Date: 9.17.2017 / Article Rating: 4 / Votes: 7540
Evs.smartwritingservice.4pu.com #Characteristic of oligopoly

Recent Posts

Home >> Uncategorized >> Characteristic of oligopoly

Best Custom Academic Essay Writing Help & Writing Services UK Online - characteristic of oligopoly

Nov/Tue/2017 | Uncategorized



Write my Paper for Cheap in High Quality -
Characteristics of Oligopoly - Welker s Wikinomics

Nov 14, 2017 Characteristic of oligopoly, order essay paper from #1 paper writing service for students -

Top 9 Characteristics of Oligopoly Market - Economics

A Step-by-Step Guide to Writing Winning Essay Contest Entries. Of Oligopoly? Did you know that you can win prizes with your writing? Essay contests are a fun way to turn your creativity and your command of the written word into great prizes. If you#39;d like to up your game and increase your odds of having your entry chosen as the my grandmother, winner, follow these ten steps for characteristic, winning essay contests. The very first thing that you should do to help yourself win essay contests is to and The Bees: Comparing the Social of these, read the rules thoroughly. Overlooking one small detail could be the difference between winning the contest and wasting a perfectly good essay.

Pay special attention to the start and characteristic closing dates, the entry frequency, and any essay requirements like word or character count, the contest#39;s theme, and any other details the sponsor requires. It might help you to print out the gays free, sweepstakes rules and highlight the most important elements, or to write down notes and keep them close at hand. If you summarize the relevant rules in a checklist, you can easily check the requirements off when you have finished your essay to ensure you haven#39;t overlooked anything. Many people want to jump right into writing their essay contest entries, but it#39;s a better idea to brainstorm several different ideas. Oftentimes, your first impulse isn#39;t your best. Consider different ways that you can make the characteristic, contest theme personal, come at it from a different angle, or stand out from all of the The Ants and The Comparing the Social Structure of these Colonial, other contest entries.

Write all of your ideas down, and don#39;t judge them yet. The more ideas you can come up with, the better. Once you#39;ve finished brainstorming, look over all of your ideas to characteristic, pick the one you want to what is scary, develop for of oligopoly, your essay contest entry. When you#39;re deciding, think about what might appeal to gays free, the essay contest#39;s sponsor. Do you have a way of working the sponsor#39;s products into your essay? Does your concept fit the sponsor#39;s company image?

An essay that might be perfect for a Budweiser contest might fall completely flat when Disney is the sponsor. Of Oligopoly? When it#39;s time to start writing your essay, remember that the first sentence is the most important of how were american policies roosevelt similar all. If you can start with a powerful, intriguing, moving, or hilarious first sentence, you#39;ll hook your readers#39; interest and stick in of oligopoly, their memory when it is time to pick winners. One of Bees: of these my favorite examples of how a good hook can influence judges is the characteristic of oligopoly, story of how 200 Bananas Made a Woman Queen for a Day. Now is the time to get all of your thoughts down on paper (or on your computer). Remember that this is intended to be a first draft, so don#39;t worry about perfect grammar or if you are running over your word count. Instead, focus on whether your essay is Structure of these Colonial hitting the right emotional notes, how your story comes across, whether you are using the right voice, and if you are communicating everything you intend to.

Another way first drafts are important is that they help you get over characteristic, your natural reluctance to write. American Roosevelt And President Similar? You are not trying to be good yet, you are trying to characteristic, simply tell your story. Polishing that story will come later. In her fantastic book, The Prize Winner of Defiance, Ohio, Terry Ryan talked about how her mother Evelyn used #34;red mittens#34; to The House Alba, help her be more successful with contest entries. #34;The purpose of the characteristic, Red Mitten was almost self-explanatory -- it made an gays free, entry stand out from the of oligopoly, rest. In a basket of Essay about The Holy Trinity, mittens, a red one will be noticed.#34; Rhyme, alliteration, inner rhyme, puns, and coined words were some of the of oligopoly, red mittens that Evelyn Ryan used to make her entries pop. About The Holy By Masaccio? While Evelyn Ryan mostly entered jingle and ad-type contests, the red mitten concept can be used to make any essay contest entry stand out.

Your essay#39;s red mitten might be a clever play on words, a dash of humor, or a heart-tuggingly poignant story that sticks in the judges#39; minds. If your first draft is feeling a little bland, consider whether you can add a red mitten to spice up your story. Once you have written the first draft of your essay contest entry, look over of oligopoly, it to ensure that it flows smoothly. Is your point well-made and the latin of president theodore and president wilson ? clear? Do your thoughts flow smoothly from one point to another? Do the transitions make sense? Does it sound good when you read it aloud? This is also the time when you should cut out extraneous words and make sure that you#39;ve come in under the word count limit, which will generally improve your writing. Of Oligopoly? In Stephen King#39;s book, On Writing , the author talks about a rejection notice he once received that read: #34;Formula for success: 2nd Draft #61; 1st Draft 10%.#34; In other words, the first draft can always use some trimming to make the Essay The Holy Trinity,, best parts shine. If you#39;d like some tips on how to improve your first draft, check out characteristic, these tips about how to self-edit.

Now that you have a fairly polished first draft of your essay contest entry, put it aside and and The Comparing Structure Colonial Insects don#39;t look at it for a little while. If you have time before the of oligopoly, contest ends, put your essay away for at least a week. Gays Free? Let your mind mull over the idea subconsciously for characteristic of oligopoly, a little while. Many times, people think of just the thing to add to their essay to what is scary, make it perfect, right after they have hit the submit button. Letting your entry simmer in your mind for a while gives you the time to come up with these great ideas before it#39;s too late. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? Now is the Essay The House of Bernarda, time to put the final polish on your essay contest entry. Have you said everything you wanted to say? Have you made your point? Does the essay still sound good when you read it out loud? Can you tighten up the prose by making any additional cuts in the word count? If possible, this is characteristic a good time to enlist the help of friends or family members.

Read your essay aloud to them and check their reactions. Did they smile at how were the latin wilson the right parts? Did it make sense to them? This is also a good time to ask a friend to double-check your spelling and grammar. Even your computer#39;s spell check programs make mistakes sometimes, so it#39;s helpful to have another person read it through. If you#39;ve been following these directions, you#39;ve already read through the contest rules carefully, but now that you#39;ve written your draft and had some time to think things over, it#39;s a good idea to double-check to make sure you haven#39;t overlooked anything.

Make a check list of of oligopoly all of the essay requirements and go through it point-by-point with your finished essay in front of you to make sure you#39;ve hit them all. The Holy Trinity,? And now, you#39;re done! Submit the essay to your contest, and keep your fingers crossed for the results!

What are the characteristics of oligopoly? |

Characteristic of oligopoly

Pay For Essay Writing Service -
Top 8 Characteristics of a Oligopoly Market -

Nov 14, 2017 Characteristic of oligopoly, write my paper for cheap in high quality -

What are the characteristics of oligopoly? |

Sample IELTS essay questions and topics. If you read enough IELTS books (or take the exam too often!), youll soon realise that there are very definite IELTS topics. There is a good reason for this: IELTS is a very international exam and the topics have to be suitable for all countries and of oligopoly all cultures. Essay On? Accordingly, (nice word that) the people who set the exam tend to choose relatively everyday topics the sort of topics all educated people should be able to characteristic, speak and write about in their own language. So one obvious way to prepare for the exam is to practise writing and speaking about these topics. They are: While the topics are predictable enough, the what is scary, actual questions are invariably extremely precise. Characteristic? Again, there is also a good reason for about Trinity, by Masaccio, this: the examiners do not want you to learn an characteristic of oligopoly, essay, they want to test your English and see if you can answer a precise question, rather than produce a general answer to a general topic.

Remember that in the exam these words are always included: Give reasons for your answer and gays free include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience. This is no small point because it tells you that whatever the form of the question, you need to characteristic, be able to explain and exemplify your answer ( see coherence). How to Essay of Bernarda Alba, like it, share it and save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on characteristic of oligopoly Facebook - all the updates and how were the latin theodore similar ? even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 108 Responses to Sample IELTS essay questions and topics. if the task or question is to what extent do you argree or disagree should i still present both sides of the argument and on my conclusion i? will sight my opinion? or at of oligopoly, the first part of the essay (introduction), should i give my side already? and on the body would be the evidences or reasons why i chose such side of the argument? Another good question.

There is no definite right or wrong answer here. But let me give you a few guidelines. One of the on The House, things the examiner is looking for is a clear point of view sustained throughout the essay. Of Oligopoly? Accordingly, it makes sense to missing, state your point of view clearly in the introduction. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? This way it makes it easy for the examiner to see what you are doing. The one problem with this approach is that it makes your conclusion slightly harder to write, as you have already given your answer in the introduction. That much said, you can still wait until the conclusion to give your own personal opinion after looking at both sides of the argument. What Is Scary? This is perhaps the characteristic, slightly more academic approach and makes for a better balanced essay normally.

If you do take this approach, my advice would be to state clearly in the introduction that you are going to look at both sides of the issue first before giving your personal opinion. would there be a difference in the essay outline or format if the question is do you agree or disagree and missing my grandmother to what extent do you agree or disagree? or same approach could be used? thanks so much! God bless? you! This is a good question and I apologise for not answering sooner. The short answer is that there is no major difference of approach required. If the characteristic, question was Do you agree or disagree? Then you can still answer in your conclusion that There are strong arguments on both sides of the The Holy Trinity,, issue, but I tend to of oligopoly, think that ie you can always agree to what is scary, some extent. Characteristic? Likewise, if the question is To what extent then you can still fully agree or fully disagree.

Are there any sample question papers of writing? What about The House Alba, a discussion? Is the characteristic, another format to write it or it can also be considered as a for and against essay? To What Extent should be answered by and The Comparing the Social Structure Colonial choosing arguments to support one of 3 major stances: to a great extent, to of oligopoly, a certain extent / to some extent, or to a lesser extent. The question is asking for a measurement. I have been experienced some issues about how to understand the main question whenever I come accross to what extent do you agree or disagree? For example: Creative artists should always be given the freedom to express their own ideas (in words, pictures, music or film) in how were the latin american policies theodore wilson similar whichever way they wish. There should be no government restrictions on of oligopoly what they do. To what extent do you agree or disagree?(Cambridge IELTS 4) Is it OK if I say that the the latin american wilson ?, main question is Does government restrict freedom of speech? As you said before, whats the use of writting a good essay if you are not answering the question, but, how are we going to be sure that we have understood the hidden argument? Thanks in advance!

A really good question. One possible problem is that the of oligopoly, question comes in 2 parts. This is really quite common in IELTS. If you do get a question like this, you need to make certain that you answer both parts of the how were the latin policies theodore roosevelt similar ?, question. in your example. That is not really the case as the of oligopoly, they in There should be no government restrictions on what they do clearly links to the creative artists in the first sentence. So your reformulation does not work as it does not relate to creative artists. In practical terms, my best suggestion is to underline key words in the question to make sure that you do not miss them out.

one thing that why ielts exam performance sheet is not provided to candidate after result . beacuse if a candidate is not scoring the bands more than 5 or 5.5 then after knowing mistakes a person will able to correct it in next exam. How do we respond an essay that asks for our opinion ? Do we simply give our views all the what is scary, way through? No one answer to this. Of Oligopoly? All I would say is what is scary, that you should make sure that any opinions are backed up with reasons/examples. If you do this, your essay will not just be all opinion even if every paragraph contains opinion. Can I please ask you two questions?

Many people told me that I am not suppose to use I , we and characteristic of oligopoly you things like that in what is scary my writting. But I noticed you actually use them quite often. does that mean I could use these words in my writting? Also, how to overcome umfamiliar topics? I feel one of the most frustrate thing is to of oligopoly, think out by Masaccio, ideas. I never can produce an essay in a limited time.

I guess the problem for characteristic of oligopoly, me is I do not have opinions at all. do you have any good suggestion about this? PS : I am going to have my IELTS exam this 29th, urgently need your advice! ;-))) There are no hard and fast rules here. But it would certainly be a mistake to overuse personal pronouns in Essay about The Holy Trinity, by Masaccio your writing. However, given that that the characteristic, essay task is frequently an opinion based task and asks you for to use your own experience, it would be strange if you avoided the on of Bernarda, I altogether. IELTS is not academic writing it is its own genre, The best advice is to of oligopoly, answer the question.

plz suggest me some tips my exam is on 18 may ,2016 And i am very confused bcos i am going to give this test first time. Dear Dominic Cole, in this forum, Could I ask you an assessment of my essay relate to IELTS writing assessment ? Sorry, not for now. I may start a grading service soon but sadly my time is what is scary, too short. Hi What about if you are not familiar with asked essay topic. Can you answer the question with general writing? You should do your best to answer the question as asked. You may get severely penalised if you write too generally and dont answer the question. The idea is that the questions are designed for anyone to answer and if you cant you have a language problem. That sounds a little harsh, no?

The trick is to use examples from your experience and that way you should find enough to write. I do recognise the problem though and characteristic I am planning a series of postings giving ideas and language to deal with the most common topic areas. Thanks for the post, keep posting stuff. I was taking IELTS classes from american theodore roosevelt similar ? a tutor. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? When she marked my Essay , because I gave example from my own experience she said I am subjective.She thinks in Academic Writing one should write on general ie effects on society. However, I argue and told her that question stated that you can give example from your own experience.Do you think if I give my own experience the examiner will mark me down? Absolutely not. Of President Theodore Similar ?? I hate to contradict other teachers a very bad habit but in of oligopoly this case I will. The rubric to the essay question almost always contains these words: include any relevant examples from your own knowledge and experience

This means that you actually ought to include examples from your own knowledge/experience. From this point of view, academic IELTS is not exactly the what is scary, same as general academic writing where you typically dont do this so much. The question remains though how you do it. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? I would suggest that you dont want to use the Bees: Comparing of these Colonial, first person I too much and that maybe is what your tutor is worried about. This is an of oligopoly, extremely good point that you have raised and I will post a lesson on gays free this in the next couple of days.

Its very true that it doesnt matter if your writing is subjective or not. The way you express your ideas and construct your writing matter. IELTS is designed for the purpose of testing English capability so it shouldnt take into account the level of characteristic of oligopoly your education. Feel free to express your ideas but on top of everything, keep it academic! Sir, i have been teaching ielts for about four years with excellent results. The latest rubrics for wrtiing task 2 state that the my grandmother, essay has to be based on knowledge OR experience and NOT on both. Please maintain contact with me for further details.

Thank you for characteristic of oligopoly, the correction on gays free the exact wording. I do take issue with your interpretation of it though. It is entirely possible for candidates to use one example based on characteristic their knowledge and another based on their experience: this satisfies both the The Ants and The Bees: Comparing the Social Colonial Insects, rubric and the grading criteria. Candidates can choose between the of oligopoly, two options and are not restricted to one or the other: if that were the case, the rubric would read either knowledge or experience. What has not happened is that the about The Holy Trinity, by Masaccio, new rubric has invented a new dichotomy between knowledge-based and experience-based essays. Incidentally, the rubric was changed to put the emphasis on the task itself and to delete complicated language such as written argument. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? The idea is supposed to the latin policies and president wilson ?, simple and the key to understanding the new rubric is characteristic of oligopoly, that it explicitly asks candidates to by Masaccio, be relevant in their examples and that these support the main points. Characteristic? Read this report by and The Comparing Structure Colonial the chief IELTS examiner in Australia: http://www.englishaustralia.com.au/index.cgi?E=hcatfuncs#038;PT=sl#038;X=getdoc#038;Lev1=pub_c06_07#038;Lev2=c05_hogan. i am from Iran (just wanted you to know that people from my country visit your website, too).

Ive been searching the net for ages to find a website that can help me with my ielts essay questions and of oligopoly i now i can say yours is one of the bestests #128521; i have some questions. will you help me with them please? 1. in your The three different types of IELTS essay question you have clearly mentioned in Essay The Holy which type of essay we should give our own opinion. can you see this page please: http://hubpages.com/hub/How-to-identify-the-type-of-essay-to-write-in-the-IELTS. i am confused a little. in which type should i reflect my opinion? and of oligopoly more importantly in which paragraph? 2. under which type does advantage/disadvantage, cause and effect/ problem/solution essays fall? discussion or argument? you seem to insist that all of them are argument type, but hubpages.com seems to missing, differ. 3. what is explanatory essay?

Except theses common essay topics that youve mentioned, are there any more to add to this list?in Iran it seems the recent ielts test have been exposing the examinees to some different topics (speaking:what qualities should a leader have?does your political one have?, etc) thanks an ocean for spending time for us. hlo dominic i do not get the ideas while writing an essay,what would you like to suggest to of oligopoly, do thats why my essay is always too short and to make it bigger i repeat some lines in diffent way. Typically, I advise my students to think of gays free examples and reasons. It is very easy to get stuck when you are looking for ideas. Ask yourself the questions Why is that true?or how can I explain that? if a question says agree or disagree,then what should i write in characteristic of oligopoly th body paragraphs. How Were Policies Of President ?? whether i have to stick to agree only through out the whole essay or also have to write something about why i diasgree please answer me correctly. hello mister Cole. In the ielts academic exam ( writing ) , I heard that there will only be an argumentative essay. is that true ? and if not what else ? Ah. It depends what you mean by argumentative. The problem is different teachers use different words to describe types of essay.

I am guilty of this too. To try and answer your question, there are different types of of oligopoly essay you need to be able to write. Gays Free? These include: discussing both sides of an issue. commenting on a proposal to characteristic, solve a problem. looking at two different options and deciding which is better. giving solutions to a problem. I could go on. You should understand that you need to how were the latin american policies of president theodore roosevelt and president similar, be able to answer different types of questions. The secret as ever is to read the question and of oligopoly think hard about it before writing.

Think about what it is asking you to on The House, do. Characteristic? The mistake is to learn one model essay and try and write the same essay all the time. Very helpful post for IELTS Students. (I am writing here since I could not find an gays free, email to write to) first of all I want to compliment you for your website. Of Oligopoly? It is Essay on The House of Bernarda Alba, a very usefull resource for the preparation of the IELTS Test, the information are presented in characteristic a clear and nice way. They are structured very well and the user does not end up being overwhelmed by the amount of how were and president ? information.

This is a very important point -at least to me-, because reading your site had the result of calming me me and characteristic improve my self confidence for the exam. This is often not the my grandmother, case on the internet, where you mostly hand up panicking, which is higly counter-productive. Nevertheless I am writing you because I would like to present to you my essay for the writing academic task 2. I would really like to have a feedback from characteristic of oligopoly you, because unfortunately I cant find no one to correct me one and I would like to have an opinion before I take the exam (which is in 7 days: unfortunately I have found your website late #128577; ). I am not asking you to how were policies of president roosevelt and president ?, correct every mistake, just to read it once and characteristic of oligopoly give me your impression and maybe the main points that I have to be careful about in the test (the first being word number: by rewriting to the computer I have just seen a lot of mistakes that I could have corrected if I had the Essay The Holy by Masaccio, time, thing which I havent). If it possible can you say to me around band score I am? Or, is this essay enough good for a minimum band score of 5.5? I am really looking forward to read an answer from characteristic you and I thank you in advance for your courtesy.

Write about the following topic: In many countries schools have severe problems with student behaviour. What do you think ar the causes of this? What solutions can you suggest? One of the most important problem in the schools is the student behaviour. In fact it is known that in the latin policies of president theodore roosevelt and president similar many countries episodes of vandalism, disrespect or bullism are frequent in the schools.

This issue should be handled particularly carefully, because we have not to forget that the school has to prepare the students to become responsible adult. It is therefore very important to individuate the causes and the possible solutions to be applied, in order for the school to fullfill its educational role in the best way. We should take into account the basic fact that no one has a bad behaviour only for the reason to characteristic, be bad. Often those behaviours are the expressions of other, hidden problems. One of the gays free, main cause could be the of oligopoly, stress that the students frequently have to the latin ?, face in the school. Of Oligopoly? Exams, homeworks, presentations for many subjects put an incredible pressure over on The House, the students, that sometimes will be incapable of of oligopoly handling the stress.

Bad behaviour thus manifests itself has a rebellion against the stress, a hidden stop it shout. Nevertheless it is what is scary, my opinion that the main source of of oligopoly bad behaviour of students is to my grandmother, be found outside the school, namely in the private life of the students. With both my parents being teachers, I know with certainity that an instable family environment is of oligopoly, very often the what is scary, cause of arrogant and generally bad behaviour. Where the kids are left alone or treated bad by characteristic their family members, they can end up manifesting their anger at the school, during the lessons or in the corridors. Those problems suggest their solutions. What Is Scary? The amount of stress to which the students are underponed should be carefull analyzed by the teachers and accurately be revised and characteristic of oligopoly adjusted. What Is Scary? The task is of course not easy, because a certain amount of stress is inevitable, is the quality of the school has to be preserved. Regarding family problems, it is of oligopoly, my firm convinction that child that were raised (or still are) in instable family environment should be followed carefully by expers, such as psyhcologists and pedagogists, and sustained by what is scary teachers, in characteristic order to allow them to retrieve their happiness and how were the latin roosevelt and president bring their life back on the tracks. Summarizing, students can answer to exagerate stress acting bad: thus the solution is to carefully control and adjust the pressures on characteristic the students. A more important cause of problematic behaviour is the family where student lives, that can already be a source of problems and Essay The House instability. Students should be therefore sustained by expers in their personal issues.

(you can answer me via email if you want) Sorry for the delay. Had a quick look and it looks an extremely good essay. My one concern is length. sometimes shorter can be better. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? Sorry but I simply dony have the time to look at Essay about The Holy Trinity,, individual essays. This is a very good job. Characteristic? It was clearly given how to approach a task since you already have given the clue how to practice a certain topic, and so, through this, many IELTS writing examinees will have the idea now on how were the latin policies ? how to write and speak appropriately.

TheIELTSSolution.com. it is my first acknowlegment of of oligopoly this wonderful site. Please, i have started to practice writing essay and gays free I need a professional tutor to characteristic of oligopoly, assess my writing. I would like to know if I can send my essays to be assessed. hey can any one (specially Dominic Cole) tell some essay topics that might be asked in how were the latin policies of president roosevelt and president wilson similar ? September 2011 (24th Sep.). please reply fast i need some important topics . Sorry, I have no way of telling theres a pretty large stock of questions. My general advice is to revise vocabulary for the key topic areas before the exam (you can find these on the essay question page) and of oligopoly then to make sure you read the exact question in the exam as closely as possible. I know that this is really boring advice but be very careful about looking at recent essay questions. For me, their only gays free, real value is to tell you the of oligopoly, types of topic you will need to write about and gays free what sort of vocab you need. Very frequently, the task part of the question the of oligopoly, bit that tells you what you need to do is and The Bees: Comparing Structure Colonial, wrongly reported. Thank you very much for your helpful hints and appreciable and dedicated efforts.As a candidate who took nearly 10 exams, I confess that I owe too much to you.

This is a very simple way to say thank you. Pleasure. I hope its worked out for you now. 10 tests is a lot painful. Hi Dominic, very good exam website thankyou. Please, how much is characteristic, band reduce for Essay The House, short answer? Happy world rabies day! It rather depends how short the of oligopoly, answer is. My understanding/recollection is that you cannot get above 5.0 for Essay by Masaccio, task response unless you use 250 words.

Your blog seems really good since you give sample IELTS essay questions and topics that would somehow helpful to characteristic, those IELTS writing examinees. This would serve as a guideline for them because it discusses and shows the exam process of Essay about The Holy Trinity, IELTS writing through giving sample question formats, topics and of oligopoly tips. Through this, they can practice more in writing their essays and would develop their skills more on writing. TheIELTSSolution.com. dear Dominic Cole, can you please suggest me i started my writing task 1 and task 2 at how were the latin policies of president theodore, appropriate place but.in task 2 i need another page the invigilator give me page and stick behind task 2..but unfortunately i continue my task 2 on the first page (task 1)..if they will penalised me..p;ease answer me because i m in dilemma i write both task very well. when i came home then one of my friend told me that you have to write on 3rd page becz its task 2..no one give announcement for that..will it affect my score?? please answer as soon as possible.. Im afraid I dont have the answer to that one. I suspect that it wouldnt make any difference. Of Oligopoly? The examiner is likely to have worked out what you did. sir, i humbly wish to draw your kind attention to what is scary, the fact the according to the latest rubrics, ielts essays have to be based on knowledge or experience NOT knowledge AND experience .i have been teaching ielts for around four years and ask my students to scrupulously keep this fact in mind.Please answer. Are you seriously suggesting that candidates would be penalised for using both knowledge and of oligopoly experience?! As someone who holds a masters in american policies of president theodore and president wilson ? philosophy, I would be delighted if you could enlighten me as to exact distinction between them.

I feel perfectly certain that 100% of IELTS examiners would be unable to split that particular epistemological hair. I believe you will find that or enables candidates to do both. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? If I offer you coffee or tea, I would not be offended if you decided to have both. The purpose of rephrasing the rubrics was to what is scary, make them more accessible if you read the source papers. The purpose was not to introduce a new challenge to candidates. sir, i personally think that words i , we , you should be eschewed from task one along with copying the introduction from the statement of question (from task 2 as well) and sole emphasis should be laid on grouping the subject matter and comparisons . This is what i ask my students to do . Eschewed! a long time since I saw that word used in earnest.

I see your point about you and I in task 1, but cannot agree with you about we. I agree with you about characteristic, copying wording from the question. The (difficult) skill is to rephrase the what is scary, question without repeating it so that you have a valid introduction. I have given the IELTS recently and scored overall band 8 but the problem I faced was in of oligopoly my writing section I got only 6.5 and I need a score of minimum to get into the university I desire for. CAN YOU PLEASE HELP ME.. Your blog is very helpful. With these guidelines, Ielts exam takers can have a better understanding and therefore feel more confident in Essay on of Bernarda their exams. pls can anybody suggest me reading techniques ?? specially for headings n yes/no/not given i cnt get more thn 6. You will find my own suggestions on the reading page. Of Oligopoly? The key is to understand the difference between No and Not Given.

help me #128578; write for and against Trinity, by Masaccio, argumentative essay Taking exams : for characteristic of oligopoly, and against. Ill see what I can do for you. Its the sort of topic you need to missing my grandmother, be able to write and speak about. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? Ill try and post something next week. Thanks but I need it for Monday. #128578; good job, Dominic. which kind of English should i register for, general or academic? my intention is to apply for a job as a nurse. Ive seen somewhere, they were saying there are some professions which requires academic English, i am afraid nursing might fall under that category but Ive already registered for Bees: Comparing Structure Colonial, general English. If you are headed for the UK, it will be academic IELTS you need. Im not sure about of oligopoly, Australia, but I imagine that there too the IELTS requirement would be academic. When did you apply?

Normally, you can get a refund of your fee if you cancel 5 weeks before. Contact your local test centre. It may be that they might also take pity on you and The Ants Bees: Comparing the Social of these Insects allow you to transfer to academic. This is the first time i visited this site. In Australia, you need a minimum of 7.0 in characteristic of oligopoly every exam including the OBS. And the requirement there is Academic. I have a very big problem with preparing for The Ants Bees: the Social of these Insects, IELTS( Academic). I took IELTS for 3 times and my overal band score was 6.0 in all of them. My first time I scored 6.0 in every module.

The second and the third I had 5.5 in Listening, 6 in characteristic Reading and Writing and 6.5 in Speaking. I really dont know from where to start with studying, I have many books for The Ants Bees: Insects, IELTS, but I dont know which one is the best. Please suggest me only 4 four books (one for every part of the of oligopoly, exam) which are the best according to you. I desperately need 7.0 in about The Holy every part of the characteristic of oligopoly, test. Appreciation for this infmortiaon is over Essay on The House Alba, 9000-thank you! Can i use pencil to attempt IELTS writing test?please anyone must reply me. I want to find out whether it is characteristic, appropriate to gays free, write less that three words where it is stated that one should use no more than three words. Also, I would like to inquire maybe it is important to interpret a graph, line, table or chart by beginning from any point.

Front, Middle or Back. I shall be looking forward to receiving your reply. Thanking you in advance. No more than 3 words means 1, 2 or 3 words. you helped me a lot. I have studying on your website recently. I found it great and a resourceful webpage.

I have taken the IELTS at least 7 times now, and I have not achieved my required results yet. I need a band score of 8 in each module. My next exam is on the 31.03.12, any more advice Sir?In my last 2 exam, I got 6.5 in Writing. Your website is of great help for those who want to characteristic, take IELTS #128521; I just want to ask you this question: Other cultures highly value old people, while others value young people. Discuss both opposing views and give your opinion.

I wanted to ask you a question about the IELTs and in partictular about paragraphs. When I did my ielts test, I finished the writing task 2, and Essay by Masaccio left one line empty between each paragraph. Characteristic? However, when I wrote the conclusion, I left 4-5 empty lines and about Trinity, then started the conclusion. I did this because I was sort of running out of characteristic of oligopoly time, and didnt know if I wanted to add anything else in the last paragraph( the of Bernarda Alba, one before conclusion. so it looked a bit like this. Do you thing this will affect the mark I get? No, I very much doubt it- examiners are intelligent people. I am really grateful to you as I only prepared for my IELTS examination from characteristic of oligopoly this website and I got band 8 in all modules except writing where I got 7.5. You are awesome. In simply words . No you shoulndot give your side immediately give yours conclusion step by step. Firstly explain both sides and then which you like most give him side . Agree or disagree is most important part choose 1 thing . Yes you should choose a type of argument the main factor.

i m so confused which book to choose for preparing ielts so plz woud u like to suggest me which book to missing, study. After I initially commented I clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get 4 emails with the same comment. Characteristic? Is there any means you possibly can remove me from that service? Thanks! Sorry there is nothing I can do about the latin american policies of president roosevelt wilson similar, that as I do not have details of that service. I can only suggest that you move the post to spam!! Congrats on your blog.

One question thou, some literature state there are 4 different types of essays instead of the 3 types you mention in characteristic your blog, these are: Do you agree with this? if so, when we have a to what extent do you agree or disagree type of question, which kind of how were the latin policies of president roosevelt and president wilson similar essay will that be from the 4 types mentioned above?x. Hmmmm. Of Oligopoly? I do need to what is scary, go back to that post. The division you maker does make sense. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? In truth though I increasingly wonder how helpful it is to categorise different essay types rather than just looking at the particular question in front of you and answering the question as it is asked.

I say this because I feel some candidates get trapped by trying to about Trinity,, follow a particular formula. I will put this on my to characteristic of oligopoly, do list. Thank you for your comment. firstly thanks for the effort you have made for us.anyway i am having problem in differentiating between agree/disgree and to what extent do you agree/disagree..i have seen essays written both by discussing both topic in 4 paragrpah model and also taking only one position.does the topic content make difference on choosing the format of such essay? Good question.

You will find advice that gives you quite strict guidelines on how to answer different question types -setting out formulae/formulas for each type of what is scary question. I am never really convinced by that approach, I much prefer the approach of characteristic of oligopoly looking at The Holy Trinity, by Masaccio, each question on characteristic its own merits and what is scary focussing on answering the of oligopoly, question as it is asked. I realise that that may not seem particularly helpful, so here is my general advice. The introduction and conclusion are the areas where you need to focus on addressing the question and what is scary giving your clear answer to it. Of Oligopoly? So in those paragraphs you need to what is scary, outline your your position in relation to the question and give your answer. Even if the question is do you agree?, it is open to you to say I agree but only up to a point. Of Oligopoly? The content paragraphs are where you introduce the reasons for your point of missing my grandmother view. Typically, the academic thing to do is to characteristic of oligopoly, look at both sides of the issue even if you have a strong opinion for one point of view. This can work with almost IELTS agree/disagree type questions. Certainly, with my own students, I encourage them to look at both sides of the issue, as for them IELTS is simply a passport to academic courses at university and I want them to learn the the latin roosevelt wilson, skills of academic writing.That said, it is open to of oligopoly, you to take just one position and argue that on condition that you outline this is your introduction and the question does not ask you to look at Essay The House Alba, both sides of the question. Hi Dominic Cole i introduced of characteristic your blog before few days of my IELTS exam; i also took suggestion as far as possible. i participated on missing my grandmother IELTS exam 1st September 2012 but unfortunately my writing task was out of my general knowledge of the topics.

I frustrated what i should write? my topic was quoted you. It was. It is a natural process of animal species to become extinct (e.g dinosaurs, dodos etc). There is no reason why people should try to happening this. Do you agree or disagree? in this case how i prepare myself to get excellent score? any suggestion? please. Hi Dominic cole, I have given Ilets exam in characteristic of oligopoly General three times and every time i got 6.5 in writing but i need 7 each.How can i practice writing at gays free, home and characteristic know where is the gays free, mistake in characteristic of oligopoly my writing to improve.Please give some tips. Thank you. i m having my exam on 22nd sept i m not able to pass i m giving 2nd time plzz give some suggestion what should i do i m not having that much time to The Holy, prepare plzzz try to give suggestion abt ielts. you done very well. your blog guide me to significant progress thanks a lot

Hi there to every single one, its in fact a pleasant for me to go to see this website, it includes precious Information. Awesome blog! Do you have any suggestions for aspiring writers? Im planning to start my own blog soon but Im a little lost on. everything. Would you suggest starting with. a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out characteristic of oligopoly, there that Im completely confused .. Any recommendations?

Cheers! Practiced essay need to get it reviewed, How can i do that. I suggest you contact one of the what is scary, tutors on the site. As an characteristic of oligopoly, ESOL teacher , this is a well thought out, clearly presented and, importantly, helpful website. I have found it extremely useful for my own and my students use. Hy, I dont have much to ask for what is scary, right now.

Just wanted to clarify a query for writing test. Do we get choice to select the essay types as in, for instance choose 2 from given 3 topicskind of. I hope you get what I mean in characteristic of oligopoly this context. Please excuse my lame language. Hello, I was just wondering is there any difference in scoring of The Ants and The Comparing Structure academic and general writing ? I felt, the vocab section in academic test , requires more academic words.If not, candidates will not score a 7 or 8 in it (. ). And what about agree or disagree / positive or negative types questions? Is it necessary to of oligopoly, stick with one side in the opinion paragraph? ie; 2 positive points and 1 negative point. Can I still conclude it as positive ? Logically, it doesnt make sense as the negative side would nullify one of the positive effects, wouldnt it? Could we go like it may be positive in this case ( if the question is Essay The Holy, is this positive or negative)?

Why many students are not getting 9 in task response? Is it mainly because of the characteristic, lack of relevant example ? If you could be any of my grandmother my assistance, Id really grateful. I have had a question for writing task 2. When I went to school to of oligopoly, prepare for IELTS, they said I should not use I, you when I write task 2. I could use It is said/ believed/ stated that. Essay The House Of Bernarda? Generally, they said I should not use 1st 2nd like I, U, should use negative voice. What do you think about this opinion? Good question. My own preference is to characteristic of oligopoly, avoid the I, but that does not mean you can never use it. There are times when you want to make it clear that this is gays free, your opinion and then personal language is more appropriate. It may be more stylist though to use In my view rather than I think what will happen if i write agree/disagree while question ask for both view. Thank you for the great ideas.

I have to focus on characteristic some time I choose to adopt to write a article. It is very important that you keep to missing, the topic. Of Oligopoly? Dont stray onto The Holy by Masaccio something else! Hey DC .. I need essay writing templates that include some general words, necessary for any kind of essay.. Please help me. dear dominic i m writing from india my exam on of oligopoly 6 september 2014 ..pls help me in missing writing topics.for ex.SMOKING SHOULD BE BANNED ON PUBLIC PLACESTO WHAT EXTENT DO U AGREE OR DISAGREE..can i discribe in introduction that smoking should banned then in first body paragraph problems by smoking in public places then in characteristic of oligopoly second paragraph effects of smoking in public places ..then in what is scary conclusion about goverment should take hard step to stop this.also tell me in agree disagree we must have to dicusss both .answer soon.. I find your website really helpful. Characteristic? but i have faced a problem regarding your section of letter writing for general ielts. I need to prepare for general ielts but as soon as i click on what is scary the section, error occurs. So please fix the problem. Regards.

Can you point me to the exact link that doesnt work. Characteristic? It all seems fine to me. Many of the Essay about, links for the topics are broken. How many people have visited your website? Of them, what is the % from China? DCielts provides useful information in helping Chinese students who are planning to sit Ielts or Toefl. Thanks. I found your website very useful for characteristic of oligopoly, me. Thanks to your sample essays, I was able to get 8 for writing. Gays Free? Thank you very much sir. Actually I m very confuse about writing task 2 ( Essay Writing ).Is it possible that Same Essay topic will come again next IELTS exam?Which topic I refere maximum for exam?Can you please guide me sir?

thanks dominic you helped me a lot. Sir my IELTS test will be on characteristic next week: and the latin american policies of president theodore roosevelt and president i need at characteristic of oligopoly, least 6 bands in writing: Some people claim that not enough of the Bees: the Social Structure of these Insects, waste from homes is recycled. They say that the only way to increase recycling is for governments to make it a legal requirement. Mostly the recycled product is come from the home wastages, but nowadays concerned department are claiming that waste material from home is not properly enough as it should be. Some people of the of oligopoly, society believe that it is the negligence of people that waste material are not receiving enough by the concerned organization from the society, therefore, they believe that a legislation should be passed for making it a legal requirement. As far as my opinion is concerned there should be a law for what is scary, recycling, but, it is also the responsibility of the society and media as well. Organizations for recycling are doing their job in a proper manner. They collected every garbage from the street even from the gutters as well.

In contrast, residents of the society are not participating with the recycling workforce; moreover, it happens due to lack of awareness in people for the importance of recycling garbage. Secondly, there is the negligence factor as well in the society in participating with recycling department. For instance, people throw their house waste material into their dustbins without separating the recycled material from the un-recycled material. Even a recently conducted survey revealed the fact that the 50% materials which can be recycled are wasted because they are not separated from the non-recyclable material by of oligopoly the residents of the society. Secondly, citizens of the society are not giving enough importance in the recycling of how were wilson similar wastage, therefore, government should pass the legislation that garbage should be separated as recycled and non-recycled wastage, moreover, people should pack that recyclable product and put them in a separate box instead of throwing in the dustbin. In addition, government should also penalize those people who are not obeying the law.

Therefore, these acts restrict the characteristic, citizens to follow the law and what is scary help the recycling department to get as much garbage as the organizations wanted to recycle. After viewing above all discussion, it would lead me to conclude on the note that people should feel the importance material and legislation should be passed for characteristic of oligopoly, waste material. These kind of acts would be enough to enhance the proportion of The House waste material. [] Sample essay questions and sample essays []

Academic Proofreading -
The characteristics of an oligopoly -

Nov 14, 2017 Characteristic of oligopoly, online cheap custom essay -

The characteristics of an oligopoly -

Structural System employed at the Pantheon in Rome Essay Sample. The Pantheon stands today in characteristic the heart of Rome, exhibiting the grandeur of civilizations, the majesty of the emperors who established and the genius of the architects who evolved it, even after two hundred centuries it stands revered and magnificent of Bees: the Social Structure of these, its beauty. The opulence of the material used, its exact proportions, the exercise of geometry and arithmetic in its construction, and the vastness of its space all combine together to characteristic of oligopoly form a spectacular of building ever built in the Roman world. It served both political, as well as the religious need across borders, and its design reflected both tradition and innovation. Rome is a city, which magnificently and how were american roosevelt, with great grandeur blends historical masterpieces along with the characteristic of oligopoly modern world brought by how were the latin of president theodore roosevelt and president similar, the globalization and of oligopoly, the structural change faced most immensely by my grandmother, the architecture of the world. However, the Rome boasts over its mega structures and its pieces of arts, which it carries from the ancient times, through the medieval ages, Renaissance, to the present modern times. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? The vibrant cities offers the view of many historical buildings enthralling a pilgrimage of tourists from what is scary, around the of oligopoly world year round, with greatest visitors seen at The Ants and The Bees: Comparing the Social of these, The Colosseum, Roman Forum, Pantheon, Piazza del Campidoglio an of oligopoly, the Museums , Piazza Navona, Trevi Fountain, Piazza di Spagna, Vatican City, and Castle SantAngelo (Stamper, pp.

184). The Greek word Pantheon means, Every God, or to honor all gods, whose history can be divided into missing, four distinct parts of characteristic of oligopoly, ancient, medieval, renaissance, and modern, ranking to the reconstruction and reframing of the ancient tomb. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, son-in-law of Augustus Caesar, the first Roman emperor, first built it as a rectangular temple in 27 BC. The front porch of the temple was destroyed by a conflagration in 80 AD, and thus, had to be restructured, with its designing reshaping a little under the commission of Emperor Hadrian during 118 to 125 AD. The inscription on the bricks of the structure still adhere it to the Agrippas origin, marked with the following words: Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, Consul for the third time, built this (Kleiner, pp.

287), but the building was repaired again in 202 AD, by Septimius Severus and Caracalla. However, most of the architects and researchers of today attribute this mighty structure to the brilliance of Hadrian, with the Pantheon as his triumph of The Ants Comparing Colonial, concrete technology. He is believed to of oligopoly be the most skilful Roman emperor, a man of many talents such as an amateur architect, painter, poet, administrator, and soldier. The Pantheon represented the culture and sophistication adapted by the kingdom under his rule, which was so majestic that it still stands boldfacing the world (Kleiner, pp. 287). While it is impossible to identify the original builder and date of the Pantheon, it is believed that Agrippa created the portico, while the rotunda and the connection between the two were made during Hadrians time.

With the coming of the Medieval Era, the temple in on The House Alba 609 AD was given to Pope Boniface IV, by the Byzantine emperor Phocas, in order to convert it into a place of worship, as he was told to arid it from the of oligopoly demons of the world. However, many of the critics believe that its conversion into a church is one of the main reasons that it stands strong today, as it did not have to go through he destruction and spoliation faced by most of the buildings during this period (MacDonald, pp. 14). The works of yellow marble inside the recesses of the missing tomb and much of its statues were removed during this time with the first two of the of oligopoly original three columns of the structure were swallowed by the growing population and the need of space. After Renaissance and until today, Pantheon is being served as a tomb, accommodating unique and on of Bernarda Alba, artistic individuals, which includes painters such as Raphael, Annibale Carracci, and architect, Baldassare Peruzzi. During this time, the structure was decorated with numerous paintings, such as the Annunciation by Melozzo da Forli. The greatest damage was however, placed by Pope Barberini when he ordered for the melting of the bronze ceiling of portico, which is estimated to weigh about characteristic, 450,251 pounds in order to make weapons and forts in 1625; but in reality it was mostly smuggled up to make the altar of St Peters Basilica (Lanciani., pp 463). The modern times have also seen it as a burial for many of the rich monarchs of Italy however; it is being safeguarded as the heritage of the world. What Is Scary? The Pantheon, which is now also known as Santa Maria or the characteristic of oligopoly Martyres, is gays free, now being used as a Catholic Church, also left open for visitors from around the world. The Pantheon of Rome was structured to celebrate the dedication towards the Greek gods, its seven niches statue Apollo, Diana, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn while the inner dome was made in order to represent the heavens above, with its simplicity and symbolism inspiring every viewer. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? However, what inspires the engineers and architects today is what is scary, as to how the structure, has been standing with its immense grandeur even after two millennium, while Michelangelo Buonarotti explains that it is standing due to the angelic and of oligopoly, not human design. ( Langmead, pp 237)

The structure was thought to how were the latin of president theodore roosevelt ? be divided into three main parts by the architects of Hadrian when they first started designing its elaborate structure; the characteristic of oligopoly portico or the entrance, the interior rotunda or the vault , and the latin theodore roosevelt and president similar, a connection between the two; blending the exterior with the characteristic of oligopoly interior. This kind of approach to a building was first of how were policies wilson, its kind, providing a proper entrance to it, as the characteristic of oligopoly previous Roman structures were either freestanding or had peristyles around them. The original structure stood in the front as a rectangular courtyard, whose roof that was supported by three rows of 14 meters high pillars, which across it had held bronze sculptures of battles between the gods and the Titans. The front row of eight pillars or Corinthian columns, and the second row holding four pillars, was made out of Egyptian gray granite; while the last row out of missing my grandmother, Egyptian red granite. These columns represented the characteristic traditional design of structures, while the rest of the building was completely revolutionary and a unique masterpiece ever witnessed. The massive front doors of the temple are 6.3 meters high, with their fanlights were at that time gold platted. The portico, or the entrance of the Pantheon, originally had a flight of steps, and stood at a narrow end of an enclosure, by which one advanced into the building under the portico, but with the how were the latin american policies of president theodore roosevelt similar ? changing surroundings and the way the surface has alleviated from around the steps are no longer present. The Corinthian columns, no matter traditional, but were the most difficult to be structured as they were about 60 tones in of oligopoly weight each, they had to be transported along a large distance. First quarried out of the mine in Egypt, floated across the River Nile, through the Mediterranean, to the Roman Port of Ostia; and Essay about The Holy Trinity, by Masaccio, then transported to of oligopoly the location of Pantheon about 100 kilometers inland. The interior of the Pantheon, the rotunda, which is formulated in a single volume, cylindrical in shape to the height of 43.3 meters, holds a semi spherical dome at the top.

The inner walls, which are around 4.2 meters deep, form arched recesses, which were then decorated with yellow marble. The magnificent dome, which remained as the largest ever built in the world, later up to thirteen centuries, after its initial structure, remains an about The Holy Trinity, by Masaccio, overwhelming piece even today. Characteristic? The dome is 142 feet in diameter and is even 142 meter above its base point, with it thus being designed in about such a way as to form an intersection between two circles, (horizontally and vertically), so that the interior is regarded as an of oligopoly, orb of the earth and the dome as the gays free vault of the heavens (Kleiner, pp. 268). When the first wonderful creation of this species came into existence, the designer of this glorious dome appears to have himself shrunk back from it, and to have felt that it was not adapted to be the characteristic every-day residence of men, but to be a habitation for the godsNo one previously unacquainted with the what is scary edifice could form an idea, from the aspect of the portico, of that wonderful structure behind, which must ever be considered as one of the noblest triumphs of the human mind over matter in connection with the law of of oligopoly, gravity. (Lanciani., pp 475)

The dome rises to a height of 22 meters, and has a diameter of 43 meters; however, the most inquisitive fact of the tomb, which still prevails in gays free the world, is how the of oligopoly mighty structure stands upon its own without any support. The two factors, which commence towards its strength, are the gays free bets quality of mortar used, as well as the vigilant selection of material such as making use of heavy basalt in the foundations and of oligopoly, the base of the structures walls, and entrusting in volcanic ash. Moreover, the drums of the walls, which are 6 feet thick, each, help strength the brick arches forming an The House of Bernarda, architecturally designed support, adding to its grandeur. The ceiling has rectangular coffers or indentations cut through it, which follow a regular pattern throughout it, which are decorated with rosettes and moldings. The dome is made from rings of voussoirs, while eight vaults, standing behind the eight niches, carry its downward pressure, while its thickness ranges from characteristic, about 6.4 meters at the base of the doom and 1.2 meters as it goes to the oculus.

The floor of the Pantheon, conventional in style is lit by how were american roosevelt and president wilson similar ?, a single opening at the centre of the dome, which is known as the eye or the oculus. The grace which it endeavors to the structure makes it first of the buildings of the of oligopoly antiquity which favored the sophistication of the interior of the policies theodore and president building rather than concentrating only towards the outside. In addition, the white exterior is contrasted by the usage of colored marbles to the inside of the tomb, elongated with seven recesses. Moreover, the oculus forms the only source of light for the interior of the Pantheon, which during the daytime acts as a sundial; which is of oligopoly, wrapped around with 28 coffers, which in early times had been lit by rosettes, and bronze stars. The Pantheon seems to be revolving with themes of circles and squares, whereby the floor of the tomb check board, while its ceiling is decorated with square coffers placed in a circular manner. Soon after Hadrian was made the emperor work began on the tomb, he is believed to be called the Greekling, more due to his sophistication and the extent of elaborate work that he placed in missing his designs. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? Therefore, the building today resembles the immense potential of perfection, due to its building material as well as its architectural shape. For the construction of the Pantheon, a circular trench 8 meter wide and 4,5 meters deep was dug out, which were lined with timber forms and pozzolana cement (made through grinding together lime and missing, volcanic ash), making it hard enough to form its foundation. The cylindrical drum of the rotunda was built level by level through using different compositions of concrete. The foundations were structured using extremely hard form of basalt, and characteristic of oligopoly, the ingredients of the concrete were altered as they moved towards the top using lightweight pumice, which slowly replaced the stone, to keep its weight less at the top. The dome was built by pouring in an uninterrupted sequence of about The Holy, concrete rings against a hemispherical dome made out of wood.

The concrete was poured in a way that would thicken and strengthen the dome by shifting in of oligopoly thickness, making this the support system for the dome, its thickness reducing as it nears the oculus. The coffers also helped reduce the weight of the dome, without weakening its structure. Empty clay patterns were embedded in the top of the structure to further give it a lighter feel. A temporary wooden structure may have been used, on which the The Ants and The Structure Insects designers laid down the concrete and the concentric rings, to characteristic of oligopoly maintain its round structure, while some believe that the dome was supported by a hanging, while a tall tower in The Ants Bees: the Social Structure of these Colonial the middle is also thought of by a few. Emperor Constants The Second , in 603 Ad, removed the tiles which had covered the exterior of the Pantheon, and covered it with lead sheets, of different widths, placed in neat rows, and are still in place today. The domes bricks are however concealed with pozzolana cement, which also formulates a layer over the eight concrete vaults, which surround the dome. These rings were initially designed to add load to the side of the vault, while functioning as its supports; given it the required stability through the role of compression. The oculus also acts as the last concentric ring, as a means of the of oligopoly compression strand, which was built by creating two pieces of bipedale handmade bricks, 60 cm thick and 4 cm thick, which were laid edge wise in about Trinity, three courses, being shaped vertically. These rings, which form the dome, are responsible for characteristic the shallow bowl like appearance of the missing my grandmother exterior of the dome. There are two basic answers given to the usage of characteristic of oligopoly, these rings in the dome.

Firstly, these rings were used to structurally increase the load on the haunch in order to reduce the horizontal thrust of the vault by countering it with additional vertical force. Secondly, they were used as devices to help in the construction by The House of Bernarda, allowing the workers to build in vertical increments than to have to shape the of oligopoly lower portions of the dome. The first being the how were american of president theodore and president similar ? purpose of these rings while the characteristic of oligopoly second only being an advantage to the construction. As the gays free dome was free, standing these step rings helped spreading the counterweight evenly around the circumference of the drum so that the characteristic load was distributed efficiently round the structure. The coffers or indentations forms the predominant feature of its interior, as they are designed in five horizontal rows, each carrying 28 coffers, with the entire number adding up to 140. The first four horizontal rows consist of four recesses of consecutively diminishing size. Their maximum chords diminish gradually from 3.90 meters in what is scary the lowest row to characteristic of oligopoly 2.30 meters in the highest. Gays Free? The five concentric rings of the coffers represent the five planets orbiting around the of oligopoly sun, while their 28 number represents the number of days in the lunar month. The square panels of these coffers were surrounded by moldings of stucco, which were then painted and glided in. (McGregor, pp. Essay About? 94).

Underneath the dome, the veneer marble across the walls, the niches, and the floor still holds fast; but it is not the majesty of the characteristic of oligopoly walls, that enthralls a visitor, but it is actually the magic of the space, which surrounds one; enclosing them rather than imprisoning them. The vast rotunda is an open area left uninterrupted by my grandmother, any solid structure in between, with the oculus not only creating light but also creating an underscored aura for the interior symbolism. The entire hemisphere rests upon, two storey walls, about 21 meters high; the characteristic of oligopoly first segment holds the and The Bees: of these Colonial eight niches, (including the entrance) while the second segment holds the characteristic panels and blind windows. The walls of the Pantheon act as a series of piers for the mighty structure being made thick in composition, separated by eight large niches, all equally spaced around the rotunda, compromising of many cavities and chambers throughout. In order to locate these niches, one needs to begin from 0 degrees, (reference on the circular plan and locate one every 45 degrees, clockwise, taking the first niche at 0), the on of Bernarda Alba next niche at the 45 degrees rotating clockwise, the next at characteristic, 90, followed by 135 and so one until the eighth niche is found at 360. This magnificent use of missing, geometry throughout the structure, and impeding it in a mighty structure such as that of the Pantheon, makes it a unique establishment not only for architects but also for mathematicians. The niches form huge arches, with seven of them being semi-circular in shape, and characteristic of oligopoly, the one, which covers the entrance door, is gays free, rectangular, while all the burials are placed within these niches.

The niches, which are each 6.2 meters deep, are subdued into the thick walls, which exhibit their thickness and of oligopoly, depth. Each niche is furthermore, elaborated with two columns of colored marble and alternates with a temple front, standing in front of the wall plane, crowned by what is scary, segmented and of oligopoly, triangular pediment. The main problem of the weight of the dome on the lowest drum as well as that of the large niches was solved by adding vaults and arches, which distribute the weight upon eight piers. This idea was thought to be worked like that in a bridge, whereby each vault provided a counteracting force to the thrust of the adjacent vaults. The surface of the brick wall was then covered with a layer of plaster or stucco. Defining the vault and the combination of structure from missing my grandmother, around the world, Righini states, Pantheon was the physical repository of universal tribute from subject lands: the granites and porphyries came from Egypt, the colored marbles from Africa and the white marble from Aegean. What held it together and gave it authority of a single minded conception was the Roman vaulted style, made possible by its medium concrete. (Righini, pp. 65)

The eye or the oculus, in the midst of the dome, covers an area of of oligopoly, 62.80 square meters, almost 4% of the bases surface area. The oculus has a vertical ring wall that originally carried a bronze cornice is missing my grandmother, know made with brick laid both vertically and in radial direction, which acts as a compression ring. It acts as a resistance against gravity and balance the forces created by the weight and position of the vault, which are directed towards the voids below. For Hadrian, the oculus had great significance, it was the characteristic point from where he could not only see his empire revolve, but for american of president theodore roosevelt wilson ? him also the heavens and the universe above. The greatest problem, which was faced by the architects, was in assembling the characteristic vaulted building in a centralized structure. Essay Trinity,? The Pantheons internal cylindrical hall had massive width (30 feet diameter), and the heavy weight of the dome (4,535 metric tons ), made construction in the ancient times even more tedious, as to comparison, the only such works available were that of Albano or Baia, which was childish in its analogy.

No matter the world today exhibits many such buildings from the past, showing the impudence and of oligopoly, grandeur of those civilizations, but what makes The Pantheon of Rome special in todays time is its sustainability and endurance to the harsh atmospheres of the world, which keeps it invincible to my grandmother the growing cruelty of the environment today. Thus as the characteristic Pantheon stands today as model of Trinity,, rave and amazement for the historians around the globe, it also serves as a source of inspiration for the architects who look up to it for establishment of a sustainable and characteristic, amiable living towards the american roosevelt wilson similar ? life of constructions. John Bickley, a consulting engineer, and a partner architect of the CN Tower, in his article Green Concrete, states, A secret to of oligopoly low-carbon, sustainable construction lies in the more than 2,000-year-old roof of Romes Pantheon. He defines that an architect is awe-inspiring when it is sustainable as well as makes use of green concrete, which helps it stay alive against the emissions of carbon dioxide. He states that the on The House of Bernarda secret ingredient used in its establishment is characteristic, volcanic ash, which replaces the concrete and increases the cohesive properties required for a construction. This increases the structures durability and helps architects and engineers to theorize better materials and substances, which are more environmental friendly, as it was even theorized by designers with limited resources and knowledge thousands of years ago. (Bickley, 2009.) Many architects believing in how were american policies of president theodore roosevelt wilson similar the theories of the Neopythagorean origin believe that the Pantheons design is actually an arithmetically resolved solution to the theories and studies of the cosmos, created by the Greeks, which were made of amalgamation, geometry, and astronomy. Thus, this design tends to fuse together all these concepts of varying subjects into harmony, giving it a visual picture in characteristic the form of a structure for the worlds to appreciate and gain inspiration. Whereas many intellectuals and historians also relate it to Pythagorean cosmos, which means a living organism, which has a mathematically established soul and non-altering internal design with specified ratios. It was built in order to resemble the grace and impudence of the heavens and pay reverie to the gods, but for the present world, it is a symbol of mathematics and architecture splendor.

No matter the Great Pantheon was built almost two centuries ago, but it still stands grand and powerful, showing the amount of industrious work placed into its construction and the generic ideas put through that even today, after the technological swarm in architecture, it still stands as one of the most awe-inspiring structures ever created. The Pantheon is one the greatest masterpieces on earth and I am grateful to have the opportunity of learning about this wonderful space. The Pantheon being original, bold, many layered and the imminent structure of universality is a unique structure, which has left a stamp on the architecture of the world more than any other building ever erected. The force and what is scary, the magical magnetism received by characteristic of oligopoly, every visitor who enters in the rotunda, is far more magical than what had been initially planned by Hadrian and his architects. Bickley, John A. Essay? Green Concrete , 2009. Retrieved on July 13, 2009 from characteristic, http://network.nationalpost.com/np/blogs/fpcomment/archive/2009/07/02/green-concrete.aspx. Burn, Robert M.A.

Ancient Rome and its Neighborhood . George Bell and Sons Press, 1966. Kleiner, F. Gardners Art through Ages . Cengage Learning, 2005. Lancaster, Lynne C. Concrete vaulted construction in Imperial Rome. Cambridge University Press, 2005. Lanciani, R. Pantheon. Essay On The House Of Bernarda Alba? The Ruins and Excavations of of oligopoly, Ancient Rome . Retrieved on July 13, 2009 from http://web.archive.org/web/20070701023945/http://gnv.fdt.net/ Langmead, Donald. Encyclopedia of architectural and engineering feats . ABC-CLIO, 2001.

MacDonald, William L. The Architecture of the Roman Empire . Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1965. MacDonald, William L., Pinto. J. T he Pantheon: Design, Meaning, and Progeny . Harvard University Press, 2002. Marder, Tod A. Alexander VII, Bernini, and the Urban Setting of the Pantheon in the Seventeenth Century. The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. Vol. 50, No. 3, 1991. McGregor, James H.S. Rome from the of Bernarda ground up . The Belknap Press, 2005.

Righini, Paul. Thinking Architecturally. Juta and Company Limited, 2000. Stamper, J.W. The Architecture of Roman Temples. Cambridge University Press, 2005. Is this the perfect essay for of oligopoly you? Save time and order Structural System employed at the Pantheon in about The Holy Rome. essay editing for of oligopoly only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!

Relevant essay suggestions for Structural System employed at the Pantheon in Rome. The Pantheon is early architecture from Rome, Italy commissioned by Marcus Agrippa as a temple to all of the gods of Ancient Rome. The building is made from concrete and Today was the opening ceremony for the Palace for Nero our emperor. This extravagant palace was built out of brick and concrete in the very spot where downtown Rome was Humanities in Bees: Comparing Structure Colonial Insects Ancient Rome. Ancient Rome was a turning point in history. Characteristic? It is considered by many to how were the latin american policies theodore roosevelt and president wilson be one of the most important and influential societies to ever dominate Earth. At Romes peak Ancient Rome: Pivotal Civilization in World History. Ancient Rome is a pivotal civilization in world history.

Rome borrowed from other countries, while other countries borrowed from it. For instance, the United States of of oligopoly, America borrowed from Rome, Technology: Ancient Rome and Roman Military Engineering. Technology and engineering were among Romes most famous achievements. In your paper, describe and explain the the latin roosevelt and president wilson similar ? importance of Roman technology and engineering, especially as it related to making its giant

Write my Paper for Cheap in High Quality -
Oligopoly: Definition, Characteristics &

Nov 14, 2017 Characteristic of oligopoly, best essay writers here -

The characteristics of an oligopoly -

29 Scheduling Jobs with Oracle Scheduler. In this chapter: This chapter describes how to characteristic, use the DBMS_SCHEDULER package to work with Scheduler objects. You can accomplish the same tasks using Oracle Enterprise Manager. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for Essay on of Bernarda, DBMS_SCHEDULER information and the Oracle Enterprise Manager online help for information on Oracle Scheduler pages. About Scheduler Obje cts and Their Naming. You operate Oracle Scheduler by characteristic of oligopoly creating and and The Comparing the Social of these, managing a set of Scheduler objects. Each Scheduler object is a complete database schema object of the form [schema.]name . Scheduler objects follow the naming rules for characteristic, database objects exactly and gays free, share the SQL namespace with other database objects.

Follow SQL naming rules to name Scheduler objects in the DBMS_SCHEDULER package. By default, Scheduler object names are uppercase unless they are surrounded by double quotes. Characteristic? For example, when creating a job, job_name = 'my_job' is the same as job_name = 'My_Job' and Essay Alba, job_name = 'MY_JOB' , but different from job_name = 'my_job' . These naming rules are also followed in those cases where comma-delimited lists of Scheduler object names are used within the DBMS_SCHEDULER package. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? Creating, Running, and Managing Jobs. On The House? A job is the combination of a schedule and a program, along with any additional arguments required by the program. This section introduces you to basic job tasks, and discusses the following topics: Jobs for characteristic of oligopoly, an overview of jobs.

Table 29-1 illustrates common job tasks and their appropriate procedures and privileges: Table 29-1 Job Tasks and Their Procedures. CREATE_JOB or CREATE_JOBS. CREATE JOB or CREATE ANY JOB. SET_ATTRIBUTE or SET_JOB_ATTRIBUTES. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner.

ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. See Scheduler Privileges for further information regarding privileges. This section contains: You create one or more jobs using the what is scary DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_JOB or DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_JOBS procedures or Enterprise Manager. You use the CREATE_JOB procedure to create a single job. This procedure is of oligopoly overloaded to enable you to create different types of jobs that are based on different objects. You can create multiple jobs in a single transaction using the CREATE_JOBS procedure. You must have the CREATE JOB privilege to create a job in your own schema, and The Ants Bees: Structure Colonial, the CREATE ANY JOB privilege to characteristic of oligopoly, create a job in Essay The Holy Trinity, by Masaccio, any schema except SYS . For each job being created, you specify a job type, an action, and a schedule. You can also optionally specify a credential name, a destination or destination group name, a job class, and characteristic of oligopoly, other attributes. As soon as you enable a job, it is automatically run by the Scheduler at its next scheduled date and time.

By default, jobs are disabled when created and must be enabled with DBMS_SCHEDULER.ENABLE to run. You can also set the enabled argument of the CREATE_JOB procedure to TRUE , in which case the job is ready to be automatically run, according to missing, its schedule, as soon as you create it. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? Some job attributes cannot be set with CREATE_JOB , and instead must be set with DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE . The House Of Bernarda? For example, to set the of oligopoly logging_level attribute for a job, you must call SET_ATTRIBUTE after calling CREATE_JOB . You can create a job in another schema by specifying schema.job_name . The creator of Essay about Trinity, by Masaccio, a job is, therefore, not necessarily the job owner. The job owner is the user in whose schema the job is created. The NLS environment of the job, when it runs, is the existing environment at the time the job was created. Example 29-1 demonstrates creating a database job called update_sales , which calls a package procedure in the OPS schema that updates a sales summary table: Example 29-1 Creating a Job. Because no destination_name attribute is specified, the job runs on characteristic the originating (local) database. The job runs as the The House of Bernarda user who created the job. The repeat_interval argument specifies that this job runs every other day until it reaches the end date and time. Another way to characteristic of oligopoly, limit the number of times that a repeating job runs is to set its max_runs attribute to what is scary, a positive number. The job is disabled when it is created, by default.

You must enable it with DBMS_SCHEDULER.ENABLE before the of oligopoly Scheduler will automatically run it. Jobs are set to be automatically dropped by default after they complete. Setting the auto_drop attribute to on Alba, FALSE causes the job to persist. Note that repeating jobs are not auto-dropped unless the job end date passes, the maximum number of characteristic, runs ( max_runs ) is Essay about Trinity, reached, or the of oligopoly maximum number of failures is reached ( max_failures ). After a job is created, it can be queried using the gays free *_SCHEDULER_JOBS views. Specifying a Job Action and Job Schedule. Because the CREATE_JOB procedure is characteristic of oligopoly overloaded, there are several different ways of using it.

In addition to specifying the job action and Essay The Holy Trinity,, job repeat interval as job attributes as shown in characteristic of oligopoly, Example 29-1, known as specifying the gays free job action and job schedule inline , you can create a job that points to a program object (program) to specify the characteristic of oligopoly job action, a schedule object (schedule) to what is scary, specify the repeat interval, or both a program and schedule. This is discussed in of oligopoly, the following sections: Creating Jobs Using a Named Program. Essay About The Holy By Masaccio? You can create a job by pointing to a named program instead of inlining its action. Characteristic? To create a job using a named program, you specify the value for program_name in and The Comparing Structure Insects, the CREATE_JOB procedure when creating the job and characteristic of oligopoly, do not specify the values for job_type , job_action , and number_of_arguments . To use an existing program when creating a job, the owner of the job must be the Essay on of Bernarda Alba owner of the program or have EXECUTE privileges on it. Of Oligopoly? The following PL/SQL block is an example of gays free, a CREATE_JOB procedure with a named program that creates a regular job called my_new_job1 : T he following PL/SQL block creates a lightweight job.

Lightweight jobs must reference a program, and the program type must be ' PLSQL_BLOCK ' or ' STORED_PROCEDURE '. In addition, the program must be already enabled when you create the characteristic job. Creating Jobs Using a Named Schedule. You can also create a job by pointing to a named schedule instead of inlining its schedule. To create a job using a named schedule, you specify the value for schedule_name in the CREATE_JOB procedure when creating the job and do not specify the values for start_date , repeat_interval , and what is scary, end_date . You can use any named schedule to create a job because all schedules are created with access to PUBLIC . The following CREATE_JOB procedure has a named schedule and creates a regular job called my_new_job2 : Creating Jobs Using Named Programs and Schedules. A job can also be created by pointing to characteristic, both a named program and a named schedule. For example, the following CREATE_JOB procedure creates a regular job called my_new_job3 , based on what is scary the existing program, my_saved_program1 , and the existing schedule, my_saved_schedule1 : Specifying Job Credentials and of oligopoly, Job Destinations. For local external jobs, remote external jobs, and remote database jobs, you must specify the gays free credentials under which the job runs. You do so by creating a credential object and characteristic of oligopoly, assigning it to the credential_name job attribute. For remote external jobs and remote database jobs, you specify the job destination by gays free creating a destination object and assigning it to the destination_name job attribute. A job with a NULL destination_name attribute runs on the host where the job is created.

This section contains: Credential and Destination Tasks and Their Procedures. Table 29-2 illustrates credential and destination tasks and characteristic of oligopoly, their procedures and and The Structure, privileges: Table 29-2 Credential and Destination Tasks and Their Procedures. Create a credential. CREATE JOB or CREATE ANY JOB. Drop a credential. CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? Create an The Ants Comparing the Social Structure Colonial external destination. Drop an external destination. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? Create a database destination.

CREATE JOB or CREATE ANY JOB. Drop a database destination. CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. Missing My Grandmother? Create a destination group. CREATE JOB or CREATE ANY JOB. Drop a destination group. CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. Add members to a destination group. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. Remove members from a destination group. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner.

A credential is a user name and password pair stored in a dedicated database object. You assign a credential to a job so that it can authenticate with an Oracle database or the operating system before running. To create a credential: Call the DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_CREDENTIAL procedure. You must have the CREATE JOB privilege to create a credential in your own schema, and the CREATE ANY JOB privilege to create a credential in any schema except SYS . A credential can be used only by of oligopoly a job whose owner has EXECUTE privileges on the credential or whose owner also owns the credential. Because a credential belongs to a schema like any other schema object, you use the GRANT SQL statement to grant privileges on a credential. Example 29-2 Creating a Credential. You can query the *_SCHEDULER_CREDENTIALS views to Essay about Trinity,, see a list of credentials in the database. Credential passwords are stored obfuscated and are not displayed in the *_SCHEDULER_CREDENTIALS views. Credentials for more information about credentials.

A destination is a Scheduler object that defines a location for running a job. You designate the locations where a job runs by specifying either a single destination or a destination group in of oligopoly, the destination_name attribute of the job. If you leave the destination_name attribute NULL , the job runs on the local host (the host where the job was created). Use external destinations to specify locations where remote external jobs run. Use database destinations to specify locations where remote database jobs run. You do not need object privileges to use a destination created by another user. How Were The Latin American Policies Of President Roosevelt Similar? To create an external destination: Register a remote Scheduler agent with the database. There is no DBMS_SCHEDULER package procedure to create an external destination. You create an external destination implicitly by registering a remote agent.

You can also register a local Scheduler agent if you have other database instances on the same host that are targets for remote jobs. This creates an external destination that references the local host. The external destination name is automatically set to the agent name. To verify that the external destination was created, query the views DBA_SCHEDULER_EXTERNAL_DESTS or ALL_SCHEDULER_EXTERNAL_DESTS . To create a database destination: Call the DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_DATABASE_DESTINATION procedure. You must specify the name of an external destination as a procedure argument. This designates the characteristic of oligopoly remote host that the database destination points to. You also specify a net service name or complete connect descriptor that identifies the database instance being connected to. If you specify a net service name, it must be resolved by missing the local tnsnames.ora file. If you do not specify a database instance, the remote Scheduler agent connects to its default database, which is of oligopoly specified in how were the latin policies theodore roosevelt wilson similar ?, the agent configuration file.

To create a database destination, you must have the CREATE JOB system privilege. To create a database destination in a schema other than your own, you must have the CREATE ANY JOB privilege. Example 29-3 Creating a Database Destination. The following example creates a database destination named DBHOST1_ORCLDW . For this example, assume the following: You installed a Scheduler agent on the remote host dbhost1.example.com , and you registered the agent with the local database. You did not modify the agent configuration file to of oligopoly, set the agent name. Therefore the agent name and the external destination name default to DBHOST1 . You used Net Configuration Assistant on the local host to create a connect descriptor in tnsnames.ora for the Oracle Database instance named orcldw , which resides on the remote host dbhost1.example.com . You assigned a net service name (alias) of ORCLDW to this connect descriptor. To verify that the database destination was created, query the views *_SCHEDULER_DB_DESTS . Destinations for more information about Comparing Structure, destinations. Jobs to learn about remote external jobs and characteristic, remote database jobs. Creating Destination Groups for what is scary, Multiple-Destination Jobs.

To create a job that runs on multiple destinations, you must create a destination group and assign that group to of oligopoly, the destination_name attribute of the job. You can specify group members (destinations) when you create the group, or you can add group members at a later time. To create a destination group: Call the DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_GROUP procedure. For remote external jobs you must specify a group of type ' EXTERNAL_DEST ', and all group members must be external destinations. For remote database jobs, you must specify a group of type ' DB_DEST ', and all members must be database destinations. Members of how were policies theodore roosevelt and president similar, destination groups have the following format: credential is the name of an existing credential. destination is the of oligopoly name of an existing database destination or external destination. The credential portion of a destination member is optional. If omitted, the job using this destination member uses its default credential. You can include another group of the same type as a member of a destination group.

Upon group creation, the Scheduler expands the included group into its members. Essay The Holy Trinity,? If you want the local host to be one of many destinations on characteristic of oligopoly which a job runs, you can include the keyword LOCAL as a group member for either type of my grandmother, destination group. LOCAL can be preceded by of oligopoly a credential only in an external destination group. A group is owned by the user who creates it. You must have the CREATE JOB system privilege to create a group in gays free, your own schema, and the CREATE ANY JOB system privilege to create a group in another schema. You can grant object privileges on a group to other users by characteristic granting SELECT on the group. What Is Scary? Example 29-4 Creating a Database Destination Group. This example creates a database destination group.

Because some members do not include a credential, a job using this destination group must have default credentials. The following code adds another member to the group. Groups for an overview of characteristic of oligopoly, groups. Example: Creating a Remote Database Job. The following example creates a remote database job by specifying a database destination object in the destination_name object of the job. A credential must also be specified so the job can authenticate with the remote database. The example uses the credential created in on The House Alba, Example 29-2 and the database destination created in Example 29-3. Creating Multiple-Destination Jobs.

You can create a job that runs on multiple destinations, but that is managed from characteristic of oligopoly a single location. A typical reason to do this is to The Ants and The Bees: Comparing of these, run a database maintenance job on all of the databases that you administer. Rather than create the characteristic job on each database, you create the job once and designate multiple destinations for the job. From the database where you created the how were of president theodore wilson similar job (the local database ), you can monitor the state and results of characteristic of oligopoly, all instances of the job at all locations. To create a multiple-destination job: Call the DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_JOB procedure and set the destination_name attribute of the job to the name of database destination group or external destination group. If not all destination group members include a credential prefix (the schema), assign a default credential to the job. To include the local host or local database as one of the destinations on what is scary which the job runs, ensure that the characteristic keyword LOCAL is one of the members of the gays free destination group. Of Oligopoly? To obtain a list of destination groups, submit this query: The following example creates a multiple-destination database job, using the database destination group created in Example 29-4.

Because this is a system administration job, it uses a credential with system administrator privileges. After creating a job, you may need to set job arguments if: The inline job action is missing my grandmother a stored procedure or other executable that requires arguments. The job references a named program object and you want to override one or more default program arguments. The job references a named program object and one or more of the program arguments were not assigned a default value. Of Oligopoly? To set job arguments, use the SET_JOB_ARGUMENT_VALUE or SET_JOB_ANYDATA_VALUE procedures or Enterprise Manager. What Is Scary? SET_JOB_ANYDATA_VALUE is used for complex data types that cannot be represented as a VARCHAR2 string.

An example of characteristic, a job that might need arguments is one that starts a reporting program that requires a start date and end date. About Trinity,? The following code example sets the end date job argument, which is the of oligopoly second argument expected by the reporting program: If you use this procedure on an argument whose value has already been set, it will be overwritten. You can set argument values using either the argument name or the argument position. To use argument name, the job must reference a named program object, and the argument must have been assigned a name in the program object. If a program is inlined, only setting by position is supported. Arguments are not supported for jobs of type ' PLSQL_BLOCK '. To remove a value that has been set, use the RESET_JOB_ARGUMENT procedure. The Holy Trinity, By Masaccio? This procedure can be used for characteristic of oligopoly, both regular and ANYDATA arguments.

SET_JOB_ARGUMENT_VALUE only supports arguments of SQL type. Therefore, argument values that are not of SQL type, such as booleans, are not supported as program or job arguments. Setting Additional Job Attributes. After creating a job, you can set additional job attributes or change attribute values by gays free using the SET_ATTRIBUTE or SET_JOB_ATTRIBUTES procedures. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? You can also set job attributes with Enterprise Manager.

Although many job attributes can be set with the call to CREATE_JOB , some attributes, such as destination and credential_name , can be set only and The Bees: Comparing the Social Structure of these Colonial, with SET_ATTRIBUTE or SET_JOB_ATTRIBUTES after the characteristic job is created. A detached job must point to a program object (program) that has its detached attribute set to gays free, TRUE . Example 29-5 Creating a Detached Job That Performs a Cold Backup. T his example for Linux and UNIX creates a nightly job that performs a cold backup of the database. Characteristic? It contains three steps. Step 1Create the Script That Invokes RMAN. Create a shell script that calls an RMAN script to Essay The Holy Trinity, by Masaccio, perform a cold backup. The shell script is of oligopoly located in $ORACLE_HOME/scripts/coldbackup.sh.

It must be executable by the user who installed Oracle Database (typically the user oracle ). Step 2Create the RMAN Script. Create an RMAN script that performs the cold backup and then ends the job. How Were The Latin American Policies Roosevelt And President Wilson? The script is located in $ORACLE_HOME/scripts/coldbackup.rman. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? Step 3Create the Job and Use a Detached Program. Submit the following PL/SQL block: Creating Multiple Jobs in a Single Transaction.

If you must create many jobs, you may be able to my grandmother, reduce transaction overhead and experience a performance gain if you use the CREATE_JOBS procedure. Example 29-6 demonstrates how to use this procedure to characteristic of oligopoly, create multiple jobs in a single transaction. Example 29-6 Creating Multiple Jobs in a Single Transaction. Essay On The House Of Bernarda Alba? This section contains the following examples, which demonstrate some practical techniques for external jobs: Example 29-7 Creating a Local External Job That Runs a DOS Command. This example demonstrates how to create a local external job on Windows that runs a DOS built-in command (in this case, mkdir ). Of Oligopoly? The job runs cmd.exe with the /c option. Example 29-8 Creating a Local External Job and Retrieving stdout. This example for Linux and UNIX shows how to create and run a local external job and then use the GET_FILE procedure to retrieve the job's stdout output.

For local external jobs, stdout output is stored in a log file in ORACLE_HOME /scheduler/log. Of Bernarda Alba? It is not necessary to supply this path to GET_FILE ; you supply only the characteristic file name, which you generate by querying the how were american roosevelt ? log views for the job's external log ID and then appending _stdout. For a remote external job, the method is the same, except that: You set the job's destination_name attribute. You designate a source host for the GET_FILE procedure. GET_FILE automatically searches the correct host location for log files for both local and remote external jobs. Oracle Database Security Guide for more information about external authentication. You alter a job by modifying its attributes. You do so using the SET_ATTRIBUTE , SET_ATTRIBUTE_NULL , or SET_JOB_ATTRIBUTES package procedures or Enterprise Manager. See the CREATE_JOB procedure in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details on characteristic of oligopoly job attributes.

All jobs can be altered, and, except for the job name, all job attributes can be changed. If there is Essay on The House of Bernarda a running instance of the job when the change is made, it is not affected by characteristic of oligopoly the call. The change is only seen in future runs of the job. In general, you should not alter a job that was automatically created for you by the database. Jobs that were created by the database have the column SYSTEM set to TRUE in job views. The attributes of a job are available in the *_SCHEDULER_JOBS views. It is valid for running jobs to alter their own job attributes.

However, these changes do not take effect until the next scheduled run of the job. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for detailed information about the SET_ATTRIBUTE , SET_ATTRIBUTE_NULL , and SET_JOB_ATTRIBUTES procedures. The following example changes the repeat_interval of the job update_sales to the latin policies theodore roosevelt wilson similar ?, once per week on Wednesday. There are three ways in which a job can be run: According to characteristic of oligopoly, the job scheduleIn this case, provided that the job is enabled, the job is automatically picked up by the Scheduler job coordinator and run under the control of a job slave. The job runs as the user who is the The Ants and The Comparing of these Colonial Insects job owner, or in the case of a local external job with a credential, as the user named in the credential. To find out whether the job succeeded, you must query the job views ( *_SCHEDULER_JOBS ) or the job log ( *_SCHEDULER_JOB_LOG and *_SCHEDULER_JOB_RUN_DETAILS ). See How Jobs Execute for more information job slaves and the Scheduler architecture. When an event occursEnabled event-based jobs start when a specified event is of oligopoly received on how were american of president wilson similar an event queue or when a file watcher raises a file arrival event. (See Using Events to Start Jobs.) Event-based jobs also run under the control of a job slave and of oligopoly, run as the user who owns the missing my grandmother job, or in characteristic, the case of a local external job with a credential, as the user named in the credential. To find out whether the job succeeded, you must query the job views or the how were policies of president theodore roosevelt and president similar job log.

By calling DBMS_SCHEDULER.RUN_JOB You can use the RUN_JOB procedure to of oligopoly, test a job or to run it outside of its specified schedule. You can run the missing job asynchronously, which is similar to characteristic of oligopoly, the previous two methods of running a job, or synchronously, in which the job runs in the session that called RUN_JOB , and as the user logged in to that session. Missing My Grandmother? The use_current_session argument of of oligopoly, RUN_JOB determines whether a job runs synchronously or asynchronously. RUN_JOB accepts a comma-delimited list of job names. The following example asynchronously runs two jobs: It is gays free not necessary to characteristic of oligopoly, call RUN_JOB to Bees: Comparing Structure, run a job according to its schedule. Provided that job is enabled, the characteristic of oligopoly Scheduler runs it automatically. You stop one or more running jobs using the STOP_JOB procedure or Enterprise Manager. STOP_JOB accepts a comma-delimited list of jobs, job classes, and job destination IDs. A job destination ID is a number, assigned by the Scheduler, that represents a unique combination of a job, a credential, and my grandmother, a destination. It serves as a convenient method for characteristic, identifying a particular child job of a multiple-destination job and for stopping just that child. You obtain the policies theodore roosevelt similar job destination ID for a child job from the *_SCHEDULER_JOB_DESTS views.

If a job class is supplied, all running jobs in the job class are stopped. For example, the following statement stops job job1 , all jobs in the job class dw_jobs , and two child jobs of a multiple-destination job: All instances of the designated jobs are stopped. After stopping a job, the state of a one-time job is set to STOPPED , and the state of a repeating job is set to SCHEDULED (because the next run of the job is scheduled). In addition, an entry is made in the job log with OPERATION set to ' STOPPED ', and ADDITIONAL_INFO set to ' REASON=Stop job called by user: username '. By default, the Scheduler tries to characteristic, gracefully stop a job using an interrupt mechanism. This method gives control back to the slave process, which can collect statistics of the job run. If the force option is set to The Ants the Social of these Colonial Insects, TRUE , the job is abruptly terminated and certain run-time statistics might not be available for the job run. Stopping a job that is running a chain automatically stops all running steps (by calling STOP_JOB with the characteristic of oligopoly force option set to TRUE on each step). You can use the commit_semantics argument of STOP_JOB to control the Essay on The House of Bernarda outcome if multiple jobs are specified and errors occur when trying to stop one or more jobs. If you set this argument to ABSORB_ERRORS , the procedure may be able to continue after encountering an error and characteristic of oligopoly, attempt to stop the remaining jobs.

If the procedure indicates that errors occurred, you can query the Essay The Holy Trinity, by Masaccio view SCHEDULER_BATCH_ERRORS to determine the nature of the errors. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? See Dropping Jobs for a more detailed discussion of commit semantics. When a job is stopped, only the missing my grandmother current transaction is rolled back. This can cause data inconsistency. The Scheduler offers implementors of external jobs a mechanism to characteristic, gracefully clean up after their external jobs when STOP_JOB is called with force set to FALSE . The following applies only to local external jobs created without credentials on any platform, and gays free, remote external jobs on the UNIX and Linux platforms. On UNIX and Linux, a SIGTERM signal is sent to characteristic, the process launched by the Scheduler.

The implementor of the external job is expected to trap the SIGTERM in on The House of Bernarda Alba, an interrupt handler, clean up whatever work the job has done, and exit. On Windows, STOP_JOB with force set to FALSE is supported only on Windows XP, Windows 2003, and later operating systems. On those platforms, the process launched by the Scheduler is a console process. To stop it, the Scheduler sends a CTRL-BREAK to the process. The CTRL_BREAK can be handled by registering a handler with the SetConsoleCtrlHandler() routine. If a job pointing to a chain is stopped, all steps of the running chain that are running are stopped. See Stopping Individual Chain Steps for information about stopping individual chain steps. You drop one or more jobs using the DROP_JOB procedure or Enterprise Manager. Of Oligopoly? DROP_JOB accepts a comma-delimited list of jobs and job classes.

If a job class is supplied, all jobs in the job class are dropped, although the missing job class itself is not dropped. Of Oligopoly? (The DROP_JOB_CLASS procedure should be used to The House, drop a job class. See Dropping Job Classes for information about characteristic, how to drop job classes.) You cannot use job destination IDs with DROP_JOB to drop a child job of a multiple-destination job. The following statement drops jobs job1 and my grandmother, job3 , and all jobs in characteristic, job classes jobclass1 and jobclass2 : If a job is running at the time of the procedure call, the attempt to drop the job fails. You can modify this default behavior by setting either the force or defer option. When you set the force option to TRUE , the gays free Scheduler first attempts to characteristic, stop the running job by using an interrupt mechanismcalling STOP_JOB with the what is scary force option set to FALSE . If the job is successfully stopped, the job is then dropped.

Alternatively, you can call STOP_JOB to first stop the job and then call DROP_JOB . If STOP_JOB fails, you can call STOP_JOB with the force option, provided you have the of oligopoly MANAGE SCHEDULER privilege. You can then drop the job. What Is Scary? By default, force is characteristic set to FALSE for both the STOP_JOB and DROP_JOB procedures. When you set the defer option to what is scary, TRUE , the running job is allowed to complete and is then dropped. The force and defer options are mutually exclusive; setting both results in characteristic, an error. When you specify multiple jobs to drop, the Essay about Trinity, by Masaccio commit_semantics argument determines the outcome when an error occurs on characteristic of oligopoly one of the jobs. The following are the possible values for this argument: STOP_ON_FIRST_ERROR , the defaultThe call returns on the first error and the previous drop operations that were successful are committed to disk.

TRANSACTIONAL The call returns on my grandmother the first error and of oligopoly, the previous drop operations before the missing error are rolled back. force must be FALSE . ABSORB_ERRORS The call tries to absorb any errors, attempts to drop the rest of the jobs, and commits all the drops that were successful. Setting commit_semantics is valid only when no job classes are included in the job_name list. When you include job classes, default commit semantics ( STOP_ON_FIRST_ERROR ) are in characteristic, effect. The following example drops the jobs myjob1 and myjob2 with the defer option and gays free, with transactional commit semantics: This next example illustrates the ABSORB_ERRORS commit semantics. Assume that myjob1 is of oligopoly running when the procedure is how were theodore roosevelt wilson similar called and that myjob2 is not. You can query the view SCHEDULER_BATCH_ERRORS to characteristic, determine the Essay The Holy Trinity, nature of the errors.

Checking USER_SCHEDULER_JOBS , you would find that myjob2 was successfully dropped and that myjob1 is still present. You disable one or more jobs using the DISABLE procedure or Enterprise Manager. A job can also become disabled for other reasons. For example, a job will be disabled when the job class it belongs to is dropped. A job is also disabled if either the program or the schedule that it points to is dropped. Note that if the program or schedule that the characteristic of oligopoly job points to is disabled, the job will not be disabled and will therefore result in an error when the Scheduler tries to run the job. Disabling a job means that, although the metadata of the job is there, it should not run and the job coordinator will not pick up these jobs for processing. When a job is disabled, its state in about The Holy by Masaccio, the job table is changed to disabled . When a job is disabled with the force option set to characteristic, FALSE and the job is currently running, an of Bernarda error is returned. When force is of oligopoly set to TRUE , the job is disabled, but the currently running instance is allowed to finish. If commit_semantics is set to STOP_ON_FIRST_ERROR , then the call returns on The Ants Bees: the Social of these Insects the first error and the previous disable operations that were successful are committed to disk.

If commit_semantics is set to TRANSACTIONAL and of oligopoly, force is Essay The Holy Trinity, set to FALSE , then the call returns on the first error and characteristic, the previous disable operations before the error are rolled back. What Is Scary? If commit_semantics is set to ABSORB_ERRORS , then the call tries to absorb any errors and attempts to disable the rest of the jobs and commits all the disable operations that were successful. If the procedure indicates that errors occurred, you can query the view SCHEDULER_BATCH_ERRORS to determine the nature of the errors. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? By default, commit_semantics is set to STOP_ON_FIRST_ERROR . You can also disable several jobs in one call by the latin american wilson similar providing a comma-delimited list of characteristic, job names or job class names to the DISABLE procedure call. For example, the following statement combines jobs with job classes: You enable one or more jobs by of president theodore wilson ? using the characteristic of oligopoly ENABLE procedure or Enterprise Manager. The effect of using this procedure is that the job will now be picked up by what is scary the job coordinator for processing. Jobs are created disabled by default, so you must enable them before they can run.

When a job is enabled, a validity check is performed. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? If the check fails, the job is not enabled. If you enable a disabled job, it begins to run immediately according to its schedule. Enabling a disabled job also resets the job RUN_COUNT , FAILURE_COUNT , and RETRY_COUNT attributes. If commit_semantics is set to STOP_ON_FIRST_ERROR , then the missing my grandmother call returns on the first error and the previous enable operations that were successful are committed to disk. If commit_semantics is of oligopoly set to TRANSACTIONAL , then the The Ants Bees: Comparing the Social Structure of these Insects call returns on the first error and the previous enable operations before the error are rolled back. If commit_semantics is set to ABSORB_ERRORS , then the call tries to absorb any errors and attempts to enable the rest of the jobs and commits all the enable operations that were successful.

If the characteristic procedure indicates that errors occurred, you can query the missing my grandmother view SCHEDULER_BATCH_ERRORS to determine the characteristic of oligopoly nature of the errors. Essay The Holy Trinity, By Masaccio? By default, commit_semantics is set to STOP_ON_FIRST_ERROR . You can enable several jobs in characteristic of oligopoly, one call by providing a comma-delimited list of my grandmother, job names or job class names to the ENABLE procedure call. For example, the following statement combines jobs with job classes: You copy a job using the COPY_JOB procedure or Enterprise Manager. This call copies all the attributes of the old job to the new job (except job name). The new job is created disabled. Of Oligopoly? Viewing std out and stde rr for External Jobs. The Holy? External jobs with credentials write stdout and stderr to log files. Local external jobs write to log files in the directory ORACLE_HOME /scheduler/log. Characteristic? Remote external jobs write to log files in the directory AGENT_HOME /data/log. How Were American Of President Roosevelt And President Similar? You can retrieve the contents of these files with DBMS_SCHEDULER.GET_FILE . File names consist of the string _stdout or _stderr appended to of oligopoly, a job log ID.

You obtain the job log ID for a job by querying the ADDITIONAL_INFO column of the *_SCHEDULER_JOB_RUN_DETAILS views and parsing for a name/value pair that looks similar to this: An example file name is job_71035_3158_stdout. Example 29-8, Creating a Local External Job and Retrieving stdout illustrates how to missing, retrieve stdout output. Although this example is for a local external job, the characteristic of oligopoly method is the same for remote external jobs. In addition, when a local external job or remote external job writes output to stderr , the first 200 bytes are recorded in the ADDITIONAL_INFO column of the *_SCHEDULER_JOB_RUN_DETAILS views. The information is in a name/value pair that looks like this: The ADDITIONAL_INFO column can have multiple name/value pairs. The order is indeterminate, so you must parse the field to locate the STANDARD_ERROR name/value pair. Gays Free? Creating and Managing Programs to Define Jobs. A program is a collection of metadata about a particular task.

You optionally use a program to help define a job. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? This section introduces you to basic program tasks, and discusses the following topics: Programs for an overview of programs. How Were Policies Of President Theodore Roosevelt Similar? Program Tasks and Their Procedures. Table 29-3 illustrates common program tasks and their appropriate procedures and of oligopoly, privileges: Table 29-3 Program Tasks and Their Procedures. Create a program. CREATE JOB or CREATE ANY JOB. Alter a program.

ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the the latin american policies of president roosevelt and president owner. Disable a program. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. Enable a program. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner.

See Scheduler Privileges for further information regarding privileges. You create programs by using the CREATE_PROGRAM procedure or Enterprise Manager. By default, programs are created in the schema of the creator. To create a program in another user's schema, you must qualify the program name with the schema name. For other users to use your programs, they must have EXECUTE privileges on the program, therefore, once a program has been created, you have to grant the EXECUTE privilege on it. An example of creating a program is the following, which creates a program called my_program1 : Programs are created in characteristic, the disabled state by default; you must enable them before you can enable jobs that point to them.

Do not attempt to enable a program that requires arguments before you define all program arguments, which you must do in a DEFINE_ XXX _ARGUMENT procedure as described in Defining Program Arguments. Missing? After creating a program, you can define program arguments. Arguments are defined by characteristic position in Essay The Holy, the calling sequence, with an optional argument name and optional default value. If no default value is defined for a program argument, the job that references the program must supply an argument value. (The job can also override a default value.) All argument values must be defined before the job can be enabled. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? To set program argument values, use the DEFINE_PROGRAM_ARGUMENT or DEFINE_ANYDATA_ARGUMENT procedures. DEFINE_ANYDATA_ARGUMENT is used for complex types that must be encapsulated in an ANYDATA object. An example of a program that might need arguments is one that starts a reporting program that requires a start date and end date. The following code example sets the missing end date argument, which is the second argument expected by the reporting program.

The example also assigns a name to the argument so that you can refer to the argument by name (instead of position) from other package procedures, including SET_JOB_ANYDATA_VALUE and characteristic, SET_JOB_ARGUMENT_VALUE . Valid values for of president theodore similar ?, the argument_type argument are only characteristic, SQL data types, therefore booleans are not supported. And The Bees: Comparing Of These Colonial? For external executables, only string types such as CHAR or VARCHAR2 are permitted. You can drop a program argument either by name or by position, as in the following: In some special cases, program logic is dependent on the Scheduler environment. The Scheduler has some predefined metadata arguments that can be passed as an of oligopoly argument to the program for what is scary, this purpose. For example, for some jobs whose schedule is a window name, it is useful to know how much longer the window will be open when the job is started. This is possible by defining the window end time as a metadata argument to the program. If a program needs access to specific job metadata, you can define a special metadata argument using the characteristic of oligopoly DEFINE_METADATA_ARGUMENT procedure, so values will be filled in by the The Ants and The Bees: the Social Colonial Insects Scheduler when the program is executed. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? You alter a program by modifying its attributes. You can use Enterprise Manager or the DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE and DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE_NULL package procedures to alter programs. See the on of Bernarda Alba DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_PROGRAM procedure in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details on program attributes. If any currently running jobs use the program that you altered, they continue to run with the characteristic program as defined before the alter operation.

The following example changes the executable that program my_program1 runs: You drop one or more programs using the DROP_PROGRAM procedure or Enterprise Manager. Running jobs that point to the program are not affected by the DROP_PROGRAM call, and my grandmother, are allowed to continue. Any arguments that pertain to of oligopoly, the program are also dropped when the program is dropped. You can drop several programs in one call by providing a comma-delimited list of program names. For example, the following statement drops three programs: See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and The Ants Bees: Comparing the Social of these Insects, Types Reference for detailed information about the DROP_PROGRAM procedure. You disable one or more programs using the DISABLE procedure or Enterprise Manager. When a program is characteristic disabled, the Bees: Structure Colonial status is changed to disabled . A disabled program implies that, although the metadata is still there, jobs that point to characteristic, this program cannot run. Running jobs that point to the program are not affected by gays free the DISABLE call, and are allowed to characteristic of oligopoly, continue. Any argument that pertains to the program will not be affected when the program is gays free disabled. A program can also become disabled for other reasons.

For example, if a program argument is dropped or number_of_arguments is changed so that all arguments are no longer defined. You enable one or more programs using the ENABLE procedure or Enterprise Manager. When a program is enabled, the enabled flag is set to TRUE . Programs are created disabled by default, therefore, you have to enable them before you can enable jobs that point to them. Before programs are enabled, validity checks are performed to of oligopoly, ensure that the action is valid and that all arguments are defined. You can enable several programs in one call by providing a comma-delimited list of program names to the ENABLE procedure call. For example, the what is scary following statement enables three programs: Creating and Managing Schedules to Define Jobs.

You optionally use a schedule object (a schedule) to characteristic, define when a job should be run. The House Of Bernarda Alba? Schedules can be shared among users by creating and of oligopoly, saving them as objects in the database. This section introduces you to basic schedule tasks, and discusses the about The Holy following topics: Schedules for characteristic, an overview of The Holy Trinity,, schedules. Schedule Tasks and Their Procedures. Table 29-4 illustrates common schedule tasks and the procedures you use to handle them. Table 29-4 Schedule Tasks and Their Procedures. Create a schedule. CREATE JOB or CREATE ANY JOB. Alter a schedule. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner.

Drop a schedule. ALTER or CREATE ANY JOB or be the owner. See Scheduler Privileges for further information regarding privileges. Characteristic? You create schedules by using the CREATE_SCHEDULE procedure or Enterprise Manager. Schedules are created in the schema of the user creating the schedule, and missing my grandmother, are enabled when first created. You can create a schedule in another user's schema. Once a schedule has been created, it can be used by other users. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? The schedule is created with access to PUBLIC . Therefore, there is no need to explicitly grant access to the schedule. An example of gays free, creating a schedule is the following statement: You alter a schedule by characteristic using the SET_ATTRIBUTE and on The House, SET_ATTRIBUTE_NULL package procedures or Enterprise Manager.

Altering a schedule changes the definition of the characteristic of oligopoly schedule. With the on The House Alba exception of schedule name, all attributes can be changed. The attributes of a schedule are available in of oligopoly, the *_SCHEDULER_SCHEDULES views. If a schedule is altered, the change will not affect running jobs and open windows that use this schedule. The change will only be in missing, effect the of oligopoly next time the jobs runs or the window opens. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for detailed information about the SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure. You drop a schedule using the DROP_SCHEDULE procedure or Enterprise Manager. This procedure call will delete the my grandmother schedule object from the database. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for detailed information about the DROP_SCHEDULE procedure. You control when and how often a job repeats by setting the repeat_interval attribute of the job itself or of the named schedule that the job references.

You can set repeat_interval with DBMS_SCHEDULER package procedures or with Enterprise Manager. The result of evaluating the repeat_interval is characteristic of oligopoly a set of timestamps. The Scheduler runs the job at each timestamp. Note that the start date from the job or schedule also helps determine the resulting set of timestamps. (See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for more information about repeat_interval evaluation.) If no value for Essay Trinity, by Masaccio, repeat_interval is of oligopoly specified, the job runs only gays free, once at the specified start date. Immediately after a job is started, the characteristic of oligopoly repeat_interval is evaluated to determine the next scheduled execution time of the job. The next scheduled execution time might arrive while the job is still running. A new instance of the job, however, will not be started until the current one completes. There are two ways to gays free, specify the repeat interval: Using the Scheduler Calendaring Syntax. Of Oligopoly? The primary method of setting how often a job will repeat is by setting the my grandmother repeat_interval attribute with a Scheduler calendaring expression.

See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for a detailed description of the calendaring syntax for repeat_interval as well as the of oligopoly CREATE_SCHEDULE procedure. Examples of what is scary, Cal endaring Expressions. The following examples illustrate simple repeat intervals. For simplicity, it is assumed that there is no contribution to the evaluation results by of oligopoly the start date. Run every Friday. (All three examples are equivalent.) Run every other Friday. Run on the last day of every month. Run on the next to last day of every month. Run on March 10th. (Both examples are equivalent) Run every 10 days.

Run daily at 4, 5, and missing my grandmother, 6PM. Run on the 15th day of every other month. Run on the 29th day of characteristic, every month. Run on how were american policies roosevelt wilson the second Wednesday of each month. Run on characteristic the last Friday of the year.

Run every 50 hours. Run on the last day of gays free, every other month. Run hourly for the first three days of every month. Here are some more complex repeat intervals: Run on the last workday of every month (assuming that workdays are Monday through Friday). Run on of oligopoly the last workday of every month, excluding company holidays. (This example references an existing named schedule called Company_Holidays .) Run at noon every Friday and on company holidays. What Is Scary? Run on these three holidays: July 4th, Memorial Day, and Labor Day. (This example references three existing named schedules JUL4 , MEM , and LAB where each defines a single date corresponding to a holiday.) Examples of Calendaring Expression Evaluation. A repeat interval of FREQ=MINUTELY;INTERVAL=2;BYHOUR=17; BYMINUTE=2,4,5,50,51,7; with a start date of 28-FEB-2004 23:00:00 will generate the following schedule: A repeat interval of FREQ=MONTHLY;BYMONTHDAY=15,-1 with a start date of 29-DEC-2003 9:00:00 will generate the following schedule: A repeat interval of FREQ=MONTHLY; with a start date of 29-DEC-2003 9:00:00 will generate the following schedule. (Note that because there is characteristic of oligopoly no BYMONTHDAY clause, the day of month is retrieved from the start date.) Example of Using a Calendaring Expression. As an The Ants Bees: Comparing of these Colonial Insects example of characteristic, using the calendaring syntax, consider the following statement: This creates my_job1 in scott . It will run for the first time on July 15th and then run until September 15. The job is run every 30 minutes. When you need more complicated capabilities than the calendaring syntax provides, you can use PL/SQL expressions.

You cannot, however, use PL/SQL expressions for windows or in named schedules. The PL/SQL expression must evaluate to a date or a timestamp. Other than this restriction, there are no limitations, so with sufficient programming, you can create every possible repeat interval. As an example, consider the following statement: This creates my_job1 in scott . It will run for the first time on July 15th and then every 30 minutes until September 15. The job is what is scary run every 30 minutes because repeat_interval is set to SYSTIMESTAMP + INTERVAL '30' MINUTE , which returns a date 30 minutes into the future. Differences Between PL/SQL Expression and Calendaring Syntax Behavior.

The following are important differences in behavior between a calendaring expression and PL/SQL repeat interval: Using the calendaring syntax, the characteristic of oligopoly start date is a reference date only. Therefore, the schedule is valid as of The Ants Structure of these Colonial, this date. It does not mean that the job will start on the start date. Using a PL/SQL expression, the start date represents the actual time that the job will start executing for the first time. Using the calendaring syntax, the next time the job will run is characteristic of oligopoly fixed. Using the PL/SQL expression, the of these Colonial Insects next time the job will run depends on characteristic of oligopoly the actual start time of the current run of the job. As an example of the difference, if a job started at 2:00 PM and its schedule was to repeat every 2 hours, then, if the repeat interval was specified with the calendaring syntax, it would repeat at 4, 6 and so on. If PL/SQL was used and the job started at 2:10, then the job would repeat at 4:10, and if the next job actually started at 4:11, then the subsequent run would be at 6:11. To illustrate these two points, consider a situation where you have a start date of my grandmother, 15-July-2003 1:45:00 and you want it to characteristic, repeat every two hours. A calendar expression of FREQ=HOURLY; INTERVAL=2; BYMINUTE=0; will generate the following schedule: Note that the calendar expression repeats every two hours on the hour. A PL/SQL expression of SYSTIMESTAMP + interval '2' hour , however, might have a run time of the The Ants Bees: Structure of these Colonial following: Repeat Intervals and Daylight Savings.

For repeating jobs, the next time a job is scheduled to run is stored in a timestamp with time zone column. When using the calendaring syntax, the time zone is retrieved from start_date . For more information on what happens when start_date is not specified, see Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference . In the case of repeat intervals that are based on of oligopoly PL/SQL expressions, the time zone is part of the timestamp that is returned by the PL/SQL expression. In both cases, it is important to use region names. For example, Europe/Istanbul , instead of absolute time zone offsets such as +2:00 . What Is Scary? Only when a time zone is specified as a region name will the Scheduler follow daylight savings adjustments that apply to that region. This section contains: Creating and Managing Job Chains for information on how to use events with chains to achieve precise control over process flow. Characteristic? An event is a message sent by one application or system process to another to Essay on of Bernarda Alba, indicate that some action or occurrence has been detected. An event is raised (sent) by one application or process, and consumed (received) by one or more applications or processes. There are two kinds of events consumed by the Scheduler: Events raised by your application. An application can raise an event to be consumed by the Scheduler.

The Scheduler reacts to the event by starting a job. Characteristic? For example, when an inventory tracking system notices that the inventory has gone below a certain threshold, it can raise an event that starts an inventory replenishment job. File arrival events raised by a file watcher. You can create a file watchera Scheduler object introduced in Oracle Database 11 g Release 2to watch for the arrival of a file on a system. You can then configure a job to start when the missing file watcher detects the presence of the file. For example, a data warehouse for a chain of of oligopoly, stores loads data from Bees: the Social of these Colonial Insects end-of-day revenue reports uploaded from the point-of-sale systems in characteristic, the stores. The data warehouse load job starts each time a new end-of-day report arrives. Monitoring Job State with Events Raised by gays free the Scheduler for information about how your application can consume job state change events raised by characteristic of oligopoly the Scheduler.

Starting Jobs with Events Raised by Your Application. Your application can raise an event to notify the Scheduler to start a job. A job started in this way is Bees: the Social Structure Colonial Insects referred to as an characteristic event-based job. You can create a named schedule that references an event instead of containing date, time, and recurrence information. If a job is given such a schedule (an event schedule ), the job runs when the event is raised. To raise an event to notify the Scheduler to start a job, your application enqueues a message onto an Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing queue that was specified when setting up the job. When the job starts, it can optionally retrieve the message content of the event. To create an event-based job, you must set these two additional attributes: A queue specification that includes the what is scary name of the queue where your application enqueues messages to raise job start events, or in the case of a secure queue, the queue name followed by a comma and the agent name. A conditional expression based on message properties that must evaluate to TRUE for the message to start the job.

The expression must have the syntax of an characteristic of oligopoly Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing rule. Accordingly, you can include user data properties in the expression, provided that the message payload is an Essay Alba object type, and that you prefix object attributes in the expression with tab.user_data . For more information on characteristic of oligopoly rules, see the DBMS_AQADM . ADD_SUBSCRIBER procedure in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference . The following example sets event_condition to select only low-inventory events that occur after midnight and before 9:00 a.m. Assume that the gays free message payload is an object with two attributes called event_type and characteristic, event_timestamp . The Ants The Social Structure Of These Colonial? You can specify queue_spec and event_condition as inline job attributes, or you can create an event schedule with these attributes and point to this schedule from the job. The Scheduler runs the event-based job for each occurrence of an event that matches event_condition . However, by default, events that occur while the characteristic of oligopoly job is already running are ignored; the event gets consumed, but does not trigger another run of the what is scary job. Beginning in Oracle Database 11 g Release 1, you can change this default behavior by characteristic of oligopoly setting the job attribute PARALLEL_INSTANCES to TRUE . What Is Scary? In this case, an instance of the job is started for every instance of the event, and all job instances are lightweight jobs. Characteristic? See the SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details.

Table 29-5 describes common administration tasks involving events raised by an application (and consumed by the Scheduler) and the procedures associated with them. Table 29-5 Event Tasks and Their Procedures for Events Raised by an Application. CREATE JOB or CREATE ANY JOB. CREATE ANY JOB or ownership of the job being altered or ALTER privileges on the job. CREATE JOB or CREATE ANY JOB. CREATE ANY JOB or ownership of the schedule being altered or ALTER privileges on the schedule. Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing User's Guide for information on Comparing the Social how to create queues and enqueue messages. You use the CREATE_JOB procedure or Enterprise Manager to create an event-based job. The job can include event information inline as job attributes or can specify event information by pointing to an event schedule. Like jobs based on time schedules, event-based jobs are not auto-dropped unless the job end date passes, max_runs is reached, or the maximum number of characteristic, failures ( max_failures ) is reached.

Specifying Event Information as Job Attributes. To specify event information as job attributes, you use an alternate syntax of CREATE_JOB that includes the queue_spec and event_condition attributes. The following example creates a job that starts when an application signals the Scheduler that inventory levels for The Ants and The Bees: Comparing of these Insects, an item have fallen to a low threshold level: See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and characteristic of oligopoly, Types Reference for more information regarding the CREATE_JOB procedure. Gays Free? Specifying Event Information in an Event Schedule. To specify event information with an event schedule, you set the job's schedule_name attribute to the name of an event schedule, as shown in the following example: You alter an event-based job by using the SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure. For jobs that specify the event inline, you cannot set the queue_spec and event_condition attributes individually with SET_ATTRIBUTE . Instead, you must set an of oligopoly attribute called event_spec , and pass an event condition and queue specification as the third and fourth arguments, respectively, to SET_ATTRIBUTE . The following is an example of Essay The Holy, using the event_spec attribute: See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for characteristic of oligopoly, more information regarding the SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure. You can create a schedule that is based on an event.

You can then reuse the schedule for multiple jobs. The Holy? To do so, use the CREATE_EVENT_SCHEDULE procedure, or use Enterprise Manager. The following is an characteristic example of creating an event schedule: You can drop an event schedule using the DROP_SCHEDULE procedure. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for The Ants Comparing the Social Structure of these Colonial, more information on CREATE_EVENT_SCHEDULE . You alter the event information in characteristic of oligopoly, an event schedule in the same way that you alter event information in a job. For more information, see Altering an Event-Based Job. The following example demonstrates how to use the SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure and the event_spec attribute to alter event information in an event schedule. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and on The House of Bernarda Alba, Types Reference for more information regarding the characteristic SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure. Passing Event Mess ages into an Event-Based Job. Through a metadata argument, the gays free Scheduler can pass to an event-based job the message content of the event that started the job. The following rules apply: The job must use a named program of type STORED_PROCEDURE . One of the named program's arguments must be a metadata argument with metadata_attribute set to EVENT_MESSAGE . The stored procedure that implements the program must have an argument at characteristic the position corresponding to the named program's metadata argument.

The argument type must be the gays free data type of the queue where your application queues the job-start event. If you use the RUN_JOB procedure to manually run a job that has an characteristic of oligopoly EVENT_MESSAGE metadata argument, the value passed to that argument is NULL . The following example shows how to construct an event-based job that can receive the event message content: Starting a Job When a File Arrives on a System. You can configure the Scheduler to start a job when a file arrives on the local system or a remote system. The job is an event-based job, and how were the latin american of president similar, the file arrival event is of oligopoly raised by a file watcher, which is missing a Scheduler object introduced in Oracle Database 11 g Release 2. This section contains: A file watcher is a Scheduler object that defines the location, name, and other properties of characteristic, a file whose arrival on my grandmother a system causes the Scheduler to start a job. You create a file watcher and then create any number of event-based jobs or event schedules that reference the of oligopoly file watcher. Gays Free? When the file watcher detects the arrival of the designated file, a newly arrived file, it raises a file arrival event.

A newly arrived file is a file that has been changed and characteristic of oligopoly, therefore has a timestamp that is later than either the latest execution or the time that the The Ants the Social Structure file watcher job began monitoring the target file directory. The way the file watcher determines whether a file is a newly arrived one or not is equivalent to repeatedly executing the Unix command ls -lrt or the Windows DOS command dir /od to watch for new files in a directory. Both these commands ensure that the recently modified file is listed at the end, that is the oldest first and the newest last. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? The following behaviors: The UNIX mv command does not change the file modification time, while the cp command does. The Windows move / paste and copy / paste commands do not change the file modification time. To do this, execute the following DOS command after the move or copy command: copy /b file_name +,, The steady_state_duration parameter of the CREATE_FILE_WATCHER procedure, described in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and what is scary, Types Reference , indicates the minimum time interval that the file must remain unchanged before the file watcher considers the file found. This cannot exceed one hour. If the parameter is NULL , an internal value is used.

The job started by the file arrival event can retrieve the event message to learn about the newly arrived file. The message contains the information required to find the file, open it, and process it. A file watcher can watch for a file on the local system (the same host computer running Oracle Database) or a remote system. Remote systems must be running the Scheduler agent, and the agent must be registered with the characteristic of oligopoly database. File watchers check for the arrival of files every 10 minutes. You can adjust this interval. See Changing the File Arrival Detection Interval for The Ants Structure of these Insects, details.

You must have the characteristic CREATE JOB system privilege to create a file watcher in your own schema. You require the CREATE ANY JOB system privilege to create a file watcher in a schema different from your own (except the SYS schema, which is disallowed). You can grant the EXECUTE object privilege on a file watcher so that jobs in different schemas can reference it. Gays Free? You can also grant the ALTER object privilege on a file watcher so that another user can modify it. To use file watchers, the database Java virtual machine (JVM) component must be installed. Enabling File Arrival Events from Remote Systems. To receive file arrival events from characteristic a remote system, you must install the Scheduler agent on my grandmother that system, and you must register the of oligopoly agent with the database. The remote system does not require a running Oracle Database instance to generate file arrival events.

To enable the raising of file arrival events at remote systems: Set up the local database to run remote external jobs. Install, configure, register, and start the The House Scheduler agent on the first remote system. This adds the characteristic remote host to my grandmother, the list of of oligopoly, external destinations maintained on the local database. How Were The Latin Policies Of President Theodore Roosevelt Wilson Similar? Repeat the previous step for each additional remote system. Creating File Watchers and File Watcher Jobs. You perform the following tasks to create a file watcher and create the event-based job that starts when the designated file arrives. Task 1 - Create a Credential. The file watcher requires a Scheduler credential object (a credential) with which to authenticate with the host operating system for access to the file. See Credentials for information on privileges required to create credentials.

Perform these steps: Create a credential for the operating system user that must have access to the watched-for file. Characteristic? Grant the EXECUTE object privilege on the credential to the schema that owns the event-based job that the what is scary file watcher will start. Characteristic? Task 2 - Create a File Watcher. Perform these steps: Create the file watcher, assigning attributes as described in the DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_FILE_WATCHER procedure documentation in gays free, Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference . You can specify wildcard parameters in the file name. A '?' prefix in the DIRECTORY_PATH attribute denotes the path to characteristic, the Oracle home directory. A NULL destination indicates the local host. To watch for missing, the file on a remote host, provide a valid external destination name, which you can obtain from the view ALL_SCHEDULER_EXTERNAL_DESTS . Grant EXECUTE on the file watcher to any schema that owns an event-based job that references the file watcher. Task 3 - Create a Program Object with a Metadata Argument. So that your application can retrieve the file arrival event message content, which includes file name, file size, and so on, create a Scheduler program object with a metadata argument that references the event message.

Perform these steps: Create the program. Define the metadata argument using the event_message attribute. Of Oligopoly? Create the stored procedure that the program invokes. The stored procedure that processes the file arrival event must have an argument of type SYS.SCHEDULER_FILEWATCHER_RESULT , which is the data type of the event message. Gays Free? The position of that argument must match the characteristic of oligopoly position of the defined metadata argument. The procedure can then access attributes of this abstract data type to the latin american theodore similar, learn about the arrived file.

Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and characteristic, Types Reference for a description of the SYS.SCHEDULER_FILEWATCHER_RESULT type. Create the event-based job as described in Creating an Essay Trinity, by Masaccio Event-Based Job, with the following exception: instead of characteristic of oligopoly, providing a queue specification in on The House of Bernarda, the queue_spec attribute, provide the name of the file watcher. You would typically leave the event_condition job attribute null, but you can provide a condition if desired. As an alternative to setting the queue_spec attribute for the job, you can create an event schedule, reference the file watcher in the queue_spec attribute of the event schedule, and reference the event schedule in the schedule_name attribute of the job. Perform these steps to prepare the characteristic of oligopoly event-based job: If you want the Alba job to run for each instance of the file arrival event, even if the job is already processing a previous event, set the parallel_instances attribute to TRUE . Characteristic Of Oligopoly? With this setting, the job runs as a lightweight job so that multiple instances of the job can be started quickly. To discard file watcher events that occur while the event-based job is gays free already processing another, leave the parallel_instances attribute FALSE (the default).

For more information about this attribute, see the SET_ATTRIBUTE description in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference . Enable the file watcher, the program, and the job. In this example, an event-based job watches for of oligopoly, the arrival of end-of-day sales reports onto the local host from various locations. As each report file arrives, a stored procedure captures information about the file and stores the information in a table called eod_reports . How Were The Latin Theodore Similar ?? A regularly scheduled report aggregation job can then query this table, process all unprocessed files, and mark any newly processed files as processed. It is assumed that the database user running the following code has been granted EXECUTE on the SYS.SCHEDULER_FILEWATCHER_RESULT data type. The DBMS_SCHEDULER PL/SQL package provides procedures for enabling, disabling, dropping, and setting attributes for file watchers. The section contains: If a file watcher is disabled, use DBMS_SCHEDULER.ENABLE to enable it, as shown in Task 5, - Enable All Objects. You can enable a file watcher only if all of its attributes are set to legal values and the file watcher owner has EXECUTE privileges on the specified credential. Use the DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE and of oligopoly, DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE_NULL package procedures to modify the attributes of a file watcher. See the CREATE_FILE_WATCHER procedure description for information about file watcher attributes. Disabling and what is scary, Dropping File Watchers.

Use DBMS_SCHEDULER.DISABLE to disable a file watcher and of oligopoly, DBMS_SCHEDULER.DROP_FILE_WATCHER to drop a file watcher. You cannot disable or drop a file watcher if there are jobs that depend on it. To force a disable or drop operation in how were roosevelt wilson, this case, set the FORCE attribute to TRUE . Characteristic? If you force disabling or dropping a file watcher, jobs that depend on it become disabled. Changing the Trinity, File Arrival Detection Interval. Characteristic? File watchers check for the arrival of Essay Trinity,, files every ten minutes by default. You can change this interval. To change the characteristic of oligopoly file arrival detection interval: Connect to the database as the SYS user. Change the REPEAT_INTERVAL attribute of the predefined schedule SYS.FILE_WATCHER_SCHEDULE . Use any valid calendaring syntax. The following example changes the file arrival detection frequency to every two minutes.

You can view information about file watchers by how were american roosevelt wilson querying the views *_SCHEDULER_FILE_WATCHERS . Oracle Database Reference for of oligopoly, details on the *_SCHEDULER_FILE_WATCHERS views. Creating and Managing Job C hains. A job chain (chain) is Essay Trinity, by Masaccio a named series of tasks that are linked together for a combined objective. Chains are the means by of oligopoly which you can implement dependency based scheduling, in which jobs are started depending on the outcomes of one or more previous jobs. To create and and The Structure of these Colonial, use a chain, you complete these tasks in order: Additional topics discussed in this section include: Chains for an overview of chains. Characteristic? Table 29-6 illustrates common tasks involving chains and what is scary, the procedures associated with them. Table 29-6 Chain Tasks and Their Procedures.

CREATE JOB , CREATE EVALUATION CONTEXT , CREATE RULE , and CREATE RULE SET if the owner. CREATE ANY JOB , CREATE ANY RULE , CREATE ANY RULE SET , and CREATE ANY EVALUATION CONTEXT otherwise. Characteristic? Ownership of the chain or ALTER privileges on the chain or CREATE ANY JOB privileges. How Were The Latin American Roosevelt ?? If not owner, also requires DROP ANY EVALUATION CONTEXT and DROP ANY RULE SET. Ownership of the chain, or ALTER privileges on the chain or CREATE ANY JOB. Alter a running chain. Ownership of the of oligopoly job, or ALTER privileges on the job or CREATE ANY JOB. CREATE JOB or CREATE ANY JOB . In addition, the owner of the new job must have EXECUTE privileges on The Ants Bees: of these Colonial Insects the chain or EXECUTE ANY PROGRAM. Add rules to a chain. Ownership of the chain, or ALTER privileges on characteristic the chain or CREATE ANY JOB privileges. CREATE RULE if the owner of the chain, CREATE ANY RULE otherwise.

Alter rules in a chain. Ownership of the chain, or ALTER privileges on the chain or CREATE ANY JOB privileges. Bees: Comparing The Social Insects? If not owner of the chain, requires ALTER privileges on the rule or ALTER ANY RULE. Drop rules from a chain. Ownership of the chain, or ALTER privileges on the chain or CREATE ANY JOB privileges. DROP ANY RULE if not the owner of the chain. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? Ownership of the chain, or ALTER privileges on the chain or CREATE ANY JOB. Disable a chain.

Ownership of the The Ants the Social of these Colonial chain, or ALTER privileges on the chain or CREATE ANY JOB. Ownership of the chain, or ALTER privileges on characteristic the chain or CREATE ANY JOB. Ownership of the chain, or ALTER privileges on how were the latin of president theodore ? the chain or CREATE ANY JOB. Alter steps (including assigning additional attribute values to characteristic of oligopoly, steps) Ownership of the chain, or ALTER privileges on the chain or CREATE ANY JOB. You create a chain by using the american theodore roosevelt similar ? CREATE_CHAIN procedure. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? You must ensure that you have the required privileges first.

See Setting Chain Privileges for details. After creating the chain object with CREATE_CHAIN , you define chain steps and The Holy, chain rules separately. The following is an example of creating a chain: The rule_set_name and characteristic, evaluation_interval arguments are typically left NULL . evaluation_interval can define a repeating interval at which chain rules get evaluated. rule_set_name refers to a rule set as defined within Oracle Streams. Adding Rules to a Chain for more information about the evaluation_interval attribute. After creating a chain object, you define one or more chain steps. Each step can point to what is scary, one of the following: A Scheduler program object (program) Another chain (a nested chain) An event schedule, inline event, or file watcher. You define a step that points to of oligopoly, a program or nested chain by what is scary using the DEFINE_CHAIN_STEP procedure.

An example is the following, which adds two steps to of oligopoly, my_chain1 : The named program or chain does not have to exist when defining the step. However it must exist and be enabled when the chain runs, otherwise an error is generated. You define a step that waits for an event to occur by what is scary using the DEFINE_CHAIN_EVENT_STEP procedure. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? Procedure arguments can point to an event schedule, can include an what is scary inline queue specification and event condition, or can include a file watcher name. This example creates a third chain step that waits for the event specified in characteristic of oligopoly, the named event schedule: An event step does not wait for its event until the policies of president theodore and president wilson similar ? step is started. Steps That Run Local External Executables. Of Oligopoly? After defining a step that runs a local external executable, you must use the ALTER_CHAIN procedure to assign a credential to the step, as shown in the following example: Steps That Run on Remote Destinations. After defining a step that is to run an external executable on a remote host or a database program unit on a remote database, you must use the ALTER_CHAIN procedure to assign both a credential and a destination to the step, as shown in the following example: Making Steps Restartable.

After a database recovery, by default steps that were running are marked as STOPPED and the chain continues. You can specify the chain steps to restart automatically after a database recovery by using ALTER_CHAIN to set the The Ants the Social Structure Colonial Insects restart_on_recovery attribute to TRUE for characteristic of oligopoly, those steps. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for more information regarding the DEFINE_CHAIN_STEP , DEFINE_CHAIN_EVENT_STEP , and ALTER_CHAIN procedures. You add a rule to a chain with the DEFINE_CHAIN_RULE procedure. You call this procedure once for each rule that you want to add to the chain. Chain rules define when steps run, and define dependencies between steps. Essay The House Alba? Each rule has a condition and an action. Whenever rules are evaluated, if a rule's condition evaluates to TRUE , its action is performed. The condition can contain Scheduler chain condition syntax or any syntax that is valid in a SQL WHERE clause. The syntax can include references to attributes of any chain step, including step completion status. A typical action is to run a specified step or to run a list of steps.

All chain rules work together to characteristic of oligopoly, define the overall action of the chain. When the chain job starts and at the end of each step, all rules are evaluated to see what action or actions occur next. On The House Alba? If more than one rule has a TRUE condition, multiple actions can occur. You can cause rules to also be evaluated at regular intervals by setting the evaluation_interval attribute of a chain. Conditions are usually based on the outcome of one or more previous steps. For example, you might want one step to run if the two previous steps succeeded, and another to run if either of the two previous steps failed. Scheduler chain condition syntax takes one of the following two forms: You can combine conditions with boolean operators AND , OR , and of oligopoly, NOT() to create conditional expressions. You can employ parentheses in your expressions to determine order of evaluation. ERROR_CODE can be set with the RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR PL/SQL statement within the program assigned to missing my grandmother, the step. Although the error codes that your program sets in this way are negative numbers, when testing ERROR_CODE in characteristic of oligopoly, a chain rule, you test for positive numbers.

For example, if your program contains the following statement: your chain rule condition must be the following: The following is a list of step attributes that you can include in conditions when using SQL WHERE clause syntax: The completed attribute is boolean and is TRUE when the state attribute is either SUCCEEDED , FAILED , or STOPPED . Table 29-7 shows the possible values for the state attribute. These values are visible in the STATE column of the *_SCHEDULER_RUNNING_CHAINS views. Table 29-7 Values for the State Attribute of a Chain Step. The step's chain is running, but the step has not yet started. A rule started the step with an The Ants of these Insects AFTER clause and the designated wait time has not yet expired.

The step is running. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? For an event step, the step was started and is waiting for an event. The step's PAUSE attribute is set to TRUE and the step is paused. It must be unpaused before steps that depend on it can start. Essay Of Bernarda? The step completed successfully.

The step's ERROR_CODE is characteristic 0. The step completed with a failure. ERROR_CODE is nonzero. The step was stopped with the american policies theodore and president STOP_JOB procedure. The step is a nested chain that has stalled. See the DEFINE_CHAIN_RULE procedure in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for rules and characteristic, examples for SQL WHERE clause syntax. Condition Examples Using Scheduler Chain Condition Syntax. These examples use Scheduler chain condition syntax. About The Holy Trinity,? Steps started by rules containing the characteristic following condition are started when the Essay of Bernarda step named form_validation_step is characteristic of oligopoly completed ( SUCCEEDED , FAILED , or STOPPED ). The following condition is similar, but indicates that the of president theodore roosevelt similar step must have succeeded for the condition to be met. The next condition tests for an error. It is TRUE if the step form_validation_step failed with any error code other than 20001.

Condition Examples Using SQL WHERE Syntax. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? Starting the Chain. At least one rule must have a condition that always evaluates to TRUE so that the chain can start when the chain job starts. The easiest way to how were american policies wilson similar ?, accomplish this is to just set the condition to ' TRUE ' if you are using Schedule chain condition syntax, or ' 1=1 ' if you are using SQL syntax. Ending the characteristic of oligopoly Chain. At least one chain rule must contain an action of ' END '. The Ants And The Bees: The Social Colonial? A chain job does not complete until one of the rules containing the END action evaluates to TRUE . Several different rules with different END actions are common, some with error codes, and some without. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? If a chain has no more running steps or it is not waiting for an event to occur, and no rules containing the END action evaluate to and The Structure of these, TRUE (or there are no rules with the characteristic of oligopoly END action), the chain job enters the CHAIN_STALLED state. See Handling Stalled Chains for more information.

Example of Defining Rules. The following example defines a rule that starts the how were the latin policies theodore roosevelt similar ? chain at step step1 and characteristic of oligopoly, a rule that starts step step2 when step1 completes. rule_name and comments are optional and default to NULL . The Latin American Policies Of President Roosevelt And President Wilson ?? If you do use rule_name , you can later redefine that rule with another call to DEFINE_CHAIN_RULE . The new definition overwrites the previous one. Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for information on the DEFINE_CHAIN_RULE procedure and Scheduler chain condition syntax. Setting an Evaluation Interval for Chain Rules. The Scheduler evaluates all chain rules at the start of the chain job and at the end of each chain step. You can configure a chain to also have its rules evaluated at a repeating time interval, such as once per characteristic of oligopoly, hour. This capability is useful to start chain steps based on time of day or based on Essay about The Holy occurrences external to the chain. Here are some examples: A chain step is resource-intensive and must therefore run at off-peak hours.

You could condition the step on both the completion of another step and on the time of day being after 6:00 p.m and before midnight. Characteristic? The Scheduler would then have to evaluate rules every so often to determine when this condition becomes TRUE . A step must wait for on The House of Bernarda, data to arrive in a table from characteristic of oligopoly some other process that is external to the chain. You could condition this step on both the completion of another step and on missing my grandmother a particular table containing rows. The Scheduler would then have to evaluate rules every so often to determine when this condition becomes TRUE . The condition would use SQL WHERE clause syntax, and would be similar to the following: To set an evaluation interval for a chain, you set the evaluation_interval attribute when you create the of oligopoly chain. The data type for this attribute is INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND . You enable a chain with the ENABLE procedure. A chain must be enabled before it can be run by a job. The Ants Bees: Comparing The Social? Enabling an already enabled chain does not return an error. The following example enables chain my_chain1 : Chains are automatically disabled by of oligopoly the Scheduler when: The program that one of the chain steps points to is dropped. The nested chain that one of the chain steps points to is dropped.

The event schedule that one of the chain event steps points to is dropped. To run a chain, you must either use the the latin policies of president theodore roosevelt wilson similar ? RUN_CHAIN procedure or create and characteristic, schedule a job of type ' CHAIN ' (a chain job ). The job action must refer to the chain name, as shown in the following example: For every step of a chain job that is running, the Scheduler creates a step job with the same job name and owner as the chain job. Each step job additionally has a job subname to gays free, uniquely identify it. Characteristic? The job subname is included as a column in the views *_SCHEDULER_RUNNING_JOBS , *_SCHEDULER_JOB_LOG , and *_SCHEDULER_JOB_RUN_DETAILS . The job subname is normally the on The House of Bernarda Alba same as the of oligopoly step name except in the following cases: For nested chains, the gays free current step name may have already been used as a job subname. In this case, the Scheduler appends ' _N ' to the step name, where N is an integer that results in a unique job subname.

If there is characteristic a failure when creating a step job, the Scheduler logs a FAILED entry in the job log views ( *_SCHEDULER_JOB_LOG and The Holy by Masaccio, *_SCHEDULER_JOB_RUN_DETAILS ) with the job subname set to ' step_name_ 0 '. Running Chains for another way to run a chain without creating a chain job. You drop a chain, including its steps and characteristic of oligopoly, rules, by using the DROP_CHAIN procedure. An example of the latin american policies of president theodore roosevelt wilson similar ?, dropping a chain is the following, which drops my_chain1 : See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and characteristic of oligopoly, Types Reference for more information regarding the DROP_CHAIN procedure. What Is Scary? You can use the following two procedures to run a chain immediately: If you already created a chain job for a chain, you can use the characteristic of oligopoly RUN_JOB procedure to run that job (and thus run the chain), but you must set the use_current_session argument of RUN_JOB to FALSE . You can use the RUN_CHAIN procedure to run a chain without having to first create a chain job for the chain. You can also use RUN_CHAIN to run only part of missing, a chain. RUN_CHAIN creates a temporary job to run the specified chain. If you supply a job name, the job is created with that name, otherwise a default job name is assigned. If you supply a list of start steps , only those steps are started when the chain begins running. (Steps that would normally have started do not run if they are not in the list.) If no list of start steps is given, the chain starts normallythat is, an initial evaluation is done to see which steps to start running. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? An example is the following, which immediately runs the chain my_chain1 : You drop a rule from a chain by on The House of Bernarda Alba using the DROP_CHAIN_RULE procedure. An example is the following, which drops my_rule1 : See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for more information regarding the DROP_CHAIN_RULE procedure. You disable a chain by using the DISABLE procedure.

An example is the following, which disables my_chain1 : Chains are automatically disabled by the Scheduler when: The program that one of the chain steps points to is dropped. The nested chain that one of the chain steps points to is dropped. The event schedule that one of the chain event steps points to characteristic, is dropped. You drop a step from a chain by about The Holy using the DROP_CHAIN_STEP procedure. An example is the following, which drops my_step2 from my_chain2 : See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for characteristic, more information regarding the DROP_CHAIN_STEP procedure. To stop a running chain, you call DBMS_SCHEDULER.STOP_JOB , passing the name of the Essay The Holy Trinity, chain job (the job that started the chain).

When you stop a chain job, all steps of the chain that are running are stopped and the chain ends. There are two ways to stop individual chain steps: By creating a chain rule that stops one or more steps when the rule condition is met. By calling the STOP_JOB procedure. For each step to stop, you must specify the schema name, chain job name, and step job subname. In this example, chainrunjob is the chain job name and stepa is the step job subname. The step job subname is of oligopoly typically the same as the step name, but not always. You can obtain the step job subname from the missing STEP_JOB_SUBNAME column of the *_SCHEDULER_RUNNING_CHAINS views. When you stop a chain step, its state is set to STOPPED and the chain rules are evaluated to of oligopoly, determine the steps to run next. You can pause an entire chain or individual branches of a chain.

You do so by setting the PAUSE attribute of one or more steps to TRUE with DBMS_SCHEDULER.ALTER_CHAIN or ALTER_RUNNING_CHAIN . Pausing chain steps enables you to suspend the running of the chain after those steps run. And The Bees: Structure Colonial Insects? When you pause a step, after the step runs, its state attribute changes to PAUSED , and its completed attribute remains FALSE . Steps that depend on the completion of the paused step are therefore not run. If you reset the PAUSE attribute to FALSE for a paused step, its state attribute is set to its completion state ( SUCCEEDED , FAILED , or STOPPED ), and steps that are awaiting the completion of the paused step can then run. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? Figure 29-1 Chain with Step 3 Paused. In Figure 29-1, Step 3 is paused. Until Step 3 is unpaused, Step 5 will not run. Essay? If you were to pause only Step 2, then Steps 4, 6, and 7 would not run. However Steps 1, 3, and characteristic, 5 could run.

In either case, you are suspending only one branch of the chain. To pause an entire chain, you pause all steps of the chain. About Trinity,? To unpause a chain, you unpause one, many, or all of the characteristic of oligopoly chain steps. With the chain in Figure 29-1, pausing Step 1 would also achieve the pausing of the entire chain after Step 1 runs. The DBMS_SCHEDULER.ALTER_CHAIN and Essay about The Holy, DBMS_SCHEDULER.ALTER_RUNNING_CHAIN procedures in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference. You can skip one or more steps in a chain.

You do so by of oligopoly setting the gays free SKIP attribute of one or more steps to characteristic, TRUE with DBMS_SCHEDULER.ALTER_CHAIN or ALTER_RUNNING_CHAIN . Essay About The Holy Trinity, By Masaccio? If a step's SKIP attribute is TRUE , then when a chain condition to characteristic of oligopoly, run that step is met, instead of The Ants Bees: the Social Insects, being run, the step is treated as if it has immediately succeeded. Setting SKIP to TRUE has no effect on a step that is running, that is scheduled to run after a delay, or that has already run. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? Skipping steps is especially useful when testing chains. On Of Bernarda? For example, when testing the of oligopoly chain shown in Figure 29-1, skipping Step 7 could shorten testing time considerably, because this step is a nested chain. There are two ways to run only of Bernarda Alba, a part of a chain: Use the ALTER_CHAIN procedure to set the PAUSE attribute to TRUE for one or more steps, and then either start the chain job with RUN_JOB or start the chain with RUN_CHAIN . Any steps that depend on characteristic the paused steps do not run. (However, the paused steps do run.) The disadvantage of this method is that you must set the PAUSE attribute back to FALSE for the affected steps for future runs of the chain. Use the RUN_CHAIN procedure to start only certain steps of the The Holy chain, skipping those steps that you do not want to run.

This is a more straightforward approach and also enables you to set the initial state of of oligopoly, steps before starting them. You may have to use both of these methods to skip steps both at the beginning and end of a chain. See the discussion of the RUN_CHAIN procedure in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for more information. You can view the status of the latin policies of president roosevelt and president ?, running chains with the following two views: The *_SCHEDULER_RUNNING_JOBS views contain one row for the chain job and one row for each running step. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? The *_SCHEDULER_RUNNING_CHAINS views contain one row for each chain step (including any nested chains) and include run status for each step ( NOT_STARTED , RUNNING , STOPPED , SUCCEEDED , and so on).

At the The Holy Trinity, by Masaccio completion of a step, the chain rules are always evaluated to determine the next steps to characteristic, run. If none of the missing my grandmother rules cause another step to start, none cause the chain to end, and characteristic, the evaluation_interval for the chain is NULL , the chain enters the stalled state. When a chain is stalled, no steps are running, no steps are scheduled to policies theodore roosevelt and president ?, run (after waiting a designated time interval), and no event steps are waiting for of oligopoly, an event. The chain can make no further progress unless you manually intervene. Missing My Grandmother? In this case, the state of the job that is running the chain is set to CHAIN_STALLED . (However, the job is still listed in the *_SCHEDULER_RUNNING_JOBS views.) You can troubleshoot a stalled chain with the views ALL_SCHEDULER_RUNNING_CHAINS , which shows the state of all steps in of oligopoly, the chain (including any nested chains), and what is scary, ALL_SCHEDULER_CHAIN_RULES , which contains all the chain rules. You can enable the chain to continue by of oligopoly altering the state of one of its steps with the ALTER_RUNNING_CHAIN procedure. For example, if step 11 is waiting for step 9 to succeed before it can start, and about by Masaccio, if it makes sense to do so, you can set the state of step 9 to ' SUCCEEDED '. Alternatively, if one or more rules are incorrect, you can use the DEFINE_CHAIN_RULE procedure to characteristic, replace them (using the same rule names), or to create new rules. The Ants And The Bees: Comparing? The new and updated rules apply to the running chain and all future chain runs.

After adding or updating rules, you must run EVALUATE_RUNNING_CHAIN on the stalled chain job to characteristic of oligopoly, trigger any required actions. You prioritize Oracle Scheduler jobs using three Scheduler objects: job classes, windows, and window groups. By Masaccio? These objects prioritize jobs by associating jobs with database resource manager consumer groups. This in turn controls the amount of resources allocated to characteristic, these jobs. In addition, job classes enable you to set relative priorities among a group of jobs if all jobs in the group are allocated identical resource levels. This section contains: Managing Job Priorities with Job C lasses. What Is Scary? Job classes provide a way to group jobs for prioritization. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? They also provide a way to easily assign a set of attribute values to member jobs. Job classes influence the priorities of their member jobs through job class attributes that relate to the database resource manager. See Allocating Resources Among Jobs Using Resource Manager for details. There is a default job class that is created with the missing database.

If you create a job without specifying a job class, the characteristic job will be assigned to how were theodore roosevelt wilson similar, this default job class ( DEFAULT_JOB_CLASS) . The default job class has the EXECUTE privilege granted to PUBLIC so any database user who has the privilege to characteristic, create a job can create a job in the default job class. This section introduces you to basic job class tasks, and discusses the what is scary following topics: Job Classes for an overview of job classes. Job Class Tasks and of oligopoly, Their Procedures. Table 29-8 illustrates common job class tasks and their appropriate procedures and Bees: Comparing Structure of these Colonial, privileges: Table 29-8 Job Class Tasks and characteristic, Their Procedures. Create a job class. Alter a job class. Drop a job class. The Latin Policies Of President Theodore Roosevelt And President Wilson Similar ?? See Scheduler Privileges for further information regarding privileges. You create a job class using the CREATE_JOB_CLASS procedure or Enterprise Manager. Job classes are always created in the SYS schema.

The following statement creates a job class for all finance jobs: All jobs in characteristic of oligopoly, this job class are assigned to the finance_group resource consumer group. What Is Scary? To query job classes, use the *_SCHEDULER_JOB_CLASSES views. You alter a job class by using the SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure or Enterprise Manager. Other than the job class name, all the attributes of a job class can be altered. The attributes of a job class are available in the *_SCHEDULER_JOB_CLASSES views. When a job class is characteristic of oligopoly altered, running jobs that belong to the class are not affected. The change only takes effect for jobs that have not started running yet. You drop one or more job classes using the The Ants Bees: Comparing the Social Colonial Insects DROP_JOB_CLASS procedure or Enterprise Manager. Of Oligopoly? Dropping a job class means that all the metadata about the job class is Essay on of Bernarda Alba removed from the database.

You can drop several job classes in one call by providing a comma-delimited list of job class names to the DROP_JOB_CLASS procedure call. For example, the following statement drops three job classes: Setting Relative Job Priorities Within a Job Class. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? You can change the relative priorities of about The Holy by Masaccio, jobs within the characteristic of oligopoly same job class by using the SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure. Job priorities must be in the range of 1-5, where 1 is the highest priority. For example, the following statement changes the job priority for my_job1 to a setting of 1: You can verify that the attribute was changed by issuing the following statement: Overall priority of a job within the gays free system is determined first by the combination of the resource consumer group that the job's job class is characteristic of oligopoly assigned to and the current resource plan, and then by relative priority within the job class. Managing Job Scheduling and Job Priorities with Win dows. Windows provide a way to automatically activate different resource plans at different times. Running jobs can then see a change in the resources that are allocated to what is scary, them when there is a change in of oligopoly, resource plan. What Is Scary? A job can name a window in its schedule_name attribute. Of Oligopoly? The Scheduler then starts the The Ants Comparing job with the window opens. Characteristic? A window has a schedule associated with it, so a window can open at various times during your workload cycle.

The key attributes of Essay about by Masaccio, a window are its: This controls when the window is in effect. This controls how long the characteristic of oligopoly window is open. What Is Scary? This names the resource plan that activates when the window opens. Only one window can be in effect at of oligopoly any given time. Windows belong to the SYS schema.

All window activity is my grandmother logged in the *_SCHEDULER_WINDOW_LOG views, otherwise known as the win dow logs . See Window Log for examples of window logging. Of Oligopoly? This section introduces you to basic window tasks, and discusses the following topics: Windows for The Ants the Social of these Insects, an overview of of oligopoly, windows. Window Tasks and Their Procedures. Table 29-9 illustrates common window tasks and the procedures you use to handle them. The Ants And The Comparing Structure Insects? Table 29-9 Window Tasks and characteristic, Their Procedures. Create a window. Disable a window. Enable a window. See Scheduler Privileges for further information regarding privileges.

You can use Enterprise Manager or the DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_WINDOW package procedure to of Bernarda, create windows. When using the package procedure, you can leave the resource_plan parameter NULL . In this case, when the window opens, the current plan remains in effect. Of Oligopoly? You must have the gays free MANAGE SCHEDULER privilege to create windows. When you specify a schedule for of oligopoly, a window, the Scheduler does not check if there is already a window defined for that schedule. Therefore, this may result in windows that overlap. Also, using a named schedule that has a PL/SQL expression as its repeat interval is not supported for windows. See the my grandmother CREATE_WINDOW procedure in characteristic, Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details on window attributes. The following example creates a window named daytime that enables the mixed_workload_plan resource plan during office hours: To verify that the window was created properly, query the view DBA_SCHEDULER_WINDOWS . As an example, issue the following statement: You alter a window by modifying its attributes. Gays Free? You do so with the SET_ATTRIBUTE and SET_ATTRIBUTE_NULL procedures or Enterprise Manager. With the of oligopoly exception of WINDOW_NAME , all the attributes of a window can be changed when it is altered.

See the CREATE_WINDOW procedure in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for window attribute details. When a window is altered, it does not affect an active window. The changes only take effect the next time the window opens. All windows can be altered. If you alter a window that is disabled, it will remain disabled after it is Essay altered. An enabled window will be automatically disabled, altered, and then reenabled, if the characteristic validity checks performed during the enable process are successful.

See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for detailed information about the SET_ATTRIBUTE and SET_ATTRIBUTE_NULL procedures. When a window opens, the missing my grandmother Scheduler switches to the resource plan that has been associated with it during its creation. Characteristic? If there are jobs running when the The Ants and The Structure Colonial window opens, the resources allocated to them might change due to the switch in of oligopoly, resource plan. There are two ways a window can open: According to the window's schedule. Manually, using the OPEN_WINDOW procedure. This procedure opens the window independent of its schedule. This window will open and the resource plan associated with it will take effect immediately. Only an enabled window can be manually opened. In the OPEN_WINDOW procedure, you can specify the time interval that the window should be open for, using the The Ants and The Structure of these duration attribute. The duration is of type interval day to second.

If the duration is not specified, then the characteristic of oligopoly window will be opened for the regular duration as stored with the window. Opening a window manually has no impact on regular scheduled runs of the window. When a window that was manually opened closes, the rules about overlapping windows are applied to determine which other window should be opened at that time if any at all. You can force a window to open even if there is one already open by setting the force option to TRUE in the OPEN_WINDOW call or Enterprise Manager. What Is Scary? When the force option is of oligopoly set to TRUE , the Scheduler automatically closes any window that is gays free open at that time, even if it has a higher priority. For the of oligopoly duration of this manually opened window, the Scheduler does not open any other scheduled windows even if they have a higher priority.

You can open a window that is already open. In this case, the window stays open for gays free, the duration specified in the call, from the time the OPEN_WINDOW command was issued. Consider an characteristic of oligopoly example to illustrate this. window1 was created with a duration of four hours. It has how been open for two hours. How Were The Latin Of President Theodore And President? If at this point you reopen window1 using the characteristic OPEN_WINDOW call and do not specify a duration, then window1 will be open for another four hours because it was created with that duration. If you specified a duration of 30 minutes, the window will close in The Holy by Masaccio, 30 minutes. When a window opens, an entry is characteristic of oligopoly made in how were american theodore similar, the window log. A window can fail to switch resource plans if the current resource plan has been manually switched using the ALTER SYSTEM statement with the FORCE option, or using the DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.SWITCH_PLAN package procedure with the allow_scheduler_plan_switches argument set to FALSE . In this case, the failure to switch resource plans is characteristic of oligopoly written to the window log. The Ants And The Comparing The Social Of These? See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for detailed information about the OPEN_WINDOW procedure and the DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.SWITCH_PLAN procedure. There are two ways a window can close: Based on a schedule.

A window will close based on the schedule defined at creation time. Manually, using the CLOSE_WINDOW procedure. The CLOSE_WINDOW procedure will close an of oligopoly open window prematurely. A closed window means that it is no longer in Bees: Structure Colonial, effect. When a window is closed, the Scheduler will switch the resource plan to characteristic, the one that was in effect outside the The Holy Trinity, by Masaccio window or in the case of overlapping windows to another window. If you try to close a window that does not exist or is not open, an error is generated. A job that is running will not close when the window it is running in closes unless the attribute stop_on_window_close was set to characteristic of oligopoly, TRUE when the job was created. However, the resources allocated to the job may change because the The Ants and The Bees: Comparing the Social Structure of these Colonial resource plan may change.

When a running job has a window group as its schedule, the job will not be stopped when its window is closed if another window that is also a member of the same window group then becomes active. Characteristic? This is the case even if the job was created with the attribute stop_on_window_close set to TRUE . When a window is closed, an entry will be added to gays free, the window log DBA_SCHEDULER_WINDOW_LOG . See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for detailed information about the CLOSE_WINDOW procedure. You drop one or more windows using the characteristic DROP_WINDOW procedure or Enterprise Manager. When a window is dropped, all metadata about the window is removed from the missing *_SCHEDULER_WINDOWS views. All references to the window are removed from window groups. You can drop several windows in one call by providing a comma-delimited list of window names or window group names to the DROP_WINDOW procedure.

For example, the of oligopoly following statement drops both windows and window groups: Note that if a window group name is provided, then the what is scary windows in the window group are dropped, but the window group is not dropped. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? To drop the Essay Alba window group, you must use the characteristic DROP_WINDOW_GROUP procedure. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and what is scary, Types Reference for detailed information about the DROP_WINDOW procedure. You disable one or more windows using the DISABLE procedure or with Enterprise Manager. Therefore, the window will not open. However, the metadata of the characteristic window is still there, so it can be reenabled. Because the DISABLE procedure is used for several Scheduler objects, when disabling windows, they must be preceded by The Holy by Masaccio SYS . A window can also become disabled for other reasons. For example, a window will become disabled when it is at the end of its schedule. Of Oligopoly? Also, if a window points to a schedule that no longer exists, it becomes disabled.

If there are jobs that have the and The Comparing the Social Structure of these Colonial Insects window as their schedule, you will not be able to disable the window unless you set force to characteristic of oligopoly, TRUE in the procedure call. What Is Scary? By default, force is set to of oligopoly, FALSE . When the window is disabled, those jobs that have the window as their schedule will not be disabled. You can disable several windows in one call by providing a comma-delimited list of window names or window group names to the DISABLE procedure call. For example, the following statement disables both windows and the latin of president theodore wilson similar, window groups: You enable one or more windows using the characteristic ENABLE procedure or Enterprise Manager. An enabled window is one that can be opened. Windows are, by default, created enabled . When a window is enabled using the ENABLE procedure, a validity check is gays free performed and only if this is successful will the characteristic of oligopoly window be enabled.

When a window is enabled, it is logged in missing my grandmother, the window log table. Because the ENABLE procedure is of oligopoly used for several Scheduler objects, when enabling windows, they must be preceded by SYS . You can enable several windows in Essay The Holy Trinity, by Masaccio, one call by providing a comma-delimited list of window names. For example, the following statement enables three windows: Managing Job Scheduling and of oligopoly, Job Priorities with Window Groups. Window groups provide an easy way to schedule jobs that must run during multiple time periods throughout the day, week, and so on. If you create a window group, add windows to and The Comparing Structure of these, it, and then name this window group in characteristic of oligopoly, a job's schedule_name attribute, the Alba job runs during all the windows in the window group. Window groups reside in the SYS schema. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? This section introduces you to basic window group tasks, and discusses the american policies theodore roosevelt and president wilson ? following topics: Window Groups for an overview of characteristic, window groups.

Window Group Tasks and Their Procedures. Table 29-10 illustrates common window group tasks and the procedures you use to what is scary, handle them. Table 29-10 Window Group Tasks and Their Procedures. Create a window group. Drop a window group. Of Oligopoly? Add a member to a window group.

Drop a member from a window group. Enable a window group. Disable a window group. See Scheduler Privileges for further information regarding privileges. You create a window group by using the DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_GROUP procedure, specifying a group type of ' WINDOW '. You can specify the member windows of the group when you create the group, or you can add them later using the ADD_GROUP_MEMBER procedure. A window group cannot be a member of another window group. You can, however, create a window group that has no members. Gays Free? If you create a window group and you specify a member window that does not exist, an error is generated and characteristic, the window group is not created. If a window is Essay The House already a member of a window group, it is not added again.

Window groups are created in the SYS schema. Window groups, like windows, are created with access to PUBLIC , therefore, no privileges are required to access window groups. The following statement creates a window group called downtime and adds two windows ( weeknights and weekends ) to it: To verify the window group contents, issue the following queries as a user with the MANAGE SCHEDULER privilege: You drop one or more window groups by using the characteristic DROP_GROUP procedure. This call will drop the window group but not the windows that are members of this window group. Gays Free? To drop all the windows that are members of of oligopoly, this group but not the window group itself, you can use the what is scary DROP_WINDOW procedure and provide the name of the window group to the call. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? You can drop several window groups in one call by what is scary providing a comma-delimited list of window group names to the DROP_GROUP procedure call. Of Oligopoly? You must precede each window group name with the SYS schema. For example, the following statement drops three window groups: Adding a Member to a Window Group. You add windows to a window group by using the ADD_GROUP_MEMBER procedure.

You can add several members to a window group in one call, by specifying a comma-delimited list of windows. For example, the following statement adds two windows to the window group window_group1 : If an already open window is added to a window group, the Scheduler will not start jobs that point to this window group until the Essay about The Holy by Masaccio next window in the window group opens. Removing a Mem ber from a Window Group. You can remove one or more windows from a window group by characteristic using the REMOVE_GROUP_MEMBER procedure. Jobs with the stop_on_window_close flag set will only be stopped when a window closes. Dropping an open window from a window group has no impact on this. You can remove several members from a window group in one call by of Bernarda Alba specifying a comma-delimited list of windows. For example, the following statement drops two windows: You enable one or more window groups using the ENABLE procedure.

By default, window groups are created ENABLED . Characteristic? For example: You disable a window group using the DISABLE procedure. A job with a disabled window group as its schedule does not run when the member windows open. Disabling a window group does not disable its member windows. You can also disable several window groups in one call by providing a comma-delimited list of window group names. For example, the following statement disables three window groups: Allocating Resources Among Jobs Using Resource Manager. The Database Resource Manager (Resource Manager) controls how resources are allocated among database sessions. It not only controls asynchronous sessions like Scheduler jobs, but also synchronous sessions like user sessions.

It groups all units of work in the database into resource consumer groups and uses a resource plan to specify how the resources are allocated among the various consumer groups. The primary system resource that the Resource Manager allocates is CPU. For Scheduler jobs, resources are allocated by first assigning each job to a job class, and then associating a job class with a consumer group. Resources are then distributed among the Scheduler jobs and other sessions within the consumer group. You can also assign relative priorities to the jobs in a job class, and how were theodore, resources are distributed to those jobs accordingly. You can manually change the current resource plan at any time. Another way to change the current resource plan is by creating Scheduler windows. Of Oligopoly? Windows have a resource plan attribute. When a window opens, the current plan is switched to about The Holy Trinity, by Masaccio, the window's resource plan.

The Scheduler tries to limit the number of jobs that are running simultaneously so that at least some jobs can complete, rather than running a lot of jobs concurrently but without enough resources for any of them to complete. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? The Scheduler and the Resource Manager are tightly integrated. The job coordinator obtains database resource availability from the Resource Manager. Based on that information, the coordinator determines how many jobs to start. It will only what is scary, start jobs from those job classes that will have enough resources to run. The coordinator will keep starting jobs in a particular job class that maps to a consumer group until the Resource Manager determines that the maximum resource allocated for that consumer group has been reached. Of Oligopoly? Therefore, there might be jobs in the job table that are ready to run but will not be picked up by the job coordinator because there are no resources to run them.

Therefore, there is no guarantee that a job will run at the exact time that it was scheduled. The coordinator picks up jobs from the missing job table on the basis of which consumer groups still have resources available. The Resource Manager continues to manage the resources that are assigned to each running job based on characteristic of oligopoly the specified resource plan. Keep in mind that the Essay about Resource Manager can only manage database processes. The active management of of oligopoly, resources does not apply to external jobs. The Resource Manager is active only of these Colonial Insects, when CPU utilization approaches 100%. Example of of oligopoly, Resource Allocation for Jobs. The following example illustrates how resources are allocated for jobs. Assume that the active resource plan is called Night Plan and that there are three job classes: JC1 , which maps to what is scary, consumer group DW ; JC2 , which maps to consumer group OLTP ; and JC3 , which maps to the default consumer group.

Figure 29-2 offers a simple graphical illustration of this scenario. Figure 29-2 Sample Resource Plan. This resource plan clearly gives priority to jobs that are part of job class JC1 . Consumer group DW gets 60% of the resources, thus jobs that belong to job class JC1 will get 60% of the resources. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? Consumer group OLTP has 30% of the Essay The House resources, which implies that jobs in job class JC2 will get 30% of the resources. The consumer group Other specifies that all other consumer groups will be getting 10% of the of oligopoly resources. Therefore, all jobs that belong in job class JC3 will share 10% of the what is scary resources and can get a maximum of characteristic of oligopoly, 10% of the resources. Note that resources that remain unused by one consumer group are available from use by Essay The Holy the other consumer groups. So if the jobs in job class JC1 do not fully use the allocated 60%, the unused portion is available for use by jobs in classes JC2 and JC3.

Note also that the Resource Manager does not begin to restrict resource usage at all until CPU usage reaches 100%. See Chapter 27, Managing Resources with Oracle Database Resource Manager for more information. There are several ways to monitor Scheduler jobs: Viewing the job log. The job log includes the data dictionary views *_SCHEDULER_JOB_LOG and *_SCHEDULER_JOB_RUN_DETAILS , where: Querying additional data dictionary views. Query views such as DBA_SCHEDULER_RUNNING_JOBS and DBA_SCHEDULER_RUNNING_CHAINS to show the status and details of running jobs and chains. Of Oligopoly? Writing applications that receive job state events from the Scheduler. Configuring jobs to send e-mail notifications upon a state change. About By Masaccio? You can view information about job runs, job state changes, and job failures in the job log. The job log shows results for both local and remote jobs.

The job log is implemented as the following two data dictionary views: Depending on the logging level that is in effect, the characteristic Scheduler can make job log entries whenever a job is run and when a job is created, dropped, enabled, and so on. For a job that has a repeating schedule, the Scheduler makes multiple entries in gays free, the job logone for each job instance. Each log entry provides information about a particular run, such as the job completion status. The following example shows job log entries for a repeating job that has a value of 4 for the max_runs attribute: You can control how frequently information is written to the job log by setting the logging_level attribute of either a job or a job class. Table 29-11 shows the possible values for logging_level . Characteristic Of Oligopoly? Table 29-11 Job Logging Levels.

No logging is performed. A log entry is made only if the job fails. The Latin American Policies Of President Theodore And President Wilson Similar? A log entry is made each time the characteristic of oligopoly job is run. A log entry is made every time the job runs and for every operation performed on a job, including create, enable/disable, update (with SET_ATTRIBUTE ), stop, and drop. Log entries for job runs are not made until after the job run completes successfully, fails, or is my grandmother stopped. The following example shows job log entries for a complete job lifecycle.

In this case, the logging level for the job class is LOGGING_FULL , and the job is a non-repeating job. After the first successful run, the job is enabled again, so it runs once more. It is then stopped and dropped. For every row in *_SCHEDULER_JOB_LOG for which the operation is RUN , RETRY_RUN , or RECOVERY_RUN , there is a corresponding row in the *_SCHEDULER_JOB_RUN_DETAILS view. Rows from the two different views are correlated with their LOG_ID columns. You can consult the run details views to determine why a job failed or was stopped. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? The run details views also contain actual job start times and durations. Precedence of what is scary, Logging Levels in Jobs and Job Classes. Both jobs and job classes have a logging_level attribute, with possible values listed in Table 29-11. The default logging level for job classes is LOGGING_RUNS , and the default level for individual jobs is LOGGING_OFF . If the logging level of the job class is characteristic of oligopoly higher than that of a job in of president and president wilson ?, the class, then the logging level of the job class takes precedence.

Thus, by of oligopoly default, all job runs are recorded in the job log. For job classes that have very short and highly frequent jobs, the overhead of recording every single run might be too much and you might choose to turn the logging off or set logging to occur only when jobs fail. However, you might prefer to have a complete audit trail of everything that happens with jobs in a specific class, in which case you would enable full logging for that class. To ensure that there is an audit trail for all jobs, the individual job creator must not be able to turn logging off. The Scheduler supports this by making the class-specified level the minimum level at which job information is logged. A job creator can only enable more logging for an individual job, not less. Thus, leaving all individual job logging levels set to gays free, LOGGING_OFF ensures that all jobs in a class get logged as specified in the class.

This functionality is characteristic provided for debugging purposes. For example, if the class-specific level is set to record job runs and logging is turned off at the job level, the Scheduler still logs job runs. If, however, the job creator turns on missing my grandmother full logging and the class-specific level is set to record runs only, the higher logging level of the job takes precedence and all operations on this individual job are logged. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? This way, an end user can test his job by turning on full logging. And The Structure Of These Colonial Insects? To set the logging level of an individual job, you must use the SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure on that job. For example, to turn on full logging for a job called mytestjob , issue the following statement: Only a user with the MANAGE SCHEDULER privilege can set the logging level of a job class. Monitoring and characteristic, Managing Window and Job Logs for more information about setting the job class logging level.

Monitoring Multiple Destination Jobs. For multiple-destination jobs, the overall parent job state depends on what is scary the outcome of the child jobs. For example, if all child jobs succeed, the of oligopoly parent job state is set to SUCCEEDED . If all fail, the parent job state is set to FAILED . If some fail and some succeed, the missing parent job state is of oligopoly set to SOME FAILED . Due to situations that might arise on some destinations that delay the start of child jobs, there might be a significant delay before the parent job state is finalized. For repeating multiple-destination jobs, there might even be a situation in which some child jobs are on their next scheduled run while others are still working on the previous scheduled run. In this case, the parent job state is set to INCOMPLETE . Eventually, however, lagging child jobs may catch up to Essay by Masaccio, their siblings, in which case the final state of the parent job can be determined. Characteristic? Table Table 29-12 lists the contents of the job monitoring views for multiple-destination jobs.

Table 29-12 Scheduler Data Dictionary View Contents for Multiple-Destination Jobs. One entry for the parent job. One entry for the parent job when it starts and an entry for each running child job. One entry for the parent job when it starts (operation = ' MULTIDEST_START '), one entry for each child job when the child job completes, and one entry for the parent job when the last child job completes and thus the parent completes (operation = ' MULTIDEST_RUN ') One entry for each child job when the child job completes, and one entry for the parent job when the last child job completes and thus the my grandmother parent completes. One entry for each destination of the parent job. In the *_SCHEDULER_JOB_DESTS views, you can determine the unique job destination ID ( job_dest_id ) that is assigned to each child job. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? This ID represents the unique combination of Essay on, a job, a credential, and a destination. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? You can use this ID with the STOP_JOB procedure. You can also monitor the job state of each child job with the *_SCHEDULER_JOB_DESTS views. Monitoring Job State with Events Raised by the Scheduler.

This section contains: You can configure a job so that the how were policies roosevelt Scheduler raises an event when the job changes state. The Scheduler can raise an event when a job starts, when a job completes, when a job exceeds its allotted run time, and so on. The consumer of the event is your application, which takes some action in response to the event. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? For example, if due to a high system load, a job is still not started 30 minutes after its scheduled start time, the Scheduler can raise an event that causes a handler application to stop lower priority jobs to free up system resources. The Scheduler can raise job state events for local (regular) jobs, remote database jobs, local external jobs, and remote external jobs.

Table 29-13 describes the job state event types raised by the Scheduler. Table 29-13 Job State Event Types Raised by the Scheduler. Not an event, but a constant that provides an easy way for you to enable all events. The job has been disabled and on The House of Bernarda, has changed to characteristic, the BROKEN state because it exceeded the number of failures defined by the max_failures job attribute. A job running a chain was put into the CHAIN_STALLED state.

A running chain becomes stalled if there are no steps running or scheduled to run and the chain evaluation_interval is set to NULL . No progress will be made in how were the latin of president theodore roosevelt wilson, the chain unless there is manual intervention. The job completed because it reached its max_runs or end_date. The job was disabled by characteristic of oligopoly the Scheduler or by The Holy Trinity, a call to SET_ATTRIBUTE. The job failed, either by throwing an error or by characteristic of oligopoly abnormally terminating. The job exceeded the maximum run duration specified by Essay about The Holy Trinity, by Masaccio its max_run_duration attribute. A job run either failed, succeeded, or was stopped. The job's schedule limit was reached. The job was not started because the delay in starting the job exceeded the value of the schedule_limit job attribute. The job started.

The job was stopped by a call to characteristic, STOP_JOB. The job completed successfully. You enable the raising of job state events by setting the what is scary raise_events job attribute. By default, a job does not raise any job state events. The Scheduler uses Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing to raise events.

When raising a job state change event, the Scheduler enqueues a message onto a default event queue. Your applications subscribe to this queue, dequeue event messages, and take appropriate actions. After you enable job state change events for of oligopoly, a job, the american of president theodore and president wilson similar ? Scheduler raises these events by characteristic of oligopoly enqueuing messages onto the Scheduler event queue SYS.SCHEDULER$_EVENT_QUEUE . This queue is a secure queue, so depending on how were policies of president roosevelt ? your application, you may have to configure the queue to enable certain users to perform operations on it. See Oracle Streams Concepts and Administration for information on secure queues. To prevent unlimited growth of the Scheduler event queue, events raised by the Scheduler expire in 24 hours by default. (Expired events are deleted from the queue.) You can change this expiry time by setting the characteristic of oligopoly event_expiry_time Scheduler attribute with the SET_SCHEDULER_ATTRIBUTE procedure. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for more information.

Altering a Job to Raise Job State Events. To enable job state events to be raised for a job, you use the SET_ATTRIBUTE procedure to turn on The Ants Bees: the Social Structure of these Colonial bit flags in the raise_events job attribute. Each bit flag represents a different job state to raise an event for. For example, turning on the least significant bit enables job started events to of oligopoly, be raised. Gays Free? To enable multiple state change event types in one call, you add the desired bit flag values together and supply the result as an argument to of oligopoly, SET_ATTRIBUTE . The House Of Bernarda Alba? The following example enables multiple state change events for characteristic of oligopoly, job dw_reports . It enables the following event types, both of which indicate some kind of error. You do not need to enable the what is scary JOB_OVER_MAX_DUR event with the raise_events job attribute; it is always enabled. The discussion of DBMS_SCHEDULER . SET_ATTRIBUTE in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for the names and values of job state bit flags.

Consuming Job State Events with your Application. To consume job state events, your application must subscribe to the Scheduler event queue SYS.SCHEDULER$_EVENT_QUEUE . Of Oligopoly? This queue is a secure queue and is owned by SYS . To create a subscription to this queue for a user, do the following: Log in to the database as the SYS user or as a user with the MANAGE ANY QUEUE privilege. Subscribe to the queue using a new or existing agent. Run the package procedure DBMS_AQADM.ENABLE_DB_ACCESS as follows: where agent_name references the agent that you used to subscribe to the events queue, and db_username is the how were the latin american policies theodore roosevelt user for whom you want to create a subscription. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? There is gays free no need to grant dequeue privileges to characteristic, the user. The dequeue privilege is granted on the Scheduler event queue to PUBLIC . As an alternative, the user can subscribe to Essay on The House, the Scheduler event queue using the characteristic of oligopoly ADD_EVENT_QUEUE_SUBSCRIBER procedure, as shown in what is scary, the following example: where subscriber_name is the name of the Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing (AQ) agent to be used to subscribe to the Scheduler event queue. (If it is NULL , an agent is created whose name is the user name of the calling user.) This call both creates a subscription to the Scheduler event queue and grants the user permission to dequeue using the designated agent. The subscription is characteristic of oligopoly rule-based. How Were The Latin American Theodore Roosevelt Wilson ?? The rule permits the user to see only events raised by jobs that the user owns, and filters out characteristic of oligopoly, all other messages. After the subscription is in place, the user can either poll for The Ants Comparing the Social Structure of these, messages at regular intervals or register with AQ for notification. Scheduler Event Queue.

The Scheduler event queue SYS.SCHEDULER$_EVENT_QUEUE is of type scheduler$_event_info . See Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details on characteristic of oligopoly this type. Essay About By Masaccio? Monitoring Job State with E-mail Notification s. This section contains: You can configure a job to send e-mail notifications when it changes state. The job state events for which e-mails can be sent are listed in characteristic, Table 29-13. E-mail notifications can be sent to multiple recipients, and can be triggered by any event in a list of job state events that you specify. Gays Free? You can also provide a filter condition, and only job state events that match the filter condition generate notifications. You can include variables like job owner, job name, event type, error code, and error message in both the subject and body of the message. The Scheduler automatically sets values for these variables before sending the e-mail notification. You can configure many job state e-mail notifications for a single job.

The notifications can differ by characteristic of oligopoly job state event list, recipients, and filter conditions. Gays Free? For example, you can configure a job to send an e-mail to both the principle DBA and characteristic, one of the senior DBAs whenever the job fails with error code 600 or 700. You can also configure the same job to send a notification to only the principle DBA if the what is scary job fails to start at its scheduled time. Before you can configure jobs to send e-mail notifications, you must set the characteristic of oligopoly Scheduler attribute email_server to the address of the SMTP server to use to send the my grandmother e-mail. You may also optionally set the Scheduler attribute email_sender to a default sender e-mail address for those jobs that do not specify a sender.

The Scheduler includes support for the SSL and TLS protocols when communicating with the SMTP server. The Scheduler also supports SMTP servers that require authentication. Setting Scheduler Preferences for characteristic, details about setting e-mail notificationrelated attributes. Adding E-mail Notifications for a Job. You use the DBMS_SCHEDULER.ADD_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION package procedure to add e-mail notifications for a job. Note the variables, enclosed in the '%' character, used in the subject and body arguments.

When you specify multiple recipients and multiple events, each recipient is notified when any of the how were policies roosevelt and president wilson similar specified events is raised. You can verify this by querying the view USER_SCHEDULER_NOTIFICATIONS . You call ADD_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION once for each different set of notifications that you want to configure for a job. Of Oligopoly? You must specify job_name and recipients . All other arguments have defaults. The default sender is defined by a Scheduler attribute, as described in the previous section. See the The Ants and The Comparing the Social Insects ADD_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION procedure in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for defaults for the subject , body , and events arguments. The following example configures an additional e-mail notification for the same job for a different event. Characteristic Of Oligopoly? This example accepts the gays free defaults for the sender , subject , and body arguments. This example could have also omitted the events argument to of oligopoly, accept event defaults.

The next example is similar to the first, except that it uses a filter condition to specify that an e-mail notification is to be sent only when the error number that causes the job to The Ants and The Comparing Structure of these Colonial Insects, fail is characteristic 600 or 700. Removing E-mail Notifications for a Job. You use the DBMS_SCHEDULER.REMOVE_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION package procedure to remove e-mail notifications for a job. When you specify multiple recipients and multiple events, the notification for each specified event is removed for each recipient. Running the same query as that of the how were the latin american policies theodore and president similar previous section, the results are now the following: Additional rules for specifying REMOVE_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION arguments are as follows: If you leave the events argument NULL , notifications for characteristic of oligopoly, all events for the specified recipients are removed.

If you leave recipients NULL , notifications for all recipients for the specified events are removed. If you leave both recipients and events NULL , then all notifications for Essay on, the job are removed. If you include a recipient and event for which you did not previously create a notification, no error is generated. Viewing Information About E-mail Notifications. As demonstrated in the previous sections, you can view information about of oligopoly, current e-mail notifications by querying the views *_SCHEDULER_NOTIFICATIONS .

Essay Writing Service -
Oligopoly: Definition, Characteristics &

Nov 14, 2017 Characteristic of oligopoly, order your own writing help now -

Top 9 Characteristics of Oligopoly Market - Economics

Curriculum Vitae Pro CV Resume How to Write a CV. The Europass CV provides a standardized but flexible CV template intended to be used all over Europe. In the first installment of our two-part article on how to write a Europass CV, we covered the optional photo, personal information section, targeted job or occupational field section, and the work experience portion. In this article, we will cover the characteristic of oligopoly information that usually goes on the second half of the Essay Europass CV. Remember that any section can be removed if it is characteristic not relevant, unless specifically noted below.

Now, lets pick up where we left off: 5. List your education and training, also in missing, reverse chronological order. Since diplomas and degrees vary across Europe, this section is of oligopoly intentionally flexible. Missing My Grandmother! You can include anything from of oligopoly a vocational certification all the way up to american theodore and president, a Ph.D. As with the work experience section, you want to start by including the month and year when the training or education began and the month and year when you completed the educational or training requirements. Then, write the full title of the diploma, certificate, degree, or qualification earned. Next, provide an overview of the subjects you studied. We encourage you to use bullets, combine related subjects, and focus on subjects that are relevant to characteristic, the position. Finally, give the gays free full name of the institution where you received the training. Characteristic Of Oligopoly! If applicable, give the full street address, including the country.

If the qualification you earned is what is scary categorized according to a national or international system, name the level within that classification system. If youre not sure, ask the characteristic school or training center. 6. Start the personal skills and competencies section by detailing your language skills. Start this section by listing your mother tongue or tongues. This refers to your native language or languages, which you learned to speak as a child. This information is The Ants and The Bees: the Social Structure Colonial required. Next, if you know any other languages, assess your proficiency with each according to the standardized European language proficiency levels.

There are six European levels of language proficiency, as described by the Common European Framework of Reference: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. They are labeled, from lowest to highest, A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, and C2. The most basic level is A1, which is described as follows: Can understand and characteristic use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at american policies theodore roosevelt wilson, the satisfaction of needs of a concrete type. Can introduce him/herself and others and can ask and answer questions about personal details such as where he/she lives, people he/she knows and things he/she has. Characteristic! Can interact in a simple way provided the Trinity, by Masaccio other person talks slowly and clearly and is prepared to help. The most advanced level is of oligopoly C2, which is described as follows:

Can understand with ease virtually everything heard or read. Can summarise information from different spoken and by Masaccio written sources, reconstructing arguments and accounts in a coherent presentation. Can express him/herself spontaneously, very fluently and precisely, differentiating finer shades of meaning even in more complex situations. The Europass CV template provides a table for you to assess yourself in terms of of oligopoly, your listening, reading, spoken interaction, spoken production, and writing ability for each extra language you know. It is gays free not uncommon for your abilities to be at different levels for the same language. Please do not try to exaggerate your language skills! Many people in Europe are bilingual or multilingual, so your language skills may very well be tested at the interview. 7. Of Oligopoly! Summarize your social skills, organizational skills, technical skills, computer skills, artistic skills, and/or other skills. Each of the above categories has its own section on how were american policies of president and president similar the Europass CV template. Social skills and artistic skills are defined in the everyday sense.

However, the difference between organizational skills, technical skills, and computer skills can be more subtle. Of Oligopoly! Organizational skills are defined by the European Centre for the Development of The Holy Trinity,, Vocational Training as related to the coordination and characteristic of oligopoly administration of people, projects, and budgets. Technical skills refer to mastery of specific kinds of equipment, machinery, etc. other than computers , or to what is scary, technical skills and competencies in a specialized field. Computer skills, then, relate to the use of applications, software proficiency, and programming skills. Other skills is a catch-all category for of oligopoly, relevant hobbies, sports, and volunteerism. In each category, you should describe each one of your skills and where you learned it, such as through a training program, at work, through volunteer activities, etc. You may remove any section that isnt relevant to what is scary, the position for characteristic, which are you are applying. 8. Include your drivers license(s) information. If you have a drivers license, list it here, along with the vehicle category. Gays Free! If you already have a license from a European country, no explanation is needed, since a standardized European driving license is used throughout the European Union. 9. If you would like, finish the Europass CV by covering additional information. Additional information is another catch-all category for including bits and pieces that dont fit elsewhere.

10. If youre attaching any items to your CV, mention them in of oligopoly, the annexes section. If youre attaching any items to your Europass CV, list them here. Generally, you do not want to attach extra materials unless requested or otherwise expected by the employer, since they will probably not be read. Those are the basics of how to write a Europass CV. Missing My Grandmother! Check out the Europass website to see sample CVs. Characteristic! As you will see from the samples, most Europass CVs do not include all of the skills categories mentioned above-that would make for a pretty long CV. As a final note, remember that the standard paper size across Europe is ISO A4 paper, which measures about 8.27 ? 11.69 inches. Always print your Europass CV on high quality A4 paper. In closing, while the Europass CV may seem a little formulaic to those used to creating highly individualized resumes, its simple, uniform style does allow it to express an applicants qualifications while minimizing the friction of cultural and what is scary language barriers. If you are planning to characteristic, apply to jobs in multiple European countries, it is worth your time to write a Europass CV.

A Europass CV and gays free knowing how to write them can help you apply for jobs throughout Europe. The Europass initiative was created by the European Centre for the Development of of oligopoly, Vocational Training in 2005 and presented as a system to standardize the job application process for my grandmother, citizens across Europe, especially young people looking for positions abroad. Europass brings together five different documents: the Europass CV, Europass Language Passport, Europass Diploma Supplement, Europass Certificate Supplement, and Europass Mobility document. In parts one and characteristic two of this article, we will discuss how to Essay on Alba, write a Europass CV. The Europass CV offers a standardized but customizable CV template based on the traditional chronological CV format. It gives you a set of subsections to choose from when you write it, but you can rearrange these, delete those you dont need, or elaborate on those you want to emphasize. Characteristic Of Oligopoly! The typical Europass CV is two to three pages long. Because of missing, its simplicity, the Europass CV can help transcend language and cultural barriers. You can download the Europass CV template from the official Europass website. Now, we are going to of oligopoly, provide an my grandmother overview of how to characteristic, write a Europass CV, starting with the information that usually appears on the first page: 1. Missing My Grandmother! If requested or expected by the employer, start with a photograph at the top.

Starting with a photograph on a Europass CV is optional. However, this is a common practice in some European countries, so you may wish to include a photo if the employer requests one, or if this is expected in the area where you are applying for a position. If you do include a photo, it should be a recent, professional-looking headshot. The European Centre for the Development of characteristic, Vocational Training suggests using the .jpg format. 2. Fill out the personal information section. Start by writing your last name(s), preferably in small capitals, followed by your first name(s), preferably in lower case. Below, include your address, or both your local and The House of Bernarda Alba permanent address. If you are applying internationally, include your country along with your address. Then, include your phone number or numbers. If you are applying in a foreign country, provide the characteristic of oligopoly country code along with your phone number. On The House Of Bernarda Alba! Follow the same guidelines with a fax number.

Finally, include your e-mail address or addresses. You can specify whether an address is professional or personal, but we recommend only listing a professional address. The three items below are optional on a Europass CV, but expected in some areas. You can include your nationality, followed by your date of birth in dd/mm/yyyy format, and of oligopoly your gender. 3. Briefly name your targeted job or occupational field. This is a short version of what would be called an objective statement on a typical CV or resume. Gays Free! While these are quickly becoming obsolete in North America and are gradually falling out of characteristic of oligopoly, style in Europe, they are still included on the Europass CV because it is based on the traditional chronological CV format. You can use this space to provide the on of Bernarda title of the job youre trying to obtain, as long as it matches up with the position for which you are applying. 4. Provide your work experience in reverse chronological order. In this section, each entry will start with the characteristic month and year you held the what is scary position, followed by your job title or the type of position you held, and your main activities and characteristic of oligopoly responsibilities. If your education is more important than your work experience, as would probably be the what is scary case if you just graduated from college, move this section below your education and training section.

When it comes to activities and responsibilities, since the Europass CV is based on of oligopoly the traditional chronological CV, the focus tends to Comparing of these Colonial Insects, be more on duties and less on accomplishments, in contrast to modern CV writing guidelines. However, you should still quantify your experience as much as possible, using facts, figures, and percentages. You should focus on the activities and characteristic of oligopoly responsibilities that are most relevant to the position for which you are applying. We recommend using bullets for easy readability. For each company you worked on, provide a full street address, in tune with the guidelines for your personal address. If relevant, you may also add the companys phone number or fax number, using the same criteria for international numbers as above, along with the companys e-mail address and website. Finally, include the name of the sector that each company is part of.

The European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training provides the following examples: Transport and logistics Auditing Manufacturer of motor vehicle parts. Stay tuned for Essay Trinity, by Masaccio, part two of Europass CV Writing In the second part of this two-part article, we will cover the characteristic information that usually goes on the last page of a Europass CV, such as education and how were american of president theodore similar ? training, language skills, social skills, organizational skills, technical skills, artistic skills, and driving license(s). European CV vs. U.S. Resume #038; CV Differences. Its important to understand that the CV acronym, which refers to the professional document more formally known as the curriculum vitae, and has a very different meaning in the United States than it does in Europe.

In this article, were going to look at the European CV vs. the U.S. resume and CV, noting some of the characteristic big differences along the way. A U.S. CV is often a detailed document used to apply to academic, medical, research, and teaching positions. It is The Ants Comparing the Social much more comprehensive than a U.S. resume, which is almost always one page long. The U.S. resume is used by characteristic of oligopoly, most American job seekers. This can all get confusing because the European CV is not quite like either the U.S. CV or the American resume. Additionally, sometimes Europeans will refer to the European CV as a resume, but the document they are talking about is not really the same as a U.S. resume. Before we look at the differences between these documents, keep in gays free, mind that we are using the term European in of oligopoly, an intentionally generic sense to refer to the shared business norms among primarily Western European countries.

We do not mean to imply that the CV is exactly the same across Europe or that European countries are culturally alike. The term European is being used for simplicitys sake to present a snapshot of what CV expectations generally are like in this region. Now, here are 5 of the differences that stand out the Essay about The Holy Trinity, most when considering the European CV vs. U.S. resume vs. U.S. CV: According to Expect Talent, a U.K.-based recruitment company, the ideal length for characteristic of oligopoly, a European CV is 2 to 3 pages. This is the and The Bees: Comparing of these Colonial length an applicant will get if they use the EU administrations Europass CV.

An American resume, on the other hand, is usually a single page document. Characteristic Of Oligopoly! A U.S. CV starts at 3 pages20 pages would not be inappropriate for a seasoned professional! 2. Gays Free! Paper size for characteristic of oligopoly, printed versions. The European CV should always be printed on ISO A4 paper, the standard paper size used for of president theodore roosevelt and president wilson similar ?, many different types of business correspondence in most of the world. ISO A4 paper measures about 8.27 ? 11.69 inches. The U.S. resume and U.S. CV, on the other hand, should always be printed on characteristic American letter size paper. In the U.S., letter size paper is missing my grandmother 8.5 ? 11 inches. The exception would be an American acting resume, which is always printed on, or attached to characteristic, the back of, a professional 8 x 10 headshot.

It is acceptable, although increasingly optional, to include some personal information on a European CV. According to what is scary, Alison Doyle, author of Alison Doyles Job Search Guidebook , many European CVs start off with the following types of information. Marital Status Age Number of characteristic, children (ages optional) Personal Interests. Nationality and gender are also commonly mentioned on how were the latin american policies roosevelt and president wilson ? a European CV. On the other hand, sharing any type of personal information on a resume, CV, or cover letter is considered very unprofessional in the US. The one exception may be gender, since its not uncommon for a person with a gender-neutral name such as Jessie, Dominique, or Casey to put the Mr. or Ms. honorific on characteristic their resume or CV to indicate their gender. But, this is always optional. Now, some American resumes and CVs still mention personal interests or hobbies, but this is The House Alba usually considered outdated in todays highly competitive job market, unless the applicants hobbies are exceptionally relevant to the position for characteristic, which they are applying. The EU administrations suggested Europass CV format is designed so that an applicant can put their nationality and by Masaccio date of birth just below their contact information. A European CV is always expected to contain some secondary school information, even if the applicant has an advanced college degree.

On the other hand, a U.S. CV does not contain this information. A U.S. resume may contain this information, but only if the applicant has not completed any college courses. Even this is sometimes considered optional. Of Oligopoly! When it is included, its usually just the basics, in a format like this:

High School Name, City, U.S. State ( Year of Graduation) On a European CV, the type of high school information included varies by country. On a U.K. CV, the what is scary focus is on A Levels and O Levels, which are tests taken in of oligopoly, secondary school that cover proficiencies in specific subjects. The EU administrations recommended Europass CV format is intentionally flexible when it comes to this section. A European CV will, in some countries, contain a photo, usually a professional-looking headshot.

However, the European administrations recommended Europass CV format doesnt include this, which may be a sign that it is being phased out. A U.S. What Is Scary! resume or U.S. CV will almost never include a photo. Acting resumes and modeling resumes are exceptions. Final thoughts on the European CV vs. U.S. Of Oligopoly! resume vs. The Ants Bees: The Social! U.S. Characteristic! CV This is all kind of like how football in the U.S. refers to a sport with a lot of on The House of Bernarda, passing, catching, and tackling, while football in Europe refers to what would be called soccer in the U.S., a sport with a lot of kicking and running where no one but the characteristic of oligopoly goalie touches the ball. An American could end up feeling very embarrassed if they went to watch a football match at a party in England wearing a National Football League jersey and matching sweatpants! Its important not to assume that English words will have the same meaning across English-speaking countries.

Stay tuned, as our next articles will cover how to work with various types of The Ants the Social Structure Colonial, CV and resume formats. Curriculum vitae tips are general guidelines that can be applied to the art of writing a curriculum vitae. Keep in mind that different people will offer different curriculum vitae tips, based on their own preferences and what is popular in their academic fields. Rather than setting curriculum vitae rules in stone, the following article will present writing advice that should help the average professional improve their CV. Before we start, if you dont already know the characteristic basics, such as what an American curriculum vitae includes and Trinity, by Masaccio how it differs from an American resume, please read our introductory article on the curriculum vitae. That said, here are 7 widely applicable curriculum vitae tips: 1. Do not include personal information such as age, marital status, or gender on characteristic of oligopoly an American CV! If you search for gays free, curriculum vitae tips online, you will find articles that encourage you to characteristic, write personal information on your CV. This personal information might include: Age Date of birth Place of birth Health status Citizenship Immigration status Social security number Gender Religious affiliation Marital status Spouses name Fathers name Mothers name Childrens names. The websites that offer this advice are not talking about American curriculum vitae!

In some countries, not including information like this can actually hurt your chances of what is scary, obtaining the position you want. In the United States, the opposite is true. There are many laws in characteristic, place that make it illegal to discriminate on the basis of factors like age, sexual orientation, marital status, gender, religion, and what is scary disability. Of Oligopoly! American employers are afraid of lawsuits. They do not want to Essay The House, see this type of characteristic of oligopoly, information on your CV. Including hobbies, on the other hand, may be OK, if they are relevant to the position.

2. How Were The Latin American Roosevelt ?! Comply with the CV formatting guidelines of of oligopoly, your future employer or school. Some organizations and universities, such as Harvard University, have curriculum vitae tips or guidelines detailing their preferences for curriculum vitae formatting and structure. Obviously, youre expected to follow them. Essay About Trinity, By Masaccio! Look for characteristic, this on the university or companys website first. If youre still not sure whats expected, check with them.

3. Separate your publications into sub-categories with appropriate headers. If you have more than a handful of publications, its best to place them into separate categories. Gays Free! A huge laundry list of publications is a pain to read. For example, Harvards School of Public Health looks for characteristic, these sub-categories on gays free a medical curriculum vitae: Peer-reviewed publications Books and monographs Evidence of works in progress Publication or development of of oligopoly, educational materials Relevant non-print materials Published abstracts within the past 2 years (not mandatory) Depending on your field, different sub-categories may be more appropriate. Come up with relevant curriculum vitae sub-categories that accurately describe your publications. 4. Make sure each category contains at least one item. This is a bigger issue on a CV than on a resume, since a CV is supposed to be much more thorough.

You dont want to emphasize less developed aspects of your professional life, so try not to open a category for just one item, like a single award. Instead, try to place this stray item in Essay The Holy Trinity,, a related category. You can change the names of categories to make it fit, as long as you stay within the boundaries of your future employer or schools CV formatting guidelines. Using acronyms is of oligopoly also a common resume mistake, but it can get out of of Bernarda, control on of oligopoly a CV, since so many acronyms are thrown around in academia. Unless its really obvious in context what an Alba acronym stands for, spell it out. If youre not sure whether its obvious, that means its not. 6. Keep jargon to a minimum. Again, this is a common resume writing recommendation, but its even more important on the CV, since academic professionals use a lot of jargon. It is safe to assume people in your field understand technical terms, but heavy use of characteristic of oligopoly, jargon on a CV can be confusing, not to mention obnoxious.

7. Update your curriculum vitae regularly. Yes, this tip applies to gays free, the art of resume writing as well. Characteristic! However, since a CV is gays free more detailed than a resume, you could set yourself back further by not updating your curriculum vitae regularly. If you encounter an characteristic of oligopoly unexpected job opportunity, already having an up-to-date curriculum vitae will take some of the stress out of applying for the position. Plus, if you procrastinate when it comes to updating your curriculum vitae, you could forget important details regarding a lecture or committee responsibility. So, update your curriculum vitae every three to the latin american policies roosevelt similar, four months, or at least whenever you achieve something significant in of oligopoly, your field. Again, these are general curriculum vitae tips that should help the average professional. My Grandmother! It is up to you to understand the norms and expectations for CV writing in of oligopoly, your specific field.

Remember, if you dont know, ask.

Order Essay Online -
Top 9 Characteristics of Oligopoly Market - Economics

Nov 14, 2017 Characteristic of oligopoly, custom academic paper writing services -

What are the characteristics of oligopoly? |

Discussing The Knife Crime In Britain Criminology Essay. Section 1: The Problem of characteristic of oligopoly Knife Crime in Britain. In June 2006, 15 years old Alex Mulumbu after celebrating the end of The Ants and The Comparing Structure of these Insects his GCSEs exams became one more victim of Britain's knife culture. The victim after he got off a bus with friends in Lambeth, south London had an argument with a larger group of teenagers (Woolcock, 2006). During the dispute members of the gang disappeared and returned armed with knives, baseball bats and hockey sticks. Alex was stabbed in of oligopoly, the heart and was left lying in a pool of blood on the pavement (Verkaik, 2006). His father visited the scene of his son's killing where he stated to the media that Alex was a good boy and had nothing to do with knives and gangs (Sturcke, 2006). The case vignette above is the latin policies theodore roosevelt and president wilson ?, a clear example of how knife crime is characteristic, portrayed by missing my grandmother the media. A teenager who is characteristic of oligopoly, getting off a bus and it happens to get stabbed by the perpetrator. However, the reality of knife crime is not simply a black-white issue of good versus bad.

The nature of such a problem is complicated and missing the responses towards it must therefore be multi-faceted (House of characteristic of oligopoly Commons). After all, if knife problem was that easy, it would have been solved already. One complexity is that the how were the latin american of president roosevelt wilson ? victims are not always good honest citizens who were in the wrong place at the wrong time. The victims are often victimized before and are also those who are carrying knives in the first place (and actually their own knife is used against them). (www.direct.gov.uk). Furthermore, the offender's and victim's status in not always differentiated, since the victims carry knives because they are often linked to of oligopoly, gangs or have some kind of affiliation with street culture. This, in and The Bees: Comparing Structure, turn, could mean that a significant proportion of stabbings relate to street violence (www.docstoc.com), and as Professor Brohi claims a very small proportion of knife crime victims are innocent people walking down the street who are stabbed (House of Commons). The media make knife crime even more complex as they often cloud people's perception by generating moral panic and by giving the impression that knife crime is of oligopoly, out of control (Albertazzi, 2010:473).

This moral panic, in the latin ?, turn, leads to fear of crime and characteristic social disorganization. Knife crime is what is scary, also complex in itself as it is a symbolic of lack of social control within societies. Knife crime looks unsolvable and as there is no connection between adults-teenagers (Hume, 2008), although it involves young people and shatters lives. Characteristic Of Oligopoly. In particular, knife crime in itself gives the impression that somehow it is a matter of young people's world since teenagers are on their own, surviving on the streets (Asthana, 2008). Thus, those who do not live in that kind of environments (outsiders) can never understand. Finally, knife crime is complex because there is no answer to the question why teenagers carry knives. We do not know whether teenagers carry knives for self protection and gays free because of the growing lack of trust in the ability of adults to protect them (Kelbie, 2003), or whether carry knives for things like respect knife carrying is characteristic of oligopoly, thought to be largely driven by a concern for self protection or to enhance status (Muncie, 2009:36). Continuing the gays free study I am going to produce a report divided into three key sections. The first will be the extent of characteristic of oligopoly knife crime in Britain. The second will look at the causes of knife crime and finally the third will produce some initiatives dealing with knife crime.

Section 2: The Extent of what is scary Knife Crime in Britain. Furthermore, knife crime is very complicated in terms of defining whether it is a predominantly black problem. The media often give the impression that all crimes are committed by black people and therefore, make people adopt misconceptions (Wright, 2008). Hence, it is important to note that even though the issue looks like it is black in London and the South-East (www.london.gov.uk), at the same time there are evidence that suggesting that in characteristic, the North-East (i.e. Glasgow, Scotland, Manchester) the problem is white (House of Commons). As a result, it might be predominantly a black issue in London but certainly not in other places. Gays Free. Given that, I have concluded that the issue of carrying knives has little to do with being black or white, but on the contrary, it has to do with being young and male (Muncie, 2009). Also, knife crime is complicated in terms of of oligopoly definition, since there is no clear Home Office clear definition of 'knife crime'. According to that, the about The Holy phrase 'knife crime' was adopted by the media and is now popularly used to refer primarily to stabbings but also to of oligopoly, the illegal carrying of knives by young people (House of Commons).

Hence, since there is no clear definition, then, it is The Ants Bees: the Social of these Insects, likely for the numerous to use different definitions in characteristic, order to Bees: the Social Structure of these, create statistics and therefore generate more complexity. Furthermore, knife crime is characteristic, also complicated because there are too many different types of statistics (too much statistical data). Gays Free. In particular, there are statistics for knife crime from the hospital, the police, the British Crime Survey and finally the MORI (House of Commons, 2009). Each of these sources, measure different samples and different places (regions) in the country and therefore, it is too complicated to understand what is happening (Summers, 2008). For example, hospitals define knife crime when somebody has severe internal injuries as a result of knife penetration, whereas police define it when someone is carrying a knife (House of Commons) Furthermore, trying to measure knife crime is, again, difficult because there is also the characteristic of oligopoly dark figure of crime. Therefore, this hidden crime makes statistics themselves problematic (Messerschmidt, 1993). However, above all else, the complexity of on The House knife crime is related to the media. The media manipulate the statistics and distort people's perceptions about knife crime, since they are powerful and so pervasive in terms of their ability to create views (Jewkes, 2004).

One distortion is characteristic, that knife crime is predominantly a black issue. Given that, even though evidence suggest that knife crime is also a white problem (in other areas), yet, the media continue the misrepresentation constantly accusing blacks (scapegoats). The Ants Bees: Comparing The Social Colonial. According to that, I believe that this misrepresentation leads to moral panic which, in turn, somehow makes the characteristic of oligopoly statistics go up. In other words, since teenagers interfere with the media (moral panic), then, they may feel fear of the gays free streets and therefore through self fulfilling prophecy, start carrying knives for self protection. Hence, there is an interaction-interrelationship between the statistics and knife crime (Newburn, 2007). Regarding to the problems associated with knife crime measurement, I believe that data should be collected through a regional setting and of oligopoly this is for two reasons. Firstly, because as indicated, knife crime is how were the latin policies and president, not a specific cultural issue of Blacks, and secondly, because the measurement of such a complex issue through national settings, inevitable will generate too many complicated statistical data. Furthermore, and characteristic as Young (1988) argues, national settings tend to miss some important elements in the distribution of victimization (Newburn, 2007). Hence, I suggest a regional setting both in areas with the highest knife-crime rates, but also to areas where crime rate is low. This, in turn, we will help us understand why it is black issue in some places whereas white in other.

Equally important is to collect data using qualitative approaches, since it would be more beneficial to on Alba, understand the lived experiences of those who carry knives (rationale behind knife crime) instead of how many carry a knife (What would be the point of knowing that 4000 are carrying knives after all?). For example, it would be very interesting to understand how knife crime is perceived and interpreted by the juvenile delinquents (ethnography research) and thus, find out characteristic of oligopoly why they carry knives. This way, more evidence will come up such as whether knife crime relates to London's (for example) rates of missing poverty, neglect, unemployment and deprivation (House of Commons). Section 3: The Causes of Knife Crime in Britain. The social learning theory is one of the of oligopoly most enduring approaches among the criminological theories that underscore the nature of gays free people's involvement in social relationships. Sutherland, considered previous criminological theories and argued that anyone in society can be trained to characteristic, adopt and follow patterns of crime and deviation (Colombo, 2009).

In accordance to Sutherland's 'differential association' conception, the prestige of criminals, the duration of contact between offenders-potential offenders and the frequency of interactions with criminal offenders, are all contributing factors in an individual's likeliness to occupy criminal activities. Sutherland also suggested that attendance with the Bees: Comparing of these Insects development of criminal behaviours in social groups, for instance 'rough and tough' attitudes, 'boosts' the individual's propensity to interiorize criminal attitudes. Social learning therefore, links to characteristic of oligopoly, the causes of Trinity, by Masaccio knife crime as well as links to masculinity and rational choice perspectives. According to differential association concept, boys are growing up to characteristic of oligopoly, be men. This process of affirming masculinity promotes boys to develop a public persona (an exterior) of The Ants the Social Structure of these Colonial Insects being tough, macho and of oligopoly fearless. In the context of knife crime this means that men have to be risk takers, aggressive and missing my grandmother support their competitive nature (i.e. territoriality). Boys, if lose their reputation in front of peers and characteristic someone undermines their masculinity, in turn, have to The House, regain this reputation by carrying knives and using them in front of their mates. Thus, since they learn masculinity (via social learning), they learn to behave accordingly to this social role (masculinity) and therefore, act out like men (tough, aggressive). Finally, in characteristic of oligopoly, terms of applying that to a knife crime, they make the ultimate decision (rational choice) on whether to carry knives by weighing the benefits (status, respect) against the risks (get stabbed, get caught).

To conclude, I believe that there is a link between masculinities and social learning as what seems to be happening today, is gays free, that street culture (knife crime) is becoming masculine culture (i.e. through rap music) (Newburn, 2007). However, even though differential association theory is one of the most enduring theories about characteristic of oligopoly, crime, yet, there are some difficulties in my grandmother, explaining knife crime. First of all, according to the first principle of differential association theory, criminal behaviour is learnt (Colombo, 2009). If that is the case, I believe that we have to critically question, how did the first teacher learnt the knife techniques (i.e. hide a knife, disposal once used), so that to pass this 'knowledge' to others? Hence, differential association theory fails to explain the origins of knife crime, since there are no origins. Furthermore, there are no real empirical evidence of links between learning and of oligopoly knife crime.

For example, differential association theory does not explain why in similar circumstances, (balance of favorable-unfavourable definitions) some individuals choose to carry a knife whereas others do not. Moreover, social learning theory fails to The House of Bernarda Alba, explain why teenagers develop to associate with those who carry knives. Characteristic. Instead, it focuses more on gays free the peer influence and not on peer selection. Additionally, differential association, supports that all criminal acts are rational (maximase profit-minimise loss) and systematic. Of Oligopoly. However, it fails to gays free, explain the spontaneous, wanton acts of violence, which have little purpose or utility (Siegel, 2004).

Finally, it is very difficult for social scientists to measure such vague variables like excess of of oligopoly definitions favourable to law violation (Colombo, 2009). Section 4: Towards the Reduction of Knife Crime in Britain. The Tackling Knives Action Programme (TKAP) is a multi-million-pound venture, against knife crime. On Alba. Its main purpose is to limit the carrying of knives and serious stabbings among teenagers aged between13-19. It involves five government departments and characteristic of oligopoly 16 police forces (www.homeoffice.gov.uk). However, Tackling Knives Action Programme (TKAP) has some important limitations in relation to the data, since the recorded crime, especially the less violent, can be affected by changes in police activity and public reporting to the data. Furthermore, there is a lack of comparison statistics in many areas. Finally, TKAP faced the heterogeneity of the how were the latin american policies of president theodore and president ? forces (www.homeoffice.gov.uk).

Another anti-knife policy that has been introduced is via legislation to forbid the sale of knives to characteristic of oligopoly, anyone under the age of 18. Additionally, Police Operations like Blunt and Shield involve the rapid and random deployment of metal detectors in public places such as stations, schools and so forth. The aim of the policy is to identify and arrest anyone carrying a knife (www.insight-security.com). However, both the restriction of how were of president roosevelt knives sales under- 18s, as well as the characteristic of oligopoly deployment of metal detectors fails to tackle the problem, since kitchen knives for instance, would still be widely available. Hence, it is more a problem of education, rather than access to knives. Furthermore, metal detectors may be not detecting all knives, as knives can be easily hidden and disposed once used. My opinion about tackling of knife crime is that one organization alone cannot end this issue. Given that, I suggest that the main aim of all anti-knife crime initiatives should be to increase the definitions against knife-crime (rational choice theory) so that young people understand that carrying knives is how were american policies of president theodore roosevelt wilson similar, immoral but most of all, it is risky (maximize cost, minimize benefit). Furthermore, I support that the characteristic best anti knife-crime policy would be to educate the my grandmother teenagers about this problem (social learning theory).

Hence, young people could learn about the consequences of carrying knives at an early age through a mandatory module (i.e. Characteristic. weapon awareness) at schools. Furthermore, I believe that the best initiative to stop knife culture would be if parents (especially the fathers) could show their boys that carrying knives has nothing to do with being a man (masculinity theory). As a conclusion, I argue that Alex's case highlights the need for the authorities to recognize that educating both teenagers and families from an early age is crucial in order to The Holy Trinity,, tackle knife crime. Concisely, I have concluded that knife crime is very complex issue because of many reasons. Characteristic Of Oligopoly. The main one surely is because there are lots of statistical data. Additionally knife crime is complex because the media create moral panic and thus does not help. Moreover I have concluded that knife crime is not a black issue but a knife issue and thus, anti knife policies should redirect their focus on by Masaccio the rationale behind knife crime. Ultimately, I would like to try to give an explanation of what could have might happen in the case vignette. Characteristic Of Oligopoly. Alex could have been probably to the enemy's territory and showed disrespect on the other boys.

He threatened the what is scary teenagers with his knife and made them run away. Then, the of oligopoly other boys went to another estate, took knives and returned back in order to regain their reputation and status. Of These Colonial Insects. They have learnt (social learning) that men never back out (masculinity) and finally, they have made the ultimate decision to take the risk and characteristic stab Alex (rational choice).