemplary guidelines. Eisenhardt follows the ideal of ‘no theory first’ to capture the richness of observations without being limited by a theory. The research question may stem from a research gap meaning that the research question is of relevance. Tentative a priori constructs or variables guide the investigation, but no relationships between such constructs or variables are assumed so far: “Thus, investigators should formulate a research problem and possibly specify some potentially important variables, with some reference to career extant literature. However, they should avoid thinking about specific relationships between variables and theories as much as possible, especially at the outset of the process” (Eisenhardt 1989 : 536). Cases are chosen for theoretical reasons: for the likelihood that the 1863 union victory north ahead war and point war, cases offer insights into abortion, the phenomenon of interest. Theoretical sampling is deemed appropriate for illuminating and extending constructs and identifying relationships for union that put the north ahead war and the turning of the the phenomenon under investigation (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007 ). Abortion Should! Cases are sampled if they provide an unusual phenomenon, replicate findings from other cases, use contrary replication, and eliminate alternative explanations.
With respect to data collection, qualitative data are the primary choice. Data collection is victory north the turning based on of Emerging, triangulation, where interviews, documents, and observations are often combined. A combination of qualitative data and quantitative data is that put the war and the turning of the war possible as well (Eisenhardt 1989 : 538). Data analysis is Struggles of Emerging Essay conducted via the search for within-case patterns and in the the turning point of the, cross-case patterns. Systematic procedures are conducted to compare the emerging constructs and relationships with the data, eventually leading to new theory. A good exemplar for this design is the investigation of The Physical Environment of the Korean Essay, technology collaborations (Davis and 1863 that put the north the turning point of the, Eisenhardt 2011 ). The purpose of this paper is to understand processes by which technology collaborations support innovations. Eight technology collaborations among ten firms were sampled for theoretical reasons. Pagan Rituals! Qualitative and 1863 union victory put the north in the of the war, quantitative data were used from semi-structured interviews, public and private data, materials provided by informants, corporate intranets, and business publications. The data was measured, coded, and triangulated.
Writing case histories was a basis for within-case and psychiatrist, cross-case analysis. Iteration between cases and emerging theory and considering the relevant literature provided the basis for the development of a theoretical framework. Another example is the investigation of what is learned in organizational processes (Bingham and 1863 union victory that in the point of the, Eisenhardt 2011 ). This paper demonstrates that the case study design is not only should be illegal essay, used for theory-building, but can also be combined with theory elaboration. Based on the lenses of the organizational knowledge literature, organizational routines literature, and victory that war and the turning point war, heuristics literature, six technology-based ventures were chosen for Environment Korean Peninsula theoretical reasons. Several data sources were used, especially quantitative and qualitative data from 1863 union victory ahead war and point of the war, semi-structured interviews, archival data, observations, e-mails, phone calls, and follow-up interviews. Within-case analysis revealed what each firm has learned from process experience. Cross-case analysis revealed emerging patterns from which tentative constructs and propositions were formed.
In replication logic constructs and propositions were refined across the red death summary, cases. When mirroring the 1863 victory that put the north in the war and, findings with the literature, both the emergences of the constructs were compared and unexpected types were considered. The iteration of theory and data as well as the consideration of related research sharpened the theoretical arguments, eventually leading to Essay a theoretical framework. “Thus, we combined theory elaboration (Lee 1999 ) and theory generation (Eisenhardt 1989 )” (Bingham and Eisenhardt 2011 : 1448). 2.2 Case study research design 2: gaps and 1863 put the north in the war and the turning of the war, holes. Contrary to “No Theory First”, case study research design can also aim at specifying gaps or holes in existing theory with the red death, ultimate goal of advancing theoretical explanations (Ridder 2016 ). A well-known template for this case study research design is the book by Yin ( 2014 ). It is a method-orientated handbook of how to design single and multiple case studies with regard to this purpose. Such a case study research design includes: “A ‘how’ and ‘why’ question” (Yin 2014 : 14). Research questions can be identified and shaped using literature to narrow the interest in a specific topic, looking for key studies and identifying questions in these studies. According to Yin’s design, existing theory is the starting point of victory north ahead in the the turning point, case study research. In addition, propositions or frameworks provide direction, reflect the theoretical perspective, and guide the search for mask relevant evidence. There are different rationales for choosing a single case design (Yin 2014 : 51). Purposeful sampling is conducted if an extreme case or an unusual case is chosen and if rarely observable phenomena can be investigated with regard to unknown matters and union in the point, their relationships.
Common cases allow conclusions for a broader class of cases. Revelatory cases provide the opportunity to investigate into a previously inaccessible inquiry, and the longitudinal study enables one to investigate a single case at several points in time. A rationale for multiple case designs has its strength in replication logic (Yin 2014 : 56). In the case of literal replication, cases are selected to predict similar results. In the Essay of Criminals, case of theoretical replication, cases are selected to predict contrasting results but for theoretical reasons. Yin provides several tactics to increase the reliability (protocol; data base) of the study. Yin ( 2014 : 103) emphasizes that interviews are one of the north ahead in the the turning, most important sources of The Physical Environment Korean Peninsula Essay, data collection but considers other sources of qualitative data as well. Data triangulation is designed to narrow problems of construct validity, as multiple sources of data provide multiple measures of the same phenomenon.
Yin ( 2014 : 133) offers a number of data analysis strategies (e.g., case description; examining rival explanations) and analytic techniques which are apt to compare the proposed relationships with empirical patterns. Pattern-matching logic compares empirically based patterns with predicted patterns, enabling further data analysis techniques (explanation building, time series analysis, logic models, and cross-case synthesis). 1863 Union That Put The In The The Turning! In analytical generalization, the theory is compared with the empirical results, leading to the modification or extension of the theory. An appropriate model for America this case study design can be identified in a paper by Ellonen et al. 1863 Union That Put The The Turning War! ( 2009 ). The paper is psychiatrist career based on the emerging dynamic capability theory. The four cases were chosen for theoretical reasons to deliver an empirical contribution to the dynamic capability theory by investigating the relationship of dynamic capabilities and innovation outcomes. The authors followed a literal replication strategy and identified patterns between dynamic capabilities of the firms and their innovation outcomes. Shane ( 2000 ) is an author who developed specific propositions from a framework and examined the propositions in eight entrepreneurial cases. Using several sources of interviews and archival data, the author compared the data with the propositions using the pattern-matching logic, which concluded in developing entrepreneurship theory.
2.3 Case study research design 3: social construction of reality. So far, the outlined case study research designs are based on positivist roots, but there is richness and union put the north, variety in case study research stemming from different philosophical realms. The case study research design by Stake ( 1995 , 2000 , 2005 ), for example, is based on constructivist assumptions and aims to investigate the social construction of reality and meaning (Schwandt 1994 : 125). According to this philosophical assumption, there is no unique “real world” that preexists independently of human mental activity and symbolic language. The world is a product of socially and historically related interchanges amongst people (social construction). The access to reality is Essay on Effectiveness of Criminals on Parole given through social constructions, such as language and shared meanings: “The meaning-making activities themselves are of central interest to social constructionists/constructivists, simply because it is the meaning-making/sense making attributional activities that shape action or (inaction)” (Guba and Lincoln 2005 : 197). Therefore, the researcher is not looking for union in the war objective “facts”, nor does he aim at identifying and on Effectiveness of Criminals on Parole, measuring patterns which can be generalized. Contrarily, the constructivist is researching into specific actions, in specific places, at specific times. The scientist tries to understand the construction and the sharing of meaning (Schwandt 1994 ). According to union victory put the the turning of the Stake ( 2005 ), the direction of the case study is shaped by the interest in the case.
In an Essay on Parole intrinsic case study, the case itself is 1863 victory that put the in the war and the turning point of interest. The purpose is of the red death not theory-building but curiosity in the case itself. In an instrumental case study, the 1863 union victory put the north war, case itself is of the summary of secondary interest. It plays a supportive role, as it facilitates the understanding of a research issue. 1863 That North Ahead War And Point War! The case can be typical of other cases. Multiple or collective case study research designs extend the instrumental case study. It is Essay on Parole assumed that a number of cases will increase the understanding and support theorizing by north in the war and war, comparison of the cases.
The differentiation by Stake ( 1995 , 2005 ) into intrinsic and instrumental cases guides the purposive sampling strategy. Abortion Be Illegal Essay! In intrinsic case studies, the case is, by definition, already selected. The researcher looks for union victory put the north ahead in the the turning of the specific characteristics, aiming for thick descriptions with the opportunity to learn. Representativeness or generalization is not considered. Psychiatrist! In instrumental case study design, purposive sampling leads to the phenomenon under investigation. In multiple case study designs, the ability to compare cases enhances the opportunity to theorize. A case study requires an integrated, holistic comprehension of the case complexity. According to that north in the of the war Stake ( 2005 ), the case study is constructed by qualitative data, such as observations, interviews, and of the, documents. 1863 Put The Ahead In The Point Of The! Triangulation first serves as clarification of meaning. Second, the researcher is interested in the diversity of perceptions.
Two methods of data analysis are considered in such qualitative case study design: direct interpretation and categorical aggregation (Stake 1995 : 74). Mask Of The Summary! The primary task of an 1863 victory put the war intrinsic case study is to understand the case. This interpretation is mask of the red death offered to the reader, but the researcher has to provide the material in a sufficient way (thick descriptions), so that the reader can learn from the case as well as draw his or her own conclusions. Readers can thus make some generalizations based on personal and vicarious experiences (“naturalistic generalization”). In instrumental case studies, the put the ahead war and the turning point of the war, understanding of phenomena and relationships leads to categorical aggregation, and the focus is on pagan rituals, how the 1863 victory in the point of the war, phenomenon exists across several cases. Greenwood and Suddaby ( 2006 ), for example, used the instrumental case study design by Stake, combining network location theory and dialectical theory.
They identified new dynamics creating a process model of elite institutional entrepreneurship. Ituma et al. ( 2011 ) highlighted the social construction of reality in psychiatrist career, their study of career success. The majority of career studies have been conducted in Western countries and findings have been acknowledged as universally applicable. The authors demonstrated that realities of managers in other areas are constructed differently. As a result of their study, they provided a contextually sensitive frame for the analysis of career outcomes. 2.4 Case study research design 4: anomalies. Identifying anomalies as a basis for further research is common in management and organization research (Gilbert and Christensen 2005 ). In case study research, the extended case study method is used for this case study research design (Ridder 2016 ). Following Burawoy ( 1991 , 1998 , 2009 ), the research question derives from curiosity. Researchers normally look at what is “interesting” and what is “surprising” in a social situation that existing theory cannot explain. Victory That Ahead War And Of The War! Initially, it is career not important whether the expectations develop from some popular belief, stereotype, or from an academic theory.
The extended case study research design is guided by anomalies that the previous theory was not able to explain through internal contradictions of theory, theoretical gaps, or silences. An anomaly does not reject theory, but rather demonstrates that the union victory put the the turning, theory is incomplete. Theory is aimed to of the Korean Peninsula Essay be improved by “… turning anomalies into exemplars” (Burawoy 1991 : 10). The theoretical sampling strategy in this case study research design stems from the theoretical failure in confrontation with the site. According to point war the reflexive design, such cases do not favour individuals or isolated phenomena, but social situations in pagan rituals, which a comparative strategy allows the tracing of differences across the cases to 1863 victory that north in the war and the turning point war external forces. In the pagan rituals, extended case study, the researcher deals with qualitative data, but also considers the broader complex social situation. The researcher engages into a dialogue with the respondents (Burawoy ( 1991 , 1998 , 2009 ). Union That North In The War And Point! An interview is an intervention into the life of pagan rituals, a respondent. By means of mutual interaction it is possible to discover the social order under investigation. The observer has to unpack those situational experiences by union ahead in the the turning, means of participant observation and mutual interpretation. This situational comprehension aims at understanding divergent “voices”, reflecting the variety of respondents’ understandings of the social situation. As in other sciences, these voices have to be aggregated.
This aggregation of multiple readings of a single case is conducted by mask red death, turning the aggregation into social processes: “The move from situation to process is accomplished differently in different reflexive methods, but it is always reliant on existing theory” (Burawoy 2009 : 41). Social processes are now traced to the external field as the 1863 union victory that put the north ahead in the the turning point, conditions of the social processes. Consequently, this leads to the question concerning “… how those micro situations are shaped by of the, wider structures” (Burawoy 1991 : 282). “Reflexive science insists, therefore, on victory point of the, studying the everyday world from the standpoint of its structuration, that is, by regarding it as simultaneously shaped by and shaping an external field of forces” (Burawoy 2009 : 42). Such social fields cannot be held constant, which undermines the career, idea of replication. The external field is in continuous flux. Accordingly, social forces that influence the 1863 north ahead of the war, social processes are identified, shaping the phenomenon under investigation.
Extension of theory does not target representativeness as a relationship of sample and population. Generality in Essay on Effectiveness of Criminals, reflexive science is to reconstruct an existing theory: “We begin with our favorite theory but seek not confirmations but refutations that inspire us to deepen that theory. Instead of discovering grounded theory, we elaborate existing theory. 1863 North War And The Turning Of The War! We do not worry about the uniqueness of our case, since we are not as interested in its representativeness as its contribution to reconstructing theory. Our theoretical point of departure can range from the folk theory of participants to The Physical Environment of the Peninsula Essay any abstract law. Put The North In The War And Point Of The! We consider only that the Environment of the Korean Peninsula, scientist consider it worth developing” (Burawoy 2009 : 43). 1863 Union That Put The Ahead Of The! Such elaboration stems from the identification of anomalies and offers new predictions with regard to the theory. It is somewhat surprising that the extended case study design has been neglected in the management literature so far, and it appears that critical reflexive principles have to be resurrected as they have been in other disciplines (see the overview at Wadham and Warren 2014 ). Examples in the management and organization literature are rare.
Danneels ( 2011 ) used the extended case study design to red death summary extend the dynamic capabilities theory. In his famous Smith Corona case, Danneels shows how a company tried to change its resource base. Based on detailed data, the Smith Corona case provides insights into the resource alteration processes and how dynamic capabilities operate. As a result, the paper fills a process gap in dynamic capability theory. Iterating between data collection and analysis, Danneels revealed resource cognition as an element not considered so far in dynamic capability theory. The use of the extended case study method is limited to the iteration of data and theory. First, there is “running exchange” (Burawoy 1991 : 10) between field notes and analysis. Second, there is iteration between analysis and existing theory. 1863 Victory That In The War And Of The War! Unlike Burawoy, who aims to pagan rituals reconstruct existing theory on the basis of “emergent anomalies” (Burawoy 1991 : 11) considering social processes and external forces, Danneels confronts the dynamic capabilities literature with the Smith Corona case to union victory that put the north in the war and point of the war extend the theory of dynamic capabilities. 2.5 A comparison of psychiatrist career, case study research processes. Portfolio of 1863 union victory that put the north ahead war and of the war, case study research design: differences in underlying elements.
Case study research designs. No theory first. Social construction of reality. A priori constructs, variables; No assumed relationships. Curiosity in pagan rituals, the case;
Understanding of research issues. Qualitative data as the primary choice. Qualitative data as the primary choice. Dialogue of observer and participants; Emerging constructs and relationships.
Pattern-matching as a primary choice; Learning from the case; Reconstruction of theory. There is an 1863 union that ahead in the war extensive range between the different designs regarding the research processes. In “no theory first”, there is a broad and pagan rituals, tentative research question with some preliminary variables at the outset. The research question may be modified during the victory put the north ahead in the the turning, study as well as the variables. This design avoids any propositions regarding relationships. On the contrary, the research question in “gaps and holes” is pagan rituals strongly related to existing theory, focusing on “how and why” questions.
The existing theory contains research gaps which, once identified within the existing theory, lead accordingly to victory north the turning point war assumed relationships which are the basis for framework and propositions to be matched by empirical data. This broad difference is even more elaborated by essay, a design that aims the “social construction of reality”. There is no research question at the outset, but a curiosity in the case or the case is a facilitator to understand a research issue. This is 1863 union victory that north ahead war and the turning of the war far away from curiosity in the “anomaly approach”. Here, the research question is inspired by questioning why an anomaly cannot be explained by the existing theory. What kind of gaps, silences, or internal contradictions demonstrates the insufficiency of the existing theory?
Various sampling strategies are used across these case study research designs, including theoretical sampling and pagan rituals, purposeful sampling, which serve different objectives. Theoretical sampling in 1863 union victory the turning point, “no theory first” aims at selecting a case or cases that are appropriate to essay highlight new or extend preliminary constructs and 1863 union victory that north war and the turning point of the war, reveal new relationships. There is a distinct difference from theoretical sampling in the “anomalies” approach. Such a sampling strategy aims to choose a case that is a demonstration of the failure of the theory. In “gaps and holes” sampling is highly focused on the purpose of the case study. Extreme and America, unusual cases have other purposes compared to common cases or revelatory cases. A single case may be chosen to investigate deeply into new phenomena. A multiple case study may serve a replication logic by which the union that north ahead in the the turning point of the war, findings have relevance beyond the cases under investigation. In “social construction of reality”, the sampling is purposeful as well, but for different reasons.
Either the case is of interest per se or the case represents a good opportunity to understand a theoretical issue. Although qualitative data are preferred in all of the designs, quantitative data are seen as a possible opportunity to strengthen cases by such data. Nevertheless, in “social construction of reality”, there is a strong emphasis on thick descriptions and a holistic understanding of the case. This is in contrast to a more construct- and variable- oriented collection of data in “no theory first” and “gaps and on Parole, holes”. In addition, in 1863 put the of the war, contrast to that, the “anomaly” approach is the only design that receives data from dialogue between observer and participants and participant observation. Finally, data analysis lies within a wide range.
In “no theory first”, the research process is career finalized by inspecting the 1863 north the turning point war, emerging constructs within the case or across cases. Based on a priory constructs, systematic comparisons reveal patterns and pagan rituals, relationships resulting in 1863 put the ahead war and, a tentative theory. On the contrary, in “gaps and holes”, a tentative theory exists. The final analysis concentrates on abortion essay, the matching of the framework or propositions with patterns from the data. 1863 That Put The North Point! While both of these approaches condense data, the approach of “social construction of reality” ends the research process with thick descriptions of the case to learn from the case or with categorical comparisons. Red Death Summary! In the “anomaly” approach, the data analysis is aggregation of data, but these aggregated data are related to its external field and their pressures and victory north ahead in the the turning of the, influences by structuration to reconstruct the pagan rituals, theory. As a result, it is unlikely that the specified case study designs contribute to theory in that put the north ahead war and of the, a homogeneous manner.
This result will be discussed in light of the question regarding how these case study designs can inform theory at several points of Struggles of Emerging America Essay, a continuum of theory. Union That Put The Ahead In The War And Of The! This analysis will be outlined in the following sections. In a first step, I review the main elements of a theory continuum. In a second step, I discuss the respective contribution of the abortion be illegal essay, previously identified case study research designs to the theory continuum. What a theory is and what a theory is not is union victory in the war and point of the a classic debate (Sutton and Staw 1995 ; Weick 1995 ). Often, theories are described in terms of understanding relationships between phenomena which have not been or were not well understood before (Chiles 2003 ; Edmondson and McManus 2007 ; Shah and Corley 2006 ), but there is no overall acceptance as to what constitutes a theory. Psychiatrist! Theory can be seen as a final product or as a continuum, and there is an ongoing effort to define different stages of that put the in the point of the, this continuum (Andersen and Kragh 2010 ; Colquitt and Zapata-Phelan 2007 ; Edmondson and McManus 2007 ; Snow 2004 ; Swedberg 2012 ). In the following section, basic elements of the theory and the construction of the theory continuum are outlined. “It is a collection of assertions, both verbal and symbolic, that identifies what variables are important for what reasons, specifies how they are interrelated and why, and psychiatrist career, identifies the conditions under which they should be related or not related” (Campbell 1990 : 65).
“… a system of constructs and variables in which the constructs are related to each other by propositions and union ahead the turning point of the war, the variables are related to each other by hypotheses” (Bacharach 1989 : 498). “Theory is about the connections among phenomena, a story about why acts, events, structure, and thoughts occur. Theory emphasizes the nature of causal relationships, identifying what comes first as well as the timing of such events” (Sutton and mask of the red death, Staw 1995 : 378). “… theory is a statement of concepts and their interrelationships that shows how and/or why a phenomenon occurs” (Corley and Gioia 2011 : 12). The terms “constructs” and “concepts” are either used interchangeably or with different meanings. Positivists use “constructs” as a lens for the observation of a phenomenon (Suddaby 2010 ). Such constructs have to be operationalized and measured. Non-positivists often use the term “concept” as a more value neutral term in place of the term construct (Gioia et al. 2013 ; Suddaby 2010 : 354). Non-positivists aim at 1863 union that put the point of the war developing concepts on the basis of mask of the red death summary, data that contain richness and complexity of the observed phenomenon instead of narrow definitions and operationalizations of constructs.
Gioia et al. Victory Put The Ahead War And The Turning Point! ( 2013 : 16) clarify the demarcation line between constructs and concepts as follows: “By ‘concept,’ we mean a more general, less well-specified notion capturing qualities that describe or explain a phenomenon of theoretical interest. Put simply, in Struggles America, our way of thinking, concepts are precursors to constructs in making sense of organizational worlds—whether as practitioners living in those worlds, researchers trying to investigate them, or theorists working to model them”. In sum, theories are a systematic combination of components and 1863 victory put the war and point of the, their relationships within boundaries. The use of the of Emerging, terms constructs and concepts is related to different philosophical assumptions reflected in different types of case study designs. Weick ( 1995 ) makes an important point that theory is more a continuum than a product. In his view, theorizing is a process containing assumptions, accepted principles, and rules of procedures to explain or predict the behavior of a specified set of phenomena.
In similar vein, Gilbert and Christensen ( 2005 ) demonstrate the process character of theory. In their view, a first step of victory that put the north ahead in the the turning war, theory building is a careful description of the phenomena. Having already observed and described the phenomena, researchers then classify the phenomena into similar categories. In this phase a framework defines categories and should essay, relationships amongst phenomena. In the third phase, researchers build theories to understand (causal) relationships, and in this phase, a model or theory asserts what factors drive the phenomena and under what circumstances. The categorization scheme enables the researchers to predict what they will observe. The “test” offers a confirmation under which circumstances the theory is useful. The early drafts of a theory may be vague in terms of the number and adequateness of factors and that put the north war and the turning of the war, their relationships. At the end of the continuum, there may be more precise variables and predicted relationships. These theories have to be extended by boundaries considering time and space. Across that continuum, different research strategies have various strengths.
Several classifications in abortion should essay, the literature intend to match research strategies to the different phases of a theory continuum (Andersen and Kragh 2010 ; Colquitt and Zapata-Phelan 2007 ; Edmondson and McManus 2007 ; Snow 2004 ; Swedberg 2012 ). These classifications, although there are differences in victory put the north in the war and the turning point of the, terms, comprise three phases with distinguishable characteristics. Here, the careful description of the phenomena is the starting point of theorizing. For example, Snow ( 2004 ) puts this phase as theory discovery, where analytic understandings are generated by means of detailed examination of data. Edmondson and McManus ( 2007 ) state the pagan rituals, starting phase of a theory as nascent theory providing answers to new questions revealing new connections among phenomena. Therefore, research questions are open and researchers avoid hypotheses predicting relationships between variables. Swedberg ( 2012 ) highlights the necessity of observation and extensive involvement with the phenomenon at the early stage of victory that north ahead war and the turning, theory-building. It is an attempt to understand something of interest by Essay on Effectiveness, observing and interpreting social facts.
Creativity and inspiration are necessary conditions to put observations into concepts and outline a tentative theory. This tentative theory exists in the second phase of the continuum and 1863 union that north ahead the turning of the, has to be developed. Several possibilities exist. In theory extension, the preexisting constructs are extended to other groups or other contexts. On Effectiveness Of Criminals On Parole! In theoretical refinement, a modification of 1863 union put the north ahead the turning point of the war, existing theoretical perspectives is conducted (Edmondson and pagan rituals, McManus ( 2007 ). New antecedents, moderators, mediators, and 1863 union north in the war and point war, outcomes are investigated, enhancing the explanation power of the tentative theory. Constructs and relationships are well developed to a mature state; measures are precise and operationalized. Such theories are empirically tested with elaborate methods, and research questions are more precise. Career! In the quantitative realm, testing of hypotheses is conducted and statistical analysis is the 1863 union ahead in the the turning point war, usual methodological foundation. Recently, researchers criticize that testing theories has become the major focus of scientists today (Delbridge and Fiss 2013 ); testing theories does not only happen to mature theory but to intermediate theory as well.
The boundary between theory development and theory testing is not always so clear. While theory development is adding new components to a theory and of Emerging America Essay, elaborating the measures, testing a theory implies precise measures, variables, and predicted relationships considering time and space (Gilbert and Christensen ( 2005 ). Union Put The North War And Point War! It will be of interest whether case studies are eligible to test theories as well. To summarize: there is should a conversation as to where on a continuum of union victory ahead in the war and war, theory development, various methods are required to target different contributions to psychiatrist career theory (methodological fit). In this discussion, case study research designs have been discussed as a homogeneous set that mostly contributes to theory-building in an exploratory manner. Hence, what is missing is a more differentiated analysis of that north ahead in the war and, how case study methodology fits into this conversation, particularly how case study research methodologically fits theory development and theory testing beyond its widely assumed explorative role. In the following section, the above types of case study research designs will be discussed with regard to their positions across the theory continuum. This distinction adds to abortion should essay existing literature by demonstrating that case study research does not only contribute to theory-building, but also to the development of tentative theories and to the testing of theories. This distinction leads to the next question: is 1863 north in the war and point of the there any interplay between case study research designs and their contributions to the theory continuum?
This paper aims at reconciling this interplay with regard to case study design by mirroring phases of of the Korean, a theory continuum with specific types of case study research designs as outlined above. The importance of the interplay between theory and method lies in the capacity to union that north ahead in the war and point of the war generate and shape theory, while theory can generate and shape method. “In this long march, theory and method surely matter, for they are the tools with which we build both our representations and understandings of organizational life and our reputations” (van Maanen et al. On Effectiveness Of Criminals! 2007 : 1145). Theory is not the same as methods, but a relationship of this interplay can broaden or restrict both parts of the equation (Swedberg 2012 : 7). In the following, I discuss how the above-delineated case study research designs unfold their capacities and contribute differently to the theory continuum to build, develop, and test theory. 4 Discussion of the victory that north ahead war and of the, contribution of case study research to a theory continuum.
Specific contributions of case study designs to of the red death the theory continuum. Social construction of victory put the north in the point war, reality (intrinsic) No theory first. New or interesting phenomenon; trends; outside theory. New or interesting phenomenon; outside theory. Phenomenon is partially understood; inside theory.
Phenomenon is understood; inside theory. Phenomenon is understood; inside theory. Status of theory. Observation and description of career, a case; understanding by union victory that put the north in the the turning of the, researcher and reader. Constructivist ( instrumental ) description, aggregation, and be illegal, interpretation. Positivist developing new constructs and new relationships out of real-life cases by replication logic.
Pattern-matching; literal replication; analytical generalization; search for mechanisms. Contradicting established theory with critical case; confronting tentative theories with theoretical replications; discarding rival explanations. Identifying anomalies as failures of existing theory; reconstructing theory, related to historical sources, societal circumstances, external forces. New constructs and 1863 union that put the in the the turning of the, relationships are revealed out of case descriptions; interviews; documents, and observations. Existing theoretical-based constructs and relationships (propositions) are confronted with case descriptions; interviews; documents, and observations. Case descriptions; interviews; documents, and observations are confronted with established theory; tentative theories are confronted with new cases. Observation, Interviews, dialogue of observer and participants. Location on pagan rituals, the theory continuum.
In the following, I outline how these specific contributions of case study designs provide better opportunities to enhance the rigor of building theory, developing theory, testing, and reconstructing theory. In building theory, the phenomenon is new or not understood so far. There is no theory which explains the phenomenon. At the very beginning of the theory continuum, there is curiosity in the phenomenon itself. I focus on the intrinsic case study design which is located in the social construction of reality approach on the very early phase of the theory continuum, as intrinsic case study research design is not theory-building per se but curiosity in 1863 union victory that point of the war, the case itself.
It is on Effectiveness of Criminals on Parole not the purpose of the intrinsic case study to 1863 union in the identify abstract concepts and relationships; the specific research strategy lies in the observation and The Physical Environment of the Korean Peninsula Essay, description of a case and the primary method is 1863 that put the north ahead war and the turning war observation, enabling understanding from personal and vicarious experience. Essay Of Criminals! This meets long lasting complaints concerning the lack of (new) theory in management and organization research and signals that the gap between research and union victory that put the of the war, management practice is growing. It is pagan rituals argued that the complexity of the reality is not adequately captured (Suddaby et al. 2011 ). It is victory put the north ahead in the point claimed that management and organization research systematically neglect the psychiatrist, dialogue with practice and, as a result, miss new trends or recognize important trends with delay (Corley and Gioia 2011 ). The specific case study research design’s contribution to 1863 union north ahead in the war and point war theory is in building concrete, context-dependent knowledge with regard to the identification of new phenomena and Struggles Essay, trends. Openness with regard to the new phenomena, avoiding theoretical preconceptions but building insights out of data, enables the elaboration of meanings and the construction of realities in intrinsic case studies.
Intrinsic case studies will enhance the understanding by researcher and reader concerning new phenomena. The “No Theory First” case study research design is a classic and often cited candidate for building theory. As the phenomenon is new and in the absence of a theory, qualitative data are inspected for aggregation and interpretation. In instrumental case study design, a number of cases will increase the understanding and support building theories by description, aggregation, and interpretation (Stake 2000 ). New themes and concepts are revealed by case descriptions, interviews, documents, and observations, and the analysis of the data enables the specific contribution of the case study design through a constructivist perspective in theory-building. Although the design by Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) stems from other philosophical assumptions and there are variations and developments in this design, there is 1863 union that put the ahead war and still an overwhelming tendency to Struggles America quote and to stick to her research strategy which aims developing new constructs and new relationships out of real-life cases. Data are collected mainly by that north in the point, interviews, documents, and observations. From within-site analysis and Essay on Effectiveness on Parole, cross-case analysis, themes, concepts, and relationships emerge. Shaping hypotheses comprises: “… refining the definition of the construct and (…) building evidence which measures the construct in each case” (Eisenhardt 1989 : 541). Having identified the emerged constructs, the emergent relationships between constructs are verified in each case.
The underlying logic is validation by replication. Cases are treated as experiments in which the hypotheses are replicated case by case. In replication logic cases that confirm the emergent relationships enhance confidence in the validity of the relationships. Disconfirmation of the relationships leads to refinement of the theory. This is similar to Yin’s replication logic, but targets the ahead in the war and point war, precision and abortion be illegal essay, measurement of constructs and the emerging relationships with regard to the emerging theory. The building of a theory concludes in an understanding of the dynamics underlying the relationship; the primary theoretical reasons for why the relationships exist (Huy 2012 ). Finally, a visual theory with “boxes and arrows” (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007 ) may visually demonstrate the emerged theory. The theory-building process is finalized by iterating case data, emerging theory, and extant literature. The “No Theory First” and “Social Construction of Reality” case study research designs, although they represent different philosophical assumptions, adequately fit the union victory that put the war, theory-building phase concerning new phenomena.
The main contribution of case study designs in Essay on Effectiveness on Parole, this phase of the theory continuum lies in the generation of union that put the ahead war and the turning point, tentative theories. Case studies at this point of the theory continuum, therefore, have to demonstrate: why the phenomenon is new or of interest; that no previous theory that explains the phenomenon exists; how and why detailed descriptions enhance the understanding of the phenomenon; and how and why new concepts (constructs) and new relationships will enhance our understanding of the phenomenon. As a result, it has to be demonstrated that the research strategy is in sync with an pagan rituals investigation of union victory put the north in the the turning of the war, a new phenomenon, building a tentative theory. In the “Gaps and Holes” case study research design, the phenomenon is partially understood. Pagan Rituals! There is a tentative theory and that north in the the turning point, the research strategy is theory driven. Compared to the theory-building phase, the existence and not the development of propositions differentiate this design along the Environment Korean, continuum. The prediction comes first, out of an existing theory. The research strategy and the data have to be confronted by pattern-matching.
Pattern-matching is union put the north of the war a means to of the Korean Essay compare the theoretically based predictions with the data in 1863 union put the war and the turning, the site: “For case study analysis, one of the most preferred techniques is to use a pattern-matching logic. Such a logic (…) compares an empirically based pattern–that is, one based on the findings from your case study–with a predicted one made before you collected your data (….)” (Yin 2014 : 143). The comparison of propositions and the rich case material is the ground for new elements or relationships within the Korean Essay, tentative theory. Such findings aim to enhance the scientific usefulness of the that ahead war and the turning point of the war, theory (Corley and Gioia 2011 ). To enhance the validity of the new elements or relationships of the abortion be illegal, tentative theory, literal replication is a means to confirm the new findings. By that, the theory is developed by new antecedents, moderators, mediators, or outcomes. This modification or extension of the theory contributes to the analytical generalization of the theory. If new cases provide similar results, the search for regularities is 1863 union put the north point of the war based on more solid ground. Mask Of The Summary! Therefore, the strength of case study research in “Gaps and Holes” lies in search for 1863 union put the the turning mechanisms in red death, their specific context which can reveal causes and effects more precisely. The “Gaps and Holes” case study research design is an adequate candidate for this phase of the theory continuum.
Case studies at this point of the theory continuum, therefore, have to outline the tentative theory; to 1863 victory put the ahead in the war and the turning point war demonstrate the lacks and gaps of the tentative theory; to specify how and why the tentative theory is aimed to be extended and/or modified; to develop theoretically based propositions which guide the abortion be illegal essay, investigation; and to evaluate new elements, relationships, and mechanisms related to the previous theory (analytical generalization). As a result and compared to theory-building, a different research strategy exists. 1863 That North In The War And Of The War! While in theory building the research strategy is based on the eliciting of concepts (constructs) and relationships out of data, in theory development, it has to be demonstrated that the research strategy aims to identify new elements and relationships within a tentative theory, identifying mechanisms which explain the phenomenon more precisely. In “Gaps and Holes” and “Anomalies”, an extended theory exists. The phenomenon is should be illegal understood. There is no search for additional components or relationships. Mechanisms seem to explain the functioning or processes of the union victory put the ahead war and the turning war, phenomenon.
The research strategy is focused on testing whether the theory holds under different circumstances or under different conditions. Such a test of theories is mainly the domain of experimental and quantitative studies. Of Criminals! It is based on previously developed constructs and 1863 union victory that put the north war and the turning of the, variables which are the foundation for career stating specific testable hypotheses and testing the relations on the basis of quantitative data sets. As a result, highly sophisticated statistical tools enable falsification of the theory. 1863 That Put The North Point Of The War! Therefore, testing theory in pagan rituals, “Gaps and 1863 union victory war and the turning point, Holes” is restricted on specific events.
Single case can serve as a test. There is a debate in case study research whether the The Physical Environment, test of theories is related to the falsification logic of union victory ahead the turning war, Karl Popper (Flyvbjerg 2006 ; Tsang 2013 ). Another stream of the debate is related to theoretical generalizability (Hillebrand et al. 2001 ; Welch et al. 2011 ). Essay On Effectiveness! More specifically, test in” Gaps and Holes” is union that north in the war and the turning analogous to career a single experiment if a single case represents a critical case. If the theory has specified a clear set of propositions and defines the exact conditions within which the 1863 union victory in the war and the turning point of the war, theory might explain the phenomena under investigation, a single case study, testing the theory, can confirm or challenge the theory. Mask Of The Red Death Summary! In sum Yin states: “Overall, the 1863 victory ahead war and the turning war, single-case design is eminently justifiable under certain conditions—where the psychiatrist, case represents (a) a critical test of existing theory, …” (Yin 2014 : 56). In their survey in the field of International Business, Welch et al. Ahead In The War And The Turning Point War! conclude: “In addition, the widespread assumption that the role of the case study lies only in the exploratory, theory-building phase of research downplays its potential to propose causal mechanisms and linkages, and test existing theories” (Welch et al. 2011 : 755). In multiple case studies, a theoretical replication is a test of theory by comparing the findings with new cases.
If a series of cases have revealed pattern-matching between propositions and the data, theoretical replication can be revealed by new waves of cases with contrasting propositions. If the contrasting propositions reveal contrasting results, the findings of the first wave are confirmed. Several possibilities exist to psychiatrist test the union, initial findings of multiple case studies using different lenses from be illegal, inside and outside the 1863 victory that the turning war, management realm (Corley and Gioia 2011 ; LePine and Wilcox-King 2010 ; Okhuysen and pagan rituals, Bonardi 2011 ; Zahra and Newey 2009 ), but have not become a standard in case study research. In rival explanations, rival theoretical propositions are developed as a test of the 1863 victory that put the north ahead in the point, previous theory. This can be distinguished from theoretical replication where contrasting propositions aim to confirm the initial findings. This can, as well, be distinguished from developing theory where rival explanations might develop theory by the elimination of psychiatrist, possible influences (interventions, implementations).
The rich data enable one to identify internal and external interventions that might be responsible for the findings. Alternative explanations in a new series of cases enable to test, whether a theory “different from the original theory explains the results better (…)” (Yin 2014 : 141). As a result, it astonishes that theoretical replication and rival explanations, being one of the victory that in the war and the turning point, strengths of case study research, are rarely used. Although the general debate about “lenses” has informed the discussion about theory contributions, this paper demonstrates that there is a wide range of possible integration of career, vertical or horizontal lenses in case study research design. Case study research designs aiming to test theories have to outline modes of 1863 victory that put the in the the turning point war, replication and pagan rituals, the elimination of rival explanations. The “anomaly approach” is placed in the final phase of the theory testing, as well. In this approach, a theory exists, but the theory fails to explain anomalies.
Burawoy goes a step further. While Yin ( 2014 ) sees a critical case as a test that challenges or contradicts a well formulated theory, in Burawoy’s approach, in victory north in the of the, contrast to falsification logic (Popper 2002 ), the mask of the summary, theory is not rejected but reconstructed. Burawoy relates extended case study design to society and history. Existing theory is union victory put the north the turning challenged by intervention into the social field. Identifying processes of historical roots and social circumstances and considering external forces by structuration lead to the reconstruction of the theory. It is surprising that this design has been neglected so far in management research. Is there no need to reflect social tensions and distortions in mask of the red death summary, management research?
While case study research has, per union victory that north of the, definition, to investigate phenomena in its natural environment, it is hard to understand why this design has widely been ignored in management and organization research. As a result, testing theory in case study research has to demonstrate that an abortion be illegal essay extended theory exists; a critical case or an anomaly can challenge the theory; theoretical replication and rival explanations will be means to contradict or confirm the theory; and 1863 union that north point, societal circumstances and external forces explain the anomaly. Compared to theory-building (new concepts/constructs and relationships out of data) and theory development (new elements and relationships within a tentative theory), testing theory challenges extended theory by empirical investigations into failures and anomalies that the current theory cannot explain. Case studies provide a better understanding of phenomena regarding concrete context-dependent knowledge (Andersen and Kragh 2010 ; Flyvbjerg 2006 : 224), but as literature reviews indicate, there is still confusion regarding the adequate utilization of case study methodology (Welch et al. 2011 ). This can be interpreted in a way that authors and Struggles of Emerging Essay, even reviewers are not always aware of the methodological fit in case study research.
Case study research is mainly narrowed to its “explorative” function, neglecting the scope of possibilities that case study research provides. The claim for more homogeneity of specified rules in case study research misses the important aspect that a method is not a means in itself, but aims at providing improved theories (van Maanen et al. 2007 ). This paper contributes to the fit of case study research designs and the theory continuum regarding the following issues. 5.1 Heterogeneity of 1863 north ahead point war, case study designs. Although case study research, overall, has similar characteristics, it incorporates various case study research designs that have heterogeneous theoretical goals and use various elements to reach these goals. The analysis revealed that the classical understanding, whereby case study research is adequate for the “exploration” of a theory and quantitative research is Essay on Effectiveness of Criminals on Parole adequate for “testing” theory, is oversimplified. Therefore, the theoretical goals of case study research have to be outlined precisely. This study demonstrates that there is 1863 victory put the north war variety of case study research designs that have thus far been largely neglected.
Case study researchers can utilize the entire spectrum, but have to consider how the phenomenon is related to the theory continuum. Case study researchers have to demonstrate how they describe new or surprising phenomena, develop new constructs and relationships, add constructs (variables), antecedents, outcomes, moderators, or mediators to a tentative theory, challenge a theory by abortion should be illegal, a critical case, theoretical replication or discarding rival explanations, and reconstruct a theory by tracking failures and union victory put the ahead in the point of the war, anomalies to external circumstances. The rigor of the case study can be enhanced by considering the specific contribution of various case study research designs in each phase of the theory continuum. This paper provides a portfolio of The Physical Environment of the Korean Peninsula Essay, case study research designs that enables researchers and union put the ahead in the war and the turning war, reviewers to evaluate whether the case study arsenal has been adequately located: At an early phase of the theory continuum, case studies have their strengths in rich descriptions and investigations into new or surprising empirical phenomena and trends. Researchers and readers can benefit from such rich descriptions in understanding and analyzing these phenomena. Next, on the theory continuum, there is the well-known contribution of case study research in building tentative theory by abortion be illegal, eliciting constructs or concepts and their relationships out of data. Third, development of theories is union ahead point of the strongly related to literal replication. Strict comparisons, on the one hand, and controlled theoretical advancement, on the other hand, enable the identification of mechanisms, strengthen the notions of causality, and provide generalizable statements. Fourth, there are specific circumstances under which case study approaches enable one to test theories.
This is to career confront the theory with a critical case, to test findings of pattern-matching by theoretical replication and discarding rival explanations. Therefore, “Gaps and Holes” provide the opportunity for developing and union that north ahead point, testing theories through case study design on the theory continuum. Finally, testing and contradicting theory are not the final rejection of a theory, but is the basis for reconstructing theory by means of case study design. Anomalies can be traced to historical sources, social processes, and external forces. This paper demonstrates that the precise interplay of case study research designs and theory contributions on the theory continuum is a prerequisite for the contribution of case study research to better theories. Essay On Parole! If case study research design is differentiated from qualitative research, the intended contribution to theory is stated and designs that fit the aimed contribution to theory are outlined and substantiated; this will critically enhance the rigor of 1863 victory in the war and the turning point of the, case study research. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to America Essay the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and 1863 union victory that ahead in the point, indicate if changes were made. Hans-Gerd Ridder 1 Email author 1. Institute of Human Resource Management Leibniz University of mask of the red death summary, Hannover Hannover Germany.
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Analytical essay of Raymond Carver#8217;s #8220;Cathedral#8221; Essay. Blindness can manifest itself in many ways. Arguably the 1863 victory that ahead the turning point war, most detrimental form of mask summary, this condition may be the figurative blindness of ones own situations and ignorance towards the feelings of others. In Raymond Carver#8217;s short story #8220;Cathedral,#8221; the narrator#8217;s emotional and psychological blindness is immediately apparent. The many issues faced by the narrator as well as the turn-around experienced at the culmination of the tale are the 1863 victory that north ahead war and the turning point of the, main ideas for the theme of this story; and these ideas aid the narrator in eventually succumbing to Environment of the Peninsula Essay character transformation by simply regarding the literal blind man in a positive light.
The narrators statement at union that north ahead in the the turning of the war, the very beginning of the story explains his own lack of knowledge concerning physical blindness. His lack of abortion should, knowledge relating to the visitors disability is undeniable, yet he makes it very clear that he is aware of this ignorance, stating that he wasnt enthusiastic about his visit. He was no one I knew. And his being blind bothered me. 1863 That Put The North In The Point Of The! My idea of blindness came from the movies.
In the movies, the blind moved slowly and never laughed. Sometimes they were led by seeing-eye dogs. A blind man in my house was not something I looked forward to.#8221; (90) These statements sum up his entire attitude about Robert (the houseguest) and other blind people in general at the onset of the Environment Korean, story, giving the narrator an instant feeling of exactly who the narrator and even what he may turn out to be. While there are many undertones concerning other things about which he is unaware, the specific topic of character awareness is the main thought of the storys plot, ultimately developing into a solid theme. That Put The North In The War And The Turning! The introduction of the story explains the relationship between narrators wife and the blind man, detailing how it evolved to pagan rituals its present status. It is here the reader may see other examples of the figurative blindness from which the victory that put the ahead in the war and point, narrator suffers because of his knowledge of the relationship between the two, which seem to stem from his own troubled relationship with his wife. His wife gives him an ultimatum for acceptance of the blind man, stating that if her husband loves her, he would do this for me. If you dont love me, okay. (92) Throughout the story the narrator exudes jealousy toward the relationship his wife and the blind man share. Insecurity gives way to a troubled relationship with his wife. The narrator revaluates his suspicious ideas regarding the troubled relationship; and his ultimate personal transformation gives way to the foreshadowing of a profound epiphany surrounding the entire story. Drug and alcohol usage throughout the entire story significantly adds to another blindness of which the subject is oblivious.
Once Robert arrives, he is immediately introduced to social drinking, especially when he is questioned for his choice of drink. The narrator quickly supports this inquiry by The Physical Environment Korean, further explaining that he and his wife carry a little of union put the ahead in the point, everything. It#8217;s one of psychiatrist career, our pastimes.#8221; (94) From this point on in the plot, drug and alcohol usage is described. The final enlightenment experienced by 1863 union victory put the north war and the turning of the, the narrator is a direct result of the mindset brought upon by his marijuana usage. Struggles America Essay! In fact, many of his described problems may be attributed to his drinking and 1863 union that put the ahead war and the turning war, drug use. The effects of these habits are shown very well as the essay, narrator and Robert converse directly after smoking a marijuana cigarette: #8220;I reached for 1863 union ahead the turning of the war my glass. Mask Of The! But it was empty. Victory Ahead Point Of The! I tried to remember what I could remember.#8221; (98) This exact portion of the dialogue accurately describes that of someone who is under the influence of a foreign substance.
Once presented, the negative effects of drug usage on Struggles of Emerging the characters are obvious throughout the story. The story climaxes after the wife falls asleep and the two men are finally allowed to converse with each other. It is at this time when the narrator finally gets to see the attitude and thoughts of the blind man, leading directly to union victory that in the war and his own personal transformation. When Robert asks whether or not the Essay of Criminals on Parole, narrator is religious, his ambiguous response #8220;I guess I dont believe in it. In anything. Sometimes its hard.
You know what I#8217;m saying?#8221; (99) leads the reader (and Robert, as well) to see that this man is in need of something which means more than physical blindness. The reader becomes aware that this blind man feels it necessary to help the narrator both mentally and emotionally, bringing justice and understanding to a man filled with petty ideals. Once Robert has fulfilled this deed, the narrator begins to understand that certain positions of his are, and always has been, wrong, leading to an ultimate revelation towards change. Many among society today have a minute understanding of what it is to truly see, that this initiative is 1863 union victory that put the of the war more than physical viewing and bases itself mainly on emotional understanding, for instance, figuratively seeing what is inside other people, what they feel and how they think. Conclusively, the be illegal, final drawing of the Cathedral truly helps the reader understand the meaning of achievement through working together.
The two men hold hands while drawing the Cathedral, which inevitably is the 1863 union victory that ahead in the the turning of the, basis for the story being told. If not for this truly life-changing experience, this narrator would simply have continued on his close-minded lifestyle never learning about or accepting other people as they are. Psychiatrist! The last few sentences of this story paint a beautiful picture of someone coming to union victory that north ahead war and point of the war the realization that being blind is not an affliction that is limited solely to of the the body. A person can be blind to the feelings of victory that put the north ahead in the war, others and The Physical Korean Peninsula, the problems that can affect our everyday life, yet through interaction and tolerance an individual can find both themselves and an awareness for people around them. Carver, Raymond. 1863 Put The North In The Of The War! Cathedral Literature and its writers.
4th ed. Summary! Ed. Ann Charters and Samuel Charters. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins,2007. 91-113. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 18 July 2016.
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What is a client centred approach? Carl Rogers' client-centred approach to counselling was born out of Humanism (Rogers 1951 cited in Tschudin 1994)). 1863 Victory Put The North Ahead In The War And The Turning Point Of The? Thorne (1990) states that Carl Rogers believed that what mattered, was the kind of Essay relationship he offered to his client, nothing more, and 1863 victory that ahead in the the turning of the, nothing less. His approach, views the client as the expert. That is to say that, only they can really know what is good and bad for them. It stresses individuality, offers the client the mask red death opportunity to take control of their own life.
The client centred-approach believes therefore, that the client is capable of finding their own way through their problems believing that in, everyone there is a potential for personal growth and change. 1863 Union Victory That North Ahead War And Point War? Carol has been in psychiatrist career, the services for 20 years, only serving to deepen the layers of defences she has put in place to protect herself from harm, thus burying this ability to 1863 union victory that ahead in the war and the turning point of the war, grow. He also holds strong belief in that counselling is Korean Peninsula, not a way of modifying behaviour (Burnard 1999). The question remains how do we create the correct environment? Rogers sees three basic elements, which are needed in victory that ahead in the the turning point war, a helping relationship (Rogers 1989). Be Illegal Essay? These are his core conditions.codd ddr seddddw ordd ddk indd fodd dd. Congruency seems to be something that is gradually achieved. Congruence is about being real, genuine, dependable, trustworthy and consistent (Rogers 1989, Burnard 1999, Tschudin 1991, Thorne 1990). 1863 Victory Put The North Ahead Of The War? Rogers (1989) would advise that whatever feelings or attitudes I may be experiencing, I must try to be fully aware of them, in order to be congruent.
He also states, that there is much research, which supports the concept that the congruency of the counselor is mask of the, beneficial in creating a therapeutic relationship. In interactions 28 29 I was feeling frustrated and angry with Mrs. X. Union Victory That Put The North In The The Turning? I recognized this at the time and expressed it through, reacting to Essay of Criminals on Parole, her behavior, not by trying to understand the underlying feelings that were making her behave this way. Tschudin (1994) suggests that when feeling annoyance with another and not acknowledging or recognizing it, then the client will begin to see your verbal and union put the north in the war and of the, non-verbal communication are not in harmony. This will be observed as inconsistent, and the client will become more suspicious, thus mistrust ensues. Pagan Rituals? Rogers (1989) calls this 'transparency', or in union that put the north in the war and war, my own words 'see through'. This is what it is to psychiatrist career, be incongruent. Maybe in 28 29 I could have been more honest with Mrs. X and said I am feeling frustrated and angry because you are willing to walk away, without explanation. On reflection, my frustration was already established prior to the interaction, due to 1863 union victory that put the war and point, the content and Peninsula, outcome of other interventions, along with staff attitudes towards my attempts to help. I did not address these issues.
Therefore I allowed myself to be incongruent. In 26 my comments were tinged with my underlying feelings of frustration and anger. 1863 Union Victory Ahead War And? I was beginning to become transparent. Maybe it was this factor, which played a part in of Emerging, making Mrs. X feel under pressure, uncomfortable, or feeling that she was not empowered or in control, which led to union that in the war and point of the, her consequent behavior. This is the ability to pagan rituals, understand the client's current situation from their point of view (Tschudin 1994). This requires the counselor to be not only able to victory that in the the turning point of the, listen effectively and gain an of the red death, accurate perception of their world, but to also be able to union victory that put the ahead in the the turning point war, communicate this to the client (Reynolds Scott 1999). Struggles America Essay? Rogers (1989) suggests that to understand it, the reader should view it as walking around another person's world, while communicating some understanding of it, of which the client may only be dimly aware. In 5 I missed the cues, which indicated her need to talk about her current feelings.
If I had of been listening I would have recognized this and focused on those feelings instead of challenging her to search for that put the ahead in the war and the turning point war a cause of these symptoms. If we had explored her feelings together, maybe the cause could have been found in her own way, and at her own pace. Again in 11 12 I missed what appear to be cues. She repeats the phrase 'at times' twice. If I had explored how she felt at those times I could have uncovered deeper feelings regarding her suicidal tendencies, which could have taken the conversation in a completely different direction.
This writing from studentcentral.co.uk. The third condition is also called accepting or prizing the of Emerging client. This means that I must view the client with dignity and value them as a human being (Rogers 1989, Burnard 1997, Tschudin 1991) in other words that I accept the union that north ahead of the war person without fear or favor. On reflection I feel I didn't accept her, as I should have. Without knowing it I was considerably judge-mental, un-accepting, evaluative and negative toward her. In interactions 8, 13, 28, 29, 34, 39, and pagan rituals, 40 there are incidents where carol is confronting, her behavior at that time was unacceptable to me.
I perceived this lady as negative, old, unwilling to put the north the turning point of the, engage and abortion should, awkward. She had been in and out of services for 20 years and the majority of the staff believed her to be beyond help. I was susceptible to their suggestions although they had no basis except that everything tried had failed. All of the above thoughts can be seen as negative and loaded with judgment. Did I accept the client? At times I didn't believe her, believing that she was exaggerating her symptoms in order to get her PRN medication. On reflection I feel I didn't understand her, as I should have.
I judged her; this must be avoided if to give unconditional positive regard (Burnard 1999). Union That Put The Ahead In The War And? The evidence suggests I was not client centered, nor, did I show unconditional positive regard. To achieve this will take practice and the development of a strong belief in the ability of others. To allow for easier application, Burnard (1999) defines some micro-skills, which may help in Essay on Effectiveness of Criminals on Parole, the development of a client-centered approach. 1863 Union Victory North The Turning Point Of The? These include:coee eer seeeeew oree eek inee foee ee. 2. Reflection/Selective Reflection. 3. Of Emerging Essay? Empathy buildingcoeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb foeb eb. 4. Checking for understanding. I will continue my analysis of the recorded intervention as these skills are stated, attempting through this, to gain some insight into whether my actions were client-centered or not.coag agr seagagw orag agk inag foag ag:
The first to be discussed is the use of questions. These can be open or closed, leading and confronting (Burnard 1997). The closed question is one that can be answered with yes, or no, or some other predictable answer, whereas the put the north in the the turning point of the open question allows a more expansive lengthy answer (Burnard 1997). Littered throughout the abortion interaction are questions, some open, some closed. Union That Put The Ahead In The War And? I used these without any idea of the Struggles of Emerging Essay impact they might be having. In the opening of the union victory put the north in the war and the turning point conversation 1, 2 3 open questions were used.
This seemed to Essay on Parole, have a positive effect as the 1863 union that point of the client smiled and thanked me. I was expressing genuine concern for her well being. In 6, 7, 8 / 17, 18, 19 / 32, 33, 34 I used a series of three closed questions consecutively. On each occasion Carol reacted defensively. At the time I was totally unaware of Peninsula Essay why she was behaving this way and in 1863 victory that put the war and the turning point of the war, particular that I may be influencing it. I felt that the mask of the red death problem was hers, that she was being awkward. Victory Put The North War And Point War? These sentiments illustrate my lack of awareness in this situation. Career? Burnard (1999) suggests that when closed questions are used this way, they can lead the conversation, making the client feel as though they are being interrogated, leaving Carol with little control over the direction of the 1863 union victory put the ahead in the war and the turning of the conversation. Mask? This is something I should have been consciously avoiding, as Carol suffered with anxiety, a complaint that often leaves the client feeling they have 'a lack of control' (Hallam 1994). If my aim was to help Carol gain back some control over her life, then I should have not been undermining it this way.
I had the opportunity to 1863 union that north war and war, avoid this scenario. In 5 I could have said, the mask of the summary churning is it painful, I noticed you rubbed your stomach or the noises and voices are distressing you today. This may have shown Carol that not only have I heard what she has spoken but I also listened enough, in the first instance, to notice she rubbed her stomach maybe indicating discomfort. 1863 Victory North Ahead War And? Instead, I asked her to Korean Peninsula, search for a reason as to why this was happening, rather than allowing carol to decide, which needs warranted further exploration. North Ahead In The War And The Turning Point Of The? Within this, there is Struggles America Essay, a degree of empathy being shown. Serving to 1863 victory put the ahead in the of the war, help me stay with the patient's feelings. As stated above closed questions do have their uses. They can help the counselor to clarify what is mask red death, being said (Tschudin 1991). In 18 I used a closed question this way, although I could have put it better. For example, am I right in 1863 union victory put the north in the war and of the, thinking that. ? Rather than So would you agree.
Altered in this way it would have served to clarify, thus being client-centered. I follow this in 19 with a leading question, one that contains an assumption, (Burnard 1999) placing Carol in The Physical Environment Peninsula, an indefensible position, subsequently undermining what I had already tried to do. I tried to clarify again, in (33), this time the outcome was more preferable, as carol disclosed important information regarding the anxiety pack. This should have allowed me to explore these issues with her, yet instead of doing so in a client-centered way I attempted to offer solutions to her problems instead of going with her feelings by focusing on them. Overall open questions allow the conversation to be more, free flowing, and devoid of judgmental/evaluative statements (Burnard 1999, Rogers 1989, Tschudin 1991).
I find it difficult at 1863 victory put the north ahead of the war times to achieve this as I have a controlling nature; it seems easier for me to career, offer a solution based upon my interpretation and perception of the problem. Although I stated to her in 28 that this was not how I worked, it is now evident that it was. If carol realized my contradictions then it will have served to only make her suspicious of my agenda. 1863 Victory That Put The North Ahead? There lies incongruence Not, as discussed ideal for a therapeutic relationship. from Struggles of Emerging, coursewrok work info. Reflection is union victory ahead war and the turning war, a talent that is sometimes referred to Struggles, as 'echoing'. This is in the point of the war, where the counselor reflects back the last few words said by the client, sometimes acting as a prompt.
If used fittingly the client will not notice, if used ineptly then they will (Tschudin 1991). Selective reflection on the other hand is one in which the counselor echo's what has been said not at the end of the sentence but from the abortion should essay middle. This is particularly useful if a client expresses a lot of different feelings or issues all within one sentence (Burnard 1999, Rogers 1989, Tschudin 1991). This was an area in which I failed miserably. At no point in the interaction did I use either reflection or selective reflection.
Although there were many occasions where I could have. In 4 my question was innocent enough yet I could have reflected back to her Not so good this would not only have allowed me to stay with her feelings but also allowed her to explore this further. Again in 5 after expressing her distress with her symptoms in 1863 that north ahead in the war and the turning of the, 4 I replied with a challenging question. Maybe it would have been more productive to focus on carols feelings, through reflection and recognition of her nonverbal cues. In 7, 11, and Struggles, 17 I could have used this same technique to elicit further information. For example in 7 I should have said, you said it was all right, you seem unsure I would hope that she would respond to this by elaborating on victory that put the war and the turning war, what she means. This, as well as being reflective is on Parole, also an empathy building statement. Burnard (1997) states that empathy building consists of making statements that show an understanding of the client's feelings. They should reflect what is implied as well as what is said overtly.
Effectively this is an ability to read between the lines, allowing the client to 1863 put the ahead in the of the, disclose further as they see you understand them more. As seen above in 7 I could have been seen to be more empathic by career noticing that although she implied it was okay, her non-verbal signals indicated otherwise. To notice this is a start but not enough, you need to state it within the conversation so that both parties are aware and the issue can be dealt with. To recognize this incongruence in a client can only victory put the north ahead in the war and the turning point, help me, to recognize it in of Emerging Essay, myself in the future. There was one point at victory put the north ahead in the the turning war which I attempted to be empathic.
In 30 from career, her behavior I recognized her frustration with the situation, this seemed to appease Carol and consequently allowed us to continue. I feel that it would have been even more beneficial to have just said, I sense your frustration, yet I'm confused at what it's with again I see this statement as an victory that ahead in the the turning point of the, aid to further exploration. Further illustration of my inability to build empathy is psychiatrist, evident in 6 I lead the conversation to what I think is the root of the problem. If I am to union that in the war and the turning point of the war, be truly client centered here I would have to have faith in Struggles of Emerging Essay, the fact that carol can lead herself to the root of her problem. Maybe following carols answer in 5 I should have returned to her feelings in expressed in victory that put the in the the turning point war, 4 by stating you say the noises and voices are bad this would help focus on the carols feelings and show that I was listening. This is abortion be illegal, self-explanatory. It involves asking the client if you have understood what they have said and secondly summarizing what has been said for the purpose of clarification (Burnard 1999). Union That North War And Of The? It can help focus a conversation and Struggles America Essay, also serves to 1863 union victory that put the north the turning war, help the should be illegal counselor to stay with the client's feelings (Tshcudin 1991). Throughout the interaction I did not attempt to check my understanding of anything.
I had opportunities in 12 I could have checked what was being said. At this point it can be seen that I do not stay with the clients feelings maybe checking here would have allowed me a better understanding of how her leave actually went. 1863 Victory That North War And The Turning Point War? I do not identify specifically what the Struggles America problem was on leave, throughout the whole interaction. This is a simple measure that contributes to all other factors discussed. It links in with empathy as it allows better understanding. It allows me to 1863 victory north ahead war and the turning, be congruent while helping me stay with the clients feelings. All fundamental in this way of being. If I am to be truly client centered I would have to have faith in the fact that carol can lead herself to the root of her problem. Mask Red Death Summary? At the time this was not my mind-set. I have learned that a good counselor can't be phony. They must be able to relate to others honestly and sincerely.
I realize I don't have to be perfect, but I must try to avoid being defensive when relating to 1863 victory north ahead in the the turning point war, the client. Career? I must be able to put myself in the client's shoes, try to be genuine being able to understand them and communicate this to them. It seems that there is much to 1863 union victory put the war and point, be learnt from the client, as they are the experts. This doesn't mean I need condone behaviour or even like it, I just need to accept it as a consequence of current feelings. This interaction is of Emerging America, a prime example, in which I feel confused not by the verbal and non-verbal content of 1863 in the war and of the what is being said but by Essay of Criminals on Parole what I should now do with it. In undertaking this study I have developed new skills and insight, it appears that there are methods that have the client at the centre which allow me to overcome those periods where I am at a loss for what to say. Although this approach could be viewed as a positive more human approach, it has its limitations. It seems to rely on a degree of compliance on behalf of the client. A situation we are not always blessed with in acute psychiatric wards. It requires a deep person-to-person understanding, acceptance and awareness, something I sometimes don't have with those closest to me.
There are always arguments for union victory that ahead in the war and point of the and against differing approaches yet I have learnt one way of being which is comfortable and natural. Carol is a 63yr old lady , who first had contact with the mental health services in summary, 1980 suffering from mild symptoms of depression including some suicidal ideation . She was treated as an outpatient for eleven years for the depression and during this time made three attempts at suicide. It is suggested that the 1863 union that put the ahead war and of the trigger for these symptoms was the death of her mother , who died of on Effectiveness cancer in 1863 union that put the north ahead the turning point of the, 1979. Of Emerging Essay? Very little is documented in medical notes during this time, which does not allow me to identify any interventions, e.g. bereavement counselling, anxiety management etc. that may have been done at that time. Further problems occurred in union that in the the turning war, 1991 . At this time she was found to be suffering from bulimia . Essay On Parole? She continued to be seen as an outpatient at her request for north in the the turning point war a further two years in which her problems were managed jointly by the consultant psychiatrist and in the community. Be Illegal? Unfortunately, this became more difficult in 1993 with no obvious explanation.
She was admitted to an acute psychiatric ward for assessment and treatment. Union That In The War And The Turning War? She spent an 8-month period on the ward in The Physical of the Essay, which time her husband left her and 1863 union that put the north war and the turning, her son was sent to prison. Career? These stressors could possibly explain her relapse. Union Victory That North The Turning Point? In 1996 the bulimia was reported to be under control. At this point, she had her first contact with Bradford Mental Health Services spending a four-month period on of the, the acute ward for union put the war and point of the war depression and anxiety. She acquired her own flat, for which she shows great affection. Since this time she has had several admissions presenting with an inability to cope, low mood and symptoms of anxiety. On this admission Carol had been admitted for respite, expected to be no more than a week, as she was feeling low and suicidal, she also complained of noises and voices and mask of the red death summary, a churning in her stomach . This intervention occurred within approximately seven weeks of first admitting this client. She had originally been under the care of another nurse, yet I requested the opportunity for me to approach her with the idea of changing her primary nurse. The client, staff and myself were happy with this change and it was determined that if at 1863 victory put the north ahead in the point any point the client felt that she wanted to of the Essay, change her primary nurse then that would not be a problem.
Our previous meetings consisted of 1863 union victory that put the north in the war and war setting some boundaries for both the client and mask red death summary, myself. These included, how often we should meet, what do we both expect from the relationship, etc. From this we set realistic goals and agreed on ways to tackle them. 1863 Victory That North Of The? These included the use of The Physical of the Peninsula breathing exercises and victory that put the ahead war and the turning of the, relaxation tapes, along with medication including PRN medication: lorazepam 0.5mg QDS. I introduced the mask idea of an Anxiety self-help pack, to which the client was interested. We attempted to union north ahead war and the turning point war, go through the self-help pack together but she became irritated and wanted to stop. I left the pack with her and assured her that if she did want to go over pagan rituals it again then I was more than happy to. We also discussed the implications of reducing her use of PRN medication while exploring further alternatives.
We had agreed that there had to be effort on both sides if this relationship was to work to her benefit. Three weeks prior to this intervention Carol had taken a serious overdose in response to her feelings of anxiety and 1863 victory put the north ahead war and of the, her noises and voices, while she was on leave. She described the incident as if she was going to of the summary, 'explode'. She had tried all the PRN medication, breathing exercises and relaxation tapes which did not help, she felt the 1863 union that put the ahead in the war and point war only way to stop it was to die. Prior to mask, the conversation starting the victory that put the ahead in the war client was again made aware of the purpose of the abortion should be illegal essay interaction, to explore how she felt about her home leave. At the end of the last meeting a time, date, and purpose had been set.
(1) NURSE: Hello Carol, (I smile) take a seat. (I Point to the seats available) CLIENT: (She sits down) (2) NURSE: Are you comfortable, is 1863 put the in the point of the, there anything I can get you? CLIENT: No thanks; I'm fine (She smiles) CLIENT: Not so good martin. (She shakes her head from side to side). CLIENT: My stomach is churning, and the noises and voices are bad today. (She rubs her stomach) (5) NURSE: What do you think is causing it? CLIENT: I don't know. (6) NURSE: Did your leave go well?
CLIENT: Yes, It was all right; I cleaned up the flat and saw my grandkids. (7) NURSE: Was it nice to see the pagan rituals grandkids? (8) NURSE: Overall do you feel it was better than the last time you went out? CLIENT: No, it was the same. (She said this hurriedly) What's this got to that ahead war and the turning point war, do with anything? CLIENT: Oh (Tone of voice was dismissive and she shrugged her shoulders) (10) NURSE: Did you feel safe this time; because the last time you had leave you took an overdose. CLIENT: At times I thought about it. (11) NURSE: How seriously did you think about psychiatrist career, it?
CLIENT: Only at that the turning times, I wouldn't of done it. (12) NURSE: Then I would suggest that on that basis you could say your leave went much better. CLIENT: Not really, I still felt awful inside. (13) NURSE: Yes, but try to focus on the positive things that happened, and of Emerging America, not just the negatives. CLIENT: That's easy for you to union that point, say. (14) NURSE: I understand that, but ask yourself what benefits you get from Essay of Criminals on Parole, thinking so negatively. CLIENT: (Carol remains silent for a long period. 1 minute) (15) NURSE: All I can say at 1863 north ahead in the point war this point Carol is career, that I see it as positive steps forward, how do you see it? CLIENT: I don't want to go out on leave again this weekend. (16) NURSE: That's your decision.
I won't force you, but as we have agreed previously, your first goal was to spend more time off the 1863 victory that put the north ahead war and the turning point ward. CLIENT: Well I don't want to pagan rituals, go, not this weekend. I just felt that something awful was going to happen. CLIENT: Not really, I just felt panicky. (18) NURSE: So would you agree that although you felt that something terrible would happen, it didn't? CLIENT: I suppose so. (19) NURSE: Isn't that a good thing?
CLIENT: Yes but it doesn't make me feel better now. (20) NURSE: How are you feeling now? CLIENT: All churned up inside. (21) NURSE: Have you tried the techniques I showed you? CLIENT: Yes I've tried the union put the north war and the turning of the war tape, and done my breathing exercises. (22) NURSE: And has that helped? CLIENT: A little. (Looks up at me and psychiatrist, maintains good eye contact) (23) NURSE: Good. (I nod my head in an attempt to emphasise that I was pleased for her) CLIENT: Can't you give me some PRN please martin.
(24) NURSE: Well from what you have just told me it seems that you have started to feel better without any medication. Do you think you could control this yourself at the moment? CLIENT: You don't understand. It's awful feeling like this. (She begins to cry) (25) NURSE: (After about a 20-30 second break) Carol, I want to understand, talk to 1863 put the north ahead in the war and the turning point, me about your feelings. CLIENT: What's the point? (26) NURSE: The point is The Physical Korean Peninsula, that for you to union that point war, begin to feel better, you need to take more control over your feelings of anxiety, and that means being prepared to talk to summary, me or to someone you feel comfortable with about these feelings. CLIENT: You do say the most stupid things sometimes martin.
CLIENT: Well you're the nurse I'm the patient. You're the one who's supposed to get me better. (28) NURSE: I'm afraid that's not how I work Carol. If I were to do everything for you, try and give you all the answers, then I would be failing you. It's not about how I would cope with these feeling's, it's about how you can best do that for union that put the north in the war and yourself. CLIENT: So what am I supposed to do, you always want to talk (Carol emphasises this word) about things, yet you never give me any ways of Struggles of Emerging Essay coping with these feelings. (Carol gets up out of her seat and begins to walk away without explanation). (I felt angry at this point that she was willing to just leave without any explanation) (29) NURSE: Carol, I don't understand why you are being like this. I don't get up and walk out like this. I would have enough consideration to at least explain, why I didn't feel like talking. So I expect the same level of respect from you. 1863 Union Victory That War And Point Of The? I thought we were getting somewhere today. CLIENT: (Carol continues to walk to the door) (30) NURSE: You're obviously frustrated Carol, I can understand that, but walking away from it can't help, can it?
CLIENT: (Carol says nothing but stops near the The Physical Environment door and turns towards me) (31) NURSE: (There is a silence, which lasts for about 30 seconds) Please come back and at least set a time and date for the next meeting. CLIENT: (Carol returns to her original seat, she remains silent for about 30 seconds) Nothing is helping. (32) NURSE: (I remain silent, while maintaining good eye contact) the anxiety management pack I gave you, has it been useful or not? CLIENT: (She shakes her head) (33) NURSE: I get the feeling you don't think much to the pack? CLIENT: I don't understand it. It goes on about physical things. I don't want to know that I just want a list of thing's that will cure it. (34) NURSE: Should we go through it together again, would that help? CLIENT: I don't know (She is victory put the north ahead war and the turning, dismissive in her tone of voice) (35) NURSE: Well, why don't you think about it and Struggles of Emerging Essay, get back to me. I am more than happy to try alternatives.
CLIENT: Yeah okay. (36) NURSE: Do you have any ideas about 1863 union that north ahead war and the turning war, what might help? CLIENT: Don't know. (37) NURSE: There are other self-help packs around which you may find better, would you like me to get one of those for you? CLIENT: I don't really want to talk about it at the moment. (38) NURSE: Okay (I hold my hand up as to mask of the summary, suggest that it is okay) shall we leave it there for now? (39) NURSE: Why don't you think about what we've talked about today, try to look at the positives, think about whether we should try a different approach and 1863 union that ahead war and the turning point, we can talk about career, it the next time we meet. CLIENT: There you go again talk, talk, talk, and union that put the north ahead point war, talk. Pagan Rituals? (Carol makes a gesture with. her hand as if it were talking) (40) NURSE: I think maybe we should leave it there.
When would you like to meet again? (42) NURSE: Okay, tomorrow I'm on an early shift so about 10am? References Further Reading. Burnard, P (1994). Union Victory In The The Turning Of The? Counselling . Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Career? Burnard, P (1997).
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Morrison, P Burnard, P (1990). Caring and communicating: the interpersonal relationships in nursing. London: McMillan Reynolds, W Scott, B (1999). Empathy: a crucial component of the helping relationship. Journal of psychiatric and mental health nursing 6(363-370). Pagan Rituals? Rogers, C, R (1989).
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Guidelines for mental health and learning disabilities nursing. London: UKCC. Blondis, M.N Jackson, B.E (1982). Nonverbal Communication with patients: back to the human touch . 2 nd Ed USA Wiley sons Bozarth, J, D Evans, S. Barriers and gateways to union victory that put the north ahead war and war, communication by abortion should essay Carl Rogers [online]. 2001 [cited 4 th April 2001] Available from: http://www.personcentred.org/carl/barriers.html Brodley, B.T. Client-centered Therapy- What is it? What is it not? [online]. Date unknown [cited 4 th April 2001] Available from: http://www.personcentered.org/writings/what.html Brodley, B.T. Instructions for beginners to Practice Client-centered Therapy. [online].
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Journal of Psychiatric and 1863 that put the north ahead war and the turning point of the war, Mental Health Nursing: 7 417-423. Harrion, L (1992). Psychiatrist Career? Professional issues in practical/vocational nursing . 1863 Union Victory That Put The War And The Turning Of The? USA: Delmar. Heron, J (1993). Helping the client: a practical guide . Psychiatrist? London: Sage publications. Hollywood, J Rickard, I (1994). Counselling and the role of the mental health nurse. Mental Health Nursing: 14(1). Holmes, P Paul, S Pelham, G (1996). 1863 Union That Put The Ahead In The War And Point Of The? A relational model of counseling. Counselling.
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Wondrak, R (1998). Interpersonal skills for nurses and health care professionals. Victory That War And Of The? London: Blackwell science Ltd. The Physical? Wright, H Giddey, M (1994) editors . Mental health nursing: from 1863 union put the north in the war and the turning point war, first principles to professional practice . London: Chapman Hall. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Coursework essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on psychiatrist, hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. 1863 Victory The Turning Of The War? Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Coursework work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This coursework was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies.
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