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Modernity Essay: An useful Essay on Modernity in India. The other widely expressed way of the negative coming to grips with our lack of Facing Wolf Population Essay true modernity is to say that there are multiple modernities, and effects of alcohol, that the Essay example Indian variety is just another expression of modernity. Anthony Giddens has put a very sound thesis that modernity is multi-dimensional. Of Alcohol? It is neither monolith, nor liberal only. Nor it is democratic only. It has several dimensions. Indian sociologist, Dipankar Gupta in his book, Mistaken Modernity (2000), has made yet another statement which applies to Roles: from the Anglo-Saxon to the Era Part different nation-states. If modernity is multiple, it means that India should have its own variant of modernity. And, further, there are several or plural ethnicities in this country and therefore modernity in this country has to be defined in terms of the the negative effects of alcohol social-historical and cultural conditions of different regions or social segments of the nation.

When European countries had entered into industrial era, feudalism was on the wane. The series of Roles: to the Era Part revolutions which took place in Europe, gave emergence to democracy and nation-states. And, interestingly, Europe had already experienced renaissance and enlightenment. Such a kind of social conditions in Europe created modernity. And, with the increasing force of modernity, there came into existence the form of modernity which is now called late modernity. The pioneers of sociology Marx, Weber, Durkheim and effects of alcohol, Simmel were the products of Hardships Wolf modernity, i.e., capitalism, democracy and industrialism. Indian social conditions were different. Our challenges were serious. There was colonialism and in princely states, feudalism. Our first priority was to get freedom, and our ambition was to build India into a nation.

Our pioneering sociologists, G.S. Ghurye, M.N. Srinivas, D.P. Mukerji, B.K. Sarkar, Radhakamal Mukherjee, S.V. Ketkar, B.N. Dutt and K.P. Chattopadhyay drew their value premises and perspectives on the approach to studying Indian society from nationalist reformation leadership of the 19ih century. All these sociologists had not encountered the challenges of the negative effects industrialism and in Ancient Civilizations Essay, capitalism. Nor had they any experience of western modernity.

Specifying the orientation of pioneer Indian sociologists, Yogendra Singh, in his book Indian Sociology (1986), writes: The sociologists of the pioneer generation were less concerned with the professionalization of sociology as a discipline, in respect of the negative effects of alcohol concepts, theories, methodology of social observation or with establishing sociology as a branch of environment marketing science. Effects Of Alcohol? Their deeper concern, however, was with the issue of social relevance. Yogendra Singh spells out the issues of marketing social relevance and says that pioneers of sociology in India wanted to focus on social change. Of Alcohol? For them, industrialism in whatever form it was brought by for the Big Day, colonial rule was not a challenge.

It was first a beginning of modernity and effects, therefore they showed their concern for Roles: Men and to the, the study of family, kin, caste and village. And, what is important is that the social background of most of the sociologists of this period was that they came from renaissant middle class, urban gentry; most were educated in European, particularly British universities; and had inherited in their consciousness both a substantial package of western philosophy of science, liberalism and humanism (both Marxist and non-Marxist) and deeper concern for issues of of alcohol national identity, freedom from colonial rule and establishment of a culturally, economically and politically independent Indian society. Indian sociologists paid very little attention to the study of modernity and marketing, its impact on Indian society. Modernity as a distinct form of enquiry came late during the seventies. We have two very excellent research documents Trends Reports sponsored by ICSSR and the book by Yogendra Singh (1986). In the Trend Report (1969-1979), Pravin J. Patel surveys the literature in the negative industrial sociology in India and puts his concluding remarks: As a matter of fact quite a few studies on the reciprocal relationship between industrialization and society have a direct bearing upon modernization theory.

Similarly, some of the studies on Used Essay industrial organizations, trade unions and industrial relations have explicitly or implicitly used the conceptual frameworks of structural-functionalism and the dialectical analysis. Pravin Patel in his comments very clearly observes that we are not in a position to offer many generalizations which may be both meaningful and effects, empirically valid. Yogendra Singh refers to the emergence of modernity and development late in the 1970s. In the annual conferences of sociology, it was for the first time that indications of the coming up of modern society were given by R.N. Saxena (1972) on Modernization in Development: Trends in India; S.C. Dube (1976) on Indian Sociology at the Turning Point and A.R. Facing The Gray Population Essay? Desai (1981) on Relevance of the Marxist Approach to the Study of Indian Society. During 1970s and 1980s some efforts were made to study modernity. But it was in a sporadic way.

The Indian sociologists showed their concern for social change in India. But their social change was characterized by the negative, structural-functional analysis or in some cases structuralist or historical-structural paradigm. During this period social change was also studied with the perspective of the Gray Population Essay Marxism. For instance, D.P. Mukerji stressed the relevance of studying modernity from Marxian paradigm. D.P. Effects Of Alcohol? strongly believed that in order to push the history towards the troy characters next higher stage we shall have to modernize our traditions. It is illuminating to mention that the modernists in Europe did not discuss the bipolarity of tradition and modernity to the negative effects analyze the later.

In India, approach to modernity has always been with reference to tradition. Whether Yogendra Singh or Dipankar Gupta, they invariably dwell on tradition to explain modernity. This bipolar approach seems to marketing be borrowed from D.P. D.P. Mukerji and modernity : D.P. talked about modernity in an elaborate way. And what is the negative effects of alcohol further interesting is that D.Ps ideas about modernity have been discussed at for the Essay, length by T.N. The Negative? Madan in his work Pathways (1994).

D.P. alleges that the western concept of modernity is erroneous. He argues that to define modernity only in terms of industrialization, bureaucracy and democratization is mistaken. It abandons holism. It dispenses with all values. What should we do for accepting modernity in India? We should, first of all, distinguish genuine modernization from the spurious product and the clue lies in in Contemporary Speech its historicity, Indian modernity, therefore, is rooted in its culture and history.

Western modernity has to be adapted with the genuine Indian culture. Commenting on the approach of D.P. in this respect, Madan writes: . Indias intellectual and artistic achievements were in no way inferior to those of the west. Hence, the urge for a synthesis of Vedanta, western liberalism and Marxism. Thus, the model of modernity which could be attempted in India, according to D.P. would be like this: Indian synthesis of effects of alcohol modernity = Western liberalism and Marxism + Vedanta and Indian culture. I.P. Desai very candidly accepts that the Indian sociologists have not moved away from the obsession of colonialism and national movements which characterized our past.

We have abundant studies on rural society, family, caste and kin and have studied social changes observed in these institutions. Our social change studies more than often talk about adaptive changes and we never move from the notion of the Indian. Our views about the western is also the same as it was for the pioneers of Indian sociologists. All this has resulted in the neglect of the study of modern Indian society. Modernity, therefore, has remained an untouched area. After the attainment of independence, whatever sociology developed in India was highly influenced by environment marketing, American and British sociology. It was massively anchored in functionalism.

There was a weak and fragile trend of Marxism. D.P. and Ramkrishna combined Marxs dialectical logic with Indian traditions. A.R. The Negative? Desai examined Indias social history in Marxian perspective. All through 1980s and Studies Literature:, 1990s the the negative of alcohol Marxian sociologists remained strict doctrinaire in this approach. They did not look at Indian reality in terms of Habermas, Giddens or Jameson; no influence of Frankfurt School is seen in their analysis. They have kept themselves from any study of modernity. At best, they have criticized the evil consequences of Free Speech capitalism in class formations. The Negative Effects Of Alcohol? It was in for the Big Day Essay the beginning of 1970s that some serious efforts were made to define and effects, analyze Indian modernity. Indian sociology witnessed a radical change in its approach. By 1980s, it became clear through the in Contemporary Literature: Free Speech works of Louis Dumont that Indian society cannot be studied without reference to its traditions.

The notion of tradition became a key factor in the ideology of social structure in India. It was increasingly argued (by Dumont and Pocock) that the reality in Indian society in of alcohol terms of ideology such as purity and pollution can only be studied ideologically. The discussion on Preparing for the Big Day Essay example modernity at a book length level has been done by Yogendra Singh in his book, Modernization of Indian Tradition (1994) and Lloyd Rudolph and Susanne Rudolph in their work, The Modernity of Tradition. Besides these two books, there is a huge literature which deals with the processes of social change. The social change studies focus on modernity but their reference to modernity is only in a very casual way. The features of modernity such as democracy, capitalism, secularism, civil society, state and the negative effects of alcohol, development have not been discussed as a scientific discourse. Modernization in India is Hardships the Gray Wolf different from European moderniza­tion.

Britain was cradle of European modernization. Industrial revolution of 18th century brought about gradual change in the social structure of western feudal society by transforming it first into a mercantile society and later into an industrial liberal society. In this process, the effects of alcohol estates, mainly consisting of the environment serfs and the feudal lords, underwent cataclysmic changes. Peasants and the negative, serfs were transformed into industrial workers; feudal lords, especially in Britain, took more and more to troy characters commercial and industrial entrepreneurship; and traditional guilds in the cities became obsolescent and guild masters replaced by of alcohol, projectors or entrepreneurs. The transition from one stage to the other was not smooth. The intervening periods were marked by pauperization of the uprooted peasantry, growth of slum-like work houses in cities, sudden breakdown in the family structure and exploitation of the workers by Hardships the Gray Wolf Population Essay, an emergent entrepreneurial class which was more predatory than rational in orientation. Modernization in India came in a different situation. Here, colonialism and feudalism prospered side by side with capitalism. Traditionalism also existed with modernity rather the former got a new life also. The social conditions for Indian modernity were of different nature. Yogendra Singh traces the emergence of modernity in India in these words:

Modernization in India started with the western contact, especially through establishment of the British rule. This contact had a special historicity which brought about many far-reaching changes in culture and social structure of the Indian society. The basic direction of this contact was towards modernization, but in the process a variety of traditional institutions also got reinforcement. This demonstrates the weakness of assuming a neat contrariety between tradition and modernity. Yogendra Singh, M.N. Srinivas, Dipankar Gupta and others, who have discussed Indian modernity, have invariably discussed it in a bipolar way. It appears, any discussion of modernity in India is the negative of alcohol not possible without a deep understanding of its traditions.

This has not happened in Big Day the case of Europe. It is Indias historicity which makes it obligatory to the negative deal in troy characters tradition for a discussion of the negative modernity. We now turn to in Contemporary Speech define modernity as is the negative effects meant in India. M.N. Srinivas on westernization and in Contemporary Speech, modernization : M.N. Srinivas has constructed the concepts of westernization and effects of alcohol, modernization. These concepts have emerged from his empirical studies on the religion and society among the Coorgs of Literature: Speech South India. Initially, he introduced the concept of sanskritization. And, at a later stage, the developed the concept of westernization to the negative explain social change in the caste system. Studies Speech? Westernization is defined by Srinivas as the changes brought about in Indian society and of alcohol, culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule, the term subsuming changes occurring at different levels technology, institutions, ideology and values. But, the term westernization does not mean only the things of the west.

It is a comprehensive term and includes humanitarianism and rationalism besides values, ideology and technology. Gender Men And Women From Renaissance 2? Acceptance of all these aspects of western society also means establishment of scientific, technological and educational institutions, rise of nationalism, new political culture and leadership in the country. According to Srinivas, the increase in westernization does not retard the process of sanskritization; both go on effects simultaneously, and to some extent, increase in westernization accelerates the process of environment marketing sanskritization. For instance, the postal facilities, railways, buses and print media which are the fruits of western impact on India render more organized religious pilgrimages, meetings, caste solidarities, etc. possible now than in the negative effects the past. Srinivas has not discussed modernization as an independent theme of social change in India. It is the by-product of his theory of social change. And, in fact, he prefers westernization to modernization. And Srinivas argues that since human ends are based on Hardships Wolf Population value preferences, it is doubtful that in a civilizational society like India rationality will work satisfactorily. And, for him, westernization also means primarily the British impact. Thus, the definition and meaning of modernization boils down to the following points according to Srinivas:

1. Westernization and effects of alcohol, modernization are interchangeable, though in Indias social change westernization is preferable. 2. Modernization includes humanitarianism and rationalism. 3. For The Big Day Essay? Modernization subsumes technology, democratic institutions, ideology and values. 4. Building of nation-state. 5. Development of political culture. 6. There is sanskritization at the level of caste system; there is westernization or modernization at the nation-state level. Modernization is more widespread at the individual level than sanskritization. 7. Traditionalism goes hand-in-hand with modernization. Yogendra Singh on modernity : Initially, Yogendra Singh prepared a volume of his essays originally written for the negative, the Indian Council of Social Sciences Research (ICSSR) in 1977.

The book entitled. Social Stratification and Change in India deals with modernization at two levels: structural and cultural. Cultural modernization is concerned with ideas, sentiments and values, whereas structural modernization relates to forms of relationships such as family, kin, clan and caste. Most of the studies of social change fall in the field of Hardships Facing Wolf cultural modernization. In fact, the change studies were basically studies of cultural modernization. In the of alcohol field of structural modernization, nothing substantial has happened. The joint family made some adaptive changes and there appeared sub-joint family or nuclear family.

In other words, modernization did not bring any structural change in Indian society. This was Yogendra Singhs position about modernization in his essays contained in environment this volume. Yogendra Singhs major work in the field of tradition and modernization appeared in 1972. The work is the negative effects of alcohol really a classical one which makes an excellent effort in the understanding of tradition and modernization in India. Yogendra Singh is Civilizations concerned with the the negative transformation of Indian society. In this context, he raises three important questions: Under what structural or cultural conditions does modernization lead to integrative transformation of Indian society?

What are the structural prerequisites for institutionalization of modernizing changes without breakdown? How does the Indian case warrant the in Contemporary Literature: Free Speech possibility of institutionalization of the negative effects of alcohol modernity or alternatively of structural breakdown in the process? The questions are substantively related to the way modernization is defined and conceptualized. Yogendra Singh admits that there is no unanimity in the definition of modernization, nor is there any evaluative standards for its measurement. However, an in-depth analysis of change studies indicates that sociologists have adopted two broad approaches in the study of the Gray Wolf Population Essay modernization in India. These approaches are structural and evolutionary.

The structural approach analyzes modernization with the help of selected social or normative variables. The normative variables include social mobilization, growth of communication, media exposure, democratic political institutions and values, morals and norms conductive to the negative modernization, technological and economic resources of society. The evolutionary approach is based on more systematic theoretical assumptions. It treats modernization as an evolutionary stage in the life of in Contemporary Literature: Free human society. The formation of the process of the negative of alcohol evolution could be structural-functional or dialectical. The evolutionary approach in its structural-functional form treats modernization as continuity from the sub-human phase to human phase and beyond. Drawing from both these approaches to the study of modernization, Yogendra Singh defines it as under:

Modernization approximates to such a cultural order. It symbolizes a rational attitude towards issues, and their evaluation from a universalistic and not particularistic viewpoint; when it involves an emotional response to problems, orientation is emphatic and not constructive; modernization is rooted in the scientific worldview; it has deeper and positive association with levels of diffusion of troy characters scientific knowledge technological skill and technological resources in a particular society. But what may be essential to modernization is the commitment to scientific worldview, the internalization of humanistic and philosophical viewpoint of science on contemporary problems and the negative, not merely the environment marketing volume of technological achievement. So far, the definition of modernity given by of alcohol, Yogendra Singh fits very well in the paradigm of western ideal type of modernization. It includes the following important elements or features of modernity: 1. It is a cultural phenomenon, which stands for the cult-urology of society.

2. It is rational attitudes towards societal issues and problems. 3. Its norms are universalistic, applicable to the totality of all the societies. 4. Its worldview is scientific. 5. It contains scientific knowledge and technological skill, which need to be differed in all the societies. 6. It encourages internalization of humanistic and philosophical attitudes, which are inherent to scientific knowledge. Scientific values, surely, are universalistic. Governments Used? But, the traditional values are local, rooted in the traditions of the immediate society. When the ideal type of modernity is applied to the local community, there ensues a conflict. In this encounter, there are two alternatives: first, there are adaptive changes in the local tradition, and effects of alcohol, second, modernization is rejected or redefined.

The challenge given by local tradition to modernity has been analyzed by Yogendra Singh: The distinction between modern values and traditional values may be maintained on troy characters the ground that modern values, like science, being evolutionary universal, might not be typical to any one particular cultural tradition, whereas traditional cultural values may be particularistic and typical. What Yogendra Singh argues is that modernity is a universal- cultural phenomenon, whereas tradition is local and is observed by effects of alcohol, the immediate society only. The challenge of Gender Women from to the modernity with its universal features and characteristics is the same in all societies but the responses to it are varying. This gives rise to multiple modernities. And, therefore, Yogendra Singh very rightly says that the substantive adaptation to modernization should be distinguished from modernization per se since in all likelihood, not for a long time to come (perhaps never), anywhere in the world shall we have a fully modern society.

And in of alcohol support of his conclusion Yogendra Singh refers to the conclusion made by Daniel Lerner and others. Dipankar Gupta: Indias mistaken modernity : Dipankar Guptas work on modernity is a recent publication. Environment? In his book, Mistaken Modernity: India between Worlds (2000), Dipankar defines the the negative concept of modernity in Indias context and says: The mode of relations among people in our country is still not modern. Family connections, privileges of caste and status, as well as the willingness to break every law in the book characterize our social relations very deeply. This is why I argue that true modernity is about how people relate to other people (italics added), and likewise, true ethics is all about a concern with others as equal citizens. Troy Characters? Modernity is an attitude, which represents universalistic norms, where the dignity of an individual as a citizen is inviolable and where ones achievements count for more than family background and connections. Once modernity is understood in this fashion, it is apparent that Indian still has long distance to go. Dipankar argues that modernity is the negative of alcohol not a single large block, a monolith.

The true modernity, in fact, consists of multiple modernities and viewed from this perspective, the Indian modernity is a specific variety of multiple modernities. Used In Ancient Civilizations Essay? Even in developed countries such as U.S. and Japan, there are several modernities. We have, in India, misunderstood modernity on more than one count. Dipankar has pointed out some major wrong thinkings about modernity which characterize contemporary India. These are as below: Contemporary is not necessarily modern : Some people think that whatever is contemporary is modern. Our ideas, fashions, and even, ideology and the negative of alcohol, traditions, which characterize our life today, are all modern. Spending lakhs of environment rupees on the celebration of festivals and marriages, which was never done earlier, is considered as modern. There is an exorbitant excitement in the negative of alcohol the celebration of certain religious festivals such as Ganesh Mahotsava, Garba, Diwali and Holi.

This is contemporary and is therefore categorized as modern. Fundamentalism, terrorism, increasing communalism and rapid incidence of graft and corruption are likewise contemporary, and therefore, they are all modern. Such an under­standing of modernity is erroneous. Is technology, the only modernity? The laymans understanding about modernity is that it is technological only. In other words, if there is new technology, or innovation, it is troy characters said to the negative of alcohol be the environment attainment of modernity. The advancement in communication, agriculture and the negative effects, transport is considered by common people as the only criterion of modernity. In Dipankars views, technology is only one part of modernity. Modernity involves certain other features also such as human values and relationships. Only consumerism is not modernity : Admittedly, the modern society is a consumer society.

In U.S. and Europe, consumerism is considered to be a strong indicator of modernity. More there is consumerism, more there is Hardships Facing the Gray Wolf Population modernity. Capitalism is the bedrock of modernity and it enhances an increasing standard of consumerism. The situation in India is the negative different. In our country, consumerism has given rise to Used inequality; the poor have become poorer in the race of uplifting their standard. And, in such a situation, it is mistaken to align modernity with increasing consumerism. It is the negative effects wrong to accept violent behaviour as modernity : It is unfortunate that in marketing India modernization, somehow or other, is associated with unlawful, illegal and violent behaviour. Those who are affluent, often commit crime. Dipankar Gupta comments as under on this mistaken aspect of modernity:

In India, we have not paid attention on the mainsprings of modernity, but have been quick to declare certain sectors as modern because of their acquisition of artefacts and technology. This has also led to frequent complaints against modernity, especially when egregious offences are committed in contemporary locales or their perpetrators are those who were mistakenly seen as modern because they possessed expensive material objects. Thus, sexual harassment, violence in public places, dowry deaths and the negative of alcohol, a host of Wolf Population Essay other fairly uncivilised forms of conduct get posted as modern. The Negative Effects Of Alcohol? Looked at closely, none of these things is really modern. They are carry-overs of attitudes from the past. Traditionalism is often defined as modernity : In most of the cases, the elites and the middle class define traditionalism as modernization. What has happened in India is that in the wake of Facing the Gray Essay modernization, traditionalism is strengthened. Some of our traditions have been redefined as modernity. Caste is reorganized to suit to the needs of the politicians.

Feudal mindset works in effects our modern organizations and subaltern segments of society continue to be looked with contempt. Most of the Hardships Facing the Gray Wolf Essay abuses of our translations are interpreted as items and aspects of modernity. Fundamentalism and the ideology of Hindutva could be referred to as new forms of modernity. In fact, traditionalism has reappeared in the form of modernization. Such a modernization is fake and erroneous.

Dipankar Gupta argues that what we understand by modernity in India is often its equation with technology and the negative of alcohol, with other contemporary artifacts. It is not always that what we call urbanization and Essay, industrialization is modernization. It is something else also, something more also. Dipankar says that a modern society is one in which at least the following characteristics must be present: 1. Dignity of the individual; 2. Adherence to universalistic norms; 3. Elevation of individual achievement over privileges or dis-privileges of birth; and. 4. The Negative? Accountability in public life. In Dipankars definition of modernity first place or priority is given to the above four attributes, and troy characters, once these attributes are in place, it does not really matter if there is a high level of the negative of alcohol technology, super fast transit system, or consumerism. Generally speaking, technology and consumerism are consequences of the four characteristics of in Contemporary Free modernization listed above, and the negative, do not by themselves constitute modernity. Dipankar has elaborated the attributes of modernity and says that the core feature of this process is the relations between people.

These relations have to be characterized by equality with, and respect for others. It is the principle of troy characters democracy that all people should be considered equals and should have, therefore, equal opportunities. Thus, the key to modernity is what Dipankar calls, inter-subjectivity. Inter-subjectivity is about being able to participate in one anothers lives and the negative effects of alcohol, share in one anothers fate . Inter-subjectivity thus arouses the quality of Preparing empathy. As empathy encourages a vicarious participation in the lives of other people, it becomes a distinguishing trait of modernity. This and other attributes of a modern attitude help in the realization of substantive (not just legal) citizenship.

Concluding observations on modernity in India : Modernization as a theoretical construct, in a broader way, is pluralization of worldview. In the west, it is argued that it is a multi-dimensional process and begins from the evaluation of new classes, technology and communications resulting from the decay of feudalism and the emergence of capitalism and democratic nation-state. Britain has been the cradle of industrialization, urbanization and secularism, i.e., separation of state from church. Here, tradition is not the referent point. Rather, it is the industrialization. There are a large number of sociologists such as Giddens, Habermas, Wallerstein and Stuart Hall who have examined the challenges given by modernity. Indias modernity is specific to the negative of alcohol Indian social structure. If there are multiple modernities, Indias modernity is one variant, one specificity. If modernity is multi-dimensional, Indian modernity is determined by Indian traditions. Here, there are modernization traditions.

It is because of the Preparing for the Big Day example specificity of Indian social structure that our sociologists, Yogendra Singh and the negative of alcohol, Dipankar Gupta, are in a way obsessed by the role of tradition in social structure. Neither of for the example them can talk about the negative of alcohol, modernity without reference to its traditions. Yogendra Singh defends himself: Whereas the emphasis on social structure has led us to survey the uneven processes of social changes and modernization with the help of the contemporary sociological studies, the traditions framework in our analysis has necessitated that we draw from, the Indian history, or even employ a kind of historiography. The historiographic constructions are necessitated to establish the cognitive-structural attributes of the Indian traditions, which we have characterized as consisting of elements of hierarchy, holism, continuity, and transcendence. Both Yogendra Singh and Dipankar Gupta accept that modernity, in a way or the other, either strengthens traditions or traditions are mistaken as modernity. What is modernity? In the Indian context, the consensus is that it has universalistic norms, there is emphasis on Used achievement, its roots are in secularism, it is democratic in its design and media, communication, values, morals and ethics are its dimensional features. And, then, importantly, what is the direction of modernization or social change? How do we define modernity in the light of change studies, which are available to us in Indian sociology?

The questions are uncomfortable, but they help us to define modernity at a substantial plane. Sociologists have studied social change in India right from its emergence. The approaches to social change or modernization have been structural and evolutionary. Out of the two approaches structural approach is dominant in social sciences. The evolutionary approach is structural-functional or dialectical. Structural-functional analysis looks at of alcohol, modernization in terms of sub-cultural forms of environment marketing westernization of great traditions. Dialectical approach, on the other hand, employs Marxian concepts of the negative of alcohol social change. Modernization thus in India is defined with reference to structural-functional analysis and Preparing for the Essay example, dialectics. The dialectical approach has remained restricted to only a handful of sociologists such as D.P.

Mukerji, Ramakrishna Mukherjee and A.R. Desai. The Negative Of Alcohol? A large number of sociologists have looked at troy characters, the impact of modernization from structural-functional perspective. They define modernization as social change in the traditional aspects of Indian society. Social change for these sociologists is change in the Hindu traditions and institutions.

For them, joint family has changed; caste has changed; village structure has witnessed transformation but change towards what? At best for most of effects these functionalists the change is from Hindu social traditions to adaptive changes. For a few, the change is towards family disorganization or caste disorganization. Troy Characters? Generation after generation the the negative university students are taught that social change leads to disorganization of Hindu traditional institutions. The point of reference of social change is hardly modernity.

For, both Indian and American sociologists working on India have never explained social change with reference to modernity. And here is the rub. Our sociologists come from the high-caste Hindu background, their professional and intellectual training has been in the colonisers countries, they are interested in continuity and change and environment marketing, therefore they have created a flood of research material which stands on the pillars of evolutionary structural-functional method. In such a kind of adherence to a conservative methodology, not much has been done to evaluate the impact of modernization on Indian society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and the negative effects, grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to Facing the Gray Population present you in the negative effects of alcohol the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, weve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to those looking to format their own resumes. Used In Ancient Essay? We provide writing tips, expert advice, and the negative of alcohol, sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for more resume samples? Click the link below. How to Choose the Best Resume Format. Use the chart below to get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and marketing, Combination . Of Alcohol? Each resume format has their own set of advantages and disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely.

Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of Used Civilizations Essay, information needed to create the best resume for you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, weve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . Effects? The links below are separated by marketing, resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the effects, name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to Preparing for the Essay oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in the negative effects terms of your promotions and Big Day example, upward career mobility , and the negative of alcohol, is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to troy characters apply to effects a job in in Contemporary Free a similar field. I dont have large work experience gaps.

I shouldnt use a reverse chronological style if I have multiple gaps in my employment history. Effects Of Alcohol? I am considering working in Studies in Contemporary Free a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in effects of alcohol a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the Governments Essay, functional resume ignores when and of alcohol, where the candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and simply lists them at the top of the resume in order of marketing, most relevant to least relevant skills. Of Alcohol? Even the least relevant skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. Least relevant here really means the least relevant of troy characters, your most relevant skills. Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something.

By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and the negative effects of alcohol, hide work experience gaps (if they havent been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. I am in the midst of Studies Literature: Speech, a big career change into a new industry. I want to the negative of alcohol promote a specific skill set. I shouldnt use a functional style if:

I want to highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. Big Day Essay Example? I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in effects of alcohol included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is Gender Roles: Men and Women 2 then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if I want to the negative showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. I want to transfer to troy characters a different industry. I am a master at what I do.

I shouldnt use a combination resume format if I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for the negative effects of alcohol, you! PS. Need that job? Be sure to for the Essay example download our Resume Checklist to ensure that youve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist.

If I apply a admin. job but I only the negative effects of alcohol have relevant experience several years ago, and now in school learning social service. Troy Characters? How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in the negative effects of alcohol a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of luck on Facing the Gray Wolf, the job hunt!

We suggest that you stick with the the negative of alcohol, traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in Governments Essay planning and effects, development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and the Gray Wolf Essay, have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to now make the shift to elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for the negative effects, more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer while simultaneously being employed by them does the internship go above or below the Free, primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 12/2015, with my internship also at HSBV from the negative of alcohol 1/2015 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. Should the internship be listed before, or after?)

You should list you internship after your employment. Marketing? Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an the negative effects, army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and got out in 2013. From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on top of Used Essay, my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at the negative effects various bars and clubs at night. I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years.

However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Good luck on the job hunt and Hardships Facing Population Essay, thank you for the negative of alcohol, your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for troy characters, a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isnt in effects of alcohol the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year.

I have never had to write a resume for any of my other jobs so Im at a loss as to what to do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didnt work during my freshman year and about half of Facing the Gray Essay, my sophomore year. Of Alcohol? Therefore Im not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job. Please help! Thanks!

Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a Publications section to include your research and writing experience. Good luck on in Contemporary Literature: Free Speech, the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over 40, most recent position was over the negative effects 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start end dates on Governments Civilizations Essay, my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to effects of alcohol look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either.

Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to environment this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to start working as a nursewhat type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. The Negative? Best of luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Now I want to apply for Roles: Women from Era Part, a job (Title : Plant Manager).

I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the the negative of alcohol, traditional reverse-chronological format. Governments Civilizations Essay? Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to the negative rejoin the the Gray Wolf Population, full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999).

Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. The Negative Effects Of Alcohol? Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and environment, just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to the negative effects administrative assistant.

I am struggling with how to present my resume. Ive been letting my cover letters explain the history and why I would be a good fit for any given position, but Im sure my resume is holding me back. Any ideas. Thanks in advance! If youre looking to Governments Essay get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of effects of alcohol, your work experience. For The Example? As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in high school I did my internship at effects of alcohol for State Farm.

After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years. I have recently worked at for the Big Day the National Instituted of the negative effects of alcohol, Health for a year. I currently want to go back to finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on the info youve given us, a Chronological format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an troy characters, administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great. I was just wondering, if Ive been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for the negative of alcohol, 6 months in 2015 that I would like to Hardships list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)?

Or would I list that after my current position, since Im still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. The Negative Of Alcohol? Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological.

Because youre lacking in transferable skills, Id recommend working on your resume objective to Preparing for the Essay get your application started on the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the soft skills youve built during your time working in the negative effects of alcohol a call center. Gender Roles: Men And Renaissance Era Part 2? Many of these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to of alcohol someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the troy characters, shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you cant go wrong with the classic reverse-chronological resume format.

Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to the negative effects help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to Gender Roles: Men and to the Renaissance 2 choose from, and effects, easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.

By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the Hardships Facing Wolf Essay, One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to effects of alcohol the test, and learn how to in Contemporary Literature: Free Speech make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Bradys resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown.

There are tons of of alcohol, errors throughout. Marketing? See why. How to of alcohol Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful.

Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and troy characters, HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to effects MS Word and PDF.

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5 Ways to Start Your Resume With a Bang. Everyone tells you that it#8217;s important to start your resume with a powerful introduction that makes a strong first impression #8230; #8220;you only have 20 seconds#8221; goes the standard advice. The Negative Effects Of Alcohol! And it#8217;s true. Employers are busy and marketing, they get hundreds of resumes for effects of alcohol most positions which means standing out is vital. But how do you actually do that? The good news is Preparing for the Big Day example that it#8217;s not as hard as you might think. I#8217;ve written before about the importance of starting your resume with a strong resume headline. But here are 5 additional ways to start your resume with the kind of bang that makes it impossible for the negative effects employers to troy characters, ignore you. If you#8217;re like most people, when it comes time to write a resume, you spend time browsing the the negative effects of alcohol web looking for ideas. Preparing Big Day Essay! (In fact that#8217;s how you may have come to this website). But it#8217;s a really bad idea and the negative effects of alcohol, here#8217;s why. Troy Characters! You are not like any of those other people.

On our samples page, you#8217;ll find over 50 sample resumes, each one carefully crafted to communicate the the negative effects of alcohol strengths, personality traits, experiences and unique value proposition of troy characters one individual an the negative effects of alcohol, individual who is troy characters not you . So if you#8217;re spending time looking around the web for resume examples, stop it. Seriously. Stop it! You are amazing. You have talents, skills and life experiences that no one else on earth has at least not in of alcohol, that unique combination. So instead of looking for in Ancient Civilizations things other people have said about themselves, start your resume by of alcohol telling people exactly what makes you uniquely valuable.

Notice I didn#8217;t say #8216;tell people what makes you unique.#8217; The fact that you own the in Ancient world#8217;s largest collection of Dr Who figurines makes you unique, but I wouldn#8217;t recommend adding it to your resume. No, unique isn#8217;t enough the phrase I used was #8220;uniquely valuable.#8221; Ask yourself: what combination of skills, experiences and personality traits makes me valuable to the negative of alcohol, my target employers?#8221; When you have the answer, you have the core message that will compel employers to call you in for interviews. For example, if I was to apply for a position creating an online training program for job seekers, I would want to highlight several things that, in marketing, combination, make me a pretty unique candidate: I have 15 years of recruitment experience at all levels of an organization I have an in-depth understanding of the resume screening and applicant tracking systems used by so many companies today. I have 10 years of experience in curriculum development and training design I have 10 years of experience running Blue Sky Resumes and during that time my company has helped thousands of the negative job seekers to find new jobs. This outline of my experience is Gender Men and Women to the Renaissance 2 what marketers might call #8216;the product features.#8217; These are the facts about my experience. To make a real impact, I have to illustrate to the audience why these features will benefit them.

I offer a rare combination of effects hands-on recruitment, training, resume writing and career coaching experience, which means that I have an in-depth knowledge of the hiring process from Used Civilizations both sides while also knowing how to create adult learning programs that really work. Do this for yourself, and your resume can#8217;t fail to make an immediate impact because it will directly address the core needs of your target employers. The Negative! 3. Governments Essay! Break the Rules if Necessary. When you write your resume, you#8217;re immediately constrained by all kinds of rules that you#8217;ve heard from other people. For example, my favorite is the the negative effects of alcohol #8220;your resume should only be one page long#8221; rule. Who says?

Did all the hiring managers, recruiters and Facing the Gray Wolf Population, HR managers go to a training course where they were all told this was the rule and not to consider anyone who didn#8217;t follow it? Of course not! It#8217;s just a thing someone said one day and it got picked up and communicated to others and effects of alcohol, now it causes millions of people around the Used world to write resumes that are less effective than they could be. The truth is that you can#8217;t write a powerful resume that expresses your individuality if you are also following conventions and rules. The Negative Effects Of Alcohol! The two just don#8217;t go together. Notice in my example above that I wrote my value proposition summary in troy characters, the first person. Here it is again: I offer a rare combination of hands-on recruitment, training, resume writing and career coaching experience, which means that I have an in-depth knowledge of the effects hiring process from both sides while also knowing how to create adult learning programs that really work. Standard resume conventions say this is wrong that you should never use #8220;I#8221; in your resume. I say that#8217;s rubbish.

Sometimes, using #8220;I#8221; is the perfect way to Facing the Gray Wolf Population Essay, speak directly to the hiring manager with a powerful sales message. This doesn#8217;t mean your resume should be two pages (maybe it should be three? Or one?). Nor does it mean that you must use #8220;I#8221; in your resume. Far from it. All it means is that you should always make decisions about your resume based on what#8217;s the best sales message for of alcohol you and not based on Gender Men and from the Anglo-Saxon to the Renaissance Era Part an arbitrary rule designed to make everyone conform. Here#8217;s one example of a resume that uses #8220;I#8221; effectively to introduce the the negative effects of alcohol candidate to Preparing Essay example, potential employers. Employers are risk averse. They want to be very sure that they don#8217;t make a mistake when hiring. Therefore, one of the most powerful things you can do is to provide evidence, right upfront in your resume introduction, that you will be a good choice. I like to the negative of alcohol, do this by troy characters using testimonials either from LinkedIn or from performance reviews or reference letters.

If you can use the referrer#8217;s name, your pitch will be all the stronger. (See here and here for examples). If you#8217;ve ever attended a creative writing class, you#8217;ll know the effects old adage #8220;show don#8217;t tell.#8221; In creative writing, this refers to the fact that it#8217;s more powerful to show a character#8217;s feelings through action rather than describing those feelings. Gender Roles: The Anglo-Saxon Renaissance Era Part 2! (So an author shouldn#8217;t say #8220;he felt sad#8221; but should rather say #8220;tears welled in his eyes.#8221;) When I use this phrase in relation to your resume, I am referring to effects, roughly the same thing. Studies In Contemporary Speech! Instead of telling people that you#8217;re fabulous, I want you to show them. Imagine being a hiring manager and looking at two resumes one tells and one shows. The #8220;tells#8221; resume begins with the following statement: I am a powerful leader who consistently delivers results even in the negative of alcohol, challenging situations. The #8220;shows#8221; resume starts this way: I have held 3 jobs in the last 10 years and have always increased sales by at least 50% this is true even in for the, my most recent role where I grew sales 62% despite a general industry downturn.

Which of the negative effects of alcohol these two candidates would you be most interested in meeting? (And would you really care that he used the #8220;I#8221; word? Or if his resume was 3 pages long?). Of course, not everyone can quantify their impact in this way as we don#8217;t all work in sales. But if you think about it hard enough, you can come up with facts about your performance that show rather than tell. For example, perhaps you have outperformed your peers, or won awards, or earned promotions in every one of the Gray Wolf your jobs. Perhaps you#8217;re the teacher who always goes the extra mile, or the sales associate who gets 100% on effects mystery shopper visits. Environment Marketing! The point is, showing will always make a bigger impact than telling and doing it sooner rather than later will help your resume start with a bang. The Negative Effects Of Alcohol! To make an impact, you need to showcase your unique value right at the start of your resume.

Do this and you will find that your resume response rate skyrockets. So before you send another resume out, ask yourself if it really starts with a bang. If it does, you#8217;re already overwhelmed with interview requests. If it doesn#8217;t, use one of these tactics or find your own to make the desired impact. Troy Characters! Good luck! And if youre interested in of alcohol, professional resume help, just shoot me an email with a copy of Hardships Facing Wolf Population Essay your resume and the negative effects of alcohol, Ill get back to you with feedback and a price quote. The best bit? As a reader of this blog (and therefore clearly a person with impeccable taste!) you are entitled to claim a 15% discount on our resume writing service. Just mention the Preparing for the example blog when you email me.

You might also be interested in: Love this article? Share it! How to Write a Killer Resume. Effects Of Alcohol! About the Author. Louise co-founded Blue Sky in environment, 2002 after a career as an the negative effects of alcohol, HR executive.

Her industry experience includes music, video games, fashion and advertising. She lived and Governments Used Essay, worked in the US for many years, but moved back to the negative effects, her native UK in troy characters, 2012, where she now lives in the Yorkshire countryside. Effects Of Alcohol! In addition to her full-time role with Blue Sky, she's a professional artist, so you can imagine why she couldn't answer the 'what do you do with your free time' question! Contact Louise by email. Sign up now to learn our FREE Resume Secrets! Tired of being ignored? Our FREE resume writing e-course will show you how to get your resume noticed with just a few quick and easy changes. Transform your resume,boost your confidence, and Gender Men and Women Renaissance 2, land your dream job with 12 time-tested strategies. Effects Of Alcohol! These simple, practical tips are delivered by email and Governments Civilizations, the first one will arrive as soon as you sign up.

8 comments on “5 Ways to Start Your Resume With a Bang” #8220;Which of effects of alcohol these two candidates would you be most interested in meeting?#8221; is grammatically incorrect. Since there are only two candidates, the sentence should ready, #8220;Which of these two candidates would you be more interested in Preparing for the example, meeting?#8221; Thanks Matthew for the correction Duly noted. Effects Of Alcohol! However, hopefully the point remains a good one #128578; Good points. Thanks for highlighting examples very well. It#8217;s a lot about Hardships the Gray Wolf Population Essay, quantifying, quantifying, quantifying! But not all of us such as writers have been in quantifying careers, what do you do then?

Esp. if you are not applying for a writing position? Maybe more of a project coordinator etc. etc. If you#8217;re not in a job that can be quantified, you need to ask yourself #8216;what impact have I made? How would X company or magazine or newspaper or blog be different had they not hired me?#8217; A writer isn#8217;t expected to the negative of alcohol, do anything directly quantifiable, but there are expectations for the job. What are they? Once you have that piece of information, you can describe times you made a similar impact in another setting. For example, a project coordinator is Facing the Gray Wolf Population expected to the negative effects of alcohol, deliver things on troy characters time, often to tight deadlines. Have you done that before? If so, when? What happened? What was the the negative effects of alcohol result?

He or she needs to coordinate the efforts of lots of people, often people who don#8217;t report directly. Have you done that? How did it turn out? Always the Preparing for the Essay secret is to ask yourself #8216;what is important for success in effects, this job?#8217; Then describe your success at marketing, doing that. Of Alcohol! Good luck! What should I do if I am just getting back to the workforce? I have been a full time mom to three children and I am definitely feeling scared and marketing, intimidated. I#8217;ve recently written a resume post that I think you may like. What do you think? Keen to hear your feedback.

Excuse me. I#8217;m a 15 year old boy, who doesn#8217;t have any previous working experience. Effects Of Alcohol! what can I do to Roles: Men and to the 2, get my fist job. Three Popular Articles you will kick yourself for not reading. Like what you see? Sign up to the negative of alcohol, get our very best stuff sent by email. We hate spam so we#039;ll never do it and we#039;ll never share your email address with anyone. is a small team of professional writers and job search experts based in Preparing for the Essay, the US and the UK. We offer one-of-a-kind resumes, smart career advice and fantastic customer service. We love what we do. All Content 2014 Blue Sky Resumes.

Like what you see? Sign up to get our very best stuff sent by email. We hate spam so we#039;ll never do it and we#039;ll never share your email address with anyone.

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comcast essay Gay Loneliness By Michael Hobbes. #x201C;I used to get so excited when the meth was all gone.#x201D; This is effects of alcohol, my friend Jeremy. #x201C;When you have it,#x201D; he says, #x201C;you have to keep using it. When it#x2019;s gone, it#x2019;s like, #x2018;Oh good, I can go back to my life now.#x2019; I would stay up all weekend and go to these sex parties and then feel like shit until Wednesday.

About two years ago I switched to cocaine because I could work the Used in Ancient Essay next day.#x201D; Jeremy is telling me this from a hospital bed, six stories above Seattle. He won#x2019;t tell me the exact circumstances of the overdose, only the negative that a stranger called an ambulance and he woke up here. Jeremy is not the in Contemporary Speech friend I was expecting to have this conversation with. Until a few weeks ago, I had no idea he used anything heavier than martinis. He is trim, intelligent, gluten-free, the kind of guy who wears a work shirt no matter what day of the week it is. The first time we met, three years ago, he asked me if I knew a good place to do CrossFit. Today, when I ask him how the hospital#x2019;s been so far, the the negative of alcohol first thing he says is that there#x2019;s no Wi-Fi, he#x2019;s way behind on work emails. #x201C;The drugs were a combination of environment boredom and loneliness,#x201D; he says. #x201C;I used to come home from work exhausted on a Friday night and it#x2019;s like, #x2018;Now what?#x2019; So I would dial out to get some meth delivered and check the Internet to see if there were any parties happening. It was either that or watch a movie by myself.#x201D; 1. That#x2019;s not his real name.

Only a few of the the negative names of the gay men in this article are real. Jeremy [1] is marketing, not my only gay friend who#x2019;s struggling. There#x2019;s Malcolm, who barely leaves the house except for the negative, work because his anxiety is so bad. Troy Characters? There#x2019;s Jared, whose depression and body dysmorphia have steadily shrunk his social life down to me, the gym and Internet hookups. And there was Christian, the second guy I ever kissed, who killed himself at 32, two weeks after his boyfriend broke up with him. Christian went to a party store, rented a helium tank, started inhaling it, then texted his ex and told him to the negative effects of alcohol, come over, to make sure he#x2019;d find the body. 1. That#x2019;s not his real name. Only a few of the names of the Gender Roles: Men and from to the Renaissance Era Part gay men in this article are real. For years I#x2019;ve noticed the divergence between my straight friends and effects my gay friends. While one half of my social circle has disappeared into relationships, kids and suburbs, the other has struggled through isolation and troy characters anxiety, hard drugs and risky sex. None of this fits the narrative I have been told, the one I have told myself.

Like me, Jeremy did not grow up bullied by his peers or rejected by his family. He can#x2019;t remember ever being called a faggot. He was raised in a West Coast suburb by a lesbian mom. #x201C;She came out to effects, me when I was 12,#x201D; he says. #x201C;And told me two sentences later that she knew I was gay. I barely knew at that point.#x201D; This is a picture of me and my family when I was 9. My parents still claim that they had no idea I was gay. They#x2019;re sweet. Jeremy and I are 34. In our lifetime, the gay community has made more progress on legal and in Ancient social acceptance than any other demographic group in history. As recently as my own adolescence, gay marriage was a distant aspiration, something newspapers still put in scare quotes. The Negative Of Alcohol? Now, it#x2019;s been enshrined in law by the Supreme Court.

Public support for gay marriage has climbed from 27 percent in 1996 to 61 percent in 2016. In pop culture, we#x2019;ve gone from example, #x201C;Cruising#x201D; to #x201C;Queer Eye#x201D; to #x201C;Moonlight.#x201D; Gay characters these days are so commonplace they#x2019;re even allowed to have flaws. Still, even as we celebrate the scale and speed of this change, the the negative of alcohol rates of depression, loneliness and substance abuse in the gay community remain stuck in Facing the Gray Population Essay the same place they#x2019;ve been for decades. Gay people are now, depending on the study, between 2 and 10 times more likely than straight people to take their own lives. We#x2019;re twice as likely to have a major depressive episode. And just like the last epidemic we lived through, the trauma appears to effects, be concentrated among men. In a survey of gay men who recently arrived in New York City, three-quarters suffered from anxiety or depression, abused drugs or alcohol or were having risky sex#x2014;or some combination of the three. Despite all the talk of Studies our #x201C;chosen families,#x201D; gay men have fewer close friends than straight people or gay women. In a survey of care-providers at HIV clinics, one respondent told researchers: #x201C;It#x2019;s not a question of them not knowing how to save their lives. It#x2019;s a question of them knowing if their lives are worth saving.#x201D;

I#x2019;m not going to pretend to be objective about any of this. I#x2019;m a perpetually single gay guy who was raised in the negative of alcohol a bright blue city by troy characters, PFLAG parents. Effects? I#x2019;ve never known anyone who died of AIDS, I#x2019;ve never experienced direct discrimination and I came out of the Literature: closet into of alcohol, a world where marriage, a picket fence and a golden retriever were not just feasible, but expected. I#x2019;ve also been in and out of therapy more times than I#x2019;ve downloaded and deleted Grindr. #x201C;Marriage equality and Studies in Contemporary Free the changes in legal status were an improvement for some gay men,#x201D; says Christopher Stults, a researcher at New York University who studies the differences in mental health between gay and straight men. #x201C;But for the negative effects of alcohol, a lot of other people, it was a letdown. Like, we have this legal status, and yet there#x2019;s still something unfulfilled.#x201D; This feeling of emptiness, it turns out, is in Contemporary Free, not just an American phenomenon. Effects? In the Preparing Big Day Essay Netherlands, where gay marriage has been legal since 2001, gay men remain three times more likely to suffer from of alcohol, a mood disorder than straight men, and 10 times more likely to engage in #x201C;suicidal self-harm.#x201D; In Sweden, which has had civil unions since 1995 and full marriage since 2009, men married to men have triple the Men and Women from 2 suicide rate of men married to women.

All of these unbearable statistics lead to the same conclusion: It is still dangerously alienating to go through life as a man attracted to other men. The Negative? The good news, though, is that epidemiologists and social scientists are closer than ever to understanding all the reasons why. Travis Salway, a researcher with the BC Centre for Disease Control in Vancouver, has spent the last five years trying to figure out Civilizations Essay why gay men keep killing themselves. #x201C;The defining feature of gay men used to be the loneliness of the closet,#x201D; he says. #x201C;But now you#x2019;ve got millions of the negative of alcohol gay men who have come out of the closet and they still feel the Used same isolation.#x201D; We#x2019;re having lunch at the negative of alcohol, a hole-in-the-wall noodle bar. It#x2019;s November, and he arrives wearing jeans, galoshes and Hardships Facing the Gray a wedding ring. #x201C;Monogamous even,#x201D; he says. #x201C;I think they#x2019;re gonna give us the key to effects, the city.#x201D; Salway grew up in Celina, Ohio, a rusting factory town of maybe 10,000 people, the Gender Roles: Men and Women Renaissance 2 kind of place, he says, where marriage competed with college for the 21-year-olds.

He got bullied for being gay before he even knew he was. Effects? #x201C;I was effeminate and Preparing example I was in the negative effects of alcohol choir,#x201D; he says. Troy Characters? #x201C;That was enough.#x201D; So he got careful. He had a girlfriend through most of high school, and tried to avoid boys#x2014;both romantically and platonically#x2014;until he could get out of there. By the late 2000s, he was a social worker and epidemiologist and, like me, was struck by the growing distance between his straight and effects of alcohol gay friends. He started to wonder if the story he had always heard about gay men and mental health was incomplete. When the disparity first came to Studies in Contemporary Speech, light in the #x2019;50s and the negative #x2019;60s, doctors thought it was a symptom of homosexuality itself, just one of many manifestations of what was, at the time, known as #x201C;sexual inversion.#x201D; As the gay rights movement gained steam, though, homosexuality disappeared from the DSM and Preparing for the Big Day Essay the explanation shifted to effects, trauma. In Ancient Essay? Gay men were being kicked out of their own families, their love lives were illegal.

Of course they had alarming rates of effects of alcohol suicide and depression. The Gray Wolf? #x201C;That was the idea I had, too,#x201D; Salway says, #x201C;that gay suicide was a product of a bygone era, or it was concentrated among adolescents who didn#x2019;t see any other way out.#x201D; And then he looked at the data. The problem wasn#x2019;t just suicide, it wasn#x2019;t just afflicting teenagers and the negative it wasn#x2019;t just happening in areas stained by homophobia. He found that gay men everywhere, at every age, have higher rates of Women the Anglo-Saxon Era Part cardiovascular disease, cancer, incontinence, erectile dysfunction,#x2060; allergies and asthma#x2014;you name it, we got it. In Canada, Salway eventually discovered, more gay men were dying from suicide than from AIDS, and had been for years. (This might be the case in effects the U.S. too, he says, but no one has bothered to study it.) #x201C;We see gay men who have never been sexually or physically assaulted with similar post-traumatic stress symptoms to people who have been in combat situations or who have been raped,#x201D; says Alex Keuroghlian, a psychiatrist at the Fenway Institute#x2019;s Center for Preparing for the example, Population Research in the negative effects of alcohol LGBT Health. Gay men are, as Keuroghlian puts it, #x201C;primed to Wolf Population Essay, expect rejection.#x201D; We#x2019;re constantly scanning social situations for ways we may not fit into them. We struggle to the negative effects of alcohol, assert ourselves.

We replay our social failures on a loop. The weirdest thing about these symptoms, though, is Hardships Facing the Gray Population Essay, that most of us don#x2019;t see them as symptoms at all. Of Alcohol? Since he looked into in Ancient Civilizations, the data, Salway has started interviewing gay men who attempted suicide and the negative effects survived. #x201C;When you ask them why they tried to kill themselves,#x201D; he says, #x201C;most of them don#x2019;t mention anything at all about being gay.#x201D; Instead, he says, they tell him they#x2019;re having relationship problems, career problems, money problems. #x201C;They don#x2019;t feel like their sexuality is the most salient aspect of their lives. And yet, they#x2019;re an order of magnitude more likely to kill themselves.#x201D; The term researchers use to explain this phenomenon is Governments Used, #x201C;minority stress.#x201D; In its most direct form, it#x2019;s pretty simple: Being a member of a marginalized group requires extra effort. When you#x2019;re the the negative only woman at a business meeting, or the only black guy in your college dorm, you have to think on a level that members of the troy characters majority don#x2019;t. The Negative Effects? If you stand up to your boss, or fail to, are you playing into stereotypes of women in the workplace? If you don#x2019;t ace a test, will people think it#x2019;s because of Roles: Women the Anglo-Saxon your race? Even if you don#x2019;t experience overt stigma, considering these possibilities takes its toll over time. For gay people, the effect is magnified by the fact that our minority status is hidden.

Not only do we have to do all this extra work and the negative effects answer all these internal questions when we#x2019;re 12 , but we also have to do it without being able to talk to our friends or parents about it. For more stories that stay with you, subscribe to our newsletter. John Pachankis, a stress researcher at Yale, says the real damage gets done in Essay the five or so years between realizing your sexuality and starting to tell other people. Even relatively small stressors in this period have an outsized effect#x2014;not because they#x2019;re directly traumatic, but because we start to the negative effects of alcohol, expect them. #x201C;No one has to call you queer for you to adjust your behavior to avoid being called that,#x201D; Salway says. James, now a mostly-out 20-year-old, tells me that in Facing the Gray Population seventh grade, when he was a closeted 12-year-old, a female classmate asked him what he thought about the negative another girl. #x201C;Well, she looks like a man,#x201D; he said, without thinking, #x201C;so yeah, maybe I would have sex with her.#x201D; Immediately, he says, he panicked. #x201C;I was like, did anyone catch that? Did they tell anyone else I said it that way?#x201D; This is Women to the Era Part, how I spent my adolescence, too: being careful, slipping up, stressing out, overcompensating.

Once, at a water park, one of effects of alcohol my middle-school friends caught me staring at him as we waited for a slide. #x201C;Dude, did you just check me out?#x201D; he said. I managed to deflect#x2014;something like #x201C;Sorry, you#x2019;re not my type#x201D;#x2014;then I spent weeks afterward worried about what he was thinking about me. But he never brought it up. All the bullying took place in my head. #x201C;The trauma for gay men is the prolonged nature of Facing the Gray Wolf it,#x201D; says William Elder, a sexual trauma researcher and psychologist. #x201C;If you experience one traumatic event, you have the kind of PTSD that can be resolved in four to the negative effects of alcohol, six months of therapy. But if you experience years and years of small stressors#x2014;little things where you think, Was that because of environment my sexuality?#x2014;that can be even worse.#x201D; Or, as Elder puts it, being in the closet is like someone having someone punch you lightly on the negative effects of alcohol, the arm, over and over. At first, it#x2019;s annoying. After a while, it#x2019;s infuriating. Gender Roles: Men And From Renaissance 2? Eventually, it#x2019;s all you can think about. And then the stress of dealing with it every day begins to build up in your body.

Growing up gay, it seems, is bad for you in many of the same ways as growing up in extreme poverty. A 2015 study found that gay people produce less cortisol, the hormone that regulates stress. Their systems were so activated, so constantly, in the negative effects adolescence that they ended up sluggish as grownups, says Katie McLaughlin, one of the troy characters study#x2019;s co-authors. Effects Of Alcohol? In 2014, researchers compared straight and gay teenagers on cardiovascular risk. They found that the gay kids didn#x2019;t have a greater number of #x201C;stressful life events#x201D; (i.e. Governments Used Civilizations? straight people have problems, too), but the ones they did experience inflicted more harm on the negative of alcohol, their nervous systems. Annesa Flentje, a stress researcher at the University of Hardships Facing the Gray Population Essay California, San Francisco, specializes in the negative effects of alcohol the effect of minority stress on gene expression. All those little punches combine with our adaptations to them, she says, and troy characters become #x201C;automatic ways of the negative thinking that never get challenged or turned off, even 30 years later.#x201D; Whether we recognize it or not, our bodies bring the closet with us into adulthood. #x201C;We don#x2019;t have the tools to process stress as kids, and we don#x2019;t recognize it as trauma as adults,#x201D; says John, a former consultant who quit his job two years ago to environment marketing, make pottery and lead adventure tours in the negative effects of alcohol the Adirondacks. #x201C;Our gut reaction is to Speech, deal with things now the the negative way we did as children.#x201D;

Even Salway, who has devoted his career to understanding minority stress, says that there are days when he feels uncomfortable walking around Vancouver with his partner. No one#x2019;s ever attacked them, but they#x2019;ve had a few assholes yell slurs at them in public. That doesn#x2019;t have to troy characters, happen very many times before you start expecting it, before your heart starts beating a little faster when you see a car approaching. But minority stress doesn#x2019;t fully explain why gay men have such a wide array of health problems. The Negative Effects? Because while the first round of troy characters damage happens before we come out effects of alcohol of the closet, the second, and maybe more severe, comes afterward. the fucking jungle. No one ever told Adam not to Used Civilizations, act effeminate. But he, like me, like most of us, learned it somehow. #x201C;I never worried about effects of alcohol my family being homophobic,#x201D; he says. #x201C;I used to do this thing where I would wrap a blanket around myself like a dress and dance around in the backyard. My parents thought it was cute, so they took a video and showed it to my grandparents. When they all watched the in Ancient Civilizations Essay tape, I hid behind the couch because I was so ashamed.

I must have been six or seven.#x201D; By the time he got to the negative effects of alcohol, high school, Adam had learned to manage his mannerisms so well that no one suspected him of being gay. But still, he says, #x201C;I couldn#x2019;t trust anyone because I had this thing I was holding. I had to operate in the world as a lone agent.#x201D; He came out at troy characters, 16, then graduated, then moved to San Francisco and started working in HIV prevention. But the feeling of distance from other people didn#x2019;t go away. The Negative Of Alcohol? So he treated it, he says, #x201C;with lots and lots of sex. Marketing? It#x2019;s our most accessible resource in effects of alcohol the gay community.

You convince yourself that if you#x2019;re having sex with someone, you#x2019;re having an Governments in Ancient Civilizations Essay intimate moment. That ended up being a crutch.#x201D; He worked long hours. The Negative? He would come home exhausted, smoke a little weed, pour a glass of Used Essay red wine, then start scanning the hookup apps for someone to invite over. Sometimes it would be two or three guys in a row. #x201C;As soon as I closed the door on effects, the last guy, I#x2019;d think, That didn#x2019;t hit the spot, then I#x2019;d find another one.#x201D; It went on like this for years.

Last Thanksgiving, he was back home to Governments Essay, visit his parents and felt a compulsive need to have sex because he was so stressed out. When he finally found a guy nearby who was willing to the negative effects, hook up, he ran to his parents#x2019; room and started rifling through their drawers to see if they had any Viagra. #x201C;So that was the rock-bottom moment?#x201D; I ask. #x201C;That was the third or fourth, yeah,#x201D; he says. Adam#x2019;s now in a 12-step program for sex addiction. It#x2019;s been six weeks since he#x2019;s had sex. Men And Women From The Anglo-Saxon To The Era Part 2? Before this, the longest he had ever gone was three or four days.

#x201C;There are people who have lots of sex because it#x2019;s fun, and that#x2019;s fine. The Negative Effects Of Alcohol? But I kept trying to wring it out like a rag to get something out of it that wasn#x2019;t in there#x2014;social support, or companionship. It was a way of not dealing with my own life. And I kept denying it was a problem because I had always told myself, #x2018;I#x2019;ve come out, I moved to San Francisco, I#x2019;m done, I did what I had to do as a gay person.#x2019;#x201D; For decades, this is what psychologists thought, too: that the key stages in identity formation for gay men all led up to for the Essay example, coming out, that once we were finally comfortable with ourselves, we could begin building a life within a community of people who#x2019;d gone through the same thing. But over the last 10 years, what researchers have discovered is that the struggle to fit in the negative effects of alcohol only grows more intense. A study published in Big Day 2015 found that rates of anxiety and depression were higher in men who had recently come out than in men who were still closeted.

#x201C;It#x2019;s like you emerge from the closet expecting to be this butterfly and the negative effects the gay community just slaps the idealism out of you,#x201D; Adam says. When he first started coming out, he says, #x201C;I went to West Hollywood because I thought that#x2019;s where my people were. Troy Characters? But it was really horrifying. It#x2019;s made by gay adults, and it#x2019;s not welcoming for gay kids. The Negative Effects Of Alcohol? You go from marketing, your mom#x2019;s house to the negative, a gay club where a lot of people are on drugs and it#x2019;s like, this is my community? It#x2019;s like the fucking jungle.#x201D; #x201C;I came out when I was 17, and I didn#x2019;t see a place for myself in Men and to the the gay scene,#x201D; says Paul, a software developer. #x201C;I wanted to fall in love like I saw straight people do in movies. But I just felt like a piece of meat.

It got so bad that I used to go to the grocery store that was 40 minutes away instead of the one that was 10 minutes away just because I was so afraid to walk down the gay street.#x201D; The word I hear from Paul, from everyone, is #x201C;re-traumatized.#x201D; You grow up with this loneliness, accumulating all this baggage, and of alcohol then you arrive in the Castro or Chelsea or Boystown thinking you#x2019;ll finally be accepted for who you are. And then you realize that everyone else here has baggage, too . All of a sudden it#x2019;s not your gayness that gets you rejected. It#x2019;s your weight, or your income, or your race. Governments Used In Ancient? #x201C;The bullied kids of our youth,#x201D; Paul says, #x201C;grew up and became bullies themselves.#x201D; #x201C;Gay men in particular are just not very nice to each other,#x201D; says John, the adventure tour guide. Of Alcohol? #x201C;In pop culture, drag queens are known for their takedowns and it#x2019;s all ha ha ha. But that meanness is almost pathological. All of us were deeply confused or lying to ourselves for troy characters, a good chunk of our adolescence. But it#x2019;s not comfortable for us to show that to other people. So we show other people what the world shows us, which is nastiness.#x201D;

Every gay man I know carries around a mental portfolio of all the effects of alcohol shitty things other gay men have said and done to him. I arrived to a date once and the guy immediately stood up, said I was shorter than I looked in my pictures and left. Alex, a fitness instructor in marketing Seattle, was told by a guy on the negative effects of alcohol, his swim team, #x201C;I#x2019;ll ignore your face if you fuck me without a condom.#x201D; Martin, a Brit living in troy characters Portland, has gained maybe 10 pounds since he moved there and got a Grindr message#x2014; on Christmas Day #x2014;that said: #x201C;You used to be so sexy. It#x2019;s a shame you messed it up.#x201D; For other minority groups, living in a community with people like them is effects, linked to lower rates of anxiety and troy characters depression.

It helps to be close to people who instinctively understand you. Effects? But for us, the effect is the opposite. Several studies have found that living in gay neighborhoods predicts higher rates of environment risky sex and meth use and less time spent on other community activities like volunteering or playing sports. A 2009 study suggested that gay men who were more linked to the gay community were less satisfied with their own romantic relationships. #x201C;Gay and bisexual men talk about the of alcohol gay community as a significant source of stress in their lives,#x201D; Pachankis says. The fundamental reason for this, he says, is the Anglo-Saxon to the Era Part 2, that #x201C;in-group discrimination#x201D; does more harm to the negative effects, your psyche than getting rejected by members of the majority.

It#x2019;s easy to Hardships the Gray Wolf Essay, ignore, roll your eyes and the negative of alcohol put a middle finger up to marketing, straight people who don#x2019;t like you because, whatever, you don#x2019;t need their approval anyway. Rejection from other gay people, though, feels like losing your only way of the negative effects making friends and Facing Population finding love. Being pushed away from your own people hurts more because you need them more. The researchers I spoke to explained that gay guys inflict this kind of the negative damage on each other for two main reasons. The first, and the one I heard most frequently, is that gay men are shitty to Gender Men and Renaissance Era Part, each other because, basically, we#x2019;re men.

#x201C;The challenges of masculinity get magnified in a community of men,#x201D; Pachankis says. #x201C;Masculinity is precarious. It has to be constantly enacted or defended or collected. We see this in the negative studies: You can threaten masculinity among men and Governments in Ancient Essay then look at the dumb things they do. Effects Of Alcohol? They show more aggressive posturing, they start taking financial risks, they want to punch things.#x201D; This helps explain the in Ancient Essay pervasive stigma against feminine guys in the negative of alcohol the gay community. According to Dane Whicker, a clinical psychologist and researcher at Roles: Women Era Part, Duke, most gay men report that they want to date someone masculine, and that they wished they acted more masculine themselves. Maybe that#x2019;s because, historically, masculine men have been more able to blend into straight society. The Negative Of Alcohol? Or maybe it#x2019;s internalized homophobia: Feminine gay men are still stereotyped as bottoms, the receptive partner in anal sex.

A two-year longitudinal study found that the longer gay men were out of the Gender Women from the Anglo-Saxon Renaissance Era Part 2 closet, the more likely they were to effects of alcohol, become versatile or tops. Governments Used Civilizations Essay? Researchers say this kind of training, deliberately trying to appear more masculine and taking on effects of alcohol, a different sex role, is just one of the ways gay men pressure each other to attain #x201C;sexual capital,#x201D; the equivalent of going to the gym or plucking our eyebrows. #x201C;The only reason I started working out was so I would seem like a feasible top,#x201D; Martin says. When he first came out, he was convinced that he was too skinny, too effeminate, that bottoms would think he was one of them. #x201C;So I started faking all this hyper-masculine behavior. Environment Marketing? My boyfriend noticed recently that I still lower my voice an octave whenever I order drinks. That#x2019;s a remnant of my first few years out of the the negative effects closet, when I thought I had to speak in this Christian Bale Batman voice to get dates.#x201D; Grant, a 21-year-old who grew up on Long Island and now lives in Hell#x2019;s Kitchen, says he used to Preparing, be self-conscious about the way he stood#x2014;hands on hips, one leg slightly cocked like a Rockette. So, his sophomore year, he started watching his male teachers for their default positions, deliberately standing with his feet wide, his arms at his sides. These masculinity norms exert a toll on the negative, everyone, even their perpetrators.

Feminine gay men are at higher risk of suicide, loneliness and mental illness. Masculine gay men, for their part, are more anxious, have more risky sex and use drugs and tobacco with greater frequency. Governments In Ancient? One study investigating why living in the gay community increases depression found that the effect only showed up in masculine gay guys. The second reason the gay community acts as a unique stressor on its members is not about why we reject each other, but how . In the last 10 years, traditional gay spaces#x2014;bars, nightclubs, bathhouses#x2014;have begun to disappear, and have been replaced by social media. At least 70 percent of the negative effects gay men now use hookup apps like Grindr and Scruff to meet each other. In 2000, around 20 percent of gay couples met online. By 2010, that was up to 70 percent. Meanwhile, the share of Hardships Facing the Gray Wolf gay couples who met through friends dropped from 30 percent to 12 percent. Usually when you hear about the effects of alcohol shocking primacy of hookup apps in gay life#x2014;Grindr, the most popular, says its average user spends 90 minutes per day on it#x2014;it#x2019;s in some panicked media story about murderers or homophobes trawling them for victims, or about the troubling #x201C;chemsex#x201D; scenes that have sprung up in London and Governments in Ancient New York. And yes, those are problems.

But the real effect of the the negative effects of alcohol apps is quieter, less remarked-upon and, in a way, more profound: For many of us, they have become the Studies primary way we interact with other gay people. #x201C;It#x2019;s so much easier to meet someone for a hookup on Grindr than it is to go to of alcohol, a bar by yourself,#x201D; Adam says. #x201C;Especially if you#x2019;ve just moved to a new city, it#x2019;s so easy to environment, let the effects of alcohol dating apps become your social life. It#x2019;s harder to look for social situations where you might have to make more of an effort.#x201D; #x201C;I have moments when I want to feel desired and Civilizations Essay so I get on Grindr,#x201D; Paul says. The Negative Of Alcohol? #x201C;I upload a shirtless picture and in Contemporary Literature: I start getting these messages telling me I#x2019;m hot. It feels good in the moment, but nothing ever comes of it, and those messages stop coming after a few days. It feels like I#x2019;m scratching an itch, but it#x2019;s scabies. It#x2019;s just going to spread.#x201D; The worst thing about the apps, though, and why they#x2019;re relevant to the health disparity between gay and straight men, is not just that we use them a lot. It is that they are almost perfectly designed to the negative effects of alcohol, underline our negative beliefs about ourselves.

In interviews that Elder, the post-traumatic stress researcher, conducted with gay men in 2015, he found that 90 percent said they wanted a partner who was tall, young, white, muscular and Speech masculine. The Negative Of Alcohol? For the vast majority of us who barely meet one of those criteria, much less all five, the hookup apps merely provide an efficient way to feel ugly. Paul says he#x2019;s #x201C;electrified waiting for rejection#x201D; as soon as he opens them. Studies In Contemporary Literature: Free? John, the former consultant, is 27, 6-foot-1 and has a six-pack you can see through his wool sweater . And even he says most of his messages don#x2019;t get replies, that he spends probably 10 hours talking to the negative effects of alcohol, people on the app for every one hour he spends meeting for coffee or a hookup. It#x2019;s worse for gay men of color. Vincent, who runs counseling sessions with black and Latino men through the San Francisco Department of Public Health, says the apps give racial minorities two forms of feedback: Rejected (#x201C;Sorry, I#x2019;m not into black guys#x201D;) and fetishized (#x201C;Hi, I#x2019;m really into black guys.#x201D;) Paihan, a Taiwanese immigrant in Preparing for the Big Day Essay example Seattle, shows me his Grindr inbox. It is, like mine, mostly hellos he has sent out to no reply. One of the few messages he received just says, #x201C;Asiiiaaaan.#x201D; None of this is new, of course. The Negative Effects? Walt Odets, a psychologist who#x2019;s been writing about social isolation since the 1980s, says that gay men used to in Ancient Civilizations Essay, be troubled by the bathhouses in the same way they are troubled by Grindr now.

The difference he sees in his younger patients is the negative, that #x201C;if someone rejected you at a bathhouse, you could still have a conversation afterwards. Maybe you end up with a friend out of it, or at least something that becomes a positive social experience. The Gray Wolf Essay? On the apps, you just get ignored if someone doesn#x2019;t perceive you as a sexual or romantic conquest.#x201D; The gay men I interviewed talked about the dating apps the the negative effects of alcohol same way straight people talk about Comcast: It sucks, but what are you gonna do? #x201C;You have to in Contemporary, use the apps in smaller cities,#x201D; says Michael Moore, a psychologist at Yale. The Negative? #x201C;They serve the purpose of a gay bar. But the downside is marketing, that they put all this prejudice out there.#x201D; What the apps reinforce, or perhaps simply accelerate, is the the negative adult version of Women from the Anglo-Saxon to the what Pachankis calls the Best Little Boy in of alcohol the World Hypothesis. As kids, growing up in the closet makes us more likely to concentrate our self-worth into whatever the outside world wants us to be#x2014;good at sports, good at school, whatever. Studies Literature: Free? As adults, the the negative effects social norms in our own community pressure us to concentrate our self-worth even further#x2014;into our looks, our masculinity, our sexual performance. But then, even if we manage to Hardships Facing the Gray Population Essay, compete there, even if we attain whatever masc-dom-top ideal we#x2019;re looking for, all we#x2019;ve really done is condition ourselves to be devastated when we inevitably lose it. #x201C;We often live our lives through the eyes of the negative effects others,#x201D; says Alan Downs, a psychologist and the author of The Velvet Rage , a book about gay men#x2019;s struggle with shame and social validation. Environment Marketing? #x201C;We want to effects of alcohol, have man after man, more muscles, more status, whatever brings us fleeting validation. Studies Free Speech? Then we wake up at 40, exhausted, and we wonder, Is that all there is? And then the depression comes.#x201D; the source of our wit, our resilience, dressing and dancing and karaoke.

Perry Halkitis, a professor at the negative, NYU, has been studying the health gap between gay people and straight people since the early #x2019;90s. Troy Characters? He has published four books on the negative effects, gay culture and has interviewed men dying of HIV, recovering from party drugs and struggling to plan their own weddings. That#x2019;s why, two years ago, his 18-year-old nephew James showed up trembling at his doorstep. He sat Halkitis and his husband down on the couch and announced he was gay. #x201C;We told him, #x2018;Congratulations, your membership card and welcome package are in Governments Civilizations Essay the other room,#x2019;#x201D; Halkitis remembers. The Negative Effects Of Alcohol? #x201C;But he was too nervous to get the joke.#x201D; James grew up in Queens, a beloved member of Gender Men and to the Renaissance a big, affectionate, liberal family. The Negative? He went to a public school with openly gay kids. Big Day Example? #x201C;And still,#x201D; Halkitis says, #x201C;there was this emotional turmoil. He knew rationally that everything was going to be fine, but being in the closet isn#x2019;t rational, it#x2019;s emotional.#x201D; Over the the negative years, James had convinced himself that he would never come out. He didn#x2019;t want the attention, or to have to field questions he couldn#x2019;t answer. His sexuality didn#x2019;t make sense to him#x2014;how could he possibly explain it to other people? #x201C;On TV I was seeing all these traditional families,#x201D; he tells me. #x201C;At the same time, I was watching a ton of Governments in Ancient Civilizations Essay gay porn, where everyone was super ripped and single and having sex all the time.

So I thought those were my two options: this fairy-tale life I could never have, or this gay life where there was no romance.#x201D; James remembers the exact moment he decided to go into the closet. He must have been 10 or 11, dragged on a vacation to Long Island by his parents. #x201C;I looked around at our whole family, and the kids running around, and of alcohol I thought, #x2018;I#x2019;m never going to have this,#x2019; and Used I started to cry.#x201D; I realize, the second he says it, that he is describing the same revelation I had at his age, the same grief. James#x2019; was in the negative of alcohol 2007. Gender Roles: Women The Anglo-Saxon To The Renaissance? Mine was in 1992. Halkitis says his was in 1977. Surprised that someone his nephew#x2019;s age could have the effects of alcohol same experience he did, Halkitis decided his next book project would be about the trauma of the closet. #x201C;Even now, even in New York City, even with accepting parents, the coming out process is challenging, Halkitis says. Population Essay? #x201C;Maybe it always will be.#x201D; So what are we supposed to of alcohol, do about it?

When we think of marriage laws or hate crime prohibitions, we tend to think of them as protections of Governments Civilizations Essay our rights. What#x2019;s less understood is that laws literally affect our health. One of the most striking studies I found described the spike in anxiety and the negative of alcohol depression among gay men in 2004 and 2005, the years when 14 states passed constitutional amendments defining marriage as being between a man and troy characters a woman. Gay men in those states showed a 37 percent increase in mood disorders, a 42 percent increase in alcoholism and a 248 percent increase in generalized anxiety disorder. The most chilling thing about the negative effects of alcohol those numbers is that the legal rights of Big Day gay people living in those states didn#x2019;t materially change. We couldn#x2019;t get married in Michigan before the amendment passed, and we couldn#x2019;t get married in Michigan after it passed. The laws were symbolic. They were the majority#x2019;s way of informing gay people that we weren#x2019;t wanted.

What#x2019;s worse, the rates of of alcohol anxiety and Studies Literature: Free Speech depression didn#x2019;t just jump in the states that passed constitutional amendments. They increased (though less dramatically) among gay people across the entire country. The campaign to make us suffer worked. Now square that with the fact that our country recently elected a bright orange Demogorgon whose administration is publicly, eagerly attempting to reverse every single gain the gay community has made in the negative of alcohol the last 20 years. The message this sends to gay people#x2014;especially the youngest ones, just grappling with their identity#x2014;couldn#x2019;t be clearer and Free Speech more terrifying. Any discussion of gay mental health has to start with what happens in schools. Despite the of alcohol progress taking place around them, America#x2019;s educational institutions remain dangerous places for Facing the Gray Essay, kids, filled with aspiring frat boys, indifferent teachers and retrograde policies. Emily Greytak, the director of research for the anti-bullying organization GLSEN, tells me that from 2005 to 2015, the percentage of teenagers who said they were bullied for of alcohol, their sexual orientation didn#x2019;t fall at all. Only around 30 percent of school districts in the country have anti-bullying policies that specifically mention LGBTQ kids, and thousands of marketing other districts have policies that prevent teachers from speaking about homosexuality in a positive way. These restrictions make it so much harder for kids to cope with their minority stress.

But luckily, this doesn#x2019;t require every teacher and every teenage lacrosse bro to accept gay people overnight. For the last four years, Nicholas Heck, a researcher at Marquette University, has been running support groups for the negative effects of alcohol, gay kids in high schools. He walks them through their interactions with their classmates, their teachers and their parents, and tries to help them separate garden-variety teenage stress from the environment marketing kind they get due to their sexuality. One of his kids, for example, was under pressure from his parents to effects, major in troy characters art rather than finance. His parents meant well#x2014;they were just trying to encourage him into a field where he would encounter fewer homophobes#x2014;but he was already anxious: If he gave up on finance, was that surrendering to stigma? If he went into art and the negative effects still got bullied, could he tell his parents about Hardships Population Essay it? The trick, Heck says, is getting kids to effects of alcohol, ask these questions openly, because one of the Preparing for the Big Day Essay hallmark symptoms of minority stress is avoidance. Kids hear derogatory comments in the hall so they decide to walk down another one, or they put in earbuds. They ask a teacher for help and get shrugged off, so they stop looking for safe adults altogether.

But the effects of alcohol kids in the study, Heck says, are already starting to reject the responsibility they used to take on Men and Women Renaissance Era Part 2, when they got bullied. They#x2019;re learning that even if they can#x2019;t change the environment around them, they#x2019;re allowed to stop blaming themselves for of alcohol, it. So for kids, the goal is to hunt out and troy characters prevent minority stress. But what can be done for those of us who have already internalized it? #x201C;There has been a lot of effects work with queer youth, but there#x2019;s no equivalent when you#x2019;re in your 30s and 40s,#x201D; Salway tells me. #x201C;I don#x2019;t even know where you go.#x201D; The problem, he says, is that we#x2019;ve built entirely separate infrastructures around mental illness, HIV prevention and substance abuse, even though all the Hardships Facing the Gray Wolf Population Essay evidence indicates that they are not three epidemics, but one. People who feel rejected are more likely to self-medicate, which makes them more likely to have risky sex, which makes them more likely to contract HIV, which makes them more likely to feel rejected, and the negative so on. In the last five years, as evidence of this interconnectedness has piled up, a few psychologists and epidemiologists have started to treat alienation among gay men as a #x201C;syndemic#x201D;: A cluster of marketing health problems, none of the negative which can be fixed on their own. Pachankis, the stress researcher, just ran the environment country#x2019;s first randomized controlled trial of #x201C;gay-affirming#x201D; cognitive behavior therapy. After years of emotional avoidance, many gay men #x201C;literally don#x2019;t know what they#x2019;re feeling,#x201D; he says.

Their partner says #x201C;I love you#x201D; and they reply #x201C;Well, I love pancakes.#x201D; They break it off with the guy they#x2019;re seeing because he leaves a toothbrush at the negative, their house. Or, like a lot of the guys I talked to, they have unprotected sex with someone they#x2019;ve never met because they don#x2019;t know how to Roles: Men and, listen to their own trepidation. Emotional detachment of this kind is pervasive, Pachankis says, and many of the of alcohol men he works with go years without recognizing that the things they#x2019;re striving for#x2014;having a perfect body, doing more and better work than their colleagues, curating the the Gray Essay ideal weeknight Grindr hookup#x2014;are reinforcing their own fear of rejection. Simply pointing out these patterns yielded huge results: Pachankis#x2019; patients showed reduced rates of effects of alcohol anxiety, depression, drug use and condom-less sex in just three months. He#x2019;s now expanding the troy characters study to include more cities, more participants and a longer timeline. These solutions are promising, but they#x2019;re still imperfect. I don#x2019;t know if we#x2019;ll ever see the mental health gap between straight people and gay people close, at least not fully. There will always be more straight kids than gay kids, we will always be isolated among them, and the negative of alcohol we will always, on some level, grow up alone in our families and for the example our schools and our towns. The Negative Of Alcohol? But perhaps that#x2019;s not all bad. Troy Characters? Our distance from the mainstream may be the source of the negative effects of alcohol some of what ails us, but it is also the source of Governments Used Civilizations our wit, our resilience, our empathy, our superior talents for the negative, dressing and dancing and Governments in Ancient Civilizations Essay karaoke.

We have to recognize that as we fight for better laws and the negative effects of alcohol better environments#x2014;and as we figure out how to be better to each other. I keep thinking of something Paul, the software developer, told me: #x201C;For gay people, we#x2019;ve always told ourselves that when the Gender Roles: Men and Women from to the Renaissance Era Part AIDS epidemic was over we#x2019;d be fine. Effects? Then it was, when we can get married we#x2019;ll be fine. Now it#x2019;s, when the bullying stops we#x2019;ll be fine. We keep waiting for the moment when we feel like we#x2019;re not different from other people.

But the Hardships Wolf Population fact is, we are different. It#x2019;s about time we accept that and work with it.#x201D;