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boy photo essay H olocaust E ducation A rchive R esearch T eam. [The Occupied Nations] The Boy in the Photo? The Warsaw Ghetto The Stroop Report. The above photo is one of the most iconic photographs of the Holocaust, the German Guard pointing the machine gun is known, the little boy is not known, but some of the other people captured in this photo, have been identified. The photo was included in the infamous Stroop Report – “The Warsaw Ghetto no longer exists.” Extracts from the book by Richard Raskin. The Boy in studies the Photograph. There are four possible identities for the little boy at gunpoint. The destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto. It was advanced as early as 1950, but documentation was first found in energy sources 1977-78, one source was responsible for making the studies essays claim, a woman named Jadwiga Piesecka, who was a resident of Warsaw. According to a statement she signed on 24 January 1977, the boy in the photograph was named Artur Siemiatek born in Lowicz in 1935. He was the son of Leon Siemiatek, and Sara Dab and the grandson of the signatory’s brother Josef Dab.
A similar attestation was signed the following year in theorists Paris by Jadwiga Piesecka’s husband, Henryk Piasecki, dated 28 December 1978. In 1982 a 47 year old ear, nose and legal studies essays throat specialist in Rockland County New York, came forward that in 1943, at the age of social, seven, he had been arrested in legal studies Warsaw and ordered to raise his hands by an SS man standing in social front of him and aiming a gun at him. And although he could not recall that a photograph was taken, Dr Nussbaum believes that he might be the child in the picture. Tsvi Nussbaum expressed uncertainty that he was the boy in essays the photo, whilst others say that it is him. There are indeed two specific factors that heavily way up, against him being that boy. The first is that although he was arrested in Warsaw, he had never set foot in the ghetto- the energy second is the date he was arrested. Tsvi Nussbaum clearly remembers that he was arrested on 13 July 1943. This was nearly two months after the Stroop report is thought to have been completed, and sent to Himmler and Kruger. In the early 30’s Nussbaum’s parents emigrated from Poland to Palestine, where Tsvi was born in 1935.
When conflicts broke out legal essays, between the Jews and the Arabs in Palestine, the ethnomethodological Nussbaum family returned to Poland, settling in legal studies Sandomierz in 1939. By 1942 Tsvi Nussbaum parents had been murdered by of war, the Nazis, and he was brought from Sandomiercz to legal live with an Aunt and Uncle, in hiding, on the Aryan section of the city. They looked after him for principle six months, but were caught in a Gestapo trap, the Nussbaums joined hundreds of other desperate Jews in the Hotel Polski and were put on the Palestine list. On 13 July 1943 trucks came to take them away, but not to studies essays Palestine, but Bergen Belsen. At the concentration camp they were housed together in a special barracks, given better food and not forced to equimarginal work. If the boy in the photo is Tsvi Nussbaum, then the studies picture would have to have been taken at the Hotel Polski, and not within the Warsaw Ghetto, where all of the photos from the Stroop Report, are generally thought to have been taken. Dr Lucjan Dobroszycki is quoted in the New York Times article, doubts whether Tsvi Nussbaum is the boy in energy the photo, for the reasons set out below: The scene he noted is on studies essays, a street not in the courtyard in which the Hotel Polski roundup took place.
Some of the Jews are wearing armbands that they surely would have shed while in equimarginal principle the Aryan quarter of Warsaw. The German soldiers would not have needed combat uniforms at the hotel. The heavy clothing worn by most of the Jews suggests that the photograph was taken in May – the legal studies essays date General Stroop put on the report – rather than July. Moreover every other photograph in the Stroop Report was taken in the Warsaw ghetto. Tsvi Nussbaum states: “I am not claiming anything – there’s no reward, he said. I didn’t ask for this honour. I think it’s me, but I can’t honestly swear to social theorists it. A million and a half Jewish children were told to raise their hands.” Lastly, with the help of someone trained in legal photo- comparison, Dr K.R. Burns a forensic anthropologist at the University of Georgia, compared the famous photo, with a passport photo of Tsvi Nussbaum taken in 1945 said the following: Having examined the two photographs, Dr Burns said, that although the mouth, nose and of war cheek are consistent, there is one important disparity- the ear lobes on the 1943 boy appear to be attached, whereas the earlobes of the 1945 boy are not attached.
This generic trait cannot change with age and legal studies essays the difference indicates the pictures are not the same boy. The former Hotel Polski at 29 Dluga Street, entrance has been compared to principle the 1943 photo, but it is difficult to see whether it is the same building. Studies. Avrahim Zelinwarger, aged 95, contacted the Ghetto Fighters House in Israel, in principle late 1999. He informed the legal studies essays museum that the boy in the photograph was his son Levi, as a result of that contact, the following information now accompanies the well known photograph, in their archives. Ethnomethodological. According to the testimony of Abraham Zelinwarger of Haifa, the boy is his son Levi, 1932 - he suggests that the photograph was taken in the ghetto on Kupiecka Street, near Nalewki Street. The father, a women’s - hairdresser by profession worked at forced labour clearing rubble and damage at a burned out gas installation in Warsaw, and had escaped to Soviet territory at the beginning of legal, 1940. Avrahim Zelinwarger confirmed during a telephone conversation with Richard Raskin that the woman next to the boy, his mother was called Chana Zeilwarger.
Avrahim Zelinwarger believes that his wife, his 11 year old son Levi and his 9 year old daughter Irina all perished in ethnomethodological a concentration camp in 1943. An Anonymous Survivor. A London Business man contacted the Jewish Chronicle in studies essays 1978 claiming that he was the little boy, not Artur Siemiatek, having seen a cropped version of the photograph. The man who contacted the paper asked that his name be withheld. During his statement he claimed the photograph was taken in 1941 and he remembers he did not have any socks on, both these claims are without doubt incorrect, and therefore this anonymous survivor cannot be seriously considered.
According to the Yad Vashem Page of equimarginal, Testimony number 90540, completed in 1994 by her aunt, Esther Grosbard-Lamet, residing in Miami Beach Florida, the legal studies essays little girl was identified as Hanka Lamet. And Relationship-Centred. The same document lists 1937 and legal studies essays Warsaw, as the year and place of the little girl’s birth while the place and circumstances of her death are listed as Majdanek- taken to Gas Chambers. The USHMM website also indicates that the woman standing to the art of war (machiavelli) the left of the legal studies little girl is ethnomethodological her mother Matylda Lamet Goldfinger. The boy carrying the white sack near the rear of the group shown in the photograph was identified as Leo Kartuzinsky by his sister, Hana Ichengrin, according to an email from Yad Vashem, received by essays, the author. Difference A Leader Manager Essay. According to the USHMM the woman in the back right was identified as Golda Stavarowski, by her granddaughter Golda Shulkes, residing in Victoria Australia. Who took the photographs? The photographs included in the Stroop report were probably taken by a number of photographers, who worked for legal studies essays PK689, Propaganda Kompanie , who were active since the Person-Centred and Relationship-Centred Care creation of the Warsaw Ghetto, recording scenes of Jewish life and death during the early years of the German occupation. Albert Cusian, Erhard Josef Knoblach and Arthur Grimm were among the photographers of this unit. Whilst possibly Grimm took the photo, another candidate is Albert Cusian. Studies Essays. On a tip from a survivor of the Warsaw ghetto, Cusian was tracked down to and Relationship-Centred Essay a small German town near the Danish border by the Sunday Times of London and interviewed by Antony Terry.
On the basis of that interview Philip Knightley and Antony Terry then co-wrote an article published on 21 April 1968 titled 25 Years After -The Sunday Times tracks down the man who found “the subject matter so interesting,” and took these pictures of man’s inhumanity to man.” The words “these pictures” ostensibly refer to the two photographs visible just to the right of the title, one of which is the picture of the boy with his hands raised, though that photograph isn’t specifically mentioned in the article. Philip Knightley confirmed that to legal studies the best of principle, his recollection that Cusian made it clear that he had taken the infamous photo. However, very different conclusions were reached by a Polish researcher Magdalene Kunicka – Wyrzykowska, who stated categorically in studies essays 1983 that the photographs in the Stroop Report were taken by the Security Police and SS- Obersturmfuhrer Franz Konrad, who was Leiter fur Weterfassung (confiscation of principle, property in the Warsaw ghetto). According to Magdalene Kunicka- Wyrzkowska, the photographs taken by legal studies, the SD and Franz Konrad were collected by Stroop’s Chief of Staff Max Jesuiter, and from this collection, Stroop chose the theorists pictures he would use in his report. Legal Essays. The SS Trooper: Josef Blosche. The one person in the photograph whose identity has been established beyond any doubt is the principle SD soldier aiming his sub-machine gun in the direction of the little boy.
He was SS-Rottenfuhrer Josef Blosche, a most feared predator, who was often teamed up with SS-Untersturmfuhrer Karl –Georg Brandt, and SS-Oberscharfuhrer Heinrich Klaustermeyer, to terrorize the occupants of the ghetto on hunting expeditions, randomly killing whomever they chose. Studies Essays. Blosche was born in Friedland in the Sudetenland, in 1912 and after joining the SS, saw service in Platerow, as a guard patrolling the Bug River. In May 1941 he was transferred to an SS post at Siedlce. Following service in an Einsatzgruppen unit in Baranowitchi, he was transferred to Warsaw Security Police, where he took place in the Warsaw Ghetto uprising, and the uprising by ethnomethodological, Poles in August 1944.. Upon arrest Blosche made the legal essays following statement: I have looked at the given photocopy. Concerning the person in the SS uniform standing in the foreground of a group of SS members and holding a sub-machine gun in firing position and wearing a steel helmet with motorcycle goggles, this is me. The picture shows I, as member of the Gestapo office in the Warsaw Ghetto, together with a group of SS members, am driving a large number of Difference Between and A Essay, Jewish citizens out from legal studies essays a house. The group of Jewish citizens is comprised predominantly of equimarginal principle, children, women and old people, driven out of legal, a house through a gateway, with their arms raised. The Jewish citizens were then led to green the so-called Umschlagplatz , from essays which they were transported to the extermination camp Treblinka. Signed: Josef Blosche. The Art Of War. Blosche gave another statement at a subsequent interrogation: I now recall a shooting of Jewish citizens in the Warsaw Ghetto.
This took place at a time when there was no transportation to the extermination camp Treblinka. Brandt gave each of us at the SD office in the ghetto, a small box of pistol ammunition. Studies. Beside me there was Ruhrenschopf, Klaustermeyer, and other Gestapo members, whose names I do not know any longer today. Brandt led us into Person-Centred Essay, the middle of the ghetto. Legal Studies. I can no longer remember the exact time - I know the shooting took place in a courtyard, which one entered from the street through a gateway. Beyond that I still know that during the shooting, a truck carrying Jewish citizens drove by.
At that moment, I was standing at A Leader Essay example, the entrance to the courtyard. How many Gestapo members were there I can no longer say exactly, it could have been 15 to studies essays 25. Signed: Josef Blosche. Green. Berlin, 25 April 1967. For his dedication and zeal during the Warsaw Ghetto uprising, Blosche was awarded the Cross of War Merit 2 nd Class with Swords. During his trial in Erfurt in April 1969 Blosche was found guilty of war crimes, including the participation in the shooting of more than 1000 Jews in the courtyard of essays, a building complex on the morning of 19 April 1943. Blosche was executed in Leipzig on 29 July 1969, he was 57 years old, and sources buried in an unmarked grave.
A Child at Gunpoint by Richard Raskin, published by Aarhus University Press 2004. Letzte Spuren by essays, Helge Grabitz and Wolfgang Scheffler, published by Hentrich Berlin 1993. The SS-Man Josef Blosche – WDR TV Documentary 2003 by H. Schwan.
Legal Studies HSC ESSAYS Cassaniti sam
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January to October 2006: Java, J2EE, PHP, Perl, XML/XSLT Development Consultant/Trainer (contract) , for America Online, at their corporate headquarters in Dulles, VA. Taught the Java, PHP, and Perl programming languages, as well as J2EE and legal studies XML/XSLT development, and developed custom Java, J2EE, PHP, Perl, and XML/XSLT applications for my clients. January to August 2006: Chief Technical Officer and Between and A Manager example Co-Founder , Broadway Performance Systems. I was the primary inventor, architect, and developer of the Rubaton software system, written in Java and C++ (using Java Native Interface). Interviewed, tested, hired, oversaw, and led a team of ten full-time developers, including having weekly virtual development meetings with them. The software system was intended for professional and amateur musical theatre productions, featured a virtual orchestra controlled in real-time by legal, a human musician, and controlled the MIDI keyboards, house sound mixing console, lighting board, and a virtual stage manager which read cues via voice synthesis. June 1997 to December 2005: President and Co-Founder , Swan Orchestral Systems (formerly at definition www.swansos.com).
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U.S. Social Security Administration 2002: IIT Research Institute, Annapolis, MD 2001: Unisys, Tredyffrin, PA America Online, Inc., Dulles, VA Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA Agfa Corp. 2000: McDonald Bradley, Inc. Kajax Engineering, Inc., Arlington, VA Spirent Communications/Telecom Analysis Systems, Eatontown, NJ GE Capital Mortgage Services, Cherry Hill, NJ 1999: Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI Lear Corp. Daimler/Chrysler Network Services Group, Indianapolis, IN American Management Systems Infosoft 1998: PMSC KTEC Electronics CACI USCG-TISCOM Hewlett Packard Advanced Concepts PPI Las Vegas Sytel Systems and Telecommunications, Bethesda, MD 1997: Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Western NY CitiBank Prudential (Yonkers, NY) Teleglobe Insurance System Nortel Computing Devices Canada Nav Canada L-3 Communications ESRI Gates Rubber Co. Legal Studies. First Data Corp. Galileo International Equitable Life Medco Containment Services Pershing, Bear Stearns and Co. Columbia University 1996: University of Between A Leader Manager Essay California at San Diego University Relations ADP Urban Science Xerox Corp. Eastman Kodak Co. Harris-R.F.
Communications Logical Operations Ford Motor Company EDS Siemens Energy and legal studies Automation Chubb Computer Services Medco Containment Services Northrop Grumman of Bethpage, NY PHP : Since July 2004, I have been the primary contract PHP development trainer at and Relationship-Centred America Online headquarters, Dulles, VA, for essays, their well-known AOL University subdivision. I have taught both off the shelf courses, as well as a custom course I designed for a dedicated team of AOL PHP developers. I taught the PHP language itself, as well as its integration with MySQL. I have coded enhancements and of war improvements to actual AOL production code (run on Linux) presented to me by my students who work with AOL's servers. In addition, I have used PHP myself in legal essays, implementing my own web sites (my www.swansos.com makes use of PHP). Of War (machiavelli). Perl and Perl CGI : In April 2003, I wrote Translator.pl , a custom Perl application that manages web pages to be translated into different languages, for studies essays, the European non-profit organization InterNICHE. In February 2002, I wrote a custom Perl application that does specialized sorting and Essay organizing of database records, to conform to U.S.
The production was broadcast over KCET-TV (PBS) in Los Angeles on Dec. Energy. 29, 2007. Keyboard Wizard next enhanced a private benefit performance at the Beverly Hilton Hotel, Beverly Hills, CA, on May 12, 2007, backing former The Fifth Dimension singers Marilyn McCoo and Billy Davis, Jr., as well as singers Michael Feinstein, Kathy Lee Gifford, and Miss America 2007 Lauren Nelson, in essays, an evening hosted by Everybody Loves Raymond actors Brad Garrett and Difference Between A Leader Manager Ray Romano. (More images.) On July 29 and August 26, 2007, Keyboard Wizard enhanced light classical concerts by the Capistrano Valley Symphony, San Juan Capistrano, California. Chief Technical Officer and legal studies essays Co-Founder (January 2006 to August 2006) Broadway Performance Systems. (Note: Site is currently down due to pending litigation regarding the theft of the business and Paul Nahay's original technologies by Paul Nahay's former partners.)
I was the green energy sources primary inventor, architect, and developer of the Rubaton software system, written in legal, Java and C++ (using Java Native Interface). Oversaw and led a team of ten full-time developers, including having weekly virtual development meetings with them. The system is intended for professional and amateur musical theatre productions, and and Relationship-Centred Care Essay provided a virtual orchestra controlled in real-time by a human musician, and integrated control of the MIDI keyboards, the house sound mixing console, the lighting board, and a virtual stage manager. President and Co-Founder (June 1997 to December 2005) Swan Orchestral Systems.
Formerly at www.swansos.com. Marketed Cygnet software, the essays successor to Between and A example, Swan . Studies Essays. Cygnet is written in Java, using the Java Sound API, and ethnomethodological definition is intended for musical theater production use. Cygnet allows a MIDI ( Musical Instrument Digital Interface ) sequence to studies essays, follow a conductor and other live players, rather than the conductor and live players having to follow it, thereby permitting real-time enhancement of ethnomethodological live performance. Designed and developed Swan , original MIDI software for advanced musical keyboard performance systems, for legal, use by social constructivist theorists, professional musical theater pit orchestras. Essays. Software written in C++, using the Microsoft Foundation Class (MFC) library and Microsoft Visual C++ 6. Social Theorists. Designed and implemented a unique, revolutionary system for tracking real-time performance of MIDI keyboards, allowing a single keyboardist to play and control an entire orchestration by themselves, without MIDI sequencing. Other Software Development Consulting. 8121 Georgia Avenue, Suite 301.
Silver Spring, MD 20910-4947. February 2002: Wrote a custom application in legal essays, Perl that does specialized sorting and and Relationship-Centred organizing of database records, to conform to U.S. Legal Studies. Postal Service requirements for The Fund for Animals' bulk mailings. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. U.S.
November 1995 to January 1996: Created a set of three instructional videos (about 45 minutes each). Researched and wrote the script for the videos, created and Difference A Leader Manager prepared screen shots of code samples, and studies essays appeared on-screen as the host and presenter. The videos were professionally produced and distributed: Preparing for C++ (C programming) C++ for C Programmers (Catalog listing at San Francisco State University: Paul Nahay of HTR, Inc. presents this more advanced study the C++ object oriented programming language, designed for experienced C programmers. It discusses the goals of object-oriented analysis and theorists design along with basic OO structures including polymorphism, embedding, inheritance and object classes. Legal. Produced for the Computer Channel; study guide available.) C++ for ethnomethodological definition, High-Performance Computing. Other Commercial Software Development.
Published November 1990 to 1992 and sold worldwide by Passport Designs, Inc., (formerly of Half Moon Bay, CA). ScoreInput provides real-time MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) input into Passport's SCORE music typesetting system, thereby increasing data input speed. Studies Essays. ScoreInput is a DOS program, written in Borland Turbo Pascal 6.0 (using objects), in which I created an original user interface, wrote the routines to read and Difference Between A Leader and A Manager Essay write MIDI data to the MPU-401 port, and devised unique musical quantization routines. Legal Studies Essays. Throughout ScoreInput 's commercial life, I continued to constructivist, improve and upgrade the program, incorporating suggestions from users of the program. Although not currently being updated, ScoreInput continues to be used around the world by SCORE users. Adjunct Assistant Professor (Spring Semester 2009, appointment period January 26 to March 15, 2009) School of Undergraduate Studies, University of Maryland University College, College Park, Maryland Successfully completed the Faculty WebTycho Training Course (CTLA 201), February 2 to March 10, 2009, offered by UMUC's Center for Teaching and Learning, Office of Faculty Affairs , certifying eligibility to legal, teach UMUC's online academic courses.
Lecturer in Music Theory (full-time regular, appointment period September 1, 1984 to August 31, 1986) Department of Music, Stanford University, Stanford, California Lecturer in General Honors (part-time adjunct, 1983 1987) General Honors Program, University of the art of war (machiavelli) Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland Instructor (part-time adjunct, 1986-1987) Doctor of Musical Arts in Composition (awarded June 12, 1983) Master of studies essays Music in Composition (awarded December 22, 1980) Worked extensively in the Electronic Music Studio.
Entered the Person-Centred and Relationship-Centred doctoral program in Music Composition, and took classes Spring 1981. University of Maryland at College Park. Honor societies: Phi Kappa Phi (Music) Sigma Circle of legal studies essays Omicron Delta Kappa (Leadership)
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Legal Studies Essay Guide - Bored of Studies
Nov 14, 2017 Legal studies essays, order essay online -
Writing Better University Essays/Main part. This part constitutes the legal essays, main part of Difference A Leader Manager Essay, your essay. Try to legal studies, use about 60% of your words for this part. You can understand it as delivering what you have promised in the introduction. This part of the and Relationship-Centred, essay is often referred to as the main body, or the argument. Legal Essays! It’s the part of the (machiavelli), essay, where you develop the answer.
Whilst doing so, it’s important to be aware of the question at all time. This is the only way to keep to the topic set. Ideally, every paragraph is essays, geared towards answering the the art, question. It does not suffice, if you are aware of how a particular paragraph is focused on studies your task: you need to show the social constructivist theorists, relevance to essays, your reader. There are little phrases, such as “this example illustrates that”, helping you with this task.
Consider the following example: “The resistance in Harlem insisting to Person-Centred Care, keep an open market in studies essays, 125th street helped to point out that there are people with different needs in the city (Zukin, 1995).” After outlining resistance in Harlem, these few sentences make it plain what the example showed us: that different people in cities have different needs. Writing an essay can take a considerable time, but it’s important that you keep to your original plan as much as you can. Of course, new ideas will come up as you write. In this case, you should jot them down, so as not to principle, lose them. Next, think about legal it: How will this help me answering the question? Is this relevant to the essay? Do I not have another example of this already?
What you do is to equimarginal, make sure that what goes into the essay has one purpose only: answering the question. Sometimes it’s difficult to resist the temptation, but don’t explore thoughts by legal studies the way. This should not discourage you from having original ideas, or even exploring them, but it should encourage you to use your essay for one purpose only. Keeping to the plan means keeping to and Relationship-Centred Essay, the structure. Studies Essays! This is ethnomethodological definition, important, because you can lose your reader by jumping around from one topic to the other, even if all you say as such is relevant and useful. Legal! By having a clear structure, and keeping to it, your reader will always know where the journey goes next. This makes your essay a pleasant read. To write a good essay, first of all, you need good hooks which help to draw your readers’ attention. Care! A hook is legal studies, a small element in the introduction of an essay which motivates people to read your work. It is an interesting and catchy sentence which has a deep meaning and helps a writer introduce the main idea. Essay hook Identifies a purpose of writing.
When writing the main part of the essay, it’s important to keep the argument and illustrations in balance. Equimarginal Principle! Too few examples make the essay dry and difficult. Too many, on the other hand, make the argument disappear. Essays! The trick is to include illustrations to bring the text alive, but link them tightly with the argument. Rather than stating that “this is an example of white-collar crime,” you may say “tax avoidance is a good example of equimarginal, white-collar crime, because…” By so doing, you demonstrate the legal studies essays, importance of the example, you highlight how and why it is important, and Person-Centred and Relationship-Centred Essay, most importantly, maybe, you avoid that the examples take over. If the illustrations take over, your reader will be unclear about why you included the examples.
Sections are an important tool to structure the answer of an legal studies essay. The longer the answer, the more important sections probably are. Some courses and tutors may ask you to Between A Leader, include subheadings (as used in legal, this book); some institutions even have explicit recommendations on their use. Subheadings can be a good way to structure an answer into of war (machiavelli), sections. Legal Essays! However, the of war, lack of subheadings—or the legal, fact that your tutor discourages you from green energy sources using them—is no excuse for not having sections. Sections group paragraphs that elaborate a similar point. Essays! Often, within a section, you’ll have a number of paragraphs discussing the same issue from a number of different perspectives. A section can be treated, in some ways, as if it was a mini essay in itself.
This is the case, because in each section, a particular point is explored. Ethnomethodological! For example, there might be a section on the arguments for abortion, and then a section on the arguments against. What is important when writing a section, is legal essays, that both you and the reader are aware of the purpose of the definition, section. It’s tiring and frustrating for your reader to legal studies, read half a page before knowing what you’re writing about, or more often why you’re writing this here. For these reasons it’s important to definition, link the sections into a coherent one. By linking the sections, and linking the paragraphs within each section, your essay will be more focused on answering the question. For example, after a paragraph outlining problems of studying and legal studies, measuring the transmission of social disadvantage, in one of ethnomethodological, my essays I discussed how sibling data may be the solution. I opened the paragraph as follows: “The use of sibling data promises a cure to at least some of the problems outlined above.” In one sentence, the new topic (sibling data) is introduced, but it is also indicated why this may be important (because these data help tackling the problems already outlined). The reader should not be puzzled as to what the link is between problems of measuring the transmission of social disadvantage on the one hand, and sibling data on the other. Phrases that link different sections can be understood as mini introductions and mini conclusions. Particularly when a section is studies, long, or where the link to the next section is not immediately apparent, it might be useful to write one or two sentences to A Leader and A Manager Essay, summarize the section.
This will indicate to the reader how far we have come in legal studies, developing the argument, but also remind him or her, why we have bothered to write a section in the first place. This box contains a selection of useful phrases you can use in your essays. You can use these words and phrases to Person-Centred and Relationship-Centred Care Essay, connect the different bits and legal studies essays, pieces of your text into a coherent whole. The following list is intended to give you an idea of all the phrases that are available to you. Generalizing : as a general rule, as a rule, in general, generally, normally, on the whole, usually. Explaining : in other words, that is, this means that. Express certainty : it is certain that, there is of war, no doubt that, I am confident that, certainly, definitely, clearly, undoubtedly, presumably, will, is, should.
Express probability : it is probable that, it is legal studies, likely that, probably. Express possibility : can, may, it is ethnomethodological, possible that, could, might, might possibly, possibly, perhaps. Express doubt : it is doubtful that, maybe. Express improbability : is improbable, is unlikely, it is uncertain. Express impossibility : impossible, cannot, can’t, will not, is not. Draw attention : it is worth noting that, it should be emphasized that, it should be highlighted that, it should be underlined that, in particular, especially, mainly, chiefly, mostly, it should be pointed out that, it should be noted that, it should be remembered that, it is worth stressing that, is vital, is crucial. Contrasting two points : however, but, in legal, spite of, despite, in spite of the fact that, despite the fact that, nevertheless, nonetheless, instead, conversely, on the contrary, by contrast, whereas, while, whilst, although, even though, on the one hand, on the other hand, in contrast, in Person-Centred Essay, comparison with, but, yet, alternatively, the essays, former, the latter, respectively, all the same. Giving alternatives : there are two possibilities, alternatively, the one, the other, either, or, neither, nor, in addition, no only, but also, worse still, better still, equally, likewise, similarly, correspondingly, in the same way, another possibility, in the art, a similar vein, as well as, furthermore, moreover, also, although, again, what is more, besides, too, as well as. Giving examples or introducing illustrations : for example, for instance, to name an legal example, to give an of war example, is well illustrated by, a case point is, such as, such, one of which, illustrates, is an example of this, is shown by, is exemplified by, is illustrated by.
Stating sequence : first of all, first, firstly, second, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, now, then, next, finally, to complete, after that, 1, 2, 3, last, lastly, furthermore, to begin with, moreover, in addition, to essays, conclude, afterwards. Reformulate the same point : in other words, to put it more simply, to Person-Centred Care, put it differently, it would be better to say. Stating consequences : so, therefore, as a consequence, as a result, now, consequently, because of, thus, for this reason, then, this is why, accordingly, hence, given this, with reference to, given, on this basis, is legal essays, caused by, causes, due to, has the effect, affects, the social constructivist theorists, reason for, because of this, if, then, results in, leads to, produces, owing to, through, as, since, because. Stating purpose : in order to, so that, so as to, to. Giving the method by which something happened: by …ing, by (noun), by using. Stating surprise about something unexpected: besides, however, nevertheless, surprisingly, nonetheless, notwithstanding, only, still, while, in any case, at any rate, for all that, after all, at the same time, all the same.
Summarizing : to sum up, in summary, to legal, summarize, in brief, altogether, overall. Reaching a conclusion : I conclude, I therefore conclude, reached the conclusion that, it is concluded, therefore, for this reason, then, thus, in conclusion, to bring it all together. Listing components : distinct factors, comprises, consists of, constitutes, is composed of, may be classified, may be divided, can be distinguished. Giving definitions : (something) is, means, describes, is defined as, is used, is concerned with, deals with, relates to, involves, signifies, consist of. Approximating results : is green, just over, is just under, a little over, a little under, about, approximately, nearly.
Qualifying comparisons : considerably, a great deal, much, very much, rather, somewhat, significantly, slightly, scarcely, hardly, only just (bigger than); exactly, precisely, just, virtually, practically, more or less, almost, nearly, approximately, almost, not quite, not entirely (the same as); totally, very, completely, entirely, quite, considerably (different from); is similar, is dissimilar, is different. Qualifying frequency : never, rarely, sometimes, usually, often, always, generally, on the whole, frequently, occasionally, hardly ever, seldom. Qualifying results : under no circumstances, mainly, generally, predominantly, usually, the majority, most of, almost all, a number of, may be, some, a few, a little, fairly, very, quite, rather, almost. Qualifying change : no, minimal, slight, small, slow, gradual, steady, marked, large, dramatic, complete, steep, sharp, rapid, sudden (rise, increase, fluctuation, decrease, decline, reduction, fall, drop, upwards trend, downward trend, peak, plateau, level off) Just like sections are structured into paragraphs, each paragraph should have some internal logic. Studies Essays! You can usually use the and Relationship-Centred Care, first sentence of a paragraph to introduce what the legal, paragraph is theorists, about. Legal! This is particularly useful at the beginning of A Leader, a new section. Consider these phrases as bridges. For example, in studies, one of my essays, I opened a paragraph with “It will now be necessary to theorists, consider the argument that local cultures are dominated by transnational corporations.” My readers will immediately know what the essays, paragraph is ethnomethodological definition, about. Ideally, every single sentence is legal, geared towards answering the question.
Practically, this is hard to achieve, given the lack of the art (machiavelli), infinite time resources available to most of us. Studies Essays! However, by Difference Between and A Manager Essay your trying to link similar paragraphs into sections, and by linking sections into a wider argument, every essay will benefit. Studies! The result is an essay that is easier and more pleasant to read. Each paragraph, and definitely each section, should be geared towards the Person-Centred, essay question you’re answering. Essays! It’s therefore a good idea to evaluate each section in terms of how far this helped to answer the essay question.
You do a number of things with this: demonstrate that you’re still on equimarginal principle track; you’re working towards a conclusion; you demonstrate the legal studies essays, relevance of what you wrote in definition, the section. Legal! If you can’t state how a particular paragraph or section is relevant towards your answer, then probably it is not. There are different ways to structure the main part of the essay. One key difference is between essays structured along the lines of analytic dimensions, and those structured along the lines of argumentative dimensions. For example, the analytic dimensions of an essay on globalization may be economic aspects , cultural aspects , or political aspects . On the other hand, the argumentative dimensions may be arguments that globalization affects local consumption patters a great deal, and arguments suggesting very little impact only. The analytic approach would examine the different views in of war (machiavelli), terms of economic aspects first, before moving on to cultural aspects. The argumentative approach would first explore the views in favour of strong impacts in all the different dimensions: economic, cultural, political, and then move on to do the same for arguments against. There is no fast rule which of these approaches is legal studies essays, better. In fact, both approaches can be very successful.
You should consider the of war, extent to which your structure helps you avoid saying the studies essays, same thing twice. Between Essay Example! Whatever approach you choose, a clear indication in the introduction as to legal studies essays, how you approach the essay will make sure your reader knows where you’re going. An essay where the the art of war (machiavelli), same word or sentence structure is repeated time and time again is often boring. Legal! Many writers consider repetitions bad writing. There are a few things you can do to avoid repetition. Where you should be careful, however, is the definition, use of specialist terms. For the reasons outlined in the section on defining terms, you should never substitute a specific term with a more generic one. If you talk about power, then say so, even if this means using the same word over and over legal studies, again.
By no means use a thesaurus and pick a random suggestion offered there. Constructivist Theorists! My word processor, for example, suggests cognition as a synonym for power . This may be the case in some contexts, but as a key term, this is hardly ever the case. The most common case when we tend to repeat the same phrase is probably where we refer to what somebody else said. In everyday speech we simply say “Amy said this, Bobby said that, Carla said yet another thing.” In the more formal style required in essay writing, this is commonly written in essays, the following way: “Adams (2006) states that…, Bird (1999) suggests that.” In order to make your essay less repetitive, consider the following options in addition to the common states and suggests. Always use your own judgement, when a phrase feels overused. By suggesting that repetition may leave a less than ideal impression, it’s not argued that this is an Difference A Leader and A Manager area of essays, essay writing worth spending hours on. It’s much better being repetitive, but being precise and making a good argument.
Crouch (1977) argues that … Daniels (2004) sees the principle, problem as resulting from … Elton (1848) identifies the problem as consisting of … Ferro (1997) is of the opinion that … Gallagher (2003) defends the view that … Hall (1998) notes that the problem originates from … Inglehart (2000) considers that … Jackson (1984) views the issue as caused by … Kanter (1970) maintains that … Lewis (2002) concurs with Mann (2000) that … Nixon (1955) supports the view that … Orwell (1999) holds the view that … Perry (2005) agrees that … Quart (2001) denies that … These alternative ways to put the essays, ever same idea may be particularly useful when reviewing what different authors had to say on Difference and A Manager Essay an issue—the parts of the essay where you simply restate what has been said before. Other alternatives you might consider are saying that somebody: added, affirmed, argued, asked, asserted, assumed, believed, challenged, claimed, concluded, considered, contradicted, demonstrated, described, determined, disagreed, discussed, disputed, emphasized, explained, found, hypothesized, implied, inferred, maintained, observed, pointed out, postulated, questioned, recommended, refuted, regarded, rejected, reported, said, stated, stipulated, suggested, viewed (something). This list should illustrate that there need be no conflict between variation in writing and writing clearly. If in doubt, however, you should always prioritize clarity. When writing for academic purposes, there are a number of conventions that you should follow. A key difference to essays, most other forms of writing is that we give references to social constructivist theorists, the sources of our argument. Ambiguity is legal studies, something most academics dislike, and you’re more credible, too, if you avoid it.
Academic writing tends to be rather formal, and many will advise you to avoid writing in social constructivist theorists, the first person (that is, not write using I). This makes academic writing both formal and impersonal. The reason why the first person should be avoided, is that in scientific writing one’s opinions, feelings and views are not regarded as important. Stating that I think it’s unfair that some people can’t get a visa, does not count as much. Legal Essays! However, urging you not to use I in essays can fail in green, two ways. Firstly, you could still write about studies your own feelings and opinions using different phrases, and definition, secondly, not all uses of the studies essays, first person are bad. It’s a good idea to stay clear of phrases such as “I think,” or “in my opinion,” unless you’re evaluating a claim. Social! However, there is no apparent reason for studies, not saying “I will first define the key terms.” Using the first person in this way will make a text more approachable. Moreover, using phrases starting with I, you avoid using the the art, passive voice which many find more difficult to read.
Having said this, some markers still consider it preferable not to use the first person. Should your tutor or marker be one of studies, them, you may want to play it safe. Energy! Don’t use we when you mean I . If you are the sole author, the use of a plural is technically not correct. However, even a tutor who hates such phrases will not mark you down: It’s the argument and general structure of studies essays, your essay that count for much more. One area where there is no room for argument is the use of colloquialisms, slang, or street language. Academic writing is formal writing, and you might be penalized for sources, using the wrong register. Legal Essays! A little bit of informality here or there will not normally matter much. Watch out for informal words, such as really , a bit , or maybe , and consider replacing them with very , a great deal , or perhaps' . In spoken language, we often use interjections such as actually , or to be honest . These, too, don’t belong into an academic essay. Consider the following example: “To be honest, I don’t think much of this theory” is something we might say to principle, a colleague of ours. When writing an essay, you could put this as: “It is clear from the legal studies essays, evidence presented in this essay that the applications of this theory are limited.” The following list further illustrates what is meant by formal and green energy, informal English.
The formal words are included in brackets in essays, each case: Ask for equimarginal, (request), carry out studies essays (conduct), chance (opportunity), find out (discover), get better (improve), get worse (deteriorate), guess (estimate), look into (investigate), OK (satisfactory), tell (inform), worried (concerned). Euphemisms, such as passed away for die , are another aspect of language you should not use in your essays: if you write about and mean die , then say so. Theorists! Clarity and studies, accuracy are paramount. Green Energy! For these reasons academic writing can be rather tentative and cautious. This is the case because we are not after grabbing headlines, but we write accurately what we know. If our data suggest that X possibly leads to Y, we say just that. Essays! In this case we should never say that X leads to Y. In academia we are often unsure what really goes on, and we should be upfront about green energy this. Similarly, contractions—such as don’t (for do not) or can’t (for cannot)—are not commonly considered formal enough for academic writing. Some of your readers will consider this convention ridiculous; others take it as a sign that you have not understood you should write in a scholarly fashion.
To play it safe, use the full forms at any time. Essays! This particular academic convention seems to ease more and more. Some students struggle with the rules of capitalization: which letters are written as capital letters. The easiest one is that every sentence starts with a capital letter. Names and titles (called proper nouns) are also written with capital letters, unless there is a specific reason not to. Energy! So, we write the name of legal, Mark Granovetter with capital letters, but the special case of the iPod is written with a small one. Official names and particular places are written with capital letters. Definition! It’s thus the Department of Health , and Oxford University . However, when we write about general places, we don’t use capital letters. We study at essays university in general.
Official titles are often capitalized, such as Value Added Tax . Furthermore, many abbreviations come with capital letters. It’s an MBA your friend may be studying for. Between And A Example! The days of the essays, week are capitalized, such as in equimarginal principle, Monday and Wednesday , as are the names of the months. Legal! The names of countries, nationalities, languages, and energy, people from places are written with capital letters: the Swiss live in Switzerland , and legal studies, Norway is a country. Apart from this, about ethnomethodological every other word is written with small letters. Because as scientists we normally want to be precise, there is a class of phrases we avoid: weasel terms. Legal Essays! Weasel terms are short phrases that pretend much, but don’t actually deliver the promise. They are usually empty assertions, such as “it is equimarginal, generally known that“ or “most writers agree that.” This box contains a list of weasel terms.
In an essay, you should never use these phrases without a reference to substantiate what is said. allegedly arguably as opposed to legal studies, most considered by many contrary to equimarginal principle, many critics say that experts say that it could be argued that it has been noticed it has been said it has been stated it has been suggested it is generally claimed it is widely believed that mainstream scholars say that mainstream scientists say that many people say many scientists argue that research has shown researchers argue that serious scholars say that social science says sociologists believe that some argue some feel that some historians argue the scientific community this is widely considered to studies, be this is widely regarded as widely considered as. It is possible to use weasel terms, as long as they are backed up with a reference or two. So, saying that something is “widely considered the foremost example of” something is possible, if you either provide a reference to someone who demonstrates this, or provide a group of Essay, references to back up your claim. However, in most cases we want to be more precise. Rather than saying that “many social scientists argue that class is studies essays, important”—which is probably true—and giving a couple of references to back this up, it’s better to sources, put it as follows: “Goldthorpe (2000) argues that class remains important.” Or maybe we have access to legal studies essays, a statistic we can cite, that X% of social scientists seem to consider class important.
In either case, the solution is more precise and thus more satisfactory. The use of references is an academic convention, and you must follow this, even though it might be a tiresome exercise. Not only will you follow the convention, but your work will also appear much more credible. You can find more on the use of references in the art (machiavelli), a separate section. Footnotes are often associated with academic writing. Before you use footnotes in your own writing, however, consider your reader. Footnotes interrupt the legal essays, flow of reading: you force your audience to stop for a while, moving down to principle, the bottom of the page, before they can read on. Essays! From the reader’s point of view you should avoid footnotes if you can. The only general exception is if you use footnotes for referencing. Social Theorists! Don’t use endnotes (footnotes at the end of the text), unless they are used exclusively for referencing.
Asking your reader to flick forth and back through your essay is even more of an legal studies essays interruption. Endnotes exist for practical reasons from the time before word processors. Footnotes are used to explain obscure words, or when you want to add some special information. A Leader Manager Essay Example! In the legal studies essays, case of obscure words, if it’s a key term, define it in the main text. There are cases, where you’ll want to and A Essay, use an obscure word, but it is not central to the argument. Consider the following example: “The Deputy must, with every word he speaks in the Diet 1 , […] anticipate himself under the scrutiny of his constituents” (Rousseau, 1762, cited in legal studies, Putterman, 2003, p.465).
Here I talk about the name of an assembly. The word is probably obscure to most readers, but not central to my argument: I write about parliaments in general, not the Diet in particular. Adding this footnote will help the Person-Centred Care, readers to understand the quote. In terms of studies essays, special information, if you make an important point, then make in the main text. If it’s an definition unimportant remark, then very often you don’t want to make it at all.
The guiding principle is legal essays, whether the note is relevant to your answer. Another aspect of language you can find often in academic writing are Latin abbreviations. Never use these unless you’re sure what they mean. Normally, you should not use abbreviations in ethnomethodological, the main text. Instead, use plain English. Not only will you avoid embarrassing yourself if you misuse the legal studies, abbreviations, but also will your reader be clear about what you mean.
It’s much clearer to write for example, rather than mistakenly putting i.e. A Leader Manager! instead of e.g. (a common mistake). Some readers are annoyed by Latin abbreviations, not many will be impressed. Others will simply struggle to legal studies, understand without a look in the dictionary. The same is true for a number of English abbreviations. Another area of academic writing where there are many bad examples out equimarginal principle there is the use of jargon and specialist terms. Whilst we aim for clarity and legal essays, accuracy, jargon is never justified where it does not help these purposes. Between A Leader And A Manager Example! Specialist terms can be very useful to summarize complex issues into a few letters. Nonetheless, all technical terms need to be defined in simpler language somewhere in your essay.
Once you have defined your terms, you can use them without worrying too much. This is where the define section comes in. Bear in essays, mind what your audience is likely to know. Other aspects of writing that may make your essay easier to read, and thus more approachable are: the use of shorter words where possible, cutting out words where they are redundant, using the active voice ( I do , she says , rather than it is social, understood , it is achieved ), and using English words where they are not different from the Latin or Greek ones. We want to write as clearly as we can, because when the writing is not clear, very often this is an indication that the argument is not very clear, either.
1 The Diet was the name of the deliberative assemblies in many European countries at the time of Rousseau’s writings.