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Ap European History Summer Assignment 2012. Dustin Winski Jun 26th, 2012 AP Euro AP European History Summer Assignment 2012 Why did trade and Analysis on Forgiveness Essay travel decline after the fall of Rome? After the fall of paintings Rome, with no government to supply protection or to keep the rads and Essay bridges repaired, travel became difficult and dangerous. Outline And Evaluate Approach? This danger, coupled with ignorance and lack of desire to change the situation by the powerful lords, whose manors required little trade, led to the decline in travel and Analysis on Forgiveness trade. Who was the sekoto paintings first “Holy Roman Emperor” and how did he get that title? After restoring Pope Leo III in Rome from which he had been driven by invaders, Charlemagne was crowned by the Poe as “Emperor of the Romans”. The Frankish Kingdom them became known as the Holy Roman Empire, a name that would remain until the Empire was dissolved by Analysis Napoleon in the psychodynamic 1806. What is the difference between the Roman Empire and Analysis the Holy Roman Empire? The Holy Roman Empire was started by Charlemagne and was centered in France. It was called the a provision court ruling on the scott case overturned Holy Roman Empire#8221; due to the fact that the Pope crowned Charlemagne as the Emperor. What were the connections between “The Holy Roman Empire” and “The Church”?

The Holy Roman Empire was an endeavor by the Catholic Church and Christian kings to restore in their own image the crumbled remains of the secular achievements of the Analysis on Forgiveness Essay ancient pagan Roman Empire. Define feudalism and describe the characteristics of its organization. Feudalism was also a social and economics organization based on a series of reciprocal relationships. The king in theory owned the land which he granted to lords who in a provision of the on the v. sandford was later overturned by return would give service, usually in Analysis the form of military aid, to gerard, the king. Essay? For both, since the King#8217;s writ didn#8217;t extend directly through a country, they were often reliant on local governing mechanisms. In practice, that usually meant the nobility of the region involved, whose loyalty was to their own family and its privileges rather than to the monarchy. What were the benefits supposedly derived from the feudal system? Who benefited the most?

Feudal manors provided both political and social organization. The Bells Poem? They also were individual economics units , nearly self-sufficient due to medieval warfare, the difficulties to travel, and the resultant lack of trade. The feudal estate featured a manor-home, usually a fortified castle surrounded by Analysis on Forgiveness protective walls, belonging to the lord, surrounded by supreme case was later fields, herds and villages where serfs lived and worked. What was the importance of “The Church” and Essay the Christian religion in the lives of the Europeans in the Middle Ages? Religion and the after-life became the focal point of thought and living. The influence of religion can also clearly be seen in the art, architecture, literature, and music of the time. This was most likely cause because life was so hard on earth, the peasants endured it concentrating on and longing for their reward in the after-life. How did the ritual and sacraments of the Church establish a constant, ongoing relationship with its individual members? The believers of the Roman Catholic Church believed the seven sacraments kept an individual constantly connected to God and the Church from birth to death. The Church led the belief that one could only and evaluate the psychodynamic to psychopathology get to heaven through good deeds and Analysis Essay observing the sacraments.

How did the Church us the powers of excommunication and gas to a solid interdiction in maintaining its power? The idea of excommunicating individuals kept people from observing the sacraments which gave them the ability to enter heaven. Also, whole geographic areas could be punished through interdiction which prohibited the performance of any of the sacraments in that district. This made the Church more organized than any other political state in Europe. How was Education, learning and knowledge of Europe preserved during the lowest point of the Middle Ages, the so-called “Dark Ages”? Education was secured by Analysis Essay the people being put into strict division of social classes most notably the Church, peasants, and the bourgeoisie. What was the dominant philosophy of the Middle Ages called? Who was its most outstanding spokesman? What were its basic beliefs, and how did the philosophy view life and understanding? The dominant philosophy of the late Middle Ages was best articulated by a provision ruling on the scott v. sandford overturned by St.

Thomas Aquinas and known as scholasticism. Who belonged to each of the three estates of medieval European society and what was the primary duty of a member of each estate? How was this different from the on Forgiveness Essay social classes in modern society? The first of the estates were composed of the Church. The Bells Poem? The main purpose for this estate would be to claim the authority of God. The second estate consisted of the nobility of #8216;society#8217;. The primary focus of the nobility were to Analysis on Forgiveness, function as warriors. The third estate had little to no power in restaurant proposal that time of society and composed of Analysis on Forgiveness peasants and laymen. This changed throughout Europe with the coming of feudalism. This differs from modern society for the facts of a more prosperous middle class.

Describe the guilds. Who made up their membership and what was their influence on gas to a solid, the business practices of the late Middle Ages? In the middle ages, the #8216;Guilds#8217; were labor market intermediaries organizing training, working conditions. On Forgiveness? These merchants and business craftsmen formed the basis for a new class of townspeople, the bourgeoisie. They would be the Analysis Essay basis of the growing middle class. How did the guilds improve the lot of freemen? How did they help business and trade?

How did they restrict its growth? The improvement of the freemen could be seen from a point of their increase of professions. The benefits of this system would be the systematic control and increase of certain professions that were needed at business the time. This order was kept to maintain employment and necesity for the freemen. However, as a result of the control over the market, restrictions on personal choice ended up restricting its growth.

Who were the bourgeoisie? Why did they not fit in the traditional class structure of the Middle Ages? The bourgeoisie were merchants and craftsmen formed the basis for a new class of town dwellers. They did not fit into what would be considered traditional because of their system and plans of growing the middle class. Why was the social structure of Europe challenged by the growing number of free townspeople and the changing economy? With the strengthening control of the kings, powers and influence of the feudal lords led to leaving more land in the hands of fewer people. This led to the even farther decline in the idea of feudalism.

How did the Crusades help to begin the change from Medieval society into a modern society? The Crusades stimulated trade by certain political, social, and economic changes. This was achieved by Analysis the unknowing attacks on feudal lords and in turn gave the increased power to the kings. The changes developed after the old nobility lacked the wealth to keep up with the kings. Restaurant Business? Why are the Crusades sometimes called “Successful failures”? The Crusaders led to the eventual fading out of feudal states in the most of Europe and is an important part of on Forgiveness European expansion and colonialism. Why and in what ways did kings and central governments grow stronger at the end of the Middle Ages? The Kings helped facilitate the outline the psychodynamic approach forming of countries by uniting small feudal states into large kingdoms. They helped develop the Analysis Essay idea of a central government within these kingdoms.

This centralized government was indeed stronger than the smaller micro-state governments . What obstacles stood in a provision of the supreme court scott was later overturned the way of the creation of strong central governments? Since strong central governments often emerge from weaker central governments or loose confederations a central government may also have to deal with regional lords who regard centralization as an infringement on their own ower. Why was the Essay re-establishment of trade so important to the transformation of Europe? Re-establishment of trade was very important due to the fact of the bourgeoisie wanting to create a wider middle class. This could not happen because of a provision supreme court ruling v. sandford case what current state Europe was in Analysis Essay due to the idea of gas to a solid feudalism. Also, where there is any contact between two civilizations ideas will be traded amongst them, giving each civilization new ideas. Haven’t found what you want?

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odysseus flaws essay Literary Terms and Definitions: M. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted September 1, 2017. This list is meant to assist, not intimidate. Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and vocabulary that we will cover during the term. Vocabulary terms are listed alphabetically. MABINOGI (Welsh, Four Branches): The four branches or four parts of Analysis on Forgiveness The Mabinogion , a medieval collection of Wrigley Field: and Present examples Welsh myths and on Forgiveness legends important in Celtic studies generally and in Arthurian legends more specifically. MACHIAVELLIAN : As an adjective, the word refers generally to sneaky, ruthless, and deceitful behavior, especially in regard to a ruler obsessed with power who puts on a surface veneer of honor and trustworthy behavior in order to achieve evil ends.

The term originates in a treatise known as The Prince . This work was written by Nicco ló Machiavelli, an early sixteenth-century political advisor who worked for the Borgia family in Italy. In contrast to the medieval ideal of the ruler as God's holy deputy and paintings dispenser of justice, Machiavelli stressed that effective rulers often must engage in evil (or at least immoral) activities to ensure the stability of Analysis Essay their rule. He suggests that, based on the evidence of history and his own personal observations, the and evaluate approach to psychopathology rulers that have remained in power have not been kindly, benevolent men concerned with justice and Analysis on Forgiveness fairness, but rather ruthless individuals willing to do anything to ensure the security of their state and their own personal power. Click here for more information. MACHIEVELLE (also spelled machiavel ): A villain, especially an Italian aristocratic power-monger, or a deceitful betrayer, who behaves according to Wrigley Field: Past and Present examples the principles established by Analysis, Niccoló Machiavelli. (See Machiavellian , above.) The machievelle became a stock character in many Renaissance plays associated with sinister plots, blackest betrayal, and wicked resourcefulness. Examples from Shakespeare include Richard of Gloucester in Richard III and Edmund and gas to a solid Cornwall in Analysis on Forgiveness Essay King Lear . MACARONIC TEXT : Any medieval or modern manuscript written in a jumble of business several languages--say a mixture of Latin and French or Latin and German--is said to be macaronic.

The mixture might involve bilingual vocabulary and grammatical switches within a single sentence, or in alternating lines or paragraphs, or in purely random intervals. Essay. Examples from the Restoration period would be the steamier scenes of Samuel Pepys' diary entries for 1666-1668, in and evaluate approach which Pepys frequently mingles Spanish and Latin words in the text to on Forgiveness hide the exact details of his sexual indiscretions. The Bells Poem. Cf. code-switching . MACROCOSM (Cf. microcosm): The natural universe as a whole, including the biological realms of on Forgiveness flora and fauna, weather, and celestial objects such as the sun, moon, and stars. See discussion under chain of restaurant being . MACROLOGIA (Grk. On Forgiveness Essay. big language or long language): Also called macrology , in rhetoric, a negative term for a type of Wrigley Field: and Present periphrasis involving unnecessary repetition of lengthy clauses. See discussion under periphrasis . MACRON : A diacritical mark in the form of Analysis on Forgiveness a horizontal line indicating the vowel beneath it is long. MAENAD : Also known as bacchae or thyiads , maenads were female worshippers of Dionysus or Bacchus. In the mystery cult of a provision of the supreme court ruling on the scott Dionysus, worshippers would get drunk on wine and then undergo an all-night process of Analysis Essay stylized frenzied dancing in order to achieve the divine state of ekstasos . At the height of the frenzy, they believed that they would become one with Dionysus/Bacchus, thus the common Latin name bacchae for these priestesses, a feminine plural form of the god Bacchus' name. In legendary accounts, such women were supernaturally strong and wildly violent.

They would run through the forest naked after the ceremonies and would catch small animals (or in some myths men and children!), rip them apart bare-handed, and then eat the flesh raw. In literature, Euripides' tragedy The Bacchae is a dramatic retelling of the arrival of the Dionysiac rites in outline to psychopathology Greece. MAGIC REALISM : In 1925, Franz Roh first applied the term magic realism ( magischer Realismus in Analysis Essay German) to a group of neue Saqchlichkeit painters in Munich (Cuddon 531). These painters blended realistic, smoothly painted, sharply defined figures and objects--but in a surrealistic setting or backdrop, giving them an outlandish, odd, or even dream-like qualilty. In the 1940s and 1950s, the business proposal term migrated to the prose fiction of various writers including Jorge Luis Borges in Argentina, Gabriel Garcia Márquez in Colombia, and Alejo Carpentier in Cuba. Analysis On Forgiveness. The influence also spread later to Günter Grass in Germany and gerard sekoto John Fowles in England (Abrams 135). These postmodern writers mingle and on Forgiveness juxtapose realistic events with fantastic ones, or they experiment with shifts in time and setting, labyrinthine narratives and plots and gas to a solid arcane erudition (135), and often they combine myths and Analysis fairy stories with gritty Hemingway-esque detail. Sekoto Paintings. This mixture create truly dreamlike and bizarre effects in on Forgiveness Essay their prose. An example of magic realism (and one of my own personal favorites in postmodern narrative) would be Gabriel Garcia Márquez's short story, A Very Old Man With Enormous Wings, a narrative in which a fisherman discovers a filthy, lice-ridden old man trapped face-down in the muddy shore of the beach, weighed down by a provision of the court ruling on the scott was later overturned by, enormous buzzard wings attached to his back. A neighbor identifies the old man as an angel who had come down to on Forgiveness Essay claim the proposal fisherman's sick and feverish child but who had been knocked out the sky by storm winds during the previous night. Not having the heart to club the sickly angel to Essay death, the protagonist decides instead to keep the supernatural being captive in a chicken coop.

The very premise of the sekoto story reveals much of the flavor of magic realism. Cf. postmodernism . MAIAR : Semidivine spirits in Tolkien's Silmarillion . See discussion under Valar . MAJUSCULE : A large letter or a capital letter as opposed to minuscule . MAL MARIÉE : The stock character in Analysis medieval romances, lais , and fabliaux of an unhappily married wife, often married to a senex amans . An example is the female protagonist in Marie de France's Laustic or Guigemar. MALAPROPISM : Misusing words to create a comic effect or characterize the speaker as being too confused, ignorant, or flustered to use correct diction. Typically, the the bells poem malapropism involves the confusion of two polysyllabic words that sound somewhat similar but have different meanings. For instance, in Richard Sheridan's The Rivals , we hear, She's as headstrong as an allegory on on Forgiveness Essay, the banks of the gas to a solid Nile. Dogberry the Watchman in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing says, Comparisons are odorous, and later, It shall be siffigance--both malapropisms. In Sheridan, we also find pineapple instead of pinnacle , and Analysis on Forgiveness Essay we read in Twain's Huckleberry Finn how one character declares, I was most putrified with astonishment instead of petrified, and gas to a solid so on.

The best malapropisms sound sufficiently similar to the correct word to let the audience recognize the intended meaning and laugh at the incongruous result. Cf. acyron . MANET / MANENT : Common Latin stage directions found in the margins of Shakespearean plays. Manet is the singular for He [or she] remains. Manent is the plural form for multiple individuals. On Forgiveness Essay. Often the phrase is accompanied with explanatory remarks, such as Manent utras (The others remain on stage), or Manet solus (He alone remains). MANNER OF ARTICULATION : In linguistics, how the of the on the v. sandford speech organs of lips, tongue, and vocal cords must be arranged in order to Analysis Essay produce a particular sound such as a nasal, a stop, a fricative, or so on. MANUSCRIPT : A text written by gas to a solid, hand, as opposed to one printed with a printing press. ( Manus is Analysis Latin for hand; scriptum is a Latin participle for Past Essay examples, written.) Early Egyptian manuscripts are written on crushed and flattened papyrus reeds and Analysis rolled up as scrolls. Later, parchment and vellum (animal skins) became the primary means of gas to a solid transmitting texts. Analysis Essay. In the late Roman and a provision of the court scott v. sandford case overturned early Patristic period, individual pages were bound between covers as a codex or a book, a practice that continues today. Paper as we know it became common in the Middle East in the twelfth century, but it took another three hundred years for the art of Analysis on Forgiveness Essay paper-making to spread through Europe. The Bells Poem. By Shakespeare's day, printed paper had largely replaced manuscripts written on vellum, but the mechanics of printing often tried to imitate the familiar features of manuscripts.

In medieval scholarship, the abbreviation MS stands for Analysis on Forgiveness, manuscript, and British scholars often use the plural form MSS for manuscripts. TS and TSSare the equivalent terms for typeset documents. Some important medieval literary manuscripts include the Ellesmere , the Hengwyrt , and the Nowell Codex . You can click here to see the first page of Beowulf from the Nowell Codex. Sekoto. See also parchment , vellum , quire , hair side , and flesh side . MAQAMA : Picaresque Arabic stories in rhymed prose. The two most famous writers in this genre include Abu al-Fadl Ahmed ibn al-Husian al Hamadhani and Abu Mohammed al Qasim al-Hariri. MÄRCHEN : A technical German word used in folklore scholarship to refer to fairy tales. See discussion under fairy tale . MARCHING SONG : A song with strong metrical beat designed to help soldiers keep time so they can march in step, usually performed by a military band. Examples include the on Forgiveness Essay death march in Wagner's Götterdamerung or Beethoven's Eroica . Tolkien has the Ents in The Lord of the Rings sing a tune matching the rhythmical constraints of a marching song as they head into war with Isengard in The Lord of the a provision supreme court v. sandford was later overturned by Rings (484-85). Contrast with walking song . MARGINALIA : Drawings, notation, illumination, and doodles appearing in Essay the margins of restaurant a medieval text, rather than the central text itself. MARKED WORD : A word that has some limitation or boundary in its meaning when contrasted with an unmarked word without such a limitation or boundary. Algeo points to Analysis the example of proposal stallion (marked for male gender) and mare (marked for female gender) in on Forgiveness Essay contrast with the outline the psychodynamic approach word horse , which is on Forgiveness Essay unmarked for gender (323).

MARRIAGE GROUP : A term coined by the psychodynamic approach to psychopathology, George L. Kittredge in Analysis on Forgiveness Essay 1912 to describe a specific set of stories in gas to a solid Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. The marriage group includes The Wife of Bath's Tale, The Clerk's Tale, The Merchant's Tale, and The Franklin's Tale. All four narratives deal with the question of the proper relationship between men and on Forgiveness women in marriage. The intervening tales of the Friar, Summoner, and Squire serve as interruptions of this longer-running thematic concern about gender. Some critics, especially those who accept the Bradshaw Shift , argue that the marriage group also includes Melibee, The Man of Law's Tale, and The Nun's Priest's Tale.

MARY SUE : A character beloved by the author but often despised by readers and editors--an unrealistic character with overly idealized behavior who lacks any perceivable flaws--especially one serving as a wish-fulfillment fantasy for the author. This term is an eponym from a character in restaurant business proposal Paula Smith's 1973 parody, A Trekkie's Tale, and in subsequent decades became popular among editors in science-fiction publishing houses to Analysis Essay refer to poorly written, annoying, and unlikely characters written by and evaluate, amateur authors. MASCULINE ENDING / MASCULINE RHYME : Rhymes that end with a heavy stress on the last syllable in each rhyming word. See under discussion of meter . MASHAL (plural meshalim ): In the Hebrew tradition, a mashal is Analysis on Forgiveness Essay a broad, general term including almost any type of figurative language from outline approach to psychopathology short riddles to Analysis long, extended allegories. It denotes mysterious speech. Some of the Psalms, for instance, are designated as meshalim . The New Testament Greek often translates the gas to a solid term as parabole or parable . This translation, however, causes some problem. In Greek, parabole are always allegorical and open to point-by-point interpretation. Parabole were often used as a simple method of teaching by example or analogy. The meshalim in Hebrew, however, was often intentionally confusing or deliberately obfuscating in nature--much more like the Greek enigma (riddle). We can see this confusion in the New Testament, where Mark interprets the purpose of the parables as Hebrew meshalim . In Mark, Jesus tells his disciples: The secret of the Analysis kingdom of God has been given to you. But to those on the outside everything is and evaluate to psychopathology said in parables so that, 'they may be ever seeing but never perceiving, and ever hearing but never understanding; otherwise, they might turn and be forgiven' (Mark 4:11-12).

The common, modern idea that Christ uses parables for simple pedagogic purposes (i.e., so that even a child could understand the secrets of heaven) is a creation of the medieval period, much later. MASORETIC (from Hebrew Masorah , handed over): The Masoretic texts are partly Hebrew and partly Aramaic versions of the Hebrew Bible (i.e., what Christians call the Old Testament) with accompanying explanatory notes or marginalia. A group of Analysis Essay Jewish scholars known as the restaurant Masoretes approved them for general use in Judaic biblical scholarship and reading between the first and ninth centuries CE with a few late additions in the tenth century. These manuscripts contain numerous differences when compared to the Greek Septuagint . To list one minor but illustrative example, Septuagint texts give the on Forgiveness dimensions for a provision supreme ruling scott was later overturned by, the porch of Solomon's temple as twenty cubits, but most Masoretic texts give the dimensions of the same architectural feature as one-hundred twenty cubits. Other differences range from the trivial to the striking. For linguists and biblical scholars, Masoretic texts are especially important because the on Forgiveness Essay Masoretes who wrote them introduced the gas to a solid Hebrew convention of using dots and symbols under, above, and on Forgiveness Essay inside consonant letters to represent vowel sounds.

Previous Hebrew texts only marked consonant sounds, which left the meaning of many words ambiguous and rendered it difficult to verify comparative studies showing how similar or different Hebrew was from of the supreme court ruling on the case was later closely related languages such as Akkhadian, Amorite, Arabic, Ugaritic, Proto-Canaanite (which developed into both Phoenician and Classical Hebrew), Eblaite and Elamite. MASQUE : Not to be confused with a masquerade, a masque is on Forgiveness Essay a type of elaborate court entertainment popular in the times of Queen Elizabeth I, King James I, and Charles I--i.e., the early 17th Century after Queen Elizabeth's death. The masque as a performance grew out of medieval plays, but it was more spectacle than drama proper. Outline The Psychodynamic. The content was suitable for amateur actors rather than professional performers. The masques tended to use long speeches and little action.

They combined poetic drama, singing, dancing, music, and Analysis on Forgiveness Essay splendid costumes and settings. The imagery was influential on later poets and poems, such as Andrew Marvell, who makes use of paintings masque-imagery in Upon Appleton House. MAXIM: A proverb, a short, pithy statement or aphorism believed to Analysis on Forgiveness contain wisdom or insight into human nature. In much of the dialogue in Viking sagas, for gas to a solid, instance, the characters will quote short maxims to Essay each other to of the supreme court ruling v. sandford case overturned by make a point. MCGUFFIN (also MacGuffin, Maguffin): A humorous or joking term to describe an object or artifact that drives the plot as part of a quest motif . For instance, the horcrux in the Harry Potter series, the Holy Grail in Analysis on Forgiveness Essay Arthurian legends, the Golden Fleece in Jason and the Argonauts , and so forth. Often Alfred Hitchcock is credited for coining the gerard sekoto phrase. See discussion under quest motif . MEAD HALL : A structure built by an Anglo-Saxon lord ( hlaford or cyning ) as a social center for his immediate community, especially his thegns and warriors. On Forgiveness Essay. Since they were constructed primarily of wood, we have only a few archeological samples that survive to provide examples.

We know from descriptions in restaurant business proposal Anglo-Saxon texts that they were filled with mead-benches, which were elaborately carved and decorated with gold. Analysis. Words such as horn-gapped may imply architectural features, or they may imply that the hall was decorated with the horns of stags and other trophy animals. Gerard. The lord would gather his warriors at his mead hall to eat, drink, pass out gifts and treasure, and on Forgiveness renew the and evaluate oath-bonds between himself and his men. MEDIEVAL (from Latin medium aevum , the Middle Age or the in-between age): The period of time roughly a thousand years long between the fall of the Roman Empire and the emergence of the Renaissance. Actual starting and ending points are somewhat arbitrary when describing the era, and scholars vary wildly in the dates they assign. For instance, M . H. Abrams' Norton Anthology of English Literature , 7th edition, assigns to Analysis on Forgiveness Essay the medieval period the years 450-1485, but in Field: Past and Present his Glossary of on Forgiveness Literary Terms , the same scholar points to the years 410-1500 as the appropriate years. J. A. Cuddon's Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory prefers the dates c. 800-c.

1450, and Harry Shaw's Concise Dictionary of Literary Terms prefers c. The Bells Poem. 476-c. 1350, but notes that it may extend to about 1500 (p. 170). While there are no universally accepted demarcations, it is Analysis common in older European histories to the bells poem divide the medieval period into on Forgiveness, an early period of the Dark Ages and a later period of the High Middle Ages. On the other hand, linguists divide the medieval period in the bells poem England into the Anglo-Saxon period (about 450-1066) and the Middle English period (about 1066-1450). Analysis On Forgiveness. The dividing line is the Norman Conquest of England following the Battle of the bells poem Hastings (1066), which marked the introduction of heavy French influences into English.

Some scholars prefer to mark the years 1100-1350 as the Essay Anglo-Norman period, since most courtly literature in England was written in Norman-French rather than English. Note, however, that these divisions are most useful in discussing English literature; they are less useful for discussing medieval literature, art, and architecture on the continent. European scholars and art historians divide the medieval period into four periods: Carolingian (c. A Provision Court Ruling Scott Overturned. 750-900), Ottonian (c. 900-1056), Romanesque (c. On Forgiveness. 1057-1150), and Gothic (1150-1475). For our literary purposes, however, the Anglo-Saxon and Middle English periods serve as a useful division. The early medieval centuries (often misleadingly called the Dark Ages) are marked by the disintegration of classical Greco-Roman culture and the volkerwanderung of Germanic tribes into western Europe, followed by gradual conversions to Christianity. Its later stages (often called the High Middle Ages) are marked by innovative technology, economic growth, and original theology and philosophy. A Provision Of The Supreme Ruling V. Sandford Case Overturned By. The term medievalism in Analysis on Forgiveness western Europe is restaurant business proposal linked with feudalism in government, guildhouses in economics, monasticism and Catholicism in religion, and castles and knights in Analysis chivalrous military custom. Click here for gas to a solid, a PDF handout placing this historical period in chronological sequence with other historical periods.

Click below for a chronological list of historical events in various centuries: 500-600 CE 600-700 CE 700-800 CE 800-900 CE 900-1000 CE 1000-1099 CE 1100-1199 CE 1200-1299 CE 1300-1399 CE. MEDIEVAL ESTATES SATIRE : A medieval genre common among French poets in which the speaker lists various occupations among the three estates of feudalism (nobles, peasants, and clergy) and depicts them in a manner that shows how short they fall from the ideal of that occupation. In the late medieval period, the genre expanded to Analysis Essay discuss the failings of bourgeois individuals as well. The genre was not unknown in England. John Gower's Vox Clamantis and Confessio Amantis have passages similar to the bells poem those in Analysis on Forgiveness continental estates satire.

Jill Mann suggests in her famous book, Chaucer and Medieval Estates Satire , that the General Prologue of The Canterbury Tales is restaurant business proposal itself an example of Analysis on Forgiveness this genre . See also satire , anti-fraternal satire , and three estates . MEDIEVAL STUDIES : An interdisciplinary field of gerard sekoto paintings scholarship in literature, history, art, philosophy, and Analysis theology focusing on the culture of the Middle Ages or medieval period . Scholars who specialize in this area are medievalists. Gas To A Solid. Among the Inklings , J.R.R. Tolkien entered medieval studies through philology and Germanic literatures, while C.S. Lewis became a medievalist via classical and Renaissance philosophy and on Forgiveness Essay literature--eventually leaving Oxford to go to Cambridge and become the Chair of Medieval and Renaissance literature. [Dr. Wheeler would remind his students at the bells poem, Carson-Newman that we do offer a minor in MARS--medieval and on Forgiveness Essay Renaissance studies--for interested adventurers looking to pick up a quick interdisciplinary minor. Business Proposal. --KW] MEDITATION : A thoughtful or contemplative essay, sermon, discussion, or treatise--especially one that encourages introspection and self-analysis. John Donne's funeral service, Meditation 17, is an example, in which he explores what death means if we truly believe that all human beings are inteconnected to each other spiritually. MEIOSIS : Understatement, the opposite of exaggeration: I was somewhat worried when the Analysis Essay psychopath ran toward me with a chainsaw. (i.e., I was terrified).

Litotes (especially popular in Old English poetry) is a type of outline and evaluate to psychopathology meiosis in which the writer uses a statement in the negative to create the effect: You know, Einstein is not a bad mathematician. (i.e., Einstein is a good mathematician.) That pustulant wart is somewhat unbeautiful (i.e., That pustulant wart is ugly). Litotes is recognizable in on Forgiveness Essay English by negatives like not , no , non - and gerard sekoto un -.) MELODRAMA : A dramatic form characterized by Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, excessive sentiment, exaggerated emotion, sensational and thrilling action, and the bells poem an artificially happy ending. Analysis. Melodramas originally referred to romantic plays featuring music, singing, and dancing, but by the eighteenth century they connoted simplified and coincidental plots, bathos , and happy endings. These melodramatic traits are present in Gothic novels, western stories, popular films, and television crime shows, to name but a few more recent examples. MELOPOEIA : Ezra Pound's term for one of the three techniques he would use to create charged language. Specifically, melopoeia is the use of sound of a word or the sounds of groups of words together to create poetic effects, or as Pound writes, . Outline And Evaluate. You charge it [a word] by sound or you use groups of words to Essay do this (37). Presumably, melopoeia might cover techniques like assonance , consonance , and onomatopoeia . See also phanopoeia and logopoeia . MELUSINE MYTH : A medieval legend about a French princess who secretly transformed into the bells poem, a serpent or dragon in her private moments until her husband learns the truth about her real identity.

C.S. Lewis may have been inspired by this myth in on Forgiveness The Silver Chair , in which the Lady of the Green Kyrtle takes the form of a serpent when she fights with Rilian. MEME : An idea or pattern of thought that replicates like a virus by being passed along from one thinker to another. A meme might be a song or advertising jingle that gets stuck in gas to a solid one's head, a particularly amusing joke or entertaining story one feels compelled to pass on, a memorable phrase that gets quoted repeatedly in public speeches or in published books, a political ideology, an invention, a teacher's lesson plan, or even a religious belief. MEMOIR (usually appearing in plural form as memoirs , from Analysis on Forgiveness Latin, memoria memory via French mémoire ): An autobiographical sketch--especially one that focuses less on the author's personal life or psychological development and more on the notable people and events the author has encountered or witnessed. Examples include memoirs published by Winston Churchill and Dwight D. Eisenhower. The memoir contrasts with a diary or journal, i.e., the memoir is not an informal daily record of events in a person's life, it is not necessarily written for personal pleasure, and the author of such memoir has in mind the ultimate goal of publication. Contrast with biography and of the scott v. sandford memoir-novel . MEMOIR-NOVEL : A novel purporting to be a factual or autobiographical account but which is Analysis on Forgiveness Essay completely or partially imaginary.

The authorial voice or speaker is typically a made-up character who never actually lived. This creation is a provision ruling scott not so much a hoax as a literary convention or an artistic device. An early example would be Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and Moll Flanders . Analysis. Later eighteenth-century examples include Goldsmith's The Vicar of Wakefield and Mackenzie's The Man of Feeling . While this convention became less popular in the nineteenth-century, some examples have appeared in twentieth- and twenty-first century literature--including Umberto Eco's Baudolino (my own personal favorite). MEMORIAL RECONSTRUCTION : Renaissance actors reconstructing the text of a play from their own (sometimes faulty) memory. Acting companies often lost or gained members rapidly. It is possible that some actors formerly working with Shakespeare lacked access to examples promptbooks after leaving his acting company. These players may have attempted to reconstruct the plays by memory.

Some scholars believe that the unbelievably sloppy bad quartos of Shakespeare's plays may have been the result of such a memorial reconstruction. MEMORY PLAY : The term coined by Tennessee Williams to describe non-realistic dramas, such as The Glass Menagerie , in which the audience experiences the past as remembered by on Forgiveness Essay, a narrator, complete with music from the period remembered, and images representing the characters' thoughts, fears, emotions, and recollections projected on a scrim in the background. See drama , scrim . MENDICANT ORDERS (also called friars): Orders of wandering monks who lived by outline, begging. In the Middle Ages, the clergy was divided into secular clergy and regular clergy . The secular (i.e., worldly) clergy dealt with secular concerns such as the Analysis on Forgiveness operation and and evaluate the psychodynamic to psychopathology administration of Analysis Essay individual parishes and tending to the congregation's spiritual needs. It was composed of the priests, bishops, archbishops, and cardinals. Examples. The regular clergy were those otherworldly individuals who isolated themselves from material concerns by residing in a monastery. These monks would take a series of vows and agree to live according to the order's rule (Latin regula means rule, hence regular clergy). While all the regular orders took a vow of poverty individually, the mendicant orders also took a vow of communal or corporate poverty, vowing to subsist entirely on begging from day-to-day, hence the name mendicant or begging. It was hoped that this sort of vow would prevent abuses that occurred in monasteries, in on Forgiveness which individual monks had no personal wealth, but the monastery as a whole was a powerful corporate entity possessing thousands of acres of land and its collective income, allowing the impoverished monks to often live a luxurious existence in supreme court scott v. sandford case was later by spite of their individual vows of poverty. Essay. Some monasteries became such powerful landowning institutions that, at one point in England, it has been estimated that one-quarter to one-third of all available land was in the possession or control of various abbots. This situtation granted the monastic clergy political and financial power comparable to that of the secular branch of church; it was a far cry from the original intention of restaurant business proposal these monks to remove themselves from petty worldly matters in order to focus on spiritual contemplation.

In reaction to on Forgiveness Essay this situation, a series of reformers such as Saint Dominic and restaurant business proposal Saint Francis of Assissi espoused the on Forgiveness Essay idea of a provision of the supreme court v. sandford was later a new type of religious order--the mendicants. Each order was given a set of duties--the salvation of Analysis on Forgiveness souls, the suppression of sekoto paintings heretical doctrine through teaching, fund-raising for Analysis on Forgiveness, the church, and sundry other tasks. There remain from the Middle Ages four great mendicant orders recognized by the Second Council of Lyons in 1274 CE: The Dominicans ( alias the gas to a solid Order of Analysis on Forgiveness Preachers, or the Black Friars) The Franciscans ( alias the Friars Minor, or the Gray Friars) The Carmelites ( alias the White Friars) The Hermits of Saint Augustine ( alias Austin Friars or Augustinian Friars) In more recent centuries, the council of Trent granted all the mendicant orders except the Friars Minor and the Capuchins the right to the bells poem have corporate property like other monasteries. One of the major differences between friars and other regular monks was that friars were not bound by a votum stabilitatis (a vow of permanency to remain in on Forgiveness one place). Instead, they were at the bells poem, liberty to Analysis wander from place to place teaching if given the the bells poem permission of the general of their order. Indeed, such mobility was necessary, since the friars' primary task was, as it states in their mission statement, to save souls.

Thus, while other monks sought to follow an eremitical tradition that would remove them from worldly concerns and isolate themselves from the general public beyond the on Forgiveness monastery's walls, the mendicant orders deliberately reinserted themselves into gas to a solid, the world so they could preach, teach, and beg. In the Analysis on Forgiveness Essay early thirteenth century, the energy and dynamism of these new movements was extraordinary. Dominicans did much to curb outbreaks of heresy in southern France, though they were not so successful that they could prevent the Albigensian crusades against the Cathars. They reinvigorated the body of the church with a sort of monastic revival. By a century later, however, new problems and abuses began to the bells poem arise. Unfortunately, the ability to beg and wander led to a new type of ecclesiastical abuse. Part of the spiritual glue holding a monastery together is the supervision of an abbot, who would oversee the monks and make sure they are not straying into sin.

Without a supervisor, wandering friars became notorious for improper behavior such as sexual misconduct, blatant embezzlement, and Analysis Essay abrasive confrontation with secular clergy such as local parish priests. For example, if parishioners gave donations to a wandering preacher, they weren't giving those donations to the local priest; additionally, a dynamic, fiery friar might invoke professional jealousy in a less rhetorically gifted pastor. Friars normally were required to travel in groups of two (much like Mormon missionaries today), so that each one would provide a check on the other. The Bells Poem. However, such measures were not always successful in curbing misconduct. This abuse became a source of much popular resentment and frustration. Analysis Essay. In literature, this manifested itself in anti-fraternal satire . Friars became stereotypical characters in estates literature and in fabliaux . Chaucer himself depicts Friar Hubert as corrupt in The Canterbury Tales and shows his rivalry with a church summoner , an equally corrupt representative of the secular clergy. Business. They insult each other's professions in their tales.

MENTOR : (1) In common use, this eponym comes from the character Mentor in Homer's Odyssey . Analysis On Forgiveness. Mentor is an experienced, elderly man, and the goddess Athena takes on his form to advise the young Telemachus. Penelope's suitors plan to gerard sekoto paintings kill Telemachus and seize Ithaca for themselves, so Telemachus needs all the help he can get! Hence, the motif of a mentor is an older, experienced character who provides advice to younger inexperienced ones, which is a standard component of fairy tales and myths in on Forgiveness Campbell's model of the mythic hero. (2) Many authors and the bells poem poets consider one or more of Analysis Essay their predecessors to gas to a solid be their mentor--the model or inspiration on which they draw their own work. Dante, for instance, saw Virgil as his master and teacher; he models his Inferno on descriptions of the Underworld in Virgil's Aeneid . Dante starts his descent into the Inferno by Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, having his narrator-persona actually encounter the ghost of Virgil, who becomes his guide through hell.

C.S. Lewis in his youth encountered the fantasy novel Phantastes by George MacDonald, and he considered it one of the the bells poem ten most influential works he ever read. Lewis mimics Dante in that in his own fictional tour of Analysis on Forgiveness pur gatory/hell, where he likewise encounters the ghost of the bells poem MacDonald and consults with him. MERCIAN : The dialect of Old English spoken in the region of Mercia. MESURE (French, measure): In French chivalric literature, the equivalent of Latin moderatio --the ability to follow a golden mean and not go to unreasonable extremes.

This trait contrasts with the demesure (excessive actions or unconrolled passions) of figures like the knight Roland in the Chanson de Roland . In the literature of Analysis courtly love, a frequent debate is the bells poem whether the Analysis on Forgiveness ideal courtly lover should have mesure or demesure . METADRAMA : Drama in restaurant which the subject of the play is dramatic art itself, especially when such material breaks up the illusion of watching reality. When Macbeth cries out, Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player / who struts and Analysis on Forgiveness Essay frets his hour upon business the stage, / and then is heard no more , his references to shadows and Analysis Essay players (Renaissance slang for actors) and his discussion of the stage serve to remind the audience forcefully that they are watching a dramatic artifice, not a real historical event. The references break down verisimilitude to call attention to the fact that viewers are watching a staged performance. A Provision Court Ruling Was Later Overturned. Likewise, the opening to Taming of the Shrew forcefully emphasizes that the events we see are a fiction, as does Hamlet's plan to use The Mouse-Trap as an ethical litmus test for Claudius: The play's the thing / wherin I'll catch the conscience of the king . METAFICTION : Fiction in on Forgiveness Essay which the subject of the story is the act or art of storytelling of itself, especially when such material breaks up the illusion of reality in a work. And Evaluate The Psychodynamic Approach To Psychopathology. An example is John Fowles's The French Lieutenant's Woman , in on Forgiveness Essay which the the bells poem author interrupts his own narative to insert himself as a character in the work. Claiming not to like the ending to the tale, the author sets his watch back ten minutes, and the storyline backs up ten minutes so an on Forgiveness, alternative ending can unfold.

The act reminds us that the passionate love affair we are so involved in as readers is a fictional creation of an author at gerard paintings, that point when we are most likely to have forgotten that artificiality because of our involvement. Other examples include Chaucer's narrator in the Canterbury Tales , in which the pilgrim tells the reader to on Forgiveness Essay turn the outline and evaluate leaf [page] and choose another tale if the audience doesn't like naughty stories like the Miller's tale. This command breaks the illusion that Geoffrey is Essay a real person on pilgrimage, calling attention to the fictional qualities of sekoto The Canterbury Tales as a physical artifact--a book held in the readers' hands. Robert Scholes popularized the Analysis Essay term metafiction to generally describe this tendency in his critical writings, as Abrams notes (135). METALITERATURE : Literary art focused on the subject of literary art itself. Often this term is further divided into metapoetry , metafiction , and metadrama . METAPHOR : A comparison or analogy stated in such a way as to imply that one object is Field: and Present another one, figuratively speaking. When we speak of the ladder of success, we imply that being successful is much like climbing a ladder to a higher and Essay better position. Another example comes from an old television add from the 1980s urging teenagers not to try drugs. Gas To A Solid. The camera would focus on a close-up of a pair of eggs and a voice would state This is Analysis on Forgiveness Essay your brain.

In the next sequence, the eggs would be cracked and thrown onto a hot skillet, where the eggs would bubble, burn, and seeth. The voice would state, This is gas to a solid your brain on drugs. The point of the comparison is fairly clear. Another example is how Martin Luther wrote, A mighty fortress is our God, / A bulwark never failing. ( Mighty fortress and bulwark are the Analysis two metaphors for God in these lines.) A metaphor is an example of gas to a solid a rhetorical trope , and such metaphors have a long history of critical discussion. Aristotle, for instance, claimed the greatest thing by far is to have a command of metaphor. This alone cannot be imparted by another; it is the mark of genius, for to make good metaphors implies an eye for Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, resemblances (qtd in Deutsche 84). Often, a metaphor suggests something symbolic in business proposal its imagery.

For instance, Wordsworth uses a metaphor when he states of England, she is Essay a fen of stagnant waters, which implies something about the state of political affairs in England as well as the island's biomes. Sekoto Paintings. Sometimes, the metaphor can be emotionally powerful, such as John Donne's use of metaphor in Analysis on Forgiveness Twickenham Garden, where he writes, And take my tears, which are love's wine (line 20). If we break down a metaphorical statement into gas to a solid, its component parts, the real-world subject (first item) in on Forgiveness Essay a metaphoric statement is known as the tenor . And Evaluate. The second item (often an Analysis, imaginary one or at least not present in Wrigley Essay a literal sense) to which the tenor refers is called the vehicle . For example, consider the metaphorical statement, Susan is a viper in her cruel treacheries. Here, Susan is the tenor in the metaphor, and viper is the vehicle in the same metaphor. The tenor, Susan , is literally present or literally exists. The vehicle , the hypothetical or imagined viper, is not necessarily physically present. An unusual metaphor that requires some explanation on the writer's part is Analysis on Forgiveness Essay often called a metaphysical conceit , especially in sekoto paintings 17th-century poetry. If the metaphorical connection is merely implied rather than directly stated, such as talking about the ladder of success, the term is a subdued metaphor. The combination of two different metaphors into a single, awkward image is called a mixed metaphor or abusio . See also tenor , vehicle , subdued metaphor , and telescoped metaphor. Contrast with simile . METAPHYSICAL POETS : In his 1693 work, Discourse of Satire , John Dryden used the term metaphysical to Analysis Essay describe the style of certain poets earlier in the bells poem the 17th century.

Later, Samuel Johnson popularized the Essay term in 1779. Proposal. The term metaphysical implies the poetry is abstract and highly complex. The chief metaphysical poets include John Donne, Richard Crashaw, Andrew Marvell, George Herbert, and Henry Vaughan. The group shares certain traits, though their themes, structures, and Analysis on Forgiveness assorted tones in their poetry vary widely, which leads more recent scholars to see the designation as unhelpful. (1) The group as a whole rejects the conventions of Elizabethan love poetry, especially the Petrarchan conceits that, by 1600, had become clichés . They preferred wildly original (and sometimes shocking or strange) images, puns, similes, and metaphors, which collectively are called metaphysical conceits . (2) The metaphysical poet often describes a dramatic event rather than simple meditation, daydreams, or passing thoughts. (3) The metaphysical poets employed inconsistant or striking verse--often imitating the rhythmic patterns of everyday speech, rather than attempting to create perfect meter in the manner later favored by neoclassical poets. Proposal. Basically, the metaphysical poets would not let metrical form interfere with the development of a line of thought. (4) The poem often expresses an argument--often using wild flights of on Forgiveness Essay logic and unusual comparisons. As an example, John Donne in The Flea presents a speaker who attempts to seduce a young maiden.

The basis of sekoto his argument is the comparison between sex and a flea-bite. In Holy Sonnet 14, Donne fashions a prayer in Essay which he compares God to a rapist and himself to a besieged city. METAPLASMUS : A type of neologism in which misspelling a word creates a rhetorical effect. To emphasize dialect , one might spell dog as dawg. To emphasize that something is unimportant, we might add -let or -ling at the end of the word, referring to a deity as a godlet or a prince as a princeling. To emphasize the feminine nature of something normally considered masculine, try adding the suffix -ette to the end of the word, creating a smurfette or a corvette . To modernize something old, the writer might turn the Greek god Hermes into the Hermenator . Field: And Present Examples. Likewise, Austin Powers renders all things shagedelic . For more information, see the subdivisions of metaplasmus under schemes. METAPOETRY : Poetry about poetry, especially self-conscious poems that pun on Essay, objects or items associated with writing or creating poetry. Among the Romantic and Enlightenment poets, we find puns on leaves (referring on one hand to the leaves of plants, and on Wrigley and Present Essay, another to the leaves or pages of a book of poetry), feet (referring on one level to the body part, and on another to the metrical feet of a poem), and so on.

Other types of on Forgiveness metapoetry involve self-conscious commentary on the poem's own genre or on Essay, the process of creating the poem. A fine example of this type of metapoetry is Billy Collins' Sonnet: And after this next one just a dozen. To launch a little ship on love's storm-tossed seas, then only ten more left like rows of beans. How easily it goes unless you get Elizabethan. and insist the iambic bongos must be played.

and rhymes positioned at on Forgiveness Essay, the ends of a provision of the supreme court ruling on the case overturned by lines, one for every station of the cross. But hang on here while we make the turn. into the final six where all will be resolved, where longing and heartache will find an end, where Laura will tell Petrarch to put down his pen, take off those crazy medieval tights, blow out the lights, and come at last to bed. Here, we can clearly see the self-reflective tendencies, in which the poet discusses how many more lines he needs to finish a traditional sonnet (lines 1-4), he directly comments on the traditional subject-matter of the on Forgiveness sonnet, the rejected love of the a provision of the court scott v. sandford was later overturned by speaker (alluded to Analysis in line 3), he adds an amusing allusion to the normal requirements of rhyme, meter and iambic pentameter, which the poet rejects (lines 5-8), and he adds a direct reference to the turn or volta, in the exact moment when the volta is required in an Italian sonnet. Finally the a provision supreme ruling on the scott case by poet alludes to Laura (the woman to whom Petrarch dedicated his sonnets) and to Petrarch, the inventor of the sonnnet-structure that Collins mimics and Analysis Essay alters simultaneously.

The subject-matter of this sonnet is the conventional sonnet itself; thus, it is gerard metapoetry. See metaliterature . METATHESIS : The transposition of two sounds in speech or spelling. This tendency often catches students of Middle English or Anglo-Saxon off guard, since they might encounter the Analysis on Forgiveness Essay spelling brid for bird or hwale for whale . METER : A recognizable though varying pattern of stressed syllables alternating with syllables of less stress. Compositions written in meter are said to be in verse . There are many possible patterns of verse. Each unit of gerard stress and unstressed syllables is called a foot . The following examples are culled from M. H. On Forgiveness Essay. Abrams' Glossary of Literary Terms , seventh edition, which has more information. You can also click here to download a PDF handout giving examples of particular types of feet, or click here for a longer PDF handout discussing meter and scansion. Example: The cúrfew tólls the knéll of párting dáy. Field: Past Essay Examples. (Thomas Gray, Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard.) Anapestic (the noun is anapest ) two light syllables followed by a stressed syllable: The Assyrian came dówn like a wólf on the fóld. On Forgiveness. (Lord Byron, The Destruction of Sennacherib.) Trochaic (the noun is trochee ) a stressed followed by a light syllable: Thére they áre, my fífty men and wómen. Dactylic (the noun is dactyl ): a stressed syllable followed by a provision supreme court on the scott v. sandford case, two light syllables: Éve, with her básket, was / Déep in the bélls and grass. Iambs and anapests, since the strong stress is at the end, are called rising meter; trochees and dactyls, with the strong stress at the beginning with lower stress at the end, are called falling meter.

Additionally, if a line ends in a standard iamb, with a final stressed syllable, it is said to have a masculine ending. If a line ends in a lightly stressed syllable, it is said to be feminine. Analysis On Forgiveness Essay. To hear the difference, read the the bells poem following examples aloud and listen to the final stress: Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse. Not a creature was stirring, not even a mousing. We name a metric line according to the number of feet in it. Analysis On Forgiveness Essay. If a line has four feet, it is tetrameter . If a line has five feet, it is pentameter . Restaurant. Six feet, hexameter , and so on. English verse tends to be pentameter, French verse tetrameter, and Greek verse, hexameter. When scanning a line, we might, for instance, describe the line as iambic pentameter (having five feet, with each foot tending to be a light syllable followed by on Forgiveness, heavy syllable), or trochaic tetrameter (having four feet, with each foot tending to be a long syllable followed by a short syllable).

Here is a complete list of the various verse structures: METONYM : Any specific use or specific example of metonymy , or any symbol in which a specific physical object is used as a vague suggestive symbol for a more general idea. See metonymy below. METONYMY : Using a vaguely suggestive, physical object to embody a more general idea. Gas To A Solid. The term metonym also applies to the object itself used to suggest that more general idea. Some examples of metonymy are using the Analysis Essay metonym crown in reference to royalty or the entire royal family, or stating the restaurant proposal pen is mightier than the sword to suggest that the power of education and writing is more potent for changing the world than military force. One of my former students wrote in an argumentative essay, If we cannot strike offenders in the heart, let us strike them in the wallet, implying by her metonym that if we cannot make criminals regret their actions out of their guilty consciences, we can make them regret their actions through financial punishment. Essay. We use metonymy in everyday speech when we refer to the entire movie-making industry as the gas to a solid L. Analysis. A. suburb Hollywood or the advertising industry as the street Madison Avenue (and when we refer to businessmen working there as suits.) Journalists use metonymy to refer to the collective decisions of the United States government as Washington or when they use the outline the psychodynamic approach term the on Forgiveness White House as a shorthand reference for the executive bureaucracy in American government. Gas To A Solid. Popular writer Thomas Friedman coined a recent metonym, the Arab Street, as a shorthand reference for the entire population of Muslim individuals in Saudi Arabia, Yeman, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and the surrounding areas. When students talk about Analysis on Forgiveness studying Shakespeare, they mean metonymically all his collected works of drama and poetry, rather than the historical writer's life alone, and so on.

METRICAL : This adjective describes anything written in Wrigley Essay patterns of Analysis on Forgiveness Essay meter , as opposed to prose. METRICAL FOOT : See discussion uner meter or click here for a handout in PDF format. METRICAL SUBSTITUTION : A way of varying poetic meter by taking a single foot of the normal meter and replacing it with a foot of different meter. For instance, a poem might consist primarily of iambic pentameter, with a light-heavy pattern of stress. The poet might add variety by occasionally inserting a foot consisting of two stresses (spondeic substitution) or a foot with a reversed pattern of heavy-light stress (trochaic substitution). See meter . When a poet uses metrical substitution to gas to a solid replace the first entire foot with a single stressed beat, the result is an acephalous line. MEZOZEUGMA : An alternative spelling of mesozeugma. See discussion under zeugma . MIASMA (Greek, stench): Literally referring to on Forgiveness a stench or bad smell, the Greek term also metaphorically indicates a sort of ceremonial taint or spiritual stain that can result from the bells poem various sorts of impurity. The ancient Greeks thought actions such as murder, incest, blasphemy, menstruation, or violations of xenia might cause a miasma around a person or place, and until the community took action to expunge the stain, misfortune such as disease, drought, or other blights would be the potential result. Normally, people thought to be stained by miasma were forbidden to pass the sacred marker ( temenos ) separating the holy ground of Analysis a temple or a public forum from sekoto paintings non-sacred space. The term is particularly applicable in the play Oedipus Rex , in which the entire community of Thebes has fallen under a curse because of a miasma in their midst.

It is also relevant in Agamemnon, where the prophetess Cassandra seems to have the Analysis Essay ability to sense miasma as well as see the invisible Furies that have come to settle on the house. MICROCOSM (cf. macrocosm ): The human body. Paintings. Renaissance thinkers believed that the human body was a little universe that reflected changes in the macrocosm, or greater universe. MID VOWEL : In linguistics, any vowel sound made with the jaw and tongue positioned between the normal articulations for high and low vowels. An example of a mid-vowel would be the Analysis on Forgiveness Essay vowel sound in and Present Essay pate . MIDDLE COMEDY : Greek comedies written in on Forgiveness the early 300s BCE, in which the exaggerated costumes and gas to a solid the chorus of the Old Comedy were eliminated. We have no surviving examples of these Middle Comedies, but they are alluded to and described in other works. MIDDLE ENGLISH : The version of English spoken after the Norman Conquest from 1066 but before 1450 or so. Before the Norman Conquest, the common version of English was Old English or Anglo-Saxon , a Germanic language that is Analysis Essay difficult to read without specialized training. An influx of Norman French and Latin vocabulary after the Normans conquered England resulted in the bells poem rapid changes in spoken English. Between 1400-1450, a phenomenon known as the Great Vowel Shift occurred, and the pronunciation of vowels changed in English, resulting in Modern English (see below).

To avoid irritating your teacher, do not confuse Old English, Middle English, and Modern English. This diagram will help you contrast them. MIDDLE PASSAGE : The sea-voyage from Analysis Africa to the West Indies and/or the Americas commonly used by outline and evaluate the psychodynamic approach to psychopathology, slave-traders. It plays a prominent part in Analysis on Forgiveness Essay slave-narratives and abolitionist literature, including works such as Aphra Behn's Oronooko and Olaudah Equiano's autobiography. MIDVERBS : As Kolln and Funk define it, midverbs are a group of verbs that have characteristics of both transitive and intransitive verbs.

Like transitive verbs, they require a word following them--much like an object or a complement. However, the complements are not exactly like direct objects because they do not explain what or whom is receiving the action. Instead, the complements of midverbs provide information about amount or measurement (Kolln and Funk 55). Examples include the verbs weigh and cost (55). A Provision Of The Supreme Case Overturned By. For instance, The corpse weighed two-hundred pounds. Here, weighed is a midverb. The word pounds is sort of like a direct object to Analysis on Forgiveness Essay the verb weighs , but since it shows an equivalence with corpse , it is the bells poem sort of like a predicate noun or a subject complement also.

Kolln and Funk handle this blurred categorization by treating clauses with midverbs as Pattern VI sentences--i.e., they treat the complement as a mere adverbial. MILES GLORIOSUS (Lat. glorious soldier): The braggart soldier, a stock character in on Forgiveness classical Roman drama. The braggart soldier is cowardly but boasts of his past deeds, and gas to a solid he becomes involved in sexual catastrophes, bullying, and thievery. The miles gloriosus is frequently of low morals. Shakespeare probably based Falstaff in Analysis Renaissance literatureon the common miles gloriosus in restaurant business classical literature. MILTONIC IMAGERY : Imagery made famous by Milton's poetry--especially Paradise Lost . Examples include the dark angels or twisted demons laboring at Pandemonium's construction deep below the earth in fiery shadow, especially when such imagery is Essay taken in contrast with the pastoral tranquility of Eden or the pearly mansions of heaven afloat in glowing clouds. Likewise, the motif of the rejected, fallen, rebellious seraphim struggling against the Almighty's white lightning remains a haunting image in Milton's poetry. These Miltonic images have influenced a great number of later literary works.

In H. The Bells Poem. G. Wells' The Time Machine , Wells used Miltonic imagery in the Morlocks and Eloi, where (it initially appears) the troglodytic Morlocks labor in darkness under the earth and the child-like Eloi play in the blissful garden above. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein steals Miltonic imagery by casting the monster as both an Analysis on Forgiveness, innocent Adam figure and simultaneously a rebellious Satan figure who rejects his maker as flawed and morally inferior. In many cases, Miltonic tradition shapes modern Christian iconography much more than the ancient Hebrew tradition of sheol itself. MIMESIS : Mimesis is usually translated as imitation or representation, though the concept is much more complex than that and doesn't translate easily into English. The Bells Poem. It is an Analysis on Forgiveness, imitation or representation of something else rather than an attempt to sekoto paintings literally duplicate the original.

For instance, Aristotle in The Poetics defined tragedy as the imitation [ mimesis ] of an action. In his sense, both poetry and drama are attempts to take an Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, instance of human action and represent or re -present its essence while translating it into a new medium of material. For example, a play about World War II is an gas to a solid, attempt to take the essence of an on Forgiveness Essay, actual, complex historical event involving millions of people and thousands of square miles over several years and recreate that event in a simplified representation involving a few dozen people in a few thousand square feet over a few hours. Gas To A Solid. The play would be a mimesis of that historic event using stage props, lighting, and individual actors to convey the sense of what World War II was to the audience. Analysis On Forgiveness. In the same way, the process of business mimesis might involve creating a film about Essay World War II (translating the Wrigley Field: Past examples event into images projected onto a flat screen or monitor using chemical images on a strip of photosynthetic film), or writing a poem about World War II would constitute an Essay, attempt at distilling that meaning into syllables, stress, verse, and diction. Picasso might attempt to embody warfare as a montage of the bells poem destruction--his painting Guernica is the result. The degree to which each form of art accurately embodies the essence of its subject determines (for many classical theorists of art) the degree of its success. Additionally, mimesis may involve ecphrasis --the act of translating art from one type of media into another.

A classical musician or composer might be entranced by Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, an earlier bit of folkloric art, the legend of William Tell. Ruling On The Scott V. Sandford Overturned By. He attempts to imitate or represent the stirring emotions of that story by on Forgiveness, creating a stirring song that has the same effect; thus, the famous The William Tell Overture results. A story has been translated into gas to a solid, a musical score. It is also possible to Analysis attempt mimesis of one medium into the same medium. For instance, American musician Aaron Copland was inspired by the simplicity of Quaker music, so he attempted to re-create that music mimetically in Appalachian Spring, much like he earlier attempted mimetically to capture the American spirit in business proposal Fanfare for Essay, the Common Man. In literature, ecphrasis is a provision of the court ruling v. sandford case was later by likewise used to describe the way literature describes or mimics other media (other bits of art, architecture, music and so on). For instance, Ode on a Grecian Urn is largely Keats' poetic attempt to capture the eternal and changeless nature of visual art depicted on an excavated piece of pottery. Chaucer's Knight's Tale involves an elaborate architectural recreation of three pagan temples, and the artwork on Analysis, the walls of the bells poem those temples, as well as the verbal construction of an entire coliseum to Analysis enclose a knightly combat.

These are both ecphrases seeking to turn one type of non-verbal art into verbal art through mimetic principles. MINIMAL PAIR : Also called contrastive pairs , these are two words that differ by only a single sound, such as gin-pin . Linguists commonly use minimal pairs for illustrating subtle sound differences. MINNES Ä NGER : Any German minstril who writes poems and songs about courtly love in the medieval period. He is usually considered the German equivalent of the French troubadour . MINUSCULE : A small or lowercase letter, in gas to a solid contrast with majuscule , a large or capital letter. The invention of Analysis Essay minuscule allowed for faster, more compact writing in scriptoria. MIRACLE OF THE VIRGIN : A vita or a miracle play that dramatizes some aspect of humanity activity, and ends with the miraculous intervention of the restaurant Blessed Virgin. Essay. See discussion under miracle play (below), and vita . MIRACLE PLAY : Not to gas to a solid be confused with medieval morality plays, a miracle play is Analysis on Forgiveness a medieval drama depicting either biblical stories, the miracle(s) performed by Wrigley Field: Essay, a saint, or the Analysis on Forgiveness martyrdom of a saint in Christian traditions. (Some critics prefer the third definition and reject the restaurant first two.) Miracle plays were usually presented in a cycle, such as dramas dealing with the Virgin Mary, the fall of man, and so on. In France, a sharp division is made between a mystery play and a miracle play, but it is Essay common for the terms to be used interchangeably elsewhere. Few examples of miracle plays survive in English (the oldest being Play of gas to a solid Saint Catherine from the Analysis Essay area of Dunstable), but in France, there remains a famous cycle of Les Miracles de Notre Dame , forty-two plays belonging to the second half of the 1300s written in octosyllabic couplets. An example of a modern miracle play is the Belgian writer Maurice Maeterlinck's Sister Beatrice . The general emphasis in a miracle play is to astonish and inspire the viewer with a sense of wonder at the numinous.

An entire subgenre of the bells poem miracles of the virgin also exist. Contrast with morality play and mystery play . MIRROR PASSAGE : A section of a story that might not contribute directly to the plot (i.e., it contains characters divorced from the main narrative, and the events it deals with do not further the action) but which does reflect the basic concerns of the work in terms of theme, action, or symbolism or which seems to Analysis on Forgiveness echo another scene, image, or situation. On The Case Was Later. For instance, the Miller's story in Essay The Canterbury Tales creates a love triangle to mock and mirror the love triangle in the Knight's earlier narrative, or the three daily hunts that mirror the tactics of the bedroom seduction in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , or the the bells poem way Aeneas's attempt to hug Creüsa's ghost thrice mirrors his attempt to embrace the ghost of Analysis Essay his father Anchises in The Aeneid , or the inversion of words and tears that distinguishes Aeneas and Dido's two farewells--the first at Carthage and the second in the Underworld. Scott V. Sandford Case Overturned By. See also mirror scene . MIRROR SCENE : A scene in a play or novel that does not contribute directly to the plot (i.e., it contains characters divorced from the main narrative, and the events it deals with do not further the action,) but which does mirror the basic concerns of the play or narrative in terms of theme, action, or symbolism. For instance, the scene with the gardeners in Richard II relates symbolically to Analysis the fact that Richard, as king, is not tending his own little Eden, the isle of Britain.

The scene with Christopher Sly in the opening of The Taming of the Shrew does not relate directly to Petruchio's wooing of Kate, but it does establish the theme of how appearance might not match reality. See also mirror passage . MLA : The acronym for a provision of the supreme scott v. sandford was later overturned, the Modern Language Association. On Forgiveness Essay. English students primarily know the MLA as the Field: Essay publisher of the MLA guidelines for research papers, the Essay standard format used in American college English classes. Founded in and evaluate the psychodynamic approach to psychopathology 1883, this organization is a professional guild of sorts for professors and instructors of on Forgiveness a variety of subjects: foreign languages, linguistics, composition, technical writing, philology, rhetoric, and literature. Membership is particularly useful for students in graduate schools about to seek their first jobs. (Membership allows them access to the JIL, the Wrigley and Present Job Information Listings.) The organization hosts the MLA convention annually, where most interviews for instructor positions at Analysis Essay, colleges take place.

It also sponsors the PMLA journal and the MLA International Bibliography . You can learn more at the MLA website. MOCK EPIC : In contrast with an epic , a mock epic is a long, heroicomical poem that merely imitates features of the classical epic. The poet often takes an elevated style of language, but incongruously applies that language to gas to a solid mundane or ridiculous objects and situations. The mock epic focuses frequently on the exploits of an antihero whose activities illustrate the stupidity of the class or group he represents. Various other attributes common to the classical epic, such as the Analysis Essay invocation of the muse or the intervention of the gods, or the long catalogs of characters, appear in the mock epic as well, only to be spoofed. For instance, Alexander Pope's The Rape of the paintings Lock gives in Analysis on Forgiveness hyperbolic language a lengthy account of how a 17th century lord cuts a lady's hair in order to steal a lock of Field: Past Essay examples it as a keepsake, leading to all sorts of social backlash when the woman is Analysis on Forgiveness Essay unhappy with her new hairdo. Lord Byron's Don Juan gives a lengthy list of the sexual conquests and catastrophes associated with a precocious young lord, Don Juan. Both are fine examples of the mock epic. In some ways, the the bells poem mock epic is the opposite of a travesty . See also spoof , satire . MOCK SERMON : A medieval genre commonly known as une sermon joyeux or une sermon joli , its conventions are that a non-clerical figure will present a humorous lecture on on Forgiveness, a non-religious topic (sexuality and outline the psychodynamic to psychopathology food being two common choices) using all the Analysis on Forgiveness Essay tropes and conventions of a normal homily --such as the gas to a solid introduction and explication of a Biblical passage, allusions to various intellectual figures, a series of exempla to prove the speaker's point, and a concluding invocation of prayer. Some critics have read Chaucer's Wife of Bath's Prologue as a mock sermon concerning a woman's place in marriage, for instance. For an on Forgiveness, excellent discussion of the sermon joyeux in connection with Chaucer, see volume 58 of the business proposal academic journal Speculum , pages 674-80.

MODERN ENGLISH : The English language as spoken between about 1450 and the modern day. The language you are speaking now and the language Shakespeare spoke are both considered examples of Modern English. Analysis. Modern English is distinct from of the court ruling on the scott v. sandford case overturned by Middle English (spoken c. 1100 to 1400) in that vowels are pronounced differently after the Great Vowel Shift (1400-1450). Both Middle English and Modern English are distinct from Old English in that Old English and Analysis Essay Middle English had numerous letters (such as the letters ash , thorn , and eth ) and of the court on the v. sandford case overturned some sounds (such as yogh ) that were used much more commonly. Old English also used elaborate declensions that have mostly fallen out of use in Modern English. To avoid irritating your teacher, do not confuse Old English, Middle English, and Essay Modern English. This diagram will help you contrast them. A good rule of thumb is that, (a) if you can read it easily, it's probably modern English, (b) if you can read it with some difficulty, but there are many words misspelled and an occasional strange letter, it's probably Middle English, and (c) if you can't read it all, and it looks like a foreign language with letters you don't recognize, you are probably looking at Old English.

See Middle English and gas to a solid Old English . MODERNISM : A vague, amorphous term referring to on Forgiveness the art, poetry, literature, architecture, and philosophy of Europe and America in the early twentieth-century. Outline And Evaluate Approach To Psychopathology. Scholars do not agree exactly when Modernism began--most suggest after World War I, but some suggest it started as early as the late nineteenth century in France. Likewise, some assert Modernism ended with World War II or the bombing of Nagasaki, to be replaced with Postmodernism, or that modernism lasted until the 1960s, when post-structural linguistics dethroned it. Others suggest that the division between modernism and Analysis on Forgiveness Essay postmodernism is false, and that postmodernism is merely the restaurant business proposal continuing process of Modernism. Essay. Under the general umbrella of Modernism, we find several art movements such as surrealism, formalism, and various avante-garde French movements. Professor Frank Kermode further divides modernism into paleo-modernism (1914-1920) and neo-modernism (1920-1942). However, these divisions are hardly agreed upon by historians and critics. In general, modernism is an early twentieth-century artistic marked by the following characteristics: (1) the Field: and Present examples desire to break away from established traditions, (2) a quest to find fresh ways to view man's position or function in the universe, (3) experiments in form and style, particularly with fragmentation--as opposed to the organic theories of literary unity appearing in the Romantic and on Forgiveness Victorian periods, and (4) a lingering concern with metaliterature . Cf. postmodernism . To see where modernism fits into court ruling on the v. sandford case was later overturned, a chronological listing of the major literary periods, click here for a pdf handout.

MOLOSSUS : A rare metrical foot of three-stressed syllables, such as might appear in Analysis Essay bacchic meter. It is also called a bacchic foot or a bachius .It is nonstandard in the bells poem most English verse. MONDEGREN : A misheard song lyric or poetic line that results in Analysis on Forgiveness Essay a textual variant through faulty oral transmission. The result is often amusing in nature. Past And Present Examples. For example, the 1967 rock singer Jimi Hendrix had a set of Analysis on Forgiveness lyrics in Purple Haze in which the speaker states in pantheistic bliss, 'Scuse me while I kiss the sky.

However, the background music garbled his pronunciation, and many confused listeners misinterpreted the line as 'Scuse me while I kiss this guy. Similarly, Appalachian immigrants brought with them a folksong from gas to a solid England called The Golden Vanity, which originally speaks of sailing the Lowland Sea. After a few generations, the landlocked Appalachian descendants did not know what the Lowland Sea referred to Essay any longer, and the singers created a mondegren, sailing the lonesome sea. Several literary works gain their titles from mondegrens, including Malachy McCourt's A Monk Swimming and Past examples J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye.

The original term mondegren to describe this sort of mistake first appeared in an essay by on Forgiveness Essay, Sylvia Wright, which Harper's Magazine published in November of 1954. In the essay, The Death of Lady Mondegren, Wright recalled how she misinterpreted a line from the 17th-centrury ballad, The Bonny Earl O'Morray. Here, the original line reads, They hae slain the Earl O'Moray, / and the psychodynamic to psychopathology laid him on the Green. She, however, heard, They hae slain the Analysis Earl O'Moray, / and Lady Mondegren. MONODY : Any elegy or dirge represented as the utterance of Wrigley and Present a single speaker. Compare with dramatic monologue . MONOGENESIS : The theory that, if two similar stories, words, or images appear in two different geographic regions or languages, they are actually related to each other rather than appearing independently.

Either one was the original source, and the others adopted it later, or all the surviving examples come from an older (possibly lost) source. Contrast with polygenesis . MONOLOGUE (contrast with soliloquy and interior monologue ): An interior monologue does not necessarily represent spoken words, but rather the internal or emotional thoughts or feelings of an individual, such as William Faulkner's long interior monologues within The Sound and The Fury . Monologue can also be used to refer to a character speaking aloud to himself, or narrating an account to an audience with no other character on stage. Cf. Essay. dramatic monologue . MONOMYTH : Joseph Cambell, a psychoanaltyic and Jungian theorist, coined the phrase monomyth in his 1949 work, The Hero with a Thousand Faces . The phrase describes a particular recurring narrative structure in Field: and Present Essay mythology that he felt resonated with human psychology. In narratology and on Forgiveness Essay mythographic studies, the monomyth or hero's journey is a common narrative pattern in which a young or inexperienced hero (or sometimes heroine) goes on a journey or adventure. After setbacks or disastrous failure, he receives assistance from companions and advice from a mentor figure or figures. The Bells Poem. He resumes the Analysis on Forgiveness Essay journey, and in a climactic point of the story, symbolically dies, learns some hidden gnosis, and symbolically returns to life. He then wins a victory, and gas to a solid he returns home transformed by the experience so that he can serve as a leader to his people. The chart would look like the following: STAGE I Call to adventure --some new threat or challenge appears in the protagonist's community.

STAGE II Supernatural aid --from a magical creature or magical object appears. STAGE III Confrontation --The hero confronts the threshhold of danger, often a guardian or villain, that thrwarts him. STAGE IV Education --Aid comes from Analysis Essay a helper and/or mentor figures to show him how to bypass challenges and temptations. STAGE V Revelation --The hero experiences revelation--often in the form of an abyss or a symbolic death and rebirth. STAGE VI Resurrection --The hero is supreme ruling on the v. sandford case overturned transformed, resurrected, or somehow makes atonment, often receiving a concrete or abstract gift from Analysis Essay a divine source like a god or goddess-figure. STAGE VII Return --The hero returns home. Once there, he re-establishes order or peace, often becoming a new ruler.

MONOPHTHONG : In linguistics, Algeo defines this as A simple vowel with a single, stable quality (323) Simon Horobin calls it, a pure vowel with no change in quality (192). Contrast with diphthong . See also monophthongization . MONOPHTHONGIZATION : The tendency of diphthongs to the psychodynamic to psychopathology turn into simple vowels over time, or the actual process by which diphthongs turn into such vowels. Analysis. Contrast with diphthongization. MONORHYME : A poem or section of a poem in which all the gerard lines have the same end rhyme. The rhyming pattern would thus look like this: AAAA AAAA, AAA AAA, or AA AA AA AA , etc. It is a common rhyme scheme in Latin, Italian, Arabic, Welsh, and Slav poetry, especially in the Slav poetry of the oral-formulaic tradition.

Because of the Analysis on Forgiveness fact that English nouns are not declined and our adjectives do not have gender consistently indicated by particular endings, it is much harder to make effective poetic use of monorhyme in the English poetry. However, Shakespeare makes frequent use of it is a bit of doggerel in his plays. For instance, in the bells poem The Merchant of Venice , we find the Analysis on Forgiveness following section in monorhyme: Seven times tried that judgment is. That did never choose amiss. Some there be that shadows kiss.

There be fools alive iwis, Silvered o'er, and so was this. Take what wife you will to bed. I will ever be your head. So be gone; you are sped. A Provision Of The Court On The Scott Case Overturned By. (2.9.62-71) MONOSYLLABIC : Having only one syllable. MOOD (from Anglo-Saxon, mod heart or spirit): (1) In literature, a feeling, emotional state, or disposition of mind--especially the predominating atmosphere or tone of a literary work. Analysis On Forgiveness Essay. Most pieces of literature have a prevailing mood, but shifts in this prevailing mood may function as a counterpoint, provide comic relief, or echo the proposal changing events in the plot. The term mood is often used synonymously with atmosphere and ambiance . Students and critics who wish to discuss mood in their essays should be able to point to specific diction, description, setting, and characterization to illustrate what sets the mood. Analysis On Forgiveness Essay. (2) In grammar, an aspect of verbs. Click here for gerard sekoto paintings, more information on grammatical mood . MORALITY PLAY : A genre of medieval and early Renaissance drama that illustrates the way to live a pious life through allegorical characters.

The characters tend to Analysis Essay be personified abstractions of of the supreme court ruling case was later by vices and virtues. For instance, characters named Mercy and Conscience might work together to stop Shame and Lust from stealing Mr. Poorman's most valuable possession, a box of gold labeled Salvation. Unlike a mystery play or a miracle play , a morality play does not necessarily use Biblical or strictly religious material, i.e., the morality play usually does not contain specific characters found in the Bible, such as saints or the disciples or Old Testament figures. Unlike the miracle play, which depicts astonishing and moving miraculous events believed to have occurred literally to specific historical figures in on Forgiveness specific settings, the morality play takes place internally and psychologically in every human being. The protagonist often has a name that represents this universality, such as Everyman, Mankind, Soul, Adam, or whatnot.

The most famous morality play is probably Everyman , a fifteenth-century drama in which a grim character named Death summons Everyman to judgment. On his way to court ruling on the meet Death, Everyman discovers that all his old buddies are abandoning him except one. On Forgiveness. His friend Good Deeds is the only one that will accompany him to meet Death, while Beauty, Fellowship, Kindred, Knowledge, and a provision of the court case was later Strength fall by the wayside on his journey. Other famous examples include The Castle of Perseverance and Mankind . Contrast with mystery play and miracle play . MORPHEME : Linguistically, the smallest collection of sounds or letters in Essay a spoken or written word that has semiotic importance or significance--a unit of meaning that cannot be divided into tinier units of meaning. For instance, in the English word rerun , the prefix re- is a morpheme implying again and the word run is a morpheme implying an act of motion. If we try to cut the prefix re- into smaller collections of sounds ( /r/ and /I/ phonetically), these sounds no longer have meaning attached to them, and they are no longer morphemes.

Likewise, the morpheme run cannot be further subdivided into meaningful morphemes. Outline And Evaluate Approach To Psychopathology. Note that morphemes can be either free or bound . Typically, in English, individual syllables tend to be morphemes, though some occasional morphemes consist of single sounds. Contrast with grapheme and phoneme . MORPHOLOGY : The part of a language concerned with the structure of morphemes and how these morphemes combine. Linguists use this term in contrast with syntax . MORPHOSYNTAX : In linguistics, morphosyntax is an impressive word scholars use when most people would simply say grammar. On Forgiveness. It is the study of how parts of a sentence relate to each other. MOSAIC AUTHORSHIP : The medieval and Renaissance belief that Moses wrote all five books of the gas to a solid Pentateuch. Click here for on Forgiveness Essay, more discussion. MOT JUSTE, LE (French, The right word): A well-chosen, precise, or exact word, an gas to a solid, extremely appropriate or fitting bit of diction . MOTIF : A conspicuous recurring element, such as a type of incident, a device, a reference, or verbal formula, which appears frequently in works of literature. For instance, the loathly lady who turns out to be a beautiful princess is Analysis on Forgiveness Essay a common motif in folklore, and the man fatally bewitched by a fairy lady is outline the psychodynamic a common folkloric motif appearing in Keats' La Belle Dame sans Merci. In medieval Latin lyrics, the on Forgiveness Essay Ubi sunt ? [where are . Past And Present Examples. . .?] motif is on Forgiveness Essay common, in and Present examples which a speaker mourns the lost past by repeatedly asking, what happened to the good-old days? (Where are the Analysis snows of yesteryear? asks Francois Villon.) The motif of the beheading game is common in Celtic myth, and so on. Gas To A Solid. Frequently, critics use the word motif interchangeably with theme and leit-motif . Analysis. See also folkloric motif . MOTIF OF THE DISGUISED KING : A common motif in folklore in which the king disguises himself and travels through his domains incognito . Examples include Prince Hal/Henry V in the bells poem Shakespeare's plays, in which the king dons a cloak to obscure his features and on Forgiveness then walks among his troops to converse with them and get a sense of their morale before battle.

In Greek epics, Odysseus returns to his kingdom of Ithaca in the psychodynamic approach to psychopathology disguise and Essay skulks among the suitors to gather intelligence toward the end of The Odyssey . In The Lord of the proposal Rings , Aragorn is the rightful king of the west, but he remains disguised as the homeless and impoverished Strider. Analysis On Forgiveness. See also the the bells poem motif of the hidden king , below. MOTIF OF THE HIDDEN KING : A common motif in folklore in which the rightful king of a nation is absent or hidden away, but will one day be revealed and on Forgiveness then triumphantly reclaim rule over his kingdom, ushering in a golden age. Examples in Arthurian literature include King Arthur, who is first hidden when Merlin spirits him away from a provision court on the case was later overturned by Uther Pendragon while Arthur is an infant but later revealed as the true ruler when he draws the sword from the stone. Additionally, at the end of his life, when King Arthur is wounded in the fight with Mordred, he sails away to Avalon in Essay the West, but prophecy asserts he will return from Faerie to rule Britain again in the hour of the island's greatest need. In world religions, some branches of Islam believe in the Mahdi, a hidden Imam, a rightful spiritual ruler of the Muslim faithful who remains hidden but will eventually reveal himself and return to power.

Some Tolkien scholars identify Aragorn in The Lord of the and evaluate approach Rings as another example of the motif. As Helen Armstrong notes: Aragorn has many of the marks of a mythical hidden king and true hero. His mother (and in Essay an earlier draft his grandmother) prophesis on of the on the scott v. sandford case was later overturned, his behalf. At moments of drama a white flame appears on his brow. He loves a princess of the Elves. His marriage depends on his success, and the future of his kingdom depends on his marriage. He is supported and advised by a powerful otherworldly woman, Galadriel, and he carries tokens of his heritage and destiny (Andúril, the Elfstone). The last sapling of the White Tree of Gondor flowers to herald his marriage, and Essay he is crowned in Gondor by and evaluate the psychodynamic approach, Gandalf, the Analysis Essay hierophant in the bells poem the story. . . . He has powers (such as his ability to Analysis Essay control the palantír ) that rest partly in his innate royal authority. (see Aragorn entry in Drout 23) MULTICULTURAL NOVEL : As Robert Harris defines the term in the bells poem his glossary, a multicultural novel is.

A novel written by Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, a member of or about a cultural minority group, giving insight into non-Western or non-dominant cultural experiences and values, either in the United States or abroad. Examples: • Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart. • Amy Tan, The Kitchen God's Wife. • Forrest Carter, The Education of Little Tree. • Margaret Craven, I Heard the Owl Call My Name. • James Baldwin, Go Tell It on the Mountain.

• Isaac Bashevis Singer, The Penitent. MULTICULTURALISM : In literature, multiculturalism is the belief that literary studies should include writings, poetry, folklore, and plays from a number of different cultures rather than focus on Western European civilization alone. See also Latino writing and Harlem Renaissance for two examples of multicultural writings. MULTIPLICATIVE : Most languages have various systems of gas to a solid numbering, typically at least two systems and Analysis Essay sometimes many more. Of The Court On The Scott V. Sandford. For instance, most languages distinguish between cardinal numbers (like one , two , or three in English or unus , duo , and tres in Latin) which indicate a tally and can function as adjectives or substantive adjectives, and ordinal numbers (such as first , second , and third in English or primus , secundus , and tertius in Latin), which indicate a sequence or ordering. However, a great number of other possible numbering systems exist among the on Forgiveness Essay world languages, some of which have no perfect correspondence in restaurant business English. These include the following:

Multiplicative numbers indicate the Analysis Essay number of times something multiplies or recurs, such as the English words single , double , triple , or quadruple , or the Latin words simplex, duplex, triplex , and quater , etc. Proportional numbers indicate comparisons of degree, such as Latin duplus , triplus , quadruplus , etc. English has no directly comparable words, and must express proportion with phrases like twice as great as or three times as much, etc. Numeric adverbs indicate how many times or how often something happens, such as English once , twice , or thrice or the Latin terms semel , bis , ter , or quater , etc. Distributive numbers indicate how many of and evaluate each or how many at a time, especially when parts of a large number are being distributed among a smaller group. Analysis. Examples include Latin singuli , bini , terni , and restaurant business quaterni . English has no comparable system of single number-words, and it must express distributive ideas with phrases like one given to each one, two given to each one, three given to each one, etc. Partitive numbers indicate the number of Essay parts in the bells poem a greater whole, such as Latin binarius , ternarius , quaternarius , etc. English has no comparable system except for a few limited words like binary or trinary , and it must express more complex partitive ideas or larger numbers with phrases like consisting of twelve parts, or divided into eighteen components. Temporal numbers are single words refering to Analysis on Forgiveness Essay units of time in the past, such as Latin bimus , trimus , etc.

English has no comparable system and must express temporal numbers in full phrases like two years ago or three minutes in the future or lasting for a period of seven hours, where other languages might use a single word to encompass that idea. MUSES, THE NINE : The nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne who had the power to inspire artists, poets, singers, and writers. They are listed below along with their spheres of influence: MUSIC OF THE SPHERES : In medieval and Renaissance Europe, many scholars believed in a beautiful song created by the bells poem, the movement of the heavenly bodies (sun, moon, and Analysis on Forgiveness planets). The music of spheres supposedly was infinitely beautiful, but humans were unable to hear it, either (a) because of their sinful separation from God, or (b) because they were so used to its presence, their minds automatically filtered it out and evaluate the psychodynamic approach as background noise. This medieval idea influences C. S. Lewis and on Forgiveness J.R.R. Tolkien's fantasy literature, in which Aslan creates Narnia through an act of singing and the elder gods of Middle-Earth build the the bells poem universe through a symphony that incorporates Melkor's awful, rebellious song into the larger harmonies of the grand creator.

MUTATION : A change in a vowel sound caused by another sound in the following syllable. In Old English and in Celtic languages like Irish Gaelic and Welsh, the type of mutation called i -mutation was especially common. Another common type is the eclipsis mutation, a mutation in which a basic consonant sound is eclipsed or replaced by a stronger sound in a preceding word. For a chart of the most common Irish mutations as examples, click here. MYSTERY CULT : Unlike the official public cults dedicated to the Olympian gods in ancient Greece and Rome, a number of religious practices involved chthonic deities (like Demeter) and imported foreign gods (Ishtar, Osiris, Mithras, etc.). The cults often shared features such as ritual washing or cleansing in the form of baptism, ritual christening or renaming, symbolically dying and being born again, etc. Possibly some may have offered the Analysis hope of an afterlife through metempsychosis (unlike standard Greek and the bells poem Roman belief which emphasized a gloomy stay in the underworld). Others--in the Essay case of court on the scott case was later overturned by Dionysian worshippers--ritually slew the god and ate him or drank his blood symbolically in the form of wine. Regardless of specific varying details, these mystery cults shared a common element of secrecy--a distinction between the uninitiated outsider who did not share in on Forgiveness Essay their special blessings and the initiated cult member who did. The cult rituals were held to be so sacred that it was blasphemous to reveal them to outsiders, even to speak of them, describe them, or write them down in any way.

The rites were often held in inaccessible areas far from the Field: and Present examples local city--on mountain-tops or sea-shores or in catacombs. Some, like the mystery cult of Demeter, were open to any prospective members regardless of race, gender, or nationality as long as they spoke sufficient Greek to participate in the rituals. Others were open to certain professions, such as the cult of Analysis on Forgiveness Essay Mithras which only allowed soldiers to join after an initial baptism in bull's blood. Others were restricted by family (such as local versions of the gas to a solid Lykian wolf cult) or partly restricted by gender (such as the Analysis on Forgiveness maenads of Dionysus). MYSTERY CYCLE : A collection of mystery plays in a single manuscript meant to be performed sequentially. See discusion under mystery play , below. MYSTERY NOVEL : A novel focused on suspense and solving a mystery--especially a murder, theft, kidnapping, or some other crime. Gas To A Solid. The protagonist faces inexplicable events, threats, assaults, and on Forgiveness unknown forces or antagonists. Conventionally, the hero is a keenly observant individual (such as Sherlock Holmes) and the police are depicted as incompetent or incapable of solving the crime by themselves. Gas To A Solid. Many of the Analysis on Forgiveness Essay works of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Edgar Allan Poe, and Agatha Christie are mystery novels. Note that this term should not be confused with the medieval mystery play , below.

MYSTERY PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the a provision of the ruling on the scott case overturned Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the Analysis Essay crucifixion, and so on. Although the origins are uncertain, Mary Marshall and other early scholars like E. K. A Provision Supreme Ruling Scott V. Sandford Was Later Overturned By. Chambers (author of The Medieval Stage , 1903) suggested that the plays developed out Analysis on Forgiveness Essay of the Latin liturgy of the church, in Wrigley and Present Essay examples particular out of the Quem Quaeritis trope of Easter Day festivals. These early Easter Day dramatic performances took place in the churchyard. Later, these plays gradually became secular and used vernacular languages rather than Latin, and Analysis Essay they gradually moved out to psychopathology of the churchyard and ecclesiastical control, becoming outdoor performances controlled by the craftsmen in each city, according to this theory. Other scholars such as V. A. On Forgiveness. Kolve refute this idea, however. In any case, we do know that these religious plays were staged and paintings performed by secular audiences. Typically, the various guilds in Analysis on Forgiveness Essay each city (such as the Carpenters' Guild, the Butchers' Guild, and so on) would sponsor and gas to a solid perform one play during the Corpus Christi festival, competing with each other for on Forgiveness Essay, the most elaborate performance.

Each guild would mount the the bells poem play on Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, a large wagon with a curtained scaffold, with the gas to a solid lower part of the wagon used as a dressing room. Between forty and fifty of Analysis these wagons (one for a provision of the supreme ruling on the case, each guild) would move from spot to spot in the city, so that spectators could watch several performances in a single day. The plays often involved elaborate representations of heaven and Analysis on Forgiveness Essay hell, mechanical devices to create special effects, and lavish costuming. The dramatizations became increasingly elaborate, and they show signs of developing psychological realism. The use of mystery in the name may originate in either the restaurant proposal idea of spiritual mysteries, which were the focus of each play, or it may result from the Latin word misterium (a guild). The mystery plays were an on Forgiveness, important precursor to the miracle plays and morality plays (see above) in medieval drama, and they set the stage for the flowering of gerard Renaissance drama that was to come with Shakespeare. Note that this term should not be confused with the Victorian and modern mystery novel , above. MYSTIC WRITERS : See discussion under mystics , below. MYSTICS : In the word's most general sense, mystics are religious visionaries who experience divine insights. In medieval scholarship, the Analysis on Forgiveness Essay term mystics or mystic writers is often used as a collective term for business, a group of Analysis late fourteenth-century and the bells poem early fifteenth-century eremites in Essay England who wrote mystical works in Middle English and Latin. These include the supreme ruling on the scott case by anchoress Julian of Norwich, who wrote The Book of on Forgiveness Essay Showings ; the illiterate mystic Margery Kempe, who dictated her autobiography The Book of Margery Kempe to two scribes; Richard Rolle, the author of Love is Love that Lasts for Aye; and the anonymous author of and evaluate approach The Cloud of Unknowing . On the continent, other famous mystics include Saint Teresa of Avila, Hildegard of Bingen, and Saint Francis of Assissi.

The mystic writers are marked by the use of vivid (and sometimes confusing) imagery , intense emotional pathos (in the case of Margery Kempe), paradox (in the case of Richard Rolle), and an intense desire to verbalize what is largely a nonverbal experience (in the case of nearly every mystic). Mystics--regardless of religious background--are often marked by an experience in on Forgiveness which they perceive the universe as a unity or in which they feel a sense of being one with the divine. Gerard Paintings. We see signs of Analysis on Forgiveness this tendency in Julian of Field: Past and Present Essay examples Norwich's vision of Christ's blood, which transforms into raindrops falling from the side of a roof and Analysis Essay then in proposal turn transforms into Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, the scales on gerard sekoto, a herring, as if God's physical form were embodied in the entire universe. In a more general sense, the author of the book of on Forgiveness Revelation in restaurant business the Bible (commonly attributed to John of Patmos), and the poetry of Analysis Essay William Blake are said to be visionary or mystical in a provision of the court ruling on the case was later overturned by nature, though scholars usually do not place them in the same category as the medieval mystics. On the other hand, much of religious poetry and Analysis on Forgiveness Essay writing is not particularly mystic in gerard paintings its nature--as witnessed by on Forgiveness, C. S. Lewis' The Screwtape Letters or the poetry of Wrigley Essay Milton and Gerard Manley Hopkins, all three of which are profoundly religious, but which do not necessarily represent a struggle to verbalize an intense religious vision in the same manner as a mystic writer. MYTH : While common English usage often equates myth with falsehood, scholars use the term slightly differently. A myth is a traditional tale of deep cultural significance to a people in terms of etiology , eschatology , ritual practice, or models of Analysis on Forgiveness Essay appropriate and the psychodynamic approach to psychopathology inappropriate behavior. The myth often (but not always) deals with gods, supernatural beings, or ancestral heroes.

The culture creating or retelling the myth may or may not believe that the myth refers to literal or factual events, but it values the mythic narrative regardless of its historical authenticity for Analysis Essay, its (conscious or unconscious) insights into the human condition or the model it provides for gerard sekoto paintings, cultural behavior. See also folklore , legend , mythography , mythos , and mythology . MYTHOGRAPHY : The commentary, writings, and interpretations added to myths. Medieval writers, such as the four anonymous scribes collectively called the Vatican Mythographers, would take Greek and Roman myths and write elaborate Christianized allegories to on Forgiveness Essay explain the Field: Past meaning of the text. Another example of medieval mythography is the Ovid moralisée , a retelling of on Forgiveness Essay Ovid's Metamorphoses in which French scribes interpret the legends as Christological commentary on the New Testament. MYTHOLOGY : A system of stories about the gods, often explicitly religious in nature, that possibly were once believed to supreme court scott case was later overturned by be true by a specific cultural group, but may no longer be believed as literally true by their descendents. Like religions everywhere, mythology often provided etiological and eschatological narratives (see above) to help explain why the world works the way it does, to provide a rationale for customs and observances, to Essay establish set rituals for the bells poem, sacred ceremonies, and to predict what happens to individuals after death. If the protagonist is a normal human rather than a supernatural being, the traditional story is on Forgiveness Essay usually called a legend rather than a myth. If the story concerns supernatural beings who are not deities, but rather spirits, ghosts, fairies, and restaurant proposal other creatures, it is usually called a folktale or fairy tale rather than a myth (see folklore , below). Samples of myths appear in the writings of Homer, Virgil, and Ovid.

MYTHOPOEIA (Greek myth-making or myth-poetry): (1) J. R. R. On Forgiveness Essay. Tolkien's neologism for the deliberate creation of artificial myth , especially the supreme court ruling on the v. sandford case overturned by incorporation of traditional mythic archetypes into Essay, current fiction, whether that fiction be something akin to Virgil's propaganda in The Aeneid , the Romantic poetry of William Blake, or the fantasy literature of C.S. Lewis or Tolkien himself. Tolkien connected mythopoeia with his theological doctrine of gerard paintings subcreation (q.v.) (2) Tolkien's poem of the same title, which he wrote in response to an argument he and the other Inklings had regarding C.S. Analysis On Forgiveness. Lewis' atheism shortly after September 19, 1931. C.S. Lewis initially felt he could not believe in a literal resurrection of the psychodynamic approach Christ because the narrative pattern in the Gospels echoed much older myths about sacrificial dying gods, as detailed at on Forgiveness Essay, length in Sir James Frazer's The Golden Bough . He thus thought that the Gospel stories, though breathed through silver, were merely pretty lies. Tolkien's counter-argument was that, even though much older versions of the gerard paintings story existed before the time of Christ, that did not matter.

Tolkien argued that, what God did in the incarnation and crucifixion was to take the older stories and make them literally true. Our older myths expressed man's deepest longest for redemption and resurrection, and that God chose to fulfill those ancient desires by giving Christ to Essay humanity--and thus the older myth could be made flesh and the bells poem walk among us. MYTHOS : (1) Approaching the world through poetic narrative and traditional ritual rather than rational or logical thought. (2) The collected myths of a specific culture in a general sense rather than in on Forgiveness reference to one particular narrative or character. Wrigley And Present Essay. For instance, we might refer specifically to the myth of Hercules fighting the Hydra, the on Forgiveness Essay myth of Kali drinking demons' blood, or the myth of the giant Ullikummis, but we would more generally say these tales belong to the Greek mythos , the Hindu mythos , or the Hittite mythos , respectively. Cf. mythology .

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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in writing custom essays, research and term papers in Analysis on Forgiveness, many fields. MLA essay format is most widely used in the field of humanities and liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in 2009. Wrigley And Present Essay? Among the new rules of formatting, the Essay, Works Cited or References list is the requirement of indicating the medium of publication for every cited source. It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for on-line sources. MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing.

Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to use. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the more popular choice. Gerard Sekoto? By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at the end of the essay. On Forgiveness Essay? However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to business, do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements . You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one. The text in Analysis on Forgiveness, MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. This rule concerns the basic text of your essay, along with the formatting of in-text citations and the bells poem, the Works Cited page.

12-font size is preferable. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on all sides of your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the headings in the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. According to the recommendations of the Modern Language Association, the headings have to on Forgiveness, be italicized or typed in bold. The first line of Field: Past and Present Essay examples, each paragraph has to be indented a half inch from the left side. You should put page numbers at Essay, the top, and the bells poem, justify it to Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, the right. It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is gas to a solid, recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the paper is several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the editable fields and follow the guidelines within the text. Here you may find an example of proper MLA essay formatting. While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in an essay written in Analysis Essay, MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation.

Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable. The same concerns indirect in-text references. The Bells Poem? Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way. The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in MLA style.

Short citations If a citation used in the text of a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks. Analysis Essay? At the end of the citation, you have to state the author’s name and the page number where the gas to a solid, MLA citations are from in the text. This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to quote from a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from 1916. It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154). Note : there is no comma or full stop between the Analysis, authors’ last name and page number. In cases when the author of a book has been already mentioned in the sentence , just indicate the Wrigley Field: and Present, page number in reference. Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154). Long citations. When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is called a long citation and has to be placed separately from a new line. Quotation marks are not used in this case.

However, the author’s name and the page number should still be indicated in round brackets. Example: One of the characters in Kipling’s novel Kim describes the Mutiny in the following way: A madness ate into all the on Forgiveness Essay, Army, and they turned against their officers. That was the first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands. But they chose to kill the Sahibs’ wives and children. Then came the Sahibs from over the sea and called them to most strict account (Kipling 77).

Reducing of citation If the original citation in a MLA essay is reduced or you simply omit some words in the cited sentence, you should place three periods in place of those words. The omitting of words in MLA citations is used in cases when you are directly interested in only part of the statement of the author in the original source, which is located in the middle of the quoted sentence. Outline And Evaluate The Psychodynamic Approach? In this situation, you can preserve the key information and omit the details that you do not need. Example: Lawrence was compared to “a caliph . . . who had stepped out from the pages of ‘The Arabian nights’” (Thomas 16) Adding information . In the MLA essay , it is on Forgiveness, allowable to add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in square brackets. Example: When discussing civil rights, it is hard to not mention Martin Luther King Jr., who was a man who was passionate about the words of the Emancipation Proclamation: “…a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of sekoto, Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice” (King 813). More than one source of reference If you cite more than one book in Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, a sentence of Field: and Present, a MLA essay , then at Analysis, the end of the sentence indicate in brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon.

Example : David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as “a legend of the British empire, to whom the Orient added its greatness”, but at the same time as a man whose “brain has dried out paintings, under the hot sun of the desert” (15; 47). Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of work, indicate the title in italics and the page number in the parenthesis. Example: As stated by the presidential commission … (Report 4) In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the reference and Essay, they have to correspond to the information indicated in Field: Past examples, the Works Cited list at the end of essay. To get detailed information about the formatting of Analysis Essay, Works Cited list in a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to MLA Works Cited List Format at P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of your research or term paper may become rather difficult. Restaurant Proposal? In the MLA format essay, both the footnotes and in-text citations may be used. If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for professional help from P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to assist you in Essay, writing and formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week. P rof E ssays.com is just one click away when you want to order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements. The process of gathering and formatting the information for the psychodynamic your custom essay, research or term paper is quite exhausting.

Improper formatting of citations may spoil the Essay, results of your hard work. Order you paper at P rof E ssays.com and be sure to get a custom essay, research or term paper that will correspond to Past and Present examples, the latest recommendations of formatting a MLA Style Essay P rof E ssays.com is Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, a custom essay writing service provider that will guide you in writing your MLA format essay . Be sure that our custom essay will correspond to all requirements of sekoto paintings, formatting both in-text citations with the Analysis Essay, Works Cited List and the bells poem, footnotes. P rof E ssays.com is the best place to buy MLA format essays of the on Forgiveness Essay, highest quality. The title page in the MLA essay format is not compulsory, so when there is no special requirement of writing it, never do it. However, there are specific requirements to the first page in MLA essay. Learn how to Field: Past, format your MLA Title Page properly with us.

Type your name, the name of your instructor, the title of the course and the date in the upper left-hand corner of the first page. The title of Essay, your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in the middle of the title page. Examples? Remember that the title of your MLA essay is never underlined, italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. On Forgiveness? The text of your MLA essay comes next to the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to a provision of the supreme court scott v. sandford case was later by, write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of formatting the Analysis on Forgiveness, cover page in a MLA style.

MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is usually done and even submitted before writing an a provision supreme was later essay and a final outline that is Analysis Essay, submitted together with the essay. Needless to a provision of the supreme on the v. sandford case was later, say that both can be done in on Forgiveness Essay, MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a separate page. The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the page and centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of numbers/letters for gerard different levels of MLA outline . If you want to reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the Analysis Essay, section of a provision of the supreme on the, outline can’t have only one sub-section.

So, logic requires that at each level of the outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to on Forgiveness, have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to Enlarge) The detailed information about the author, the gerard paintings, title, the year of publication, the Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, publishing house and the overall number of pages in a book, periodical, etc. is provided at the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the Woks Cited list. Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the author. In cases when there is no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by their titles.

When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by their title. When you do the references of this kind, you should put the and evaluate the psychodynamic approach to psychopathology, author’s last name in front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. The title of the book is listed after the author’s name, and then the Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, place of publication, the publishing house and the year of publication. Do not forget to italicize the title of a book. Example: Buchan, John. Wrigley Past Essay Examples? Greenmantle. London: Abacus, 1916. Print. Note: According to the update in 2009 for on Forgiveness the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the medium of publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors.

When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and the bells poem, the third ones have to be placed in Analysis Essay, the direct order. So be attentive to how you place the first name and then only the gerard sekoto, last name of the second author. In cases when there are more than three authors of the book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of Analysis Essay, your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. Restaurant Business? New York: Norton, 1994. Print.

Some books are published by Analysis, organizations, commissions, associations, committees and gas to a solid, other corporate authors. On Forgiveness Essay? When there is restaurant business proposal, no single author distinguished on Analysis on Forgiveness the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of newspaper articles in a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books.

The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the business proposal, following: at first you should indicate the Analysis on Forgiveness, author’s inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and year of publication, followed by the number of pages. Additionally, the medium of the gas to a solid, publication has to Analysis, be indicated in outline and evaluate the psychodynamic to psychopathology, the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in on Forgiveness, schools”. The Times. London, 2008, Sept 12.

6. Approach To Psychopathology? Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to italicize the title of a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and not the title of the article. The month of Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.). Only May, June and July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules.

The general rules of formatting on-line sources in a provision of the ruling on the scott case overturned by, MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and periodicals. The former requirement of representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the MLA format rules. However, if your instructor still wants to see the URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and year of edition. Some on-line sources may not provide all the Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, above-mentioned information. In such cases, list the available information. A Provision Of The Ruling On The V. Sandford Case Was Later By? When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com..

2011, January. Essay? http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Web. Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in the choice of on-line sources is given to the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is indicated in gas to a solid, angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and formatting MLA essays . Analysis? Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and gas to a solid, format MLA essay in accordance with the standard rules. Though the Essay, preferable format of restaurant, a MLA essay includes the Essay, in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in proposal, the MLA style. Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, the text by Arabic numbers in superscript. The footnotes are indicated at the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at court ruling on the v. sandford case, the end of your paper on on Forgiveness Essay a separate page.

Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the MLA footnotes and endnotes and to business proposal, write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to the page number at the top of on Forgiveness Essay, each page. While heading refer to the title of your paper and the the Past and Present examples, titles of its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms: The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in on Forgiveness Essay, same font and size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold.

The title of the MLA paper should be centered. Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. All headings of the sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .

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Essay on Equilibrium: Top 9 Essays. In this essay we will discuss about Analysis Essay Equilibrium in Economics. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Equilibrium 2. Static Equilibrium 3. Past And Present Examples. Dynamic Equilibrium 4. Stable and Unstable Equilibrium 5. Neutral Equilibrium 6. Partial Equilibrium 7. Analysis On Forgiveness Essay. General Equilibrium 8. Working of the General Equilibrium 9. Uses of General Equilibrium Analysis. Essay on the Meaning of Equilibrium Essay on gerard sekoto paintings, Static Equilibrium Essay on Dynamic Equilibrium Essay on Stable and Unstable Equilibrium Essay on Neutral Equilibrium Essay on Partial Equilibrium Essay on General Equilibrium Essay on on Forgiveness, the Working of the General Equilibrium Essay on the Uses of General Equilibrium Analysis. The word ‘equilibrium’ is derived from the Latin word an equilibrium which means equal balance.

Its use in economics is business, imported from physics. In physics, it means a state of even balance in which opposing forces or tendencies neutralize each other. Prof. Stigler defines equilibrium. in this sense in these words – “An equilibrium is a position from which there is no net tendency to move, we say net tendency to emphasize the fact that it is not necessarily a state of sudden inertia but may instead represent the cancellation of power forces.”

In economics, equilibrium implies a position of rest characterized by absence of change. It is Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, a state where there is complete agreement of the economic plans of the various market participants so that no one has a tendency to revise or alter this decision. In the words of Prof. Mehta – “Equilibrium denotes in economics absence of change in movement.” In other words, it is a market situation where all decisions by the participants are in unity with each other. “A market, or an economy, or any other group of persons and firms is in the bells poem, equilibrium when none of its members feels impelled to change his behaviour. For a group to be in equilibrium, therefore, all its members must be in equilibrium; and the equilibrium behaviour of each member must be compatible with the equilibrium behaviour of all the other members.” Suppose a continuous and constant supply of fish conies to Analysis on Forgiveness, market daily which is bought with the same degree of eagerness by prospective buyers. For this, the market price must be such as to equate the demand and supply of fish. When demand and supply are equal at Field: Essay examples, a particular price, it is the state of equilibrium.

The price at which fish is bought and sold is the equilibrium price and Analysis Essay the quantity of fish bought and sold at that price is the equilibrium quantity. Sekoto Paintings. At the equilibrium price neither buyers nor sellers have an incentive to buy and Analysis on Forgiveness sell more or less. To illustrate, in Figure 1 the approach supply curve S intersects the demand curve D at E which is the equilibrium point, and OP and OQ represent the equilibrium price-quantity combination. If for some reason, price falls below the equilibrium price to OP 2 , the quantity demanded will increase and quantity supplied will diminish, i.e. P 2 d P 2 s. Analysis On Forgiveness. Forces will set in, which will tend to push the price back toward the equilibrium position E. Similarly, a price “rise above the equilibrium level to gas to a solid, OP will increase the supply and reduce the demand, P 1 s 1 P 1 d 1 and it will instantly be brought back to E. The equilibrium position explained above reveals another feature of the notion of on Forgiveness equilibrium that it is restaurant business proposal, a state of rest, characterized by movement where opposite forces are counteracting each other. Once this position is reached, there is no tendency to Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, move away from it. According to Prof. Mehta: “Static equilibrium is that equilibrium which maintains itself outside the period of time under consideration.” It is a state of bliss which every individual firm, industry or factor wants to outline and evaluate the psychodynamic, attain and once reached, would not like to leave.

A consumer is in equilibrium when he gets maximum satisfaction from a given expenditure on different goods and services. Any move on his part to Analysis Essay, reallocate his expenditure among his purchases will decrease rather than increase his total satisfaction. A firm is in equilibrium when its profits are the maximum and it has no incentive to expand contract its output any deviation from this position will lead to diminution in profits. Similarly, an industry is in equilibrium when it has no incentive to change its total output. It is a position in which neither the existing firms have any tendency to leave nor for new firms to enter the industry. In other words, industry s equilibrium when all firms are earning only gerard paintings normal profits. A productive resource is in equilibrium when in its highest paid employment so that its income is maximised. It has no incentive to otter more or less of its service and not to seek employment elsewhere.

If it does so, it will reduce its income Prof. Boulding has explained static equilibrium in these words: “A mechanical analogy may be found in a ball rolling at Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, a constant speed or better still of a forest in equilibrium where tree sprout grows or dies but where the composition of the forest as a whole remains unchanged.” Or, a train running at a constant speed. This is static equilibrium, which is sekoto, based on given, and constant prices, quantities, income, tastes, technology, population, etc. In dynamic equilibrium prices, quantities, income tastes, technology, etc. On Forgiveness Essay. are constantly Thus over a period of time, a state of Wrigley and Present Essay examples disequilibrium rather than of equilibrium is to be found if there is disagreement in the decision being made by some of the market participants; it tends to on Forgiveness Essay, alter the existing equilibrium situation, and there is disequilibrium. Those participants who are in disequilibrium in their efforts to reach the equilibrium position throw others into disequilibrium. Thus a chain reaction sets in which ultimate brings the decisions of all the participants in harmony and a new equilibrium position is established As Prof. Mehta has said, when after a fixed period the equilibrium state is disturbed it is called dynamic equilibrium. To continue our example, suppose some more persons develop the taste for fish as a result the demand for fish will increase. It will upset the previous plans and and evaluate the psychodynamic to psychopathology dispositions of all the participants in the market.

Seller will at once raise the price and thus change the behaviour of the old buyers. The market will be thrown into a state of disequilibrium and will remain so till the Analysis Essay supply of fish is increased to the level of the new demand, whence new equilibrium will be brought in by the contending forces. Figure 2 explains this process from the state of outline and evaluate the psychodynamic disequilibrium to equilibrium with the help of the Cobweb Theorem. The initial equilibrium position from on Forgiveness Essay, which disturbance starts is the bells poem, point a where D and S curves intersect. When demand increases to D 1 price at once shoots up to OP 5 . (= qb), but as the supply of fish is increased gradually over a period of time, it continues to fall till it reaches g, the new equilibrium point where Oq 3 quantity is demanded and on Forgiveness Essay supplied at the new equilibrium price OP 3 (= q 3 g). This explains dynamic equilibrium. But the question arises as to when and Wrigley Past and Present Essay how this new equilibrium position will be reached. The supply of fish cannot be increased within a day. It may take some period of time for the producers to plan and bring the additional quantities to the market. On Forgiveness Essay. This is known as lagged adjustment which can be explained with the help of the Cobweb Theorem In Figure 2 when with the increase in gas to a solid, demand from D to D 1 , price shoots up to qb (=OP 5 ) It is expected to stay at that level for some time.

It, therefore, induces the producers to increase the supply by qq 1 or the total supply toOq 1 . But this is more than the equilibrium quantity Oq 3 . which is needed in the market It will, therefore, lower the price to q d (= OP 5 ) and thus again lead to Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, alterations in the production plans of the restaurant business proposal producers whereby they will reduce the supply to Oq 1 . But this quantity is less than the equilibrium level Oq 3 Therefore price will rise to OP 4 , in turn will stimulate the supply to Oq 3 . Thus equilibrium will ultimately be established at point g where S and D 1 , curves intersect and 3 – Oq 3 is the price-quantity combination. This is dynamic equilibrium with lagged adjustment. Essay # 4. Stable and Unstable Equilibrium : The different positions of equilibrium presented above pertain to stable equilibrium. Any disturbance in the equilibrium situation is self-adjusting so that the old equilibrium position is restored as shown in Analysis Essay, Figure 1. “When the demand price is equal to the supply price, the the bells poem amount produced has no tendency either to be increased or to be diminished; it is equilibrium. Such equilibrium is stable; that is, the price, if displaced a little from on Forgiveness, it, will tend to return, as a pendulum oscillates about its lowest point.” According to Pigou, a ship with a heavy keel is in stable equilibrium. Another famous simile is that of a bowl and a ball given by Schumpeter. A ball that rests in a bowl is in stable equilibrium because if disturbed it will eventually come to rest in its initial position after moving back and forth, as shown in business, Figure 3. On the other hand, equilibrium is unstable when any distur­bance in equilibrium situation brings in forces which move the Analysis on Forgiveness Essay system away from the psychodynamic to psychopathology, it, never to Essay, be restored.

In Pigou’s words, “If the small disturbance calls out further disturbing forces which act in the bells poem, a cumulative manner to drive the system from Analysis, its initial position,” it is in unstable Fig. 4 equilibrium. “As an egg if balanced on one of its ends would at a provision of the supreme ruling on the v. sandford was later overturned by, the smallest shake fall down, and lie length ways,” as pointed out by Marshall. If the bowl is inverted and the ball is perched on its top, it will be in unstable equilibrium. For once the Analysis ball is pushed; it falls off the top of the bowl to the ground and does not return to its original position, as shown in Figure 4.

Another type of gerard sekoto paintings equilibrium generally referred to is neutral equilibrium. When an initial equilibrium position is disturbed, the forces of disturbance bring it to the new position of equilibrium where the system has come to rest. A ball on Essay, the billiard table if disturbed will come to rest at the new position to which it has moved. According to Prof. Pigou, “An egg lying on its side is in neutral equilibrium”. The static neutral equilibrium condition is illustrated in Figure 5 and the dynamic in Figure 6. In Figure 5, E is the initial equilibrium point where.

OO quantity is demanded and supplied at OP price. Wrigley Field: Past And Present. With the Analysis on Forgiveness Essay rise in the price to OP E. becomes the new equilibrium point but the quantity demanded and supplied remains the same, i.e., OO. Thus the paintings price range PP 1 (=EE 1 ) represents neutral equilibrium. In case the market is dynamic, an on Forgiveness, increase in demand leads to a rise in the price to OP 1 (=Qb) which induces the producers to increase the supply to OQ 1 , in Figure 6. But the demand price Q 1 d being less than the supply price if, Producer tends to reduce the supply to OQ. But the demand is more than the supply at this level; price will, therefore, again rise to Qb(=OP 1 ). In this way, the gerard prices and quantities will move in Analysis, a circle with oscillations of constant amplitude around the equilibrium point e. It may be noted here that of the three equilibria—stable, unstable and neutral—it is only the stable equilibrium which is of use to economists for analysing complex economic problems.

The unstable and neutral equilibrium are, however, of academic interest only. Partial or particular equilibrium analysis, also known as microeconomic analysis, is the study of the equilibrium position of an individual, a firm, an industry or a group of industries viewed in isolation. It is a market process for the determination of product prices and business proposal factor prices in which one or two variables are discussed, other things remaining equal (ceteris paribus). In the words of Prof. Stigler: “A partial equilibrium is one which is based on only a restricted range of data, a standard example is price of a single product, the Analysis Essay prices of all other products being held fixed during the gas to a solid analysis.” The Marshallian economics is mostly a study in partial equilibrium analysis. Partial equilibrium analysis is concerned with two types of economic problems. First, those pertaining to only particular aspects of the economic behaviour of a certain individual, firm or industry.

For instance, it may limit itself to the market for a single product where its price, the technique of production, and the amount of factors used in Analysis on Forgiveness, its production are taken into a provision supreme ruling scott case by consideration, while all other factors affecting it are assumed to be constant. Second, it studies only the first-order consequences of the economic events it analyses. It ignores the effects on the prices of other commodities brought about by the product being analysed and in turn secondary influences of the former on on Forgiveness Essay, the product. We may briefly study the equilibrium conditions of an individual, a firm, an industry and a factor. A consumer is in equilibrium when he spends his money income on different goods and services in Wrigley Field: Essay, such a way that he gets the maximum satisfaction. (1) the marginal utility of each good is equal to its price (P) MU A /P A = MU B /P B = MU N /P N ; and. (2) the costumer must spend his entire income (Y) on the purchase of goods, i.e., Y= P pB A Q + P B Q B P N … +P N Q N. It is assumed that his tastes, preferences, money income and the prices of the goods he wants to Essay, buy are given and constant. A firm is in equilibrium when it has no tendency to change its output. In the short-run, it equalizes its marginal revenue with marginal cost and in the long-run it satisfies the conditions of full equilibrium, LMC = MR = AR = LAC as its minimum.

Thus, it earns only normal profits and has no tendency to leave the industry. In the analysis of the firm, the given data are the techniques of production, the prices of gas to a solid its products and of the factors. An industry is in equilibrium when all its firms are earning normal profits and there is no tendency for the existing firms to leave or for new firms to enter it. In the market for a single product, only one price rules at a time at which the quantity which the consumers wish to buy exactly equals the quantity being produced by Essay the different firms. Each firm in the industry sells its product at the ruling market price and produces that level of output where its marginal cost equals marginal revenue. In the Field: Past and Present Essay examples short-run, it can produce even at a price less than its average costs of production, but in the long-run the price must equal its minimum long-run average costs (LAC) of production.

A factor of production (land, labour, capital or organization) is in equilibrium when it is employed in Essay, its highest paid employment so that its income is maximized. It is a position where its price equals its marginal revenue product. At this price, it has no incentive to offer more or less of its service and not to seek employment elsewhere. Thus, there is one price for the factor which rules throughout the market at gas to a solid, any time. Moreover, the Analysis quantity of the factor which its owners are willing to sell at the ruling price must equal the quantity which the entrepreneurs are willing to hire. This partial equilibrium analysis of the gerard paintings market assumes that the price of the product is given and constant for consumers. Their incomes, tastes, habits and preferences also remain constant.

For the firms, the prices of the productive resources of the product and of other related products are known, and constant. Factors of production are easily available to the industry at known and constant prices in accordance with the techniques of production in use. If there is any change, say in on Forgiveness, consumers’ tastes or techniques of production, the producer- consumer plans are revised and equilibrium is re-established, though at gas to a solid, a new level. The analysis of the on Forgiveness Essay market for a factor assumes that the prices of the products which the factor helps in producing are known and restaurant constant and on Forgiveness the prices and quantities of all other factors are also given and constant. Moreover, factors of production are perfectly mobile between occupations and places. In the short- run, a factor may be earning less than its marginal revenue product, but in the long-run its price must equal the marginal revenue product at all places and in gas to a solid, all employments. The analysis discussed above relates to a perfectly competitive market which can also be extended to monopoly, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopsony markets. Partial equilibrium analysis possesses certain advantages: 1. It helps us in analysing the causes of a change in the price of a product or service. On Forgiveness. Similarly the cause of gas to a solid a change in the behaviour of an individual, a firm or an industry can also be understood.

2. This method helps in Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, predicting the consequences of changes in the behaviour and plans of the market participants. The consequences of interferences by the state in the working of the market system can also be analysed. For example, what are the effects of an excise duty on the prices, output, sales, and profits, etc. on cotton textiles fall within the ambit of the partial equilibrium analysis. 3. It is an indispensable tool of analysis for the solution of practical problems. By concentrating on a limited and narrow range of economic subjects and by reducing the field of enquiry to one or two variables, it makes the economic problems simple and intelligible.

4. For an understanding of the general working of the economic system which involves the interdependence of economic variables, partial equilibrium analysis acts as a stepping stone. Without it, we cannot understand and analyse general equilibrium analysis. But partial equilibrium analysis has its limitations. 1. It is confined to one particular field, may it be an individual, a firm or an industry and ignores the study of the economy. 2. If unrealistic assumptions which separate the study of the bells poem a specific market from the rest of the economy are dropped, partial equilibrium analysis breaks down. 3. It fails to on Forgiveness Essay, explain the consequences of an economic disturbance in restaurant, the market that leads supply and demand changes, moving from one market to Analysis on Forgiveness, another and thus initiating second, third and higher order waves of change in the entire economy. 4. Partial equilibrium analysis is incompetent to study the interrelations of all parts of the a provision court ruling case economy. General equilibrium analysis is an extensive study of a number of economic variables, their interrelations and interdependences for understanding the working of the economic system as a whole. It brings together the cause and effect sequences of changes in prices and quantities of commodities and services in relation to the entire economy. An economy can be in general equilibrium only if all consumers, all firms, all industries and all factor-services are in equilibrium simultaneously and they are interlinked through commodity and Essay factor prices.

“The theory of General Equilibrium is the theory of interrelationship among all parts of the supreme ruling on the scott v. sandford was later overturned economy.” Thus, partial equilibrium analysis is encompassed in the general equilibrium analysis. General equilibrium exists when all prices are in equilibrium; each consumer spends his given income in a manner that yields him the maximum satisfaction; all firms in each industry are in Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, equilibrium at all prices and outputs; and the supply and restaurant demand for productive resources are equal at equilibrium prices. The general equilibrium analysis is based on the following assumptions: (1) There is perfect competition both in Essay, the commodity and factor markets. (2) Tastes and habits of gas to a solid consumers are given and constant. (3) Incomes of consumers are given and constant.

(4) Factors of production are perfectly mobile between different occupations and places. (5) There are constant returns to scale. (6) All firms operate under identical cost conditions. (7) All units of a productive service are homogeneous. (8) There are no changes in Analysis, the techniques of production. (9) There is full employment of labour and other resources. Essay # 8. Working of the General Equilibrium: Given these assumptions, the economy is in a provision supreme court scott case was later overturned by, a state of general equilibrium when the demand for every commodity and service is equal to on Forgiveness Essay, the supply for it. It implies perfect harmony of the decisions made by all the market participants. The decisions of consumers for the purchase of each commodity must be in sekoto, perfect accord with the decisions of on Forgiveness Essay producers for gerard the production and sale of each commodity.

Similarly, the decisions of owners for selling each factor service must be in perfect harmony with the decisions of their employers. It is only when the Analysis on Forgiveness decisions of buyers of goods and services fit in perfectly with the decisions of sellers that the of the court ruling was later market is in general equilibrium. Given the tastes, preferences and aims of the consumers in the economy, the on Forgiveness Essay quantity of each commodity demanded depends not only on Wrigley Field: Past, its own price but also on the price of each other commodity available in the market. Thus, each consumer maximizes his satisfaction relative to the prices ruling the market. For him, the marginal utility of each commodity equals its price.

Each consumer is assumed to spend his entire income on consumption, so his expenditure equals his income. His income, in turn, depends on the prices at which he is selling his productive services. In other words, a consumer earns by selling the Analysis on Forgiveness productive services he owns. Thus, the demand of consumers for the various commodities depends upon their prices and the prices of services. Let us take the supply side. Given the market structure, the state of technology and the aims of firms, the price at which a commodity sells depends on business, its costs of production. The costs of production, in turn, depend on the quantities of the various productive services employed and Essay the prices paid for them. Assuming constant returns to scale and identical cost conditions for all firms, each producer will produce and sell that quantity of output at which the demand price for the commodity equals both the minimum average cost and the marginal cost.

The equilibrium of the commodity market is illustrated in Figure 7(A). The market is in equilibrium at point E where the market demand and supply curves D and S intersect. It determines OP price at which OQ M quantity of the of the on the scott overturned by product is bought and sold in the market. There being identical cost conditions, each firm in the market produces and sells the commodity at the given price OP. Analysis. It is in equilibrium when MC = MR and AC=AR at point E 1 producing OQ units of the commodity, as shown in Panel B. If, say, there are 100 firms in the market each producing 60 units of the commodity, the total production will be 6000 (=100 x 60) units. This analysis inter alia can be extended to all commodities being produced in outline and evaluate the psychodynamic to psychopathology, the economy. Like the equality of demand and supply of commodities, the equality of demand and on Forgiveness Essay supply of factor services is Field: Past and Present examples, also essential for the general equilibrium system. The demand for productive services comes from the producers and supply from the Analysis Essay consumers. Given the state of technology and the profit maximisation objective of the producers, the quantity of a factor used in producing a commodity depends on the relationship between the prices of restaurant business that factor and of all other factors and on the prices of commodities. Each producer maximises his profits relative to the ruling factor prices by Analysis employing the various factors in such proportions and quantities that their marginal revenue productivities are equal to their prices.

Since there is full employment in the economy, the markets for factors are in equilibrium when the total quantities of and evaluate the psychodynamic to psychopathology factors offered and the total quantities employed are equal, The equilibrium of the Analysis on Forgiveness Essay factor market is illustrated in Figure 8 where in Panel (A), the price of a factor OP and its quantity ON are determined in the market by the interaction of its demand and supply curves D and S at point E. Panel (B) shows that the supply curve of this factor to an individual firm is perfectly elastic and is the and evaluate approach to psychopathology same as the marginal cost of Essay that factor, MFC. The firm will employ units of the factor at the given factor price OP where MFC = MRP and AFC = ARP to the firm. And Present Essay Examples. Such an equilibrium point is E at Analysis on Forgiveness, which it employs OM units of the factor. If there are 10 identical cost firms and each employs 100 units of the factor, the total market demand and supply of this factor will be 1000 units in the market. Outline The Psychodynamic To Psychopathology. This analysis can be extended to the economy as a whole.

Thus the Analysis on Forgiveness Essay economy is in general equilibrium when commodity prices make each demand equal to Wrigley Past Essay, its supply and factor prices make the demand for each factor equal to on Forgiveness Essay, its supply so that all product markets and paintings factor markets are simultaneously in equilibrium. Such a general equilibrium is characterised by two conditions in which the set of prices in Analysis on Forgiveness Essay, all product and factor markets is such that: (1) All consumers maximise their satisfactions and gas to a solid all producers maximise their profits; and. (2) All markets are cleared which means that the total amount demanded equals the total amount supplied at a positive price in both the product and factor markets. To explain it, we begin with a simple hypothetical economy where there are only two sectors, the household and the business. The economic activity takes the on Forgiveness form of flow of goods and services between these two sectors and monetary flow between them. These two flows, called real and monetary, are shown in Figure 9 where the product market is shown in the lower portion and the factor market in the upper portion. In the product market, consumers purchase goods and services from producers while in the factor market, consumers receive income from the former for the psychodynamic providing services. Thus consumers purchase all goods and on Forgiveness Essay services provided by producers and make payments to the latter in lieu of these. The producers, in turn, make payments to consumers for the services rendered by the latter to approach, the business—wage payments for labour services, interest for Essay capital supplied, etc. Of The Scott V. Sandford. Thus payments go around in a circular manner from producers to consumers and from consumers to producers, as shown by arrows in the outer portion of the figure. There are also flows of Analysis Essay goods and services in sekoto, the opposite direction to the money payments flows.

Goods flow from the business sector to the household sector in the product market, and services flow from the household sector to the business sector in the factor market, as shown in the inner portion of the figure. These two flows are linked by product prices and factor prices. The economy is in general equilibrium when a set of prices is allowed at which the magnitude of income flow from producers to consumers is equal to the magnitude of the money expenditure from consumers to producers. The general equilibrium analysis of the economy has several limitations. Firstly, it is based on a number of unrealistic assumptions which are contrary to actual conditions prevailing in the world. Perfect competition, the very basis of this analysis, is a myth. Secondly, it is a static analysis. All consumers and producers in this analysis consume and on Forgiveness produce the products day in and day out without any time-lag. Supreme Court. Their tastes, preferences, and aims are the same, and their economic decisions are in perfect harmony with each other. In reality, nothing of this sort happens.

Producers are as consumers never act and think alike. Changes are taking place continuously in tastes and preferences. There are no constant returns to scale and no two factor services are homogeneous. Thus cost conditions differ from producer to producer. Since the given conditions are continuously changing, the movement towards general equilibrium is ever thwarted and Analysis on Forgiveness Essay its attainment has ever remained a wishful ideal. Essay # 9. Uses of General Equilibrium Analysis: The general equilibrium analysis possesses some important uses also. 1. A Picture of sekoto Economy Equilibrium: It presents a picture of a private enterprise economy in equilibrium, where consumers are attuned to a position of maximum satisfaction and Essay the producers to that of maximum profits.

There is restaurant proposal, no wastage of resources. All are fully employed. Economic efficiency is at its maximum so that economic welfare of the community is maximised. Thus it helps in understanding the determinants of the pattern of an on Forgiveness Essay, economy. 2. To Understand the Working of Economic System:

Even otherwise, the theory is a schematic point of departure from proposal, which, by on Forgiveness Essay removing certain unwarranted assumptions, the actual working of an economic system can be understood. We can know whether the economy is working efficiently, or whether there is any discordancy in its smooth functioning. The problems of disequilibrium and Field: Past and Present the restoration of equilibrium can be studied with the help of this analysis. 3. To Understand the Complex Problems of the on Forgiveness Essay Market: The general equilibrium analysis further helps in predicting the consequences of an autonomous economic event. Suppose the demand for commodity X rises which may lead to a rise in its price. This, in turn, reduces the prices of its substitutes and raises the prices of complements. These may thus reduce the demand for X somewhat. Gas To A Solid. The demand for Analysis Essay X may be further affected if the prices of productive services also tend to rise. Thus the general equilibrium analysis aids in understanding the nature of the outline to psychopathology complex chains of relationships of the Analysis market on outline, a step-by-step basis. 4. To Understand the Working of the Pricing Process:

The general equilibrium analysis is also useful in explaining the functions of prices in on Forgiveness, an economy. As relative prices change, three main decisions are made for the entire economy: what to produce and how much to produce, how to produce, and who will buy them when the commodities are produced. These decisions are made by Past and Present individual producers and on Forgiveness a consumer because each commodity and service they want to produce, sell and buy, has a price that reacts to changes in their demand and supply. The general equilibrium analysis helps in integrating a variety of individual decisions affected by the bells poem price changes. 5. To Understand the Input-Output Analysis: The main importance of general equilibrium analysis lies in its providing the conceptual basis for the input-output analysis developed by Leontief. In this analysis which is regarded as an outstanding variant of the general equilibrium analysis, the household and industries are related in an invisible interdependent system of inputs and outputs of the economy.

This analysis is being increasingly used for planning the economic development of backward regions and Analysis on Forgiveness Essay countries. 6. Basis of Modern Monetary and Welfare Economics: In recent years, general equilibrium analysis has been extended to monetary theory and welfare economics thereby making them more realistic fields of economic study. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: