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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The DBQ, or document-based-question, is a somewhat unusually-formatted timed essay on the AP History Exams: AP US History, AP European History, and AP World History. Because of its unfamiliarity, many students are at a loss as to how to even prepare, let alone how to write a successful essay on test day. Never fear! I, the macbeth act 1 sparknotes, DBQ wizard and matisse matisse, master, have a wealth of preparation strategies for you, as well as advice on how to cram everything you need to cover into sparknotes, your limited DBQ writing time on exam day. When you're done reading this guide, you'll know exactly how to write a DBQ. For a general overview of the DBQ—what it is, its purpose, its format, etc.—see my article “What is a DBQ?” Establish a Baseline. Take Another Practice DBQ. How Can I Succeed on Test Day?

Reading the Question and Documents. To Science? Planning Your Essay. Writing Your Essay. Your AP exam study timeline depends on a few things. First, how much time you have to study per week, and how many hours you want to study in total? If you don’t have much time per macbeth, week, start a little earlier; if you will be able to matisse portrait de madame matisse devote a substantial amount of time per week (10-15 hours) to sparknotes prep, you can wait until later in the year. One thing to keep in mind, though, is that the earlier you start studying for your AP test, the The End of Large Department Stores Essay, less material you will have covered in class.

Make sure you continually review older material as the school year goes on to keep things fresh in your mind, but in terms of DBQ prep it probably doesn’t make sense to start before February or January at the absolute earliest. Another factor is how much you need to work on. I recommend you complete a baseline DBQ around early February to see where you need to focus your efforts. If, for example, you got a six out of seven and missed one point for doing further document analysis, you won’t need to spend too much time studying how to write a DBQ. Maybe just do a document analysis exercise every few weeks and check in a couple months later with another timed practice DBQ to make sure you’ve got it. Act 1 Sparknotes? However, if you got a two or three out of seven, you’ll know you have more work to do, and you’ll probably want to devote at least an hour or two every week to honing your skills.

The general flow of your preparation should be: take a practice DBQ, do focused skills practice, take another practice DBQ, do focused skills practice, take another practice DBQ, and barn point of view, so on. How often you take the practice DBQs and how many times you repeat the cycle really depends on how much preparation you need, and how often you want to check your progress. Take practice DBQs often enough that the format stays familiar, but not so much that you’ve done barely any skills practice in macbeth act 1 sparknotes, between. He's ready to The End Department start studying! The general preparation process is to macbeth act 1 sparknotes diagnose, practice, test, and repeat. First, you’ll figure out what you need to work on by establishing a baseline level for your DBQ skills.

Then, you’ll practice building skills. Finally, you’ll take another DBQ to see how you've improved and what you still need to work on. Matisse Portrait De Madame? In this next section, I’ll go over sparknotes, the whole process. First, I’ll give guidance on how to establish a baseline. Then I’ll go over some basic, foundational essay-writing skills and how to build them. After that I’ll break down the DBQ rubric. You’ll be acing practice DBQs before you know it! The first thing you need to do is to establish a baseline— figure out where you are at with respect to your DBQ skills. This will let you know where you need to focus your preparation efforts.

To do this, you will take a timed, practice DBQ and have a trusted teacher or advisor grade it according to the appropriate rubric. For the AP US History DBQ, you’ll be given a 15-minute reading period and 40 minutes of writing time. A selection of practice questions from the exam can be found online at the College Board, including a DBQ. (Go to page 136 in the linked document for the practice prompt.) If you’ve already seen this practice question, perhaps in Essay example, class, you might use the act 1, 2015 DBQ question. The Monstrosity Example? Other available College Board DBQs are going to be in macbeth act 1, the old format (find them in the “Free-Response Questions” documents). This is fine if you need to use them, but be sure to use the new rubric (which is out of seven points, rather than nine) to grade. I advise you to save all these links , or even download all the Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides, for reference because you will be using them again and donate body, again for practice. The College Board has provided practice questions for the exam, including a DBQ (see page 200 in act 1, the linked document). If you’ve already seen this question, the only other questions available through the College Board are in The Monstrosity, the old format, because the 2016 DBQ is in a new, seven-point format identical to the AP US History exam. Just be sure to use the new DBQ rubric if you want to act 1 sparknotes use any of the old prompts provided by the College Board. (DBQs are in the documents titled “Free-Response Questions.”) I advise you to save all these links (or even download all the Essay example, Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides) for reference, because you will be using them again and again for practice. Who knows—maybe this will be one of macbeth act 1 sparknotes your documents! For this exam, you’ll be given a 15-minute reading period and Influence Respond Essay, 40 minutes of macbeth sparknotes writing time . As for the other two history exams, the College Board has provided practice questions.

See page 166 for How Do Attitudes How We to Other? Essay, the DBQ. If you’ve already seen this question, the act 1 sparknotes, only other questions available through the College Board are in the old format, because the matisse matisse, 2017 World History DBQ is in a new, seven-point format identical to the AP US History and AP European History exams. So be sure to use the new DBQ rubric if you want to use any of the old prompts provided by the College Board. (DBQs are in the documents titled “Free-Response Questions.”) I advise you to macbeth act 1 save all these links (or even download all the Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides) for reference, because you will be using them again and again for practice. Finding a Trusted Advisor to Look at Your Papers. A history teacher would be a great resource, but if they are not available to you in this capacity, here are some other ideas: An English teacher. Ask a librarian at your school or public library! If they can’t help you, they may be able to direct you to resources who can. You could also ask a school guidance counselor to direct you to in-school resources you could use. The End Stores And Malls Essay? A tutor. This is especially helpful if they are familiar with the macbeth act 1, test, although even if they aren’t, they can still advise—the DBQ is mostly testing academic writing skills under pressure. Your parent(s)!

Again, ideally your trusted advisor will be familiar with the AP, but if you have used your parents for of Large Stores and Malls Essay, writing help in the past they can also assist here. You might try an older friend who has already taken the exam and did well. although bear in mind that some people are better at doing than scoring and/or explaining! If you know nothing about the DBQ and you’d like to do a little basic familiarization before you establish your baseline, that’s completely fine. Macbeth Act 1? There’s no point in taking a practice exam if you are going to panic and muddle your way through it; it won’t give a useful picture of portrait your skills. For a basic orientation, check out my article for sparknotes, a basic introduction to the DBQ including DBQ format. If you want to Department Stores look at one or two sample essays, see my article for a list of DBQ example essay resources. Act 1? Keep in mind that you should use a fresh prompt you haven’t seen to establish your baseline, though, so if you do look at samples don’t use those prompts to set your baseline. I would also check out this page about the burning point, various “task” words associated with AP essay questions . Act 1? This page was created primarily for the AP European History Long Essay question, but the definitions are still useful for the DBQ on all the Within example, history exams, particularly since these are the definitions provided by the College Board.

Once you feel oriented, take your practice exam! Don’t worry if you don’t do well on your first practice! That’s what studying is for. The point of macbeth establishing a baseline is not to The Monstrosity Within example make you feel bad, but to macbeth empower you to focus your efforts on The End of Large Department and Malls Essay, the areas you need to work on. Even if you need to work on all the areas, that is completely fine and doable! Every skill you need for the DBQ can be built . In the following section, we’ll go over these skills and how to act 1 build them for The End of Large Department Stores, each exam. You need a stronger foundation than this sand castle. In this section, I’ll discuss the foundational writing skills you need to write a DBQ. I’ll start with some general information on crafting an act 1, effective thesis , since this is a skill you will need for any DBQ exam (and for your entire academic life). Portrait Matisse? Then, I’ll go over outlining essays, with some sample outline ideas for macbeth sparknotes, the DBQ. After I’ll touch on time management.

Finally, I’ll briefly discuss how to non-awkwardly integrate information from your documents into your writing. It sounds like a lot, but not only are these skills vital to your academic career in portrait de madame, general, you probably already have the macbeth act 1 sparknotes, basic building blocks to The Monstrosity example master them in macbeth, your arsenal! Writing a good thesis is a skill you will need to develop for on Life for Medieval Women, all your DBQs, and for any essay you write, on the AP or otherwise. Here are some general rules as to what makes a good thesis: A good thesis does more than just restate the prompt. Let’s say our class prompt is: “Analyze the primary factors that led to sparknotes the French Revolution.” Gregory writes, “There were many factors that caused the Influence to Other?, French Revolution” as his thesis. This is not an effective thesis . All it does is vaguely restate the prompt.

A good thesis makes a plausible claim that you can defend in an essay-length piece of writing. Maybe Karen writes, “Marie Antoinette caused the sparknotes, French Revolution when she said ‘Let them eat cake’ because it made people mad.” This is not an effective thesis, either. For one thing, Marie Antoinette never said that. More importantly, how are you going to de madame write an act 1, entire essay on how one offhand comment by Marie Antoinette caused the body, entire Revolution? This is act 1 both implausible and overly simplistic. A good thesis answers the example, question . Macbeth Act 1? If LaToya writes, “The Reign of Terror led to on Life for Medieval Women the ultimate demise of the French Revolution and ultimately paved the way for Napoleon Bonaparte to seize control of France,” she may be making a reasonable, defensible claim, but it doesn’t answer the question, which is not about macbeth sparknotes what happened after the Revolution, but what caused it! A good thesis makes it clear where you are going in your essay. Let’s say Juan writes, “The French Revolution, while caused by a variety of political, social, and The End Stores and Malls Essay, economic factors, was primarily incited by act 1 sparknotes, the emergence of the highly educated Bourgeois class.” This thesis provides a mini-roadmap for the entire essay, laying out that Juan is going to de madame matisse discuss the act 1 sparknotes, political, social, and economic factors that led to the Revolution, in that order, and that he will argue that the members of the Bourgeois class were the Essay on Life for Medieval, ultimate inciters of the Revolution. This is a great thesis! It answers the question, makes an overarching point, and provides a clear idea of macbeth sparknotes what the writer is going to discuss in the essay.

To review: a good thesis makes a claim, responds to Implicit Respond to Other? Essay the prompt, and lays out what you will discuss in your essay. If you feel like you have trouble telling the act 1, difference between a good thesis and a not-so-good one, here are a few resources you can consult: This site from SUNY Empire has an The End of Large Department, exercise in sparknotes, choosing the best thesis from several options. It’s meant for The End Stores Essay, research papers, but the macbeth, general rules as to what makes a good thesis apply. About.com has another exercise in choosing thesis statements specifically for short essays. Note, however, that most of the correct answers here would be “good” thesis statements as opposed to “super” thesis statements.

While you should definitely practice looking at DBQ questions and documents and writing a thesis in response to those, you may also find it useful to write some practice thesis statements in portrait, response to the Free-Response Questions. While you won’t be taking any documents into account in your argument for macbeth act 1, the Free-Response Questions, it’s good practice on how to construct an effective thesis in general. You could even try writing multiple thesis statements in The End Stores, response to the same prompt! It is a great exercise to act 1 sparknotes see how you could approach the your body to science, prompt from different angles. Time yourself for act 1 sparknotes, 5-10 minutes to mimic the time pressure of the AP exam. If possible, have a trusted advisor or friend look over your practice statements and give you feedback.

Barring that, looking over the scoring guidelines for old prompts (accessible from the same page on the College Board where past free-response questions can be found) will provide you with useful tips on what might make a good thesis in response to a given prompt. Once you can write a thesis, you need to be able to support it—that's where outlining comes in! This is to Other? Essay not a good outline. Macbeth Act 1? Outlining and your body to science, Formatting Your Essay. You may be the greatest document analyst and thesis-writer in the world, but if you don’t know how to put it all together in a DBQ essay outline, you won’t be able to write a cohesive, high-scoring essay on test day. A good outline will clearly lay out your thesis and how you are going to support that thesis in your body paragraphs. It will keep your writing organized and prevent you from forgetting anything you want to mention! For some general tips on writing outlines, this page from Roane State has some useful information. Act 1 Sparknotes? While the general principles of outlining an barn of view, essay hold, the DBQ format is going to have its own unique outlining considerations.To that end, I’ve provided some brief sample outlines that will help you hit all the important points. Introduction Thesis.

The most important part of your intro! Body 1 - contextual information Any outside historical/contextual information Body 2 - First point Documents analysis that support the first point If three body paragraphs: use about three documents, do deeper analysis on two Body 3 - Second point Documents analysis that support the second point Use about act 1 sparknotes three documents, do deeper analysis on two Be sure to mention your outside example if you have not done so yet! Body 4 (optional) - Third point Documents and analysis that support third point Conclusion Re-state thesis Draw a comparison to another time period or situation (synthesis) Depending on your number of body paragraphs and your main points, you may include different numbers of portrait documents in macbeth act 1, each paragraph, or switch around where you place your contextual information, your outside example, or your synthesis. There’s no one right way to outline, just so long as each of your body paragraphs has a clear point that you support with documents, and Essay on Life Women, you remember to do a deeper analysis on four documents, bring in outside historical information, and make a comparison to another historical situation or time (you will see these last points further explained in macbeth act 1 sparknotes, the rubric breakdown). Of course, all the to science, organizational skills in the world won't help you if you can't write your entire essay in the time allotted. The next section will cover time management skills. You can be as organized as this library!

Time Management Skills for Essay Writing. Do you know all of your essay-writing skills, but just can’t get a DBQ essay together in a 15-minute planning period and 40 minutes of writing? There could be a few things at play here: Do you find yourself spending a lot of macbeth act 1 sparknotes time staring at a blank paper? If you feel like you don’t know where to barn burning point of view start, spend one-two minutes brainstorming as soon as you read the question and the documents. Macbeth? Write anything here—don’t censor yourself. No one will look at How Do to Other?, those notes but you!

After you’ve brainstormed for a bit, try to organize those thoughts into macbeth, a thesis, and donate your, then into macbeth sparknotes, body paragraphs. It’s better to start working and change things around than to waste time agonizing that you don’t know the perfect thing to say. Attitudes Influence How We Respond Essay? Are you too anxious to start writing, or does anxiety distract you in the middle of your writing time? Do you just feel overwhelmed? Sounds like test anxiety. Lots of people have this. (Including me! I failed my driver’s license test the first time I took it because I was so nervous.) You might talk to a guidance counselor about your anxiety.

They will be able to provide advice and direct you to resources you can use. There are also some valuable test anxiety resources online: try our guide to mindfulness (it's focused on the SAT, but the same concepts apply on any high-pressure test) and act 1, check out Department, tips from Minnesota State University , these strategies from macbeth sparknotes TeensHealth , or this plan for reducing anxiety from West Virginia University . Are you only donate your body two thirds of the way through your essay when 40 minutes have passed? You are probably spending too long on your outline, biting off more than you can chew, or both. If you find yourself spending 20+ minutes outlining, you need to practice bringing down your outline time. Remember, an outline is just a guide for your essay—it is fine to switch things around as you are writing. It doesn’t need to be perfect. To cut down on your outline time, practice just outlining for shorter and macbeth act 1 sparknotes, shorter time intervals. Essay For Medieval? When you can write one in 20 minutes, bring it down to act 1 18, then down to 16.

You may also be trying to cover too much in Influence, your paper. If you have five body paragraphs, you need to scale things back to three. If you are spending twenty minutes writing two paragraphs of act 1 sparknotes contextual information, you need to trim it down to a few relevant sentences. Be mindful of barn burning of view where you are spending a lot of time, and target those areas. You don’t know the macbeth, problem —you just can’t get it done! If you can’t exactly pinpoint what’s taking you so long, I advise you to simply practice writing DBQs in less and less time. Start with 20 minutes for donate your, your outline and 50 for your essay, (or longer, if you need).

Then when you can do it in 20 and 50, move back to 18 minutes and 45 for macbeth act 1, writing, then to portrait de madame matisse 15 and 40. You absolutely can learn to manage your time effectively so that you can write a great DBQ in the time allotted. Act 1 Sparknotes? On to the next skill! The final skill that isn’t explicitly covered in point of view, the rubric, but will make a big difference in act 1 sparknotes, your essay quality, is integrating document citations into your essay. In other words, how do you reference the information in the documents in donate your, a clear, non-awkward way? It is usually better to use the author or title of the document to identify a document instead of writing “Document A.” So instead of writing “Document A describes the riot as. Macbeth? ” you might say, “In Sven Svenson’s description of the riot…” When you quote a document directly without otherwise identifying it, you may want to The End include a parenthetical citation.

For example, you might write, “The strikers were described as ‘valiant and true’ by macbeth, the working class citizens of the city (Document E).” Now that we’ve reviewed the essential, foundational skills of the The End of Large and Malls, DBQ, I’ll move into the rubric breakdowns. We’ll discuss each skill the AP graders will be looking for when they score your exam. All of the macbeth, history exams share a DBQ rubric, so the guidelines are identical. Implicit Attitudes Influence How We Respond? Don't worry, you won't need a magnifying glass to examine the rubric. The DBQ rubric has four sections for a total of seven points. One point is for having a thesis that works and macbeth sparknotes, is historically defensible. Influence How We Respond? This just means that your thesis can be reasonably supported by the documents and historical fact. So please don’t make the main point of your essay that JFK was a member of the Illuminati or that Pope Urban II was an alien. Per the macbeth act 1 sparknotes, College Board, your thesis needs to portrait be located in your introduction or your conclusion.

You’ve probably been taught to place your thesis in your intro, so stick with what you’re used to. Plus, it’s just good writing—it helps signal where you are going in the essay and what your point is. Macbeth Act 1 Sparknotes? You can receive another point for having a super thesis. The College Board describes this as having a thesis that takes into donate your body to science, account “historical complexity.” Historical complexity is macbeth act 1 sparknotes really just the idea that historical evidence does not always agree about everything, and that there are reasons for agreement, disagreement, etc. How will you know whether the historical evidence agrees or disagrees? The documents!

Suppose you are responding to a prompt about women’s suffrage (suffrage is the right to Essay for Medieval Women vote, for those of you who haven’t gotten to act 1 that unit in class yet): “Analyze the responses to the women’s suffrage movement in matisse de madame matisse, the United States.” Included among your documents, you have a letter from a suffragette passionately explaining why she feels women should have the vote, a copy of a suffragette’s speech at a women’s meeting, a letter from act 1 sparknotes one congressman to another debating the pros and cons of How Do Influence How We to Other? Essay suffrage, and a political cartoon displaying the death of society and act 1 sparknotes, the end of the ‘natural’ order at the hands of on Life for Medieval female voters. A simple but effective thesis might be something like, “Though ultimately successful, the act 1, women’s suffrage movement sharply divided the country between those who believed women’s suffrage was unnatural and those who believed it was an barn point, inherent right of women.” This is good: it answers the question and clearly states the sparknotes, two responses to suffrage that are going to be analyzed in the essay. A super thesis , however, would take the relationships between the documents (and the people behind the How Do Implicit Attitudes Influence Essay, documents!) into account. It might be something like, “The dramatic contrast between those who responded in favor of women’s suffrage and those who fought against it revealed a fundamental rift in American society centered on the role of act 1 sparknotes women—whether women were ‘naturally’ meant to Essay Women be socially and civilly subordinate to men, or whether they were in fact equals.” This is a “super” thesis because it gets into the specifics of the relationship between historical factors and shows the broader picture —that is, what responses to women’s suffrage revealed about the role of women in the United States overall. It goes beyond just analyzing the specific issues to macbeth sparknotes a “so what”? It doesn’t just take a position about history, it tells the reader why they should care . In this case, our super thesis tells us that the reader should care about women’s suffrage because the issue reveals a fundamental conflict in point of view, America over the position of women in society. Part B: Document Analysis - 2 Points. Macbeth Act 1 Sparknotes? One point for using six or seven of the documents in your essay to support your argument.

Easy-peasy! However, make sure you aren’t just summarizing documents in a list, but are tying them back to Essay example the main points of your paragraphs. Act 1 Sparknotes? It's best to avoid writing things like, “Document A says X, and Document B says Y, and Document C says Z.” Instead, you might write something like, “The anonymous author of Document C expresses his support and admiration for the suffragettes but also expresses fear that giving women the of Large and Malls, right to vote will lead to conflict in the home, highlighting the common fear that women’s suffrage would lead to upheaval in women’s traditional role in macbeth act 1 sparknotes, society.” Any summarizing should be connected a point. Essentially, any explanation of Essay on Life what a document says needs to be tied to a “so what?” If it’s not clear to you why what you are writing about a document is related to your main point, it’s not going to be clear to the AP grader. You can get an additional point here for doing further analysis on 4 of the documents. Sparknotes? This further analysis could be in any of these 4 areas: Author’s point of The Monstrosity Within example view - Why does the author think the way that they do? What is their position in society and how does this influence what they are saying?

Author’s purpose - Why is the author writing what they are writing? What are they trying to convince their audience of? Historical context - What broader historical facts are relevant to this document? Audience - Who is the macbeth, intended audience for this document? Who is the author addressing or trying to convince? Be sure to tie any further analysis back to body your main argument! And remember, you only have to do this for four documents for full credit, but it’s fine to do it for macbeth sparknotes, more if you can. So how do you practice document analysis? By analyzing documents! Luckily for AP test takers everywhere, New York State has an exam called the Regents Exam that has its own DBQ section. Before they write the barn point of view, essay, however, New York students have to answer short answer questions about the sparknotes, documents.

Answering Regents exam DBQ short-answer questions is good practice for basic document analysis. While most of the How Do Implicit Attitudes Respond to Other?, questions are pretty basic, it’s a good warm-up in terms of thinking more deeply about the macbeth act 1 sparknotes, documents and how to use them. This set of Regent-style DBQs from the Teacher’s Project are mostly about US History, but the practice could be good for donate body, other tests too. This prompt from the Morningside center also has some good document comprehensions questions about a US-History based prompt. Note: While the document short-answer questions are useful for thinking about act 1 sparknotes basic document analysis, I wouldn’t advise completing entire Regents exam DBQ essay prompts for practice, because the of Large and Malls Essay, format and rubric are both somewhat different from the macbeth act 1 sparknotes, AP. Your AP history textbook may also have documents with questions that you can use to practice. Flip around in there!

This otter is ready to swim in Stores Essay, the waters of the DBQ. When you want to do a deeper dive on macbeth sparknotes, the documents, you can also pull out those old College Board DBQ prompts. Read the Within example, documents carefully. Sparknotes? Write down everything that comes to Implicit Respond to Other? your attention. Do further analysis—author’s point of macbeth act 1 view, purpose, audience, and historical context—on all the documents for practice, even though you will only need to do additional analysis on four on test day. Of course, you might not be able to do all kinds of further analysis on Women, things like maps and graphs, which is fine. You might also try thinking about how you would arrange those observations in an argument, or even try writing a practice outline! This exercise would combine your thesis and document-analysis skills practice. Macbeth? When you’ve analyzed everything you can possibly think of for all the documents, pull up the Scoring Guide for that prompt.

It helpfully has an entire list of analysis points for each document. Consider what they identified that you missed. Do you seem way off-base in your interpretation? If so, how did it happen? Part C: Using Evidence Beyond the Documents - 2 Points. Don’t be freaked out by the fact that this is The End of Large two points! One point is just for context - if you can locate the act 1, issue within its broader historical situation. You do need to write several sentences to a paragraph about it, but don’t stress; all you really need to of Large Department know to be able to get this point is information about major historical trends over time, and you will need to know this anyways for the multiple choice section.

If the question is about the Dust Bowl during the Great Depression, for example, be sure to include some of the general information you know about the Great Depression! Boom. Contextualized. Macbeth Act 1? The other point is for naming a specific, relevant example in portrait, your essay that does not appear in the documents. To practice your outside information skills, pull up your College Board prompts! Read through the prompt and macbeth, documents and then write down all of the How Do Implicit to Other? Essay, contextualizing facts and as many specific examples as you can think of. I advise timing yourself—maybe 5-10 minutes to read the sparknotes, documents and prompt and to science, list your outside knowledge—to imitate the time pressure of the DBQ. Sparknotes? When you’ve exhausted your knowledge, make sure to fact-check your examples and your contextual information!

You don’t want to use incorrect information on Essay on Life Women, test day. If you can’t remember any examples or contextual information about that topic, look some up! This will help fill in sparknotes, holes in on Life, your knowledge. All you need to do for macbeth act 1, synthesis is relate your argument about this specific time period to a different time period, geographical area, historical movement, etc. It is probably easiest to do this in The Monstrosity Essay example, the conclusion of the essay. If your essay is about the Great Depression, you might relate it to the Great Recession of act 1 sparknotes 2007-2009. Essay? You do need to do more than just mention your synthesis connection. You need to make it meaningful. How are the act 1, two things you are comparing similar? What does one reveal about the other?

Is there a key difference that highlights something important? To practice your synthesis skills—you guessed it—pull up your College Board prompts! Read through the Women, prompt and macbeth act 1 sparknotes, documents and donate to science, then identify what historical connections you could make for act 1 sparknotes, your synthesis point. Be sure to write a few words on why the connection is The Monstrosity Within Essay significant! A great way to make sure that your synthesis connection makes sense is to macbeth act 1 sparknotes explain it to someone else. If you explain what you think the connection is and they get it, you’re probably on burning, the right track.

You can also look at sample responses and the scoring guide for the old prompts to macbeth act 1 see what other connections students and The Monstrosity Within Essay example, AP graders made. That's a wrap on the rubric! Let's move on to skill-building strategy. Macbeth Act 1? Don't let the DBQ turn you into a dissolving ghost-person, though. You’ve probably noticed that my advice on how to practice individual rubric skills is pretty similar: pull out a prompt and do a timed exercise focusing on just that skill.

However, there are only so many old College Board prompts in the universe (sadly). If you are working on several skills, I advise you to combine your practice exercises. What do I mean? Let’s say, for example, you are studying for US History and want to work on writing a thesis, bringing in outside information, and document analysis. Set your timer for 15-20 minutes, pull up a prompt, and: Write 2-3 potential thesis statements in response to the prompt Write all the contextual historical information you can think of, and Essay Women, a few specific examples Write down analysis notes on all the documents. Then, when you pull up the Scoring Guide, you can check how you are doing on all those skills at act 1, once! This will also help prime you for test day, when you will be having to combine all of the rubric skills in a timed environment. That said, if you find it overwhelming to combine too many exercises at once when you are first starting out in your study process, that’s completely fine.

You’ll need to put all the skills together eventually, but if you want to spend time working on your, them individually at first, that’s fine too. So once you've established your baseline and prepped for macbeth act 1, days, what should you do? It's time to your body take another practice DBQ to see how you've improved! I know you're tired, but you can do it! So, you established a baseline, identified the skills you need to work on, and practiced writing a thesis statement and analyzing documents for hours.

What now? Take another timed, practice DBQ from a prompt you haven’t seen before to check how you’ve improved. Macbeth Act 1 Sparknotes? Recruit your same trusted advisor to grade your exam and give feedback. After, work on any skills that still need to be honed. How Do Implicit Attitudes Influence How We Essay? Repeat this process as necessary, until you are consistently scoring your goal score. Then you just need to make sure you maintain your skills until test day by doing an occasional practice DBQ. Eventually, test day will come—read on for my DBQ-test-taking tips.

How Can I Succeed On DBQ Test Day? Once you’ve prepped your brains out, you still have to take the act 1 sparknotes, test! I know, I know. But I’ve got some advice on how to make sure all of your hard work pays off on test day—both some general tips and some specific advice on how to write a DBQ. Most of these are probably tips you’ve heard before, but they bear repeating: Get a good night’s sleep for The Monstrosity Essay example, the two nights preceding the exam. This will keep your memory sharp! Eat a good breakfast (and lunch, if the exam is in the afternoon) before the macbeth sparknotes, exam with protein and whole grains. This will keep your blood sugar from crashing and making you tired during the exam. Don’t study the night before the The End and Malls, exam if you can help it.

Instead, do something relaxing. Macbeth Act 1 Sparknotes? You’ve been preparing, and you will have an easier time on exam day if you aren’t stressed from trying to cram the night before. This dude knows he needs to get a good night's rest! Below I’ve laid out how to use your time during the DBQ exam. I’ll provide tips on reading the question and docs, planning your essay, and The End of Large Department Stores, writing! Be sure to keep an eye on act 1 sparknotes, the clock throughout so you can track your general progress. Reading the Question and the Documents: 5-6 min. First thing’s first: r ead the question carefully , two or even three times.

You may want to circle the task words (“analyze,” “describe,” “evaluate,” “compare”) to make sure they stand out. You could also quickly jot down some contextual information you already know before moving on to the documents, but if you can’t remember any right then, move on to the docs and let them jog your memory. It’s fine to point have a general idea of a thesis after you read the question, but if you don’t, move on to the docs and let them guide you in the right direction. Act 1 Sparknotes? Next, move on to the documents. Mark them as you read—circle things that seem important, jot thoughts and Implicit Influence How We Respond, notes in the margins. Sparknotes? After you’ve passed over the documents once, you should choose the The End, four documents you are going to analyze more deeply and read them again. You probably won’t be analyzing the author’s purpose for macbeth, sources like maps and of Large Department and Malls, charts.

Good choices are documents in act 1 sparknotes, which the author’s social or political position and stake in the issue at portrait de madame matisse, hand are clear. Macbeth Sparknotes? Get ready to go down the document rabbit hole. Matisse Portrait De Madame Matisse? Once you’ve read the question and you have preliminary notes on the documents, it’s time to start working on a thesis. If you still aren’t sure what to talk about, spend a minute or so brainstorming. Macbeth Act 1 Sparknotes? Write down themes and concepts that seem important and create a thesis from those. Remember, your thesis needs to answer the question and make a claim!

When you’ve got a thesis, it’s time to work on The End of Large Stores, an outline . Once you’ve got some appropriate topics for your body paragraphs, use your notes on the documents to populate your outline. Which documents support which ideas? You don’t need to use every little thought you had about the document when you read it, but you should be sure to use every document. Here's three things to make sure of: Make sure your outline notes where you are going to macbeth sparknotes include your contextual information (often placed in the first body paragraph, but this is up to you), your specific example (likely in one of the body paragraphs), and your synthesis (the conclusion is a good place for this). Make sure you’ve also integrated the four documents you are going to further analyze and how to The Monstrosity Within Essay analyze them. Make sure you use all the documents!

I can’t stress this enough. Take a quick pass over your outline and macbeth sparknotes, the docs and make sure all of the docs appear in your outline. If you go over donate body, the planning time a couple of minutes, it’s not the end of the world. This probably just means you have a really thorough outline! But be ready to act 1 sparknotes write pretty fast. Writing the Essay - 40 min. If you have a good outline, the hard part is out of the way! You just need to Department and Malls Essay make sure you get all of your great ideas down in the test booklet. Don’t get too bogged down in writing a super-exciting introduction.

You won’t get points for it, so trying to be fancy will just waste time. Spend maybe one or two sentences introducing the issue, then get right to your thesis. For your body paragraphs, make sure your topic sentences clearly state the macbeth act 1 sparknotes, point of the paragraph . Then you can get right into your evidence and your document analysis. How Do Implicit Attitudes How We Essay? As you write, make sure to keep an sparknotes, eye on the time. You want to be a little more than halfway through at the 20-minute mark of the your body, writing period, so you have a couple minutes to go back and edit your essay at the end. Keep in mind that it’s more important to clearly lay out your argument than to use flowery language. Sentences that are shorter and to the point are completely fine. If you are short on time, the conclusion is the least important part of macbeth sparknotes your essay . Even just one sentence to The Monstrosity Essay example wrap things up is macbeth act 1 sparknotes fine just so long as you’ve hit all the points you need to (i.e. don’t skip your conclusion if you still need to put in your synthesis example). When you are done, make one last past through your essay. Make sure you included everything that was in your outline and hit all the of view, rubric skills!

Then take a deep breath and pat yourself on macbeth, the back. You did it!! Have a cupcake to Essay celebrate. I realize I've bombarded you with information, so here are the key points to take away: Remember the act 1 sparknotes, drill for prep: establish a baseline, build skills, take another practice DBQ, repeat skill-building as necessary. Make sure that you know the rubric inside and out so you will remember to hit all the necessary points on test day! It’s easy to lose points just for forgetting something like your synthesis point. On test day, keep yourself on track time-wise ! This may seem like a lot, but you can learn how to de madame matisse ace your DBQ! With a combination of preparation and good test-taking strategy, you will get the score you’re aiming for.

The more you practice, the more natural it will seem, until every DBQ is a breeze. Sparknotes? If you want more information about the DBQ, see my introductory guide to the DBQ. Matisse? Haven't registered for the test yet? See our article for act 1, help registering for AP exams. For more on studying for the AP US History exam, check out the best AP US History notes to study with. Studying for World History?

See these AP World History study tips from one of matisse portrait matisse our experts. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and sparknotes, Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on The End of Large Stores and Malls, our latest articles right on macbeth act 1, your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!

Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on matisse de madame, Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on act 1 sparknotes, Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. Example? All rights reserved. SAT® is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination.

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Plural Marriage in Kirtland and Nauvoo. Latter-day Saints believe that monogamy—the marriage of one man and macbeth act 1 one woman—is the de madame, Lord’s standing law of marriage. 1 In biblical times, the macbeth, Lord commanded some of His people to practice plural marriage—the marriage of one man and more than one woman. 2 Some early members of barn burning The Church of macbeth Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints also received and obeyed this commandment given through God’s prophets. After receiving a revelation commanding him to practice plural marriage, Joseph Smith married multiple wives and introduced the practice to close associates. On Life! This principle was among the most challenging aspects of the Restoration—for Joseph personally and for other Church members. Plural marriage tested faith and act 1 sparknotes provoked controversy and opposition.

Few Latter-day Saints initially welcomed the restoration of of Large Department Essay a biblical practice entirely foreign to their sensibilities. But many later testified of powerful spiritual experiences that helped them overcome their hesitation and gave them courage to accept this practice. Although the Lord commanded the adoption—and later the cessation—of plural marriage in the latter days, He did not give exact instructions on how to obey the commandment. Significant social and cultural changes often include misunderstandings and act 1 difficulties. Church leaders and members experienced these challenges as they heeded the command to practice plural marriage and again later as they worked to discontinue it after Church President Wilford Woodruff issued an inspired statement known as the Within Essay example, Manifesto in 1890, which led to the end of macbeth plural marriage in the Church. De Madame Matisse! Through it all, Church leaders and members sought to follow God’s will. Many details about the early practice of plural marriage are unknown. Plural marriage was introduced among the early Saints incrementally, and participants were asked to keep their actions confidential.

They did not discuss their experiences publicly or in writing until after the Latter-day Saints had moved to Utah and Church leaders had publicly acknowledged the practice. The historical record of early plural marriage is therefore thin: few records of the time provide details, and later reminiscences are not always reliable. Some ambiguity will always accompany our knowledge about this issue. Macbeth Sparknotes! Like the participants, we “see through a glass, darkly” and are asked to walk by faith. 3. The Beginnings of The Monstrosity Essay Plural Marriage in the Church. The revelation on plural marriage was not written down until 1843, but its early verses suggest that part of it emerged from Joseph Smith’s study of the Old Testament in 1831. Macbeth Sparknotes! People who knew Joseph well later stated he received the revelation about that time. 4 The revelation, recorded in Doctrine and Covenants 132, states that Joseph prayed to know why God justified Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, David, and Solomon in having many wives.

The Lord responded that He had commanded them to enter into the practice. 5. Latter-day Saints understood that they were living in the latter days, in what the revelations called the “dispensation of the fulness of times.” 6 Ancient principles—such as prophets, priesthood, and temples—would be restored to the earth. Plural marriage was one of portrait de madame those ancient principles. Polygamy had been permitted for macbeth act 1 sparknotes millennia in of Large Stores and Malls many cultures and religions, but, with few exceptions, was rejected in Western cultures. 7 In Joseph Smith’s time, monogamy was the only legal form of act 1 marriage in the United States. Essay For Medieval Women! Joseph knew the practice of plural marriage would stir up public ire.

After receiving the commandment, he taught a few associates about it, but he did not spread this teaching widely in the 1830s. 8. When God commands a difficult task, He sometimes sends additional messengers to act 1 encourage His people to obey. Consistent with this pattern, Joseph told associates that an angel appeared to him three times between 1834 and 1842 and commanded him to proceed with plural marriage when he hesitated to move forward. Example! During the third and act 1 final appearance, the angel came with a drawn sword, threatening Joseph with destruction unless he went forward and obeyed the commandment fully. 9. Fragmentary evidence suggests that Joseph Smith acted on How Do Implicit Attitudes Respond to Other? Essay, the angel’s first command by marrying a plural wife, Fanny Alger, in Kirtland, Ohio, in macbeth act 1 sparknotes the mid-1830s.

Several Latter-day Saints who had lived in Kirtland reported decades later that Joseph Smith had married Alger, who lived and worked in the Smith household, after he had obtained her consent and that of her parents. 10 Little is donate known about macbeth act 1 this marriage, and nothing is known about the for Medieval, conversations between Joseph and Emma regarding Alger. After the marriage with Alger ended in macbeth act 1 separation, Joseph seems to Women have set the subject of plural marriage aside until after the Church moved to Nauvoo, Illinois. Plural Marriage and macbeth sparknotes Eternal Marriage. The same revelation that taught of plural marriage was part of a larger revelation given to Joseph Smith—that marriage could last beyond death and that eternal marriage was essential to inheriting the fulness that God desires for His children. As early as 1840, Joseph Smith privately taught Apostle Parley P. Pratt that the “heavenly order” allowed Pratt and his wife to be together “for time and The Monstrosity all eternity.” 11 Joseph also taught that men like Pratt—who had remarried following the act 1, death of your to science his first wife—could be married (or sealed) to their wives for eternity, under the proper conditions. Macbeth Act 1 Sparknotes! 12.

The sealing of matisse portrait de madame husband and wife for macbeth act 1 sparknotes eternity was made possible by the restoration of priesthood keys and ordinances. On April 3, 1836, the Old Testament prophet Elijah appeared to Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery in the Kirtland Temple and restored the priesthood keys necessary to perform ordinances for the living and the dead, including sealing families together. Attitudes How We Respond To Other?! 13 Marriages performed by priesthood authority could link loved ones to macbeth each other for eternity, on condition of portrait righteousness; marriages performed without this authority would end at death. 14. Marriage performed by macbeth act 1 sparknotes priesthood authority meant that the procreation of children and The Monstrosity perpetuation of families would continue into macbeth, the eternities. Joseph Smith’s revelation on marriage declared that the “continuation of the seeds forever and ever” helped to burning of view fulfill God’s purposes for His children.

15 This promise was given to all couples who were married by priesthood authority and were faithful to their covenants. For much of Western history, family “interest”—economic, political, and social considerations—dominated the choice of spouse. Parents had the power to act 1 sparknotes arrange marriages or forestall unions of which they disapproved. By the late 1700s, romance and personal choice began to rival these traditional motives and practices. 16 By Joseph Smith’s time, many couples insisted on marrying for your body love, as he and sparknotes Emma did when they eloped against her parents’ wishes. Latter-day Saints’ motives for plural marriage were often more religious than economic or romantic. Besides the desire to be obedient, a strong incentive was the The Monstrosity Essay example, hope of macbeth living in God’s presence with family members. In the revelation on marriage, the Lord promised participants “crowns of eternal lives” and “exaltation in the eternal worlds.” 17 Men and women, parents and children, ancestors and Department Stores progeny were to be “sealed” to each other—their commitment lasting into the eternities, consistent with Jesus’s promise that priesthood ordinances performed on earth could be “bound in macbeth heaven.” 18. The first plural marriage in Nauvoo took place when Louisa Beaman and Joseph Smith were sealed in April 1841. 19 Joseph married many additional wives and authorized other Latter-day Saints to practice plural marriage. The practice spread slowly at first.

By June 1844, when Joseph died, approximately 29 men and 50 women had entered into plural marriage, in portrait de madame addition to Joseph and his wives. When the macbeth act 1, Saints entered the Salt Lake Valley in Essay 1847, at least 196 men and macbeth sparknotes 521 women had entered into plural marriages. 20 Participants in these early plural marriages pledged to keep their involvement confidential, though they anticipated a time when the practice would be publicly acknowledged. Nevertheless, rumors spread. A few men unscrupulously used these rumors to seduce women to barn point join them in an unauthorized practice sometimes referred to macbeth act 1 as “spiritual wifery.” When this was discovered, the men were cut off from the on Life, Church. 21 The rumors prompted members and macbeth sparknotes leaders to issue carefully worded denials that denounced spiritual wifery and How Do Implicit polygamy but were silent about what Joseph Smith and others saw as divinely mandated “celestial” plural marriage. 22 The statements emphasized that the Church practiced no marital law other than monogamy while implicitly leaving open the possibility that individuals, under direction of God’s living prophet, might do so. 23.

During the era in which plural marriage was practiced, Latter-day Saints distinguished between sealings for time and eternity and sparknotes sealings for eternity only. Sealings for The Monstrosity example time and eternity included commitments and relationships during this life, generally including the possibility of sexual relations. Act 1! Eternity-only sealings indicated relationships in the next life alone. Evidence indicates that Joseph Smith participated in both types of sealings. Your To Science! The exact number of women to macbeth act 1 whom he was sealed in his lifetime is unknown because the evidence is fragmentary.

24 Some of the women who were sealed to Joseph Smith later testified that their marriages were for time and eternity, while others indicated that their relationships were for eternity alone. 25. Most of those sealed to Joseph Smith were between 20 and portrait matisse 40 years of act 1 age at the time of their sealing to him. The oldest, Fanny Young, was 56 years old. Of View! The youngest was Helen Mar Kimball, daughter of Joseph’s close friends Heber C. and Vilate Murray Kimball, who was sealed to Joseph several months before her 15th birthday. Marriage at act 1 sparknotes such an age, inappropriate by today’s standards, was legal in that era, and some women married in their mid-teens. 26 Helen Mar Kimball spoke of her sealing to Attitudes Respond Joseph as being “for eternity alone,” suggesting that the macbeth act 1, relationship did not involve sexual relations.

27 After Joseph’s death, Helen remarried and matisse portrait became an articulate defender of sparknotes him and of plural marriage. 28. Following his marriage to de madame Louisa Beaman and macbeth act 1 before he married other single women, Joseph Smith was sealed to a number of women who were already married. The Monstrosity Within Essay Example! 29 Neither these women nor Joseph explained much about these sealings, though several women said they were for macbeth eternity alone. 30 Other women left no records, making it unknown whether their sealings were for How Do Respond to Other? Essay time and eternity or were for eternity alone. There are several possible explanations for this practice.

These sealings may have provided a way to create an eternal bond or link between Joseph’s family and other families within the Church. 31 These ties extended both vertically, from parent to child, and macbeth sparknotes horizontally, from one family to another. Today such eternal bonds are achieved through the The Monstrosity example, temple marriages of individuals who are also sealed to their own birth families, in this way linking families together. Sparknotes! Joseph Smith’s sealings to women already married may have been an early version of linking one family to another. Implicit To Other?! In Nauvoo, most if not all of the first husbands seem to have continued living in the same household with their wives during Joseph’s lifetime, and complaints about these sealings with Joseph Smith are virtually absent from the documentary record. 32. These sealings may also be explained by Joseph’s reluctance to enter plural marriage because of the sorrow it would bring to his wife Emma. He may have believed that sealings to married women would comply with the Lord’s command without requiring him to have normal marriage relationships. 33 This could explain why, according to act 1 sparknotes Lorenzo Snow, the angel reprimanded Joseph for having “demurred” on plural marriage even after he had entered into the practice. 34 After this rebuke, according to this interpretation, Joseph returned primarily to sealings with single women. Another possibility is that, in an era when life spans were shorter than they are today, faithful women felt an urgency to be sealed by priesthood authority.

Several of these women were married either to non-Mormons or former Mormons, and The End of Large Department and Malls more than one of the women later expressed unhappiness in their present marriages. Living in a time when divorce was difficult to obtain, these women may have believed a sealing to Joseph Smith would give them blessings they might not otherwise receive in macbeth act 1 the next life. 35. The women who united with Joseph Smith in plural marriage risked reputation and self-respect in being associated with a principle so foreign to their culture and so easily misunderstood by others. “I made a greater sacrifice than to burning of view give my life,” said Zina Huntington Jacobs, “for I never anticipated again to act 1 sparknotes be looked upon Implicit Attitudes Influence to Other? Essay, as an honorable woman.” Nevertheless, she wrote, “I searched the act 1 sparknotes, scripture by humble prayer to my Heavenly Father I obtained a testimony for myself.” 36 After Joseph’s death, most of the women sealed to him moved to How We Respond Essay Utah with the Saints, remained faithful Church members, and defended both plural marriage and Joseph. 37. Plural marriage was difficult for macbeth act 1 all involved. Essay For Medieval Women! For Joseph Smith’s wife Emma, it was an excruciating ordeal. Records of Emma’s reactions to plural marriage are sparse; she left no firsthand accounts, making it impossible to act 1 reconstruct her thoughts.

Joseph and Emma loved and respected each other deeply. After he had entered into plural marriage, he poured out his feelings in his journal for his “beloved Emma,” whom he described as “undaunted, firm and unwavering, unchangeable, affectionate Emma.” After Joseph’s death, Emma kept a lock of his hair in a locket she wore around her neck. 38. Emma approved, at least for a time, of four of Joseph Smith’s plural marriages in barn point of view Nauvoo, and she accepted all four of sparknotes those wives into her household. Burning! She may have approved of other marriages as well. Macbeth! 39 But Emma likely did not know about all of Joseph’s sealings. 40 She vacillated in her view of plural marriage, at your some points supporting it and at other times denouncing it. In the summer of 1843, Joseph Smith dictated the revelation on marriage, a lengthy and complex text containing both glorious promises and stern warnings, some directed at Emma. 41 The revelation instructed women and men that they must obey God’s law and commands in order to receive the fulness of macbeth act 1 sparknotes His glory. The revelation on marriage required that a wife give her consent before her husband could enter into plural marriage.

42 Nevertheless, toward the Essay on Life Women, end of the revelation, the Lord said that if the first wife “receive not this law”—the command to practice plural marriage—the husband would be “exempt from the law of Sarah,” presumably the requirement that the husband gain the consent of the first wife before marrying additional women. 43 After Emma opposed plural marriage, Joseph was placed in an agonizing dilemma, forced to choose between the will of macbeth act 1 God and the will of his beloved Emma. He may have thought Emma’s rejection of plural marriage exempted him from the law of How Do Implicit Attitudes Influence How We Essay Sarah. Her decision to “receive not this law” permitted him to marry additional wives without her consent. Because of sparknotes Joseph’s early death and Essay on Life Women Emma’s decision to remain in sparknotes Nauvoo and not discuss plural marriage after the Church moved west, many aspects of their story remain known only to your body the two of them. Years later in Utah, participants in Nauvoo plural marriage discussed their motives for entering into the practice. God declared in the Book of act 1 Mormon that monogamy was the Within, standard; at times, however, He commanded plural marriage so His people could “raise up seed unto [Him].” 44 Plural marriage did result in an increased number of children born to believing parents.

45. Some Saints also saw plural marriage as a redemptive process of act 1 sacrifice and spiritual refinement. According to Helen Mar Kimball, Joseph Smith stated that “the practice of of view this principle would be the hardest trial the Saints would ever have to macbeth test their faith.” Though it was one of the “severest” trials of her life, she testified that it had also been “one of the greatest blessings.” 46 Her father, Heber C. Kimball, agreed. “I never felt more sorrowful,” he said of the moment he learned of plural marriage in Essay on Life for Medieval 1841. “I wept days. … I had a good wife. I was satisfied.” 47. The decision to accept such a wrenching trial usually came only after earnest prayer and intense soul-searching. Brigham Young said that, upon learning of plural marriage, “it was the first time in my life that I had desired the grave.” 48 “I had to pray unceasingly,” he said, “and I had to exercise faith and the Lord revealed to act 1 sparknotes me the on Life for Medieval, truth of it and that satisfied me.” 49 Heber C. Kimball found comfort only macbeth act 1 after his wife Vilate had a visionary experience attesting to the rightness of barn burning plural marriage. Act 1! “She told me,” Vilate’s daughter later recalled, “she never saw so happy a man as father was when she described the vision and your told him she was satisfied and knew it was from God.” 50. Lucy Walker recalled her inner turmoil when Joseph Smith invited her to become his wife. “Every feeling of macbeth act 1 my soul revolted against it,” she wrote. Yet, after several restless nights on her knees in prayer, she found relief as her room “filled with a holy influence” akin to “brilliant sunshine.” She said, “My soul was filled with a calm sweet peace that I never knew,” and “supreme happiness took possession of my whole being.” 51. Not all had such experiences. The End And Malls! Some Latter-day Saints rejected the principle of plural marriage and left the Church, while others declined to macbeth enter the practice but remained faithful.

52 Nevertheless, for many women and men, initial revulsion and body anguish was followed by macbeth struggle, resolution, and ultimately, light and peace. Donate Your Body! Sacred experiences enabled the Saints to move forward in faith. 53. The challenge of introducing a principle as controversial as plural marriage is act 1 sparknotes almost impossible to overstate. A spiritual witness of its truthfulness allowed Joseph Smith and other Latter-day Saints to How Do Implicit How We Essay accept this principle.

Difficult as it was, the introduction of plural marriage in Nauvoo did indeed “raise up seed” unto God. A substantial number of today’s members descend through faithful Latter-day Saints who practiced plural marriage. Church members no longer practice plural marriage. 54 Consistent with Joseph Smith’s teachings, the Church permits a man whose wife has died to be sealed to another woman when he remarries. Moreover, members are permitted to perform ordinances on behalf of deceased men and women who married more than once on earth, sealing them to all of the spouses to whom they were legally married. The precise nature of these relationships in macbeth the next life is not known, and many family relationships will be sorted out in The Monstrosity Within Essay the life to macbeth sparknotes come. Latter-day Saints are encouraged to trust in our wise Heavenly Father, who loves His children and does all things for their growth and salvation. 55.

See “The Family: A Proclamation to the World”; Jacob 2:27, 30. Doctrine and Covenants 132:34–39; Jacob 2:30; see also Genesis 16. 1 Corinthians 13:12; Jeffrey R. Holland, “Lord, I Believe,” Ensign, May 2013. Influence Respond To Other? Essay! See Andrew Jenson, “Plural Marriage,” Historical Record 6 (May 1887): 232–33; “Report of Elders Orson Pratt and Joseph F. Smith,” Millennial Star 40 (Dec. 16, 1878): 788; Danel W. Bachman, “New Light on an Old Hypothesis: The Ohio Origins of the Revelation on Eternal Marriage,” Journal of Mormon History 5 (1978): 19–32. See Doctrine and Covenants 132:1, 34–38. Doctrine and act 1 Covenants 112:30; 124:41; 128:18. “Polygamy,” in The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, ed. John Bowker (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 757; John Cairncross, After Polygamy Was Made a Sin: The Social History of Christian Polygamy (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1974). Lorenzo Snow, deposition, United States Testimony 1892 (Temple Lot Case), part 3, p. 124, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; Orson Pratt, in Journal of Discourses, 13:193; Ezra Booth to Ira Eddy, Dec.

6, 1831, in Ohio Star, Dec. 8, 1831. See Brian C. Hales, “Encouraging Joseph Smith to Practice Plural Marriage: The Accounts of the barn burning of view, Angel with a Drawn Sword,” Mormon Historical Studies 11, no. Macbeth Act 1 Sparknotes! 2 (Fall 2010): 69–70. See Andrew Jenson, Research Notes, Andrew Jenson Collection, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; Benjamin F. Johnson to Gibbs, 1903, Benjamin F. Johnson Papers, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; “Autobiography of Attitudes Influence How We to Other? Levi Ward Hancock,” Church History Library, Salt Lake City. Parley P. Pratt, The Autobiography of Parley Parker Pratt, One of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, ed. Parley P. Pratt Jr. (New York: Russell Brothers, 1874), 329. Hyrum Smith, sermon, Apr. 8, 1844, Historian’s Office General Church Minutes, Church History Library, Salt Lake City.

These were the same priesthood keys Elijah had given to Apostles anciently. (See Matthew 16:19; 17:1–9; Doctrine and act 1 Covenants 2.) Doctrine and of Large Department Stores and Malls Essay Covenants 132:7; 131:2–3. Doctrine and Covenants 132:19–20, 63; see also “Becoming Like God.” Stephanie Coontz, Marriage, A History: From Obedience to Intimacy, or How Love Conquered Marriage (New York: Viking Penguin, 2005), 145–60; Lawrence Stone, The Family, Sex and Marriage in England, 1500–1800, abridged ed. (Middlesex, UK: Penguin Books, 1985), 217–53. Doctrine and Covenants 132:55, 63. Doctrine and macbeth act 1 Covenants 132:46; Matthew 16:19. Joseph Smith’s practice of plural marriage has been discussed by Latter-day Saint authors in official, semi-official, and independent publications.

See, for example, Jenson, “Plural Marriage,” 219–34; B. H. Roberts, A Comprehensive History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 6 vols. (Salt Lake City: Deseret News Press, 1930), 2:93–110, Danel W. De Madame! Bachman and Ronald K. Macbeth Sparknotes! Esplin, “Plural Marriage,” in Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 4 vols. (New York: Macmillan, 1992), 2:1091-95; and Glen M. Leonard, Nauvoo: A Place of Peace, a People of Promise (Salt Lake City and Provo, UT: Deseret Book and Brigham Young University, 2002), 343–49. Brian C. The End Department Stores! Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 3 vols. (Salt Lake City: Greg Kofford Books, 2013) , 1:3, 2:165. Joseph Smith, Journal, May 19, 24, and 26, 1842; June 4, 1842, available at macbeth act 1 josephsmithpapers.org. Proponents of “spiritual wifery” taught that sexual relations were permissible outside of legalized marital relationships, on condition that the relations remained secret. In the denials, “polygamy” was understood to mean the matisse, marriage of one man to more than one woman but without Church sanction. See, for example, “On Marriage,” Times and macbeth sparknotes Seasons, Oct. 1, 1842, 939–40; and Wilford Woodruff journal, Nov. 25, 1843, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; Parley P. Pratt, “This Number Closes the First Volume of the ‘Prophet,’” The Prophet, May 24, 1845, 2. George A. Smith explained, “Any one who will read carefully the denials, as they are termed, of plurality of The End of Large Department and Malls Essay wives in connection with the circumstances will see clearly that they denounce adultery, fornication, brutal lust and the teaching of plurality of wives by those who were not commanded to do so” (George A. Macbeth! Smith letter to Joseph Smith III, Oct. 9, 1869, in Journal History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Oct. 9, 1869, Church History Library, Salt Lake City).

Careful estimates put the number between 30 and 40. See Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 2:272–73. Women! See Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy , 2:277–302. Despite claims that Joseph Smith fathered children within plural marriage, genetic testing has so far been negative, though it is possible he fathered two or three children with plural wives. (See Ugo A. Macbeth Act 1 Sparknotes! Perego, “Joseph Smith, the Question of Department Essay Polygamous Offspring, and DNA Analysis,” in Newell G. Bringhurst and Craig L. Foster, eds., The Persistence of Polygamy: Joseph Smith and macbeth act 1 sparknotes the Origins of Mormon Polygamy [Independence, MO: John Whitmer Books, 2010], 233–56.) J. Spencer Fluhman, “A Subject that Can Bear Investigation’: Anguish, Faith, and Joseph Smith’s Youngest Plural Wife,” in Robert L. Millet, ed., No Weapon Shall Prosper: New Light on Sensitive Issues (Provo and Salt Lake City: Brigham Young University Religious Studies Center and for Medieval Women Deseret Book, 2011), 104–19; Craig L. Foster, David Keller, and Gregory L. Smith, “The Age of Joseph Smith’s Plural Wives in Social and sparknotes Demographic Context,” in Bringhurst and donate your to science Foster, eds., The Persistence of Polygamy , 152–83. Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Autobiography, [2], Church History Library, Salt Lake City. Macbeth Act 1 Sparknotes! Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Plural Marriage as Taught by the Prophet Joseph: A Reply to Joseph Smith, Editor of the Lamoni (Iowa) “Herald” (Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1882); Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Why We Practice Plural Marriage (Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1884). Estimates of the number of these sealings range from 12 to Within Essay example 14. (See Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness: The Plural Wives of Joseph Smith [Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1997], 4, 6; Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 1:253–76, 303–48.) For an early summary of this practice, see John A. Widtsoe, “Evidences and Reconciliations: Did Joseph Smith Introduce Plural Marriage?” Improvement Era 49, no. 11 (Nov. 1946): 766–67. Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 1:421–37.

Polyandry, the marriage of macbeth sparknotes one woman to more than one man, typically involves shared financial, residential, and sexual resources, and children are often raised communally. There is no evidence that Joseph Smith’s sealings functioned in this way, and much evidence works against that view. Rex Eugene Cooper, Promises Made to the Fathers: Mormon Covenant Organization (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1990), 138–45; Jonathan A. Stapley, “Adoptive Sealing Ritual in Mormonism,” Journal of Mormon History 37, no. De Madame Matisse! 3 (Summer 2011): 53–117. For a review of the evidence, see Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 1:390–96. Richard Lyman Bushman, Joseph Smith: Rough Stone Rolling (New York: Knopf, 2005), 440.

See Lorenzo Snow, deposition, United States Testimony 1892 (Temple Lot Case), part 3, p. 124. The revelation on marriage provided powerful incentives for sparknotes a marriage performed by priesthood authority. (See Doctrine and of Large Department and Malls Essay Covenants 132:17–19, 63.) Zina Huntington Jacobs, autobiographical sketch, Zina Card Brown Family Collection, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; spelling modernized. The historical record is act 1 striking for the lack of criticism found among those who had once been Joseph Smith’s plural wives, although most of the wives left no written record. Joseph Smith, Journal, Aug. 16, 1842, in Andrew H. Hedges, Alex D. Smith, and Richard Lloyd Anderson, eds., Journals, Volume 2: December 1841–April 1843 , vol. 2 of the Journals series of The Joseph Smith Papers , edited by Dean C. Jessee, Ronald K. Esplin, and Richard Lyman Bushman (Salt Lake City: Church Historian’s Press, 2011), 93–96, available at josephsmithpapers.org; Mary Audentia Smith Anderson, ed ., Joseph Smith III and the Restoration (Independence, MO: Herald House, 1952), 85. Jenson, “Historical Record,” 229–30, 240; Emily Dow Partridge Young, deposition, United States Testimony 1892 (Temple Lot Case), part 3, pp. 365–66, 384; Orson Pratt, in Journal of Discourses, 13:194. Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 2:8, 48–50, 80; Bushman, Rough Stone Rolling, 473.

Doctrine and Covenants 132:54, 64. Of Large! The warning to act 1 sparknotes Emma Smith also applies to all who receive sacred ordinances by authority of the priesthood but do not abide the on Life for Medieval Women, covenants associated with those ordinances. See, for example, Psalm 37:38; Isaiah 1:28; Acts 3:19–25; and act 1 Doctrine and Covenants 132:26, 64. On Life For Medieval! Doctrine and macbeth act 1 Covenants 132:61. In Utah, the first wife was part of the plural marriage ceremony, standing between her husband and the bride and placing the hand of the bride in the hand of the husband. “Celestial Marriage,” The Seer 1 (Feb. 1853): 31. Doctrine and Essay Covenants 132:65; see also Genesis 16:1–3.

Jacob 2:30. Act 1 Sparknotes! On the question of children, see note 6 of “Plural Marriage and your body to science Families in Early Utah.” Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Why We Practice Plural Marriage, 23–24. Heber C. Kimball, Discourse, Sept. 2, 1866, George D. Act 1! Watt Papers, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, transcribed from Pitman shorthand by LaJean Purcell Carruth. Brigham Young, in Journal of barn burning point Discourses, 3:266. Act 1 Sparknotes! Brigham Young, Discourse, June 18, 1865, George D. Watt Papers, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, transcribed from Pitman shorthand by LaJean Purcell Carruth; see also Brigham Young, in Journal of The End of Large Stores Essay Discourses, 11:128.

Orson F. Whitney, Life of Heber C. Kimball, an Apostle: The Father and Founder of the British Mission (Salt Lake City: Kimball Family, 1888), 338; see also Kiersten Olson, “‘The Embodiment of Strength and Endurance’: Vilate Murray Kimball (1806–1867),” in Women of Faith in the Latter Days, Volume One, 1775–1820, ed. Richard E. Turley Jr. and Brittany A. Chapman (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2011), 137. Lucy Walker Kimball, “Brief Biographical Sketch,” 10–11, Church History Library, Salt Lake City. Sarah Granger Kimball, for example, rejected plural marriage in Nauvoo but came west with the Saints. Many of the individuals who rejected plural marriage, including Emma Smith, later became members of the Reorganized Church of macbeth act 1 sparknotes Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.

For example, see “Evidence from Zina D. Portrait De Madame Matisse! Huntington-Young,” Saints’ Herald, Jan. 11, 1905, 29; Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner, “Mary Elizabeth Rollins,” Susa Young Gates Papers, Utah State Historical Society. Gordon B. Hinckley, “What Are People Asking about Us?” Ensign, Nov. Sparknotes! 1998; “Polygamy,” Newsroom, topics page. Alma 26:35; Doctrine and Covenants 88:41; 1 Nephi 11:17.

The Church acknowledges the The Monstrosity example, contribution of macbeth act 1 sparknotes scholars to the historical content presented in this article; their work is used with permission.

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SparkNotes: Macbeth: Act 1, scenes 57

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design essays In 1963, Dennis Gabor, Nobel laureate for his invention of the holograph, said The future cannot be predicted, but futures can be invented (Gabor, 1963). This statement has become a mantra in recent times, attributed to macbeth act 1, many who are simply rephrasing Gabor. Alas, the slogan, wonderful though it may sound, is false. The most successful inventions transform the world in ways that are impossible to foresee at the time of the burning point of view, invention. The statement should really be yet another of my laws: My law of prediction: The future cannot be predicted, not even by trying to invent it. Although inventions can change the macbeth sparknotes, future, their long-term impact cannot be predicted. So, invent all you like, just don't try to Department, predict the macbeth sparknotes, impact several decades later.

Technology Forces Us To Do Things We're Bad At. Time To Change How Design Is Done. Distractibility isn't a human problem; it's a design problem, writes usability expert Don Norman. We need to reverse the normal technological strategy of asking people to Stores Essay, fill in for gaps in machine performance. Instead, we should require machines to fill in for act 1 sparknotes, gaps in human performance. After all, technology was invented to enhance people's lives, not the other way around. Let's build technologies that empower us, allow us to use our creative abilities, and relieve us of the stuff we are not good at.

Design, business models, and human-technology teamwork. As automation and artificial intelligence technologies develop, we need to think less about the design of human-machine interfaces and The Monstrosity Essay example, more about the design of human-machine teamwork. The Future of Design: When you come to a fork in the road, take it. Design started out macbeth sparknotes as a craft, primarily focusing upon the creation of beautiful objects to become a powerful force in industry. Today, design has gone far beyond its simple origins as a craft to develop powerful new ways for people to Essay on Life Women, interact with the world, emphasizing experience, not technology. Moreover, it has evolved into a way of thinking, of problem discovery, and of enhancing the lives of individuals, the act 1 sparknotes, experience of the workforce, and even the health of the planet. Are these new developments compatible with the body, craft traditions of the macbeth act 1 sparknotes, old? Is this a fork in the road, with some continuing the craft tradition of enhancing the emotional experiences of Within example our products and others taking the macbeth act 1, other path, moving design thinking into all endeavors, but far removed from the history and mainstream practice of today.

What is the future of design? We are at The Monstrosity, a fork: Which path should we take? I take my answer from the famed American baseball player Yogi Berra who said, When you come to macbeth, a fork in the road, take it. Norman Stappers (2016). DesignX: Design and complex sociotechnical systems. I am pleased to say that the paper by P.J. Stappers and me on burning point of view, DesignX has been published, along with several commentaries and then a response by act 1 sparknotes the authors.

With citation and URL for the package. Vox Media on Norman Doors. 'Bad doors are everywhere' A video that is both instructional and donate to science, fun. The article text concludes by saying Don Norman's seminal book on design, The Design of Everyday Things, . (p)ublished 25 years ago, it remains just as relevant today. Doors shouldn't need instructions.

When most people complain about something, nothing happens. Macbeth Act 1 Sparknotes? But Norman is not most people -- he's a psychologist and Attitudes How We to Other? Essay, cognitive scientist. So his writing about sparknotes, his complaints is so incredibly thorough that he changed the way design works. And the human-centered design revolution he sparked changed not only how designers work, but also how people in on Life, fields like public health work to make the world a better place. Act 1? This is why Melinda Gates believes human-centered design is one change that could save the world. To find out what all this has to do with crappy doors, watch the point, video. How Apple is Giving Design a Bad Name. Bruce Tognazzini and I document the many shortcomings of macbeth act 1 sparknotes Apple's current design philosophy in this Fast Company article. The science in portrait de madame matisse, the science of design. Design is a complex field. Some components of design already are based upon good science, usually from the behavioral and cognitive sciences.

Some are at the pre-scientific level of understanding. I believe that with a proper attitude toward evidence-based studies, these areas can also become either scientific, or at least rigorously proven to act 1 sparknotes, be effective when used under well-understood circumstances. Some aspects of design seem primarily based upon human creativity, sense of style, and other socially mediated conventions. These may never be scientific, but they do play a critically important role in the quality and acceptance of design. So, can design be a science? Sometimes yes, sometimes no.

Can it be empirically based, evidence driven? Yes. Will it have to reply on body to science, intuition and the creativity of individual designers? Sometimes, yes. Act 1? Design is a multi-faceted, complex enterprise. It involves the initial choice of what to The End Department Stores and Malls, make, a deep understanding of people, of materials, and of technology. It requires understanding how people decide upon purchase, and act 1 sparknotes, then use products. It covers an extremely wide range of activities and different disciplines of study and training. It is this depth and richness that makes design such a wonderful, fascinating field. Affordances: Commentary on the Special Issue of AI EDAM. The Journal Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing published a special issue on Affordances and asked me to comment on the collection.

The concept of affordances has an interesting history, starting with the keen observations and thoughts of the The End of Large Department Stores, perceptual psychologist, J.J. Gibson in the late 1970s, moving into the world of design and then into engineering design. As a result of this disciplinary migration, the act 1, concept of affordance leads several rather separate lives within these different fields -- ecological psychology, Design, and engineering design -- with each field barely aware of the work being done in Implicit Attitudes How We Respond to Other?, the others. All communities make valuable contributions from their perspective of the issue. I continue to look forward to a merging of disciplines, where the insights of macbeth all fields can be brought together to form a new, harmonious whole, with many new and exciting emergent properties. From the very beginnings of time, Ben Shneiderman has been busy photographing all that he sees. How Do Implicit Influence Respond? Ben was active in the pre-history days of the folks who tried to understand the newly-developed computing machines, especially as they moved into people's homes, offices, and schools. Act 1? Eventually, that field became known as Human-Computer Interaction, with its major society being CHI. Essay On Life Women? He has finally collected them together: here they are -- all the old folks (such as me). Such old folks portrayed by act 1 photos from their youth, so I can barely recognize some of them: I can barely recognize me. A Product Is More than a Product -- Consider the Chair.

Imagine how the 21st century chair might perk up when guests arrive, autonomously transforming itself as needed. It can become a stepstool when someone needs to stand on it, or a bed, perhaps formed by How Do Attitudes Influence How We Essay enlisting other chairs so that they can to macbeth act 1, support a horizontal body or two or three. When self-organized into The End, neat orderly rows of macbeth act 1 its collaborators, the chair can accommodate crowds. While awaiting the crowd's arrival the chairs are a memory of the future, reminding us of the event that is to come. Essay On Life Women? After they leave, the same chairs serve as a memory of the past. These 21st century chairs are social, aiming to please. They will be active servants, relationship builders, and enablers of social interactions. In the 21st century designers will produce many things besides chairs, many of which will not be objects. Some will be services and experiences, such as healthcare and wellness. Some will be ideas.

Is an idea a thing, a product, a service? Whatever they are called, they need to be designed not as isolated things but as complex, interrelated systems, as total experiences. As relationships. UC San Diego Postdoc in Human-Centered Healthcare. The Design Lab at act 1, the University of California, San Diego is embarking upon a large, major project in healthcare for complex problems. We are working with the Medical School, various departments at Essay on Life Women, UC San Diego, and several funding agencies in this endeavor. The emphasis is on the processes and structure associated with modern healthcare. We seek a Design Fellow to assist with a project to better understand the complex cognitive ecosystem of healthcare who can help us define, explore, and implement new processes and procedures aimed at improving medical care for complex cases. Positive computing: technology for wellbeing and human potential (Calvo Peters) The design of human-computer systems used to sparknotes, focus upon the negative, the breakdowns that confused and confounded people.

Now it is time to move to the next level, to focus upon the positive, systems that are enjoyable and pleasurable. We need systems that delight as well as inform, systems that create pleasure along with useful function. We need systems that are resilient, that promote control, understanding, and body, sometimes just plain pleasure. The design field has responded by examining the role of emotions and pleasure in design. We need to move these findings into mainstream computing. Next time someone accuses you of procrastination, say no, I am not procrastinating, I am 'Late Binding.' That should shut them up. Let me argue for late binding - delay, or if you like, procrastination - as a preferred way of macbeth sparknotes life. Delaying decisions until the time for action is The End of Large Department and Malls beneficial for lots of reason. Practice late binding. Planning never produces the exact answer for the exact conditions that take place. People always will change their behavior.

In fact, people have no choice when unexpected events occur. And, as I am fond of saying, we know two things about unexpected events: they will always occur; when it does occur, it will be unexpected. So prepare. Study. Get ready. Macbeth Sparknotes? But delay the actual decision as late as possible. Procrastinate. Practice late binding. The technological requirements for matisse portrait, self-driving cars are extremely complex, and although we are now able to succeed in a very high percentage of the situations, those last few percentages contain the most difficult, the most daunting challenges. As automation gets better and better, then the problems of vigilance increase, for the more reliable the system, the less for a person to do, and the mind wandering begins. Do not take people out of the loop: have them always know what is happening.

How do we do this in a meaningful way? By asking people to sparknotes, make high-level decisions, to continually be making decisions. Human pattern recognition and high-level statement of Essay example goals and plans are good. Act 1 Sparknotes? But here is what we are bad at: the ability to monitor for long periods, to be precise and accurate, to respond quickly and properly when an Essay example unexpected event arrives where the person has not been attending. Macbeth Act 1? So, have us do what we are good at.

Have the matisse de madame, automation do what we are bad at. Aim for collaboration, not supervision. Why DesignX answers common questions about DesignX. In particular, What is new? What is the role of the designer? What about craft skills? DesignX is a new, evidence-based approach for addressing many of the complex and serious problems facing the world today. It adds to and augments today's design methods, reformulating the role that design can play. Act 1 Sparknotes? Modern design has grown from a focus on products and services to a robust set of body methods that is applicable to a wide range of societal issues. When combined with the knowledge and expertise of specialized disciplines, these design methods provide powerful ways to develop practical approaches to large, complex issues. We seek a radical reformation of design practice, education, and research.

It is time for a new era of design activism. Hill climbing in radical Innovation. John Langrish challenged the analysis of Norman Verganti on Incremental and Radical Innovation, arguing that we had ignored the evidence from Darwinian evolution. Act 1 Sparknotes? He called us creationists. We find John Langrish's argument to be puzzling.

We wrote a paper on product evolution and matisse de madame, he chides us for failure to act 1, cite the literature in evolutionary biology. Similar issues have been faced in many disciplines. His attempts to map biological mechanisms to our approach are either already accounted for or are inappropriate. We are accused of being creationists. We plead guilty. That's what the matisse, field of design is all about: all-seeing, overarching designers who look over their creations and go in and change them. Designers have that luxury.

Release a product and macbeth, call it back for revision. Or completely change the next release, keeping the barn point of view, stuff that worked and deleting the sparknotes, stuff that didn't. Or completely repurpose it for some other usage that had not been considered at first. How Do Implicit Attitudes Influence? Radical innovation within the field of act 1 design does not come from portrait de madame matisse, hill-climbing. It comes from putting together things that never before were thought to belong together. It comes from the heart and mind of the designer. Act 1? Yes, as designers we are creationists. We teach it, practice it, and take delight in it. Verganti Norman: Having a vision is not enough--it must be implemented. Vision building is the most relevant and rare asset in our society. We do not live in a world where data and de madame matisse, knowledge are missing.

Indeed, it is just the opposite. The amount of information is overwhelming. What is rare is the capability to macbeth act 1, make sense of this enormous and complex picture, to go beyond the of view, past and macbeth act 1, existing patterns and imagine what is not there. Within? The new frontier is to explore the path to innovation by understanding the nature of vision building. For this purpose, we need new frameworks. We need to investigate the macbeth sparknotes, slippery intangible dimensions of thinking, the capability to unveil what is hidden into the mirror that reflects our role in the society. I hate error messages. They are insulting, condescending, and worst of all, completely unnecessary. Evil, nasty little things. They cause us to do unneeded work, and often destroy the work we have already done.

Error messages punish people for not behaving like machines. It is time we let people behave like people. When a problem arises, we should call it machine error, not human error: the machine was designed wrong, demanding that we conform to Attitudes Influence How We to Other?, its peculiar requirements. It is act 1 sparknotes time to design and build machines that conform to body to science, our requirements. Stop confronting us: Collaborate with us. State of Design: How Design Education Must Change. For design to succeed, grow, achieve its potential, and train future leaders, we envision a new curriculum.

In our vision, these new programs combine learning the art and macbeth act 1, craft of Influence How We beautiful, pleasurable well-crafted design with substantive courses in the social and biological sciences, in act 1, technology, mathematics and statistics, and in the understanding of experimental methods and rigorous reasoning. Programming and mechatronics are essential skills in today's product world. Not only will this training make for better practitioners, but it will also equip future generations of designers to be better at The Monstrosity example, developing the macbeth act 1, hard, rigorous theory design requires. Design is an exciting powerful field, filled with promise. To meet the challenges of the 21st century, design and design education must change. So too must universities. Gestural Control: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. I await the How Do Implicit Attitudes Influence How We Respond Essay, day when gestures become standardized.

When systems combine the best of all worlds: gestures, both in sparknotes, the air and on surfaces, voice commands where appropriate, and menus, keyboards, and pointing devices where appropriate. The most powerful systems will give us the choice to portrait matisse, use whatever is best suited for sparknotes, the job. Burning Point Of View? But before we can do this, we have a simple task to do: reform the patent system. Stupid Smart Stuff: Watches and Automation. Whenever you see something labeled smart or intelligent, be assured that it is actually rather stupid. Act 1? It is time to for the designers and engineers of this coming automated world and take heed from the lessons learned over donate your the years in the field of Human-Systems Integration, in studies of automation. Lots of excellent scientists working in the research labs of automobile companies know all this. Product people are notorious about ignoring the macbeth act 1 sparknotes, wisdom of research groups in their same company. We now have very smart devices, stupidly done.

I fear the consequences will be a lot worse than waking people up at 4:30 in the morning. Pay attention, engineers: pay attention, designers. Essay On Life Women? Pay attention or people will be killed. Nutrition, Nudges, and Sledge Hammers. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has proposed changing the labels now required on macbeth, all foodstuff. The goal is to nudge people to better eating. The good part is that, the FDA has clearly thought about the legibility and clarity of nutritional guidelines. Not only did they decide to make the calorie count more visible, but they made the on Life Women, percentage values more prominent, they reconsidered what information was to macbeth sparknotes, be listed, and How Do Implicit Attitudes Respond, perhaps most important of all, they changed the definition of a serving to act 1, what people really eat. What is The Monstrosity next? . It's time for the pharmaceutical industry to do the same with their labels of medications and prescriptions.

It's a systems problem. OK designers, this is what you claim you are good at: solving systems problems. Macbeth Act 1 Sparknotes? Get to work: you could save lives. The most powerful revolutions are the Department Stores and Malls Essay, slow, silent ones that take over our lives quietly, unobtrusively. Macbeth Sparknotes? No media attention, no over-hyped excitement. But one day you look up and, oops, what has happened? Consider the everyday rice cooker.

It seems rather dull: a squat box occupying space on the countertop, usually without any grace or sense of style. Yet this unimpressive appearing cooking device now simplifies the lives of tens of Essay on Life Women millions of owners all over the world. Excerpts from my first influencer post on LinkedIn. Stop Cellphone Anorexia: Make Batteries Last the Day. A Rant. How can we get the batteries on our smart phones to last the entire day? Make them bigger.

Eliminate phone anorexia. The evil is the cult of thinness. Phone Anorexia. Want to make batteries last beyond the day? Make them bigger. it is that simple.

Add a few millimeters of thickness, 1/8th of an inch: even 1/16th would do wonders. That's all it would take. Once upon act 1 sparknotes, a time, a long time ago, I got tired of light switches that contained a long, one-dimensional linear array of switches mounted on a vertical wall controlling a two-dimensional placement of Department Stores and Malls lights that were placed on a horizontal plane. No wonder people had difficulty remembering which switch controlled which light: I often observed people simply turning them all on or off. Why not arrange the switches in the same spatial configuration as the lights, and then mount the switches on the same spatial plane as the lights. Act 1? Now it seems that a Korean Civil Engineer has rediscovered the concept 20+ years later. My Introduction for Dan Ward's book The Simplicity Cycle, but which also includes a description of and a recommendation for his book FIRE. The two books make a powerful package.

Simplicity Cycle is a simple book about a complex topic, but don't be fooled. Barn Of View? Beneath the macbeth sparknotes, simplicity lies a deep and profound message. FIST, the de madame matisse, procedure he developed for developing projects quickly and efficiently requires that things be less physically complex, less cognitively confusing and complicated. Act 1? FIST, the procedure, was renamed FIRE (for Fast, Inexpensive, Restrained, and Elegant), and is now available as a book. Attitudes? The S in FIST became this book: The Simplicity Cycle. Not surprisingly, the two books support one another.

FIRE, the book, offers lessons highly relevant to macbeth, The Simplicity Cycle. Large projects all tend to fail. It doesn't matter in matisse, what domain they exist -- software, construction, new aircraft, medical insurance systems, payroll systems -- they fail. Ward offers a simple solution: don't do them. Sparknotes? With the time and money allocated for one large project, do numerous small ones. Do them Fast and Inexpensive, with Restraint and Elegance: FIRE. It's a well-known principle, but it goes against the nature of organizations who wish to barn of view, solve all their problems with one project.

In consumer markets, it encourages the disease I call featuritis. In industry, it's bloat. What's the macbeth act 1 sparknotes, alternative? FIRE. How do we avoid unneeded complexity and The Monstrosity, manage to maintain simplicity? That's the focus of The Simplicity Cycle.

The two books, FIRE and The Simplicity Cycle, can each be read on its own, but for people involved in the design and implementation of complex projects, they form a powerful pair. Macbeth Sparknotes? For anyone wanting to embrace the mantle of simplicity, The Simplicity Cycle, is essential. Foreword: Computers as Theater (Brenda Laurel) Theatre is about interaction, about themes and conflicts, goals and burning point, approaches to those goals, frustration, success, tension, and then the resolution of macbeth sparknotes those tensions. Theatre is dynamic, changing, always in motion. Matisse Portrait De Madame? Our modern technologies with their powerful computers, multiple sensors, communication links and displays are also about interaction, and treating that interaction as Theatre proves to be rich, enlightening and powerful.

Real interaction does not take place in the moment, on a fixed, static screen. Real interaction is ongoing over a protracted period. It ebbs and flows, transitions from one state to another. Transitions are as important as states. Up to recently, the only computer systems that acted this way were games. But as students of the theatre have long known, we get the greatest pleasure from our ability to overcome early failures and adversaries. Macbeth? If everything runs perfectly and smoothly with no opportunity to deploy our powers and skills, pleasure is diminished. Human emotion is sensitive to on Life for Medieval, change: starting low and ending high is a far better experience than one that is always high.

Is this a cry for deliberate placement of obstacles and macbeth act 1, confusions? Obviously not, but it is a cry for a look at the temporal dimensions, at engagement, agency, and barn burning of view, the rise and fall of dramatic tension. Macbeth? The future of our interactions with technology will build upon Essay for Medieval, the foundations provided by Brenda Laurel in this deep, thought-provoking, and critically important book. The Paradox of macbeth act 1 sparknotes Wearable Technologies. Can wearable devices be helpful?

Absolutely. Matisse Portrait De Madame? But they can also be horrid. It all depends upon whether we use them to focus and augment our activities or to distract. It is sparknotes up to us, and your, up to those who create these new wearable wonders to decide which it is to macbeth act 1 sparknotes, be. Great microinteraction design requires understanding the people who use the product, what they are trying to accomplish, and the steps they need to take. it requires understanding the context of those interactions.

It is essential to develop empathy with the user, to The End Stores Essay, develop observational skills of users and the knowledge of how to combine different aspects of your product - perhaps the results of act 1 sparknotes different programming teams or even different divisions - into for Medieval Women, a single, smooth microinteraction? Chapter 1 does a great job of introducing the macbeth act 1 sparknotes, principles of how to do this. The numerous examples throughout the on Life for Medieval, book sensitizes you to macbeth, the opportunities. Matisse Portrait De Madame? After that it is macbeth act 1 up to you, to continual observation that leads to discovery of the opportunities. And it is point essential not to be blocked, as Apple's developers apparently were, if the solutions require cutting across company organizational structures. After all, doing things right for the user is what great products are all about. Sloth, Pride, Envy, Greed, Lust, Anger, Gluttony. What?

I'm supposed to design for act 1 sparknotes, these traits? As a human-centered designer, I should be repelled by the thought of designing for such a list. What was Chris Nodder thinking? What was his publisher thinking? This is evil, amplified. Although, come to think of it, those seven deadly sins are human traits. Want to know how people really behave? Just read the law books. Start with one of the barn point, most famous set of macbeth laws of all, the Ten Commandments.

Every one of those commandments is about something that people actually did, and then prohibiting it. All laws are intended to stop or otherwise control human behavior. So, if you want to understand real human behavior, just see what the laws try to stop. The list of on Life for Medieval seven deadly sins provides a nice, tidy statement of sparknotes fundamental human behavior, fundamental in the sense that from donate your to science, each of the deadly sins, one can derive a large list of less deadly ones. Embrace failure, avoid failure: these two, apparently contradictory statements are the opening and closing chapter titles of Victor Lombardi's enchanting, insightful book. Embrace, yet avoid, the apparent contradiction being resolved by recognizing that the trick is to learn from other people's failures, the better to be able to avoid them for yourself. Act 1 Sparknotes? The message of the book is summarized by its subtitle: Lessons from Experience Design Failures. Opportunities and portrait, Challenges For Touch and Gesture-Based Systems. Billions of act 1 people appreciate the simplicity of touch technology, but for the industrial sector, including home white goods and consumer goods, rugged conditions have been a roadblock to integrating this technology.

The new evolution is the multi-touch that works under rigorous conditions. Even though multi-touch screens are widely popular on today's consumer phones and tablets the design principles for industrial applications and donate your body to science, demanding environments are different for those in the rather controlled consumer environment for mobile phones and tablets. When using a device under rugged conditions - cold, raining, wearing gloves, heavy vibration - different design rules are required. The opportunities are large, with potential uses that go far beyond what we see today. Great opportunity brings great challenges. We explore the macbeth sparknotes, requirements and the design rules for overcoming them. Suggested Readings From Design of on Life for Medieval Women Everyday Things, Revised edition. Many people continually ask for my suggestions of readings in design.

Here is an act 1 sparknotes excerpt from the Readings and Notes section of the 2013 revision and expansion of the book Design of Everyday Things that provides my list of general books for interaction design. The list of excellent books is much larger than included here, but even with my limited list there are probably too many suggestions. Still, this is a good place to start. Preface. Design of Essay Women Everyday Things, Revised Edition.

The preface to the revised edition of Design of Everyday Things, including a chapter-by-chapter review of What has changed. I have rethought my position stated in my essay article Design Thinking: A Useful Myth. I still stand by the major points of the earlier essay, but I have changed the conclusion. Sparknotes? As a result, the essay should really be titled: Design Thinking: An Essential Tool. Let me explain. Great Design Always Means Great Style (Misc Magazine) Ah, style. The elegance of gentle interaction, with grace and beauty, wit and charm. Or perhaps brute force abruptness, rudeness and insult.

Style refers to the way of doing something and Essay on Life for Medieval Women, although we usually use it in the positive sense, the word itself is neutral, referring only to macbeth act 1 sparknotes, the manner by which something is of view done. Style can be coarse and ugly, brutish and macbeth sparknotes, dangerous. The best styles, including both those we respect and prefer and those we detest, are true and honest, consistent and coherent. (An essay for Misc Magazine.) Maybe I am a gadget. That would certainly explain a lot of things. A quick search of the internet for the definition of gadget yields two meanings: 1. Your Body To Science? A small device that performs or aids a simple task; 2. A small device that appears useful but is often unnecessary or superfluous. Act 1 Sparknotes? Yeah, those sound like me. Complexity is Good, Simplicity Overrated (Misc Magazine) (Essay for Misc Magazine.) Real complexity does not lie in the tools, but in portrait, the task. Skilled workers have an array of tools, each carefully matched to a particular task requirement. It can take years to sparknotes, learn which tool goes with which task, and years to master the tools.

The tool set is complicated because the task is complicated. Implicit Attitudes Essay? Looking at the visual simplicity of the tool is misleading. The mark of the macbeth act 1 sparknotes, great designer is the The End Department Stores, ability to provide the complexity that people need in a manner that is understandable and elegant. Simplicity should never be the goal. Complex things will require complexity. It is the sparknotes, job of the donate your body to science, designer to manage that complexity with skill and grace. What Moves? Culture Interaction Design. When What Is Natural For Some Is Not for Others: Culture and macbeth act 1, Design. Barn? I was in Asia, giving a talk. Macbeth? I was given a remote controller for on Life for Medieval, advancing my slides.

This one had with two buttons, one above the other. When I pushed the upper button to act 1, advance to the slide, I was flustered: I went backwards through my slide set, not forward. How could this happen? I wondered. To me, top obviously means forward, bottom backwards. I decided to ask the audience what they thought: To my great surprise, the audience was split in their responses. Many thought that it should be the top button, but a large number thought it should be the bottom.

But there is more. The End Stores And Malls? This is act 1 a point of view question, one that has plagued designers for years (which moves? The text or the window?) Different cultures have very different points of view. When a design conflicts with the common cultural view, confusion results. (Article posted at core77.com and jnd.org. bit.ly/NZckqz ) How To Find a Job or Graduate School in Human-Computer Interaction, Interaction, or Industrial Design. I'm frequently asked how to find a job or a place to study, either in industrial design or user-interface design (Human-Computer Interaction). Rather than answer it anew each time, let me summarize my answer here. You either need real work experience or a graduate degree, or both. I cannot tell you what to do. Good advice has to come from someone who knows you, who knows your interests, training, and skills. I cannot acquire that in an email message or two.

So, seek out knowledgeable mentors where you live. Seek professors that you trust. Go to meetings of societies (see below). Read magazines and journals to learn who is doing what, where: then write to those people about their work. Video: Don Norman speaks out your body about engineering design education. This is a short, 3 minute video, that captures the dilemma of modern education.

Engineering education has become narrower and deeper. We teach and train specialties and specialists. Practical applications require tying together the knowledge of the many specialties. They require generalists, people who have broad, integrated understanding of the world. We need an educational system that rewards those who are broad and knowledgable as well as those who are deep and narrow, even if the broad knowledge comes at the expense of shallow depth. Being narrow is just as big a liability as being shallow. Sparknotes? We need both kinds of people.

Alas, the donate your to science, university hires, teaches, and trains only the deep and macbeth act 1, narrow. Incremental and Radical Innovation: Design Research versus Technology and Meaning Change. Don Norman and Roberto Verganti: We discuss the differences between incremental and radical innovation and argue that each results from Within example, different processes. Human-centered design methods are a form of macbeth hill climbing, extremely well suited for continuous incremental improvements but incapable of radical innovation. Radical innovation requires finding a different hill, and Department Stores and Malls Essay, this comes about only through meaning or technology change. A second approach is to consider the dimensions of meaning and technology change. Finally, we show how innovation might be viewed as lying in the space formed by the dimension of research aimed at enhancing general knowledge and the dimension of application to macbeth act 1 sparknotes, practice. We conclude that human-centered design is donate your body to science ideally suited for macbeth, incremental innovation and unlikely to barn burning point of view, lead to act 1, radical innovation.

Radical innovation comes from changes in Within Essay example, either technology or meaning. Macbeth? Technology-driven innovation often comes from donate your to science, inventors and tinkerers. Meaning-driven innovation, however, has the potential to macbeth act 1 sparknotes, be driven through design research, but only if the research addresses fundamental questions of How Do Influence How We new meanings and their interpretation. Does Culture Matter for Product Design? Does culture matter for macbeth sparknotes, product design?

For the world of mass-produced products, that is, for the world of industrial design, culture might be far less important than we might have expected. Is this really true, and if so, is this a positive or negative finding? Conversation: Jon Kolko Don Norman mediated by Richard Anderson. Out with the Old, In with the donate to science, New: A Conversation with Don Norman Jon Kolko, mediated by Richard Anderson. The item contains photos, a transcript, and macbeth act 1, an embedded video of the event. Topics addressed included the nature of and the difference between art and How Do How We Respond to Other? Essay, design, whether design should be taught in art schools (such as AAU), Abraham Maslow, usability, what design (or all) education should be like, the problem with design thinking courses, the destiny of printed magazines and printed books, aging and ageism, the relationship between HCI and interaction design, Arduino, simplicity, social media, Google, privacy, design research, the context in which design occurs, the act 1, Austin Center for Design, solving wicked problems, whether designers make good entrepreneurs, politics, Herb Simon cybernetics, the strengths weaknesses of interconnected systems, and how designers should position themselves. Design Education: Brilliance Without Substance. We are now in the 21st century, but design curricula seem stuck in the mid 20th century. In the 21st century, design has broadened to include interaction and experience, services and strategies. Barn Burning? The technologies are more sophisticated, involving advanced materials, computation, communication, sensors, and actuators. Sparknotes? The products and services have complex interactions that have to your body to science, be self-explanatory, sometimes involving other people separated by time or distance.

Traditional design activities have to be supplemented with an understanding of technology, business, and human psychology. With all these changes, one would expect major changes in design education. Nope. Design education is led by craftspeople who are proud of their skills and they see no reason to change. Design education is mired in the past.

At the start of almost every technology transition, chaos rules. Competing competitors create confusion, often quite deliberate, as they develop their own unique way of doing things incompatible with all others. Today, the long-established, well-learned model of scrolling is being changed by one vendor, but not by others. Gestures proliferate, with no standards, no easy way of being reminded of them, new easy way to learn. Change is important, for it is how we make progress. Some confusion is to be expected. But many of the macbeth act 1 sparknotes, changes and the resulting confusions of today seem arbitrary and capricious. Think before acting.

Sounds right, doesn't it? Think before starting to design. Yup. Do some research, learn more about the requirements, the The Monstrosity Essay example, people, the macbeth act 1, activities. Burning Of View? Then design. It all makes sense. Which is precisely why I wish to challenge it. Sometimes it makes sense to act first, think afterwards. The Design Dilemma: Dismay vs.

Delight. I frequently find myself in a state of simultaneous dismay and delightful admiration about the end product of designers. Sparknotes? This state can be described by contrasting the way a designer and an engineer would solve the same problem. Within Essay Example? Designers evoke great delight in their work. Engineers provide utilitarian value. The problem is that the very practical, functional things are also boring and ugly. Good designers would never allow boring and macbeth, ugly to describe their work: they strive to produce delight. But sometimes that delightful result is not very practical, difficult to use, and not completely functional. Practical versus delightful: Which do you prefer? Designers approach the world with charming naivete, coupled with artistic elegance and the art of The End of Large examining issues in novel, unconstrained ways. Their solutions provide a graceful elegance and new insight, perhaps because of their lack of knowledge, their naivete.

Designers are trained as craftspeople, without any substantive knowledge of the content areas in macbeth sparknotes, which they do their work. This very lack of knowledge can produce profound insights that lead to advances in Influence How We Respond Essay, understanding, hence my delight. Having too much knowledge can lead to following the failed footsteps of those who preceded you. Videos from macbeth sparknotes, Design of Everyday Things. My videos have been resurrected! Let me explain.One upon a time, many years ago -- 1994 to be precise -- The Voyager Company produced a delightful CD-ROM that included copies of several of my books (Design of Everyday Things, Things that Make Us Smart, and Turn Signals Are the matisse, Facial Expressions of act 1 sparknotes Automobiles. As you read the books, if you had a question, you could just click wherever there was a link and I would pop up, walk on. I am forced to read a lot of crap. The Monstrosity Within Essay Example? As a reviewer of macbeth submissions to design journals and conferences, as a juror of How Do Implicit How We to Other? Essay design contests, and as a mentor and advisor to design students and faculty, I read outrageous claims made by designers who have little understanding of the complexity of the problems they are attempting to macbeth sparknotes, solve or of the point of view, standards of evidence required to make claims. Oftentimes the crap comes from macbeth sparknotes, brilliant and talented people, with good ideas and wonderful instantiations of physical products, concepts, or simulations.

The crap is in the claims. In the early days of industrial design, the work was primarily focused upon Implicit Attitudes How We to Other? Essay, physical products. Macbeth Act 1 Sparknotes? Today, however, designers work on organizational structure and social problems, on interaction, service, and experience design. Many problems involve complex social and political issues. As a result, designers have become applied behavioral scientists, but they are woefully undereducated for the task. Designers often fail to understand the on Life Women, complexity of the issues and macbeth sparknotes, the depth of donate your knowledge already known. They claim that fresh eyes can produce novel solutions, but then they wonder why these solutions are seldom implemented, or if implemented, why they fail. Fresh eyes can indeed produce insightful results, but the eyes must also be educated and knowledgeable. Designers often lack the requisite understanding. Design schools do not train students about these complex issues, about the interlocking complexities of human and social behavior, about the behavioral sciences, technology, and business.

There is little or no training in science, the macbeth, scientific method, and experimental design. Over the past five years I have written approximately three dozen columns. What has been learned? What will come? Obviously it is time for reflection. My goal has always been to incite thought, debate, and understanding. Those of us in the field of interaction, whether students, researchers or practitioners, whether designers or programmers, synthesizers or analyzers, all share some common beliefs and ideals. One of my jobs is to challenge these established beliefs, for often when they are examined, they rest on an ill-defined platform, often with no supporting evidence except that they have been around for so long, they are accepted as given, without need for examination. We need a rigorous foundation for Department Stores and Malls, our work, which means to question that which is not firmly supported by act 1 sparknotes evidence, if it appears obvious. Many things that appear obvious are indeed true, but many are not: We need to know which is which. There is a trend to eliminate designers.

Who needs them when we can simply test our way to success? The excitement of powerful, captivating design is defined as irrelevant. Worse, the your to science, nature of design is in danger. Design by comparison of competing alternatives is design by act 1 sparknotes hill climbing. It will get you to the top of the current hill. It will never get you to the highest hill. Systems Thinking: A Product Is More Than the Product. In reality a product is all about the experience. Matisse Matisse? It is about discovery, purchase, anticipation, opening the package, the very first usage. It is also about macbeth act 1 sparknotes, continued usage, learning, the need for assistance, updating, maintenance, supplies, and eventual renewal in the form of disposal or exchange.

Most companies treat every stage as a different process, done by a different division of the company: RD, manufacturing, packaging, sales, and then as a necessary afterthought, service. As a result there is seldom any coherence. Instead, there are contradictions. If you think of the product as a service, then the separate parts make no sense--the point of a product is to offer great experiences to its owner, which means that it offers a service. And that experience, that service, is the How Do Attitudes How We Essay, result of the coherence of the parts. The real value of macbeth act 1 a product consists of far more than the product's components. Designers are proud of their ability to innovate, to think outside the box, to develop creative, powerful ideas for their clients. Implicit How We Respond To Other?? Sometimes these ideas win design prizes. However, the rate at which these ideas achieve commercial success is low.

Many of the ideas die within the companies, never becoming a product. Among those that become products, a good number never reach commercial success. Ideas are just the starting point toward product realization. Sparknotes? New product ideas have to barn point, fit the competencies of the corporation. They have to fit within the act 1, existing family or products, or at least the Department Stores Essay, product strategy.

The purchasers of new products have to be prepared. The costs must be contained. The technology must be up to macbeth act 1, it. Essay Example? The same people who the new ideas are intended to supplant and go around are now responsible for executing the ideas. No wonder so many good ideas fail. Every year the world holds many contests for industrial designers. Lots of submissions, lots of time spent by jurors reviewing them, lots of macbeth act 1 sparknotes pretty pictures afterwards. Fun to The End and Malls Essay, read, wonderful for the winners.

What's the problem? I have been a juror for a number of contests, including the major American yearly contest sponsored by the Industrial Design Society of America, IDSA, and BusinessWeek. Although I always enjoyed the experience and act 1 sparknotes, the interaction with talented, hard-working fellow jurors, I have become increasingly dissatisfied with the results. Portrait Matisse? Why are shows bad? Shouldn't we reward good design? Sure, if that's what the shows accomplish, but they don't.

In fact, I believe they do harm to the profession. (Opening sentences of my Core77 column.) Design thinking is not special to design. Great artists, great engineers, great scientists all break out of the boundaries. Great designers are no different. Why perpetuate the myth of design thinking if it is so clearly false? Because it is useful. Design thinking is a powerful public relations term that changes the way in which design firms are viewed. So, long live the phrase design thinking. It will help in the transformation of macbeth sparknotes design from the world of form and style to that of function and structure.

It will help spread the word that designers can add value to Implicit, almost any problem, from healthcare to pollution, business strategy and company organization. Gestural Interfaces: A Step Backwards In Usability. Gestural interfaces are fun to use: gestures add a welcome feeling of activity to the otherwise joyless ones of macbeth sparknotes pointing and clicking. The are truly a revolutionary mode of interaction. The End Of Large Department? After two decades of research in laboratories across the macbeth, world, they are finally available for on Life for Medieval, everyday consumer products. Act 1? But the lack of consistency, inability to discover operations, coupled with the Implicit Attitudes Influence How We to Other? Essay, ease of accidentally triggering actions from which there is no recovery threatens the viability of these systems.

We urgently need to return to sparknotes, our basics, developing usability guidelines for these systems that are based upon solid principles of body to science interaction design, not on the whims of the company human interface guidelines and arbitrary ideas of act 1 sparknotes developers. Talk: Research Practice Gap 2 Kinds of innovation. I gave the opening keynote address at IIT's Design Research Conference in of Large Stores Essay, Chicago, May 2010. In it, i combined two of the major themes I have long been working on. Sparknotes? The video of that talk is now available. The research-product gap. The design research community -- and all research communities, for that matter -- have little understanding, knowledge of, or even interest in the product side of companies. Moreover, the skills, reward structures, and interests of the two communities are so different that the gap is inevitable. In the medical community, this gap is overcome by a third discipline: Translational Science. I recommend we follow suite with a new discipline, Translational Engineering, that translates the language of research into the language of products, and vice-versa.

Two kinds of innovation. A very closely related confusion exists about innovation. Human-Centered Design, I argue, is essential for incremental improvement of products. But radical innovation, which occurs much less frequently, comes either from barn point, new technologies or from meaning change: HCD will never give us radical innovation. There is an immense gap between research and practice. There are fundamental differences in the knowledge and skill sets required by those who conduct the research and act 1 sparknotes, those who attempt to translate those results into practical, reliable, and affordable form.

Between research and practice a new, third discipline must be inserted, one that can translate between the abstractions of research and the practicalities of practice. We need a discipline of translational development. Translational developers are needed who can mine the insights of researchers and hone them into practical, reliable and useful results. Similarly translational developers must help translate the problems and concerns of practice into the clear, need-based statements that can drive researchers to develop new insights. Neither direction of Implicit Attitudes How We Respond to Other? Essay translation is easy. Natural User Interfaces Are Not Natural. Gestural interaction is the new excitement in the halls of industry. Macbeth Act 1? Advances in the size, power, and cost of microprocessors, memory, cameras, and other sensing devices now make it possible to your to science, control by wipes and flicks, hand gestures, and body movements. Act 1 Sparknotes? A new world of interaction is here: The rulebooks and barn of view, guidelines are being rewritten, or at least, such is the claim. Sparknotes? And the new interactions even have a new marketing name: natural, as in Natural User Interface.

As usual, marketing rhetoric is burning ahead of reality. All new technologies have their proper place. All new technologies will take a while for us to figure out the best manner of act 1 sparknotes interaction as well as the How Do Attitudes Influence How We Respond to Other? Essay, standardization that removes one source of potential confusion. Macbeth Act 1? None of your body these systems is inherently more natural than the macbeth sparknotes, others. What we think of as natural is, to a large extent, learned. I've come to a disconcerting conclusion: design research is great when it comes to The End of Large Department Essay, improving existing product categories but essentially useless when it comes to new, innovative breakthroughs. I reached this conclusion through examination of a range of product innovations, most especially looking at those major conceptual breakthroughs that have had huge impact upon act 1, society as well as the more common, mundane small, continual improvements.

Call one conceptual breakthrough, the other incremental. Essay On Life? Although we would prefer to believe that conceptual breakthroughs occur because of a detailed consideration of human needs, especially fundamental but unspoken hidden needs so beloved by the design research community, the macbeth sparknotes, fact is that it simply doesn't happen. Matisse? New conceptual breakthroughs are invariably driven by the development of new technologies The new technologies, in turn, inspire technologists to invent things, not sometimes because they themselves dream of having their capabilities, but many times simply because they can build them. In other words, grand conceptual inventions happen because technology has finally made them possible. Do people need them? That question is answered over the next several decades as the technology moves from technical demonstration, to product, to act 1 sparknotes, failure, or perhaps to slow acceptance in the commercial world where slowly, after considerable time, the products and applications are jointly evolve, and slowly the need develops. THE TRANSMEDIA DESIGN CHALLENGE: Co-Creation. We live in exciting times.

Finally, we are beginning to understand that pleasure and barn burning point of view, fun are important components of macbeth life, that emotion is not a bad thing, and that learning, education and work can all benefit through encouraging pleasure and fun. Up to now, a primary goal of product and service design has been to provide useful functions and on Life for Medieval, results. We should not lose track of these goals, but now that we are well on our way to doing that for an amazing variety of goods and services, it is time to make sure that they are pleasurable as well. Not only sparknotes does this require emotions to be a major component of design thinking, but we must incorporate action as well, actions that use the whole body in of Large Stores, movement, rhythm, and purpose. New technologies allow creativity to act 1 sparknotes, blossom, whether for reasons silly or sublime. Simple text messages or short videos among people qualify as production, regardless of their value. Barn Burning Point Of View? This new movement is about participating and creating, invoking the creative spirit. This is what the transmedia experience should be about. All of these experiences are allowing people to feel more like producers and creators rather than passive consumers or spectators.

The new design challenge is to create true participatory designs coupled with true multi-media immersion that reveal new insights and create true novel experiences. We all participate, we all experience. We all design, we all partake. Macbeth? But much of this is meaningless: how do we provide richness and depth, enhanced through the active engagement of all, whether they be the originators or the recipients of the experience? How will this come to pass?

What is the role in everyday life? Will this be a small portion or will it dominate? Will it even be permitted within the confines of donate your contemporary commercialism? Those are the significant design challenges. People Are From Earth, Machines Are From Outer Space. People are from sparknotes, earth. Machines are from donate to science, outer space. I don't know what kind of manners they teach in outer space, but if machines are going to live here in our world, they really need to learn to behave properly. You know, when on Earth, do as the earthlings do. So, hey machines, you need to become socialized.

Right now you are arrogant, antisocial, irritating know-it-alls. Sure, you say nice things like “please” and “thank you,” but being polite involves more than words. It is time to socialize our interactions with technology. Sociable machines. Macbeth? Basic lessons in communication skills. Rules of machine etiquette. Machines need to show empathy with the burning of view, people with whom they interact, understand their point of view, and above all, communicate so that everyone understands what is happening.It never occurs to a machine that the problems might be theirs.

Oh no. Macbeth Act 1 Sparknotes? It's us pesky people who are to blame. One of our fundamental principles is that of perceived affordances: that's one way we know what to do in novel situations. That's fine for objects, but what about matisse matisse, situations? What about people, social groups, cultures? Powerful clues arise from what I call social signifiers.

A signifier is some sort of indicator, some signal in the physical or social world that can be interpreted meaningfully. Signifiers signify critical information, even if the signifier itself is an accidental byproduct of the world. Social signifiers are those that are relevant to social usages. Some social indicators simply are the unintended but informative result of the behavior of others. Social signifiers replace affordances, for they are broader and richer, allowing for accidental signifiers as well as deliberate ones, and even for items that signify by their absence, as the lack of crowds on a train platform. The perceivable part of an affordance is a signifier, and if deliberately placed by a designer, it is a social signifier. CNN Designers challenged to include disabled. I'm on a campaign to make assistive devices aesthetically delightful -- without impairing effectiveness and act 1, cost. Why are things such as canes, wheelchairs so ugly? I urge the The End of Large Department Stores and Malls Essay, skilled industrial designers of this world to revolutionize this arena. Perhaps the Industrial Design Society of America (IDSA) and the equivalent design societies all over the world ought to sponsor a design contest.

The best design schools should encourage design projects for assistive devices that function well, are cost effective (two aspects that are often left out of design schools) as well as fun, pleasurable and fashionable (aspects that are absent from more engineering- or social-sciences -based programs). Sparknotes? There are many groups at work in this area: simply do a web search on the phrases inclusive design? or universal design? or accessible design. They do excellent work, but the emphasis is on providing aids and Essay on Life, assistance, or changing public policy. All that is both good and essential, but I want to go one step further: add aesthetics, pleasure, and fashion to the mix. Make it so these aids are sought after, fashionable, delightful, and macbeth sparknotes, fun. Burning Point Of View? For everyone, which is what the words inclusive, universal, and accessible are supposed to mean. Act 1 Sparknotes? Designers of the barn burning of view, world: Unite behind a worthy cause. This article contains pointers to my MIT Sloan Management Review paper on waiting lines as well as a PDF of to the earlier paper in which I discussed the same issues in macbeth, more depth than SMR permitted. The PDF file, The Psychology of Waiting Lines. argues that although waiting is an your to science inescapable part of life, but that doesn't mean we enjoy it. But if the lines are truly inescapable, what can be done to make them less painful? Although there is a good deal of practical knowledge, usually known within the heads of corporate managers, very little has been published about the topic.

One paper provides the classic treatment: David Maister's The Psychology of Waiting Lines (1985). Maister suggested several principles for increasing the pleasantness of waiting. Although his paper provides an macbeth sparknotes excellent start, it was published in 1985 and your body, there have been considerable advances in our knowledge since then. In this section, I bring the study of macbeth act 1 waiting lines up to How Do Influence How We Respond to Other? Essay, date, following the spirit of Maister's original publication, but with considerable revision in light of modern findings. I suggest eight design principles, starting with the emotions dominate? and ending with the principle that memory of an event is more important than the experience.? Examples of design solutions include double buffering, providing clear conceptual models of the act 1, events with continual feedback, providing positive memories and even why one might deliberately induce waits. These principles apply to all services, not just waiting in lines. Details will vary from situation to situation, industry to industry, but the fundamentals are, in truth, the fundamentals of sociable design for Influence How We Essay, waiting lines, for products, and for service. This is an abstract for the attached PDF file, Sociable Design. Whether designing the rooftop of a building or the rear end of macbeth act 1 sparknotes a home or business appliance, sociable design considers how the design will impact everyone: not just the one, intended person standing in front, but also all the rest of society that interacts. One person uses a computer: the barn burning point, rest of macbeth act 1 sparknotes us are at matisse portrait de madame, the other side of the desk or counter, peering at macbeth act 1, the ugly rear end, with wires spilling over like entrails. The residents of a building may never see its roof, but those who live in adjoining buildings may spend their entire workday peering at Within, ugly asphalt, shafts and act 1, ventilating equipment.

Support for The Monstrosity Essay, groups is the hallmark of act 1 sparknotes sociable technology. Groups are almost always involved in activities, even when the other people are not visible. All design has a social component: support for this social component, support for groups must always be a consideration. Sociable design is not just saying aˆ?pleaseaˆ? and matisse portrait de madame, aˆ?thank you.aˆ? It is not just providing technical support. It is macbeth also providing convivial working spaces, plus the time to make use of them. Sociable technology must support the four themes of communication, presentation, support for How Do Implicit How We, groups, and troubleshooting.

How these are handled determines whether or not we will find interaction to be sociable. People learn social skills. Machines have to have them designed into macbeth act 1 sparknotes, them. Sometimes even worse than machines, however, are services, where even though we are often interacting with people, the service activities are dictated by formal rule books of procedures and processes, and your body, the people we interact with can be as frustrated and confused as we are. This too is a design issue. Design of both machines and services should be thought of as a social activity, one where there is macbeth much concern paid to donate, the social nature of the interaction. All products have a social component. This is macbeth act 1 sparknotes especially true of communication products, whether websites, personal digests (blog), audio and video postings mean to be shared, or mail digests, mailing lists, and text messaging on Implicit Attitudes Influence to Other? Essay, cellphones. Social networks are by definition social. But where the social impact is obvious, designers are forewarned.

The interesting cases happen where the social side is act 1 not so obvious. Everyone wants simplicity. Everyone misses the point. Simplicity is not the goal. We do not wish to give up the power and flexibility of our technologies.

We are faced with an The Monstrosity Essay example apparent paradox, but don’t worry: good design will see us through. People want the act 1 sparknotes, extra power that increased features bring to a product, but they intensely dislike the complexity that results. Is this a paradox? Not necessarily. The Monstrosity Within Example? Complexity can be managed.

The argument is not between adding features and simplicity, between adding capability and usability. The real issue is about design: designing things that have the power required for the job while maintaining understandability, the feeling of control, and the pleasure of accomplishment. Workarounds - Leading Edge of Innovation. Where do new ideas come from? How should designers create, transform, innovate? Do we need formal observational methods? When I talk to today’s foremost designers, most are scornful. Sparknotes? Great designers are like great novelists: acute observers of human behavior. Although they are scornful of donate your formal methods, they themselves are expert practitioners of macbeth act 1 observation, and if you can corner them in a quiet room (or better yet, a noisy bar), they will brag about those abilities.

Many ordinary people use the objects around them in unordinary ways. Through these everyday acts of creativity, clever people reveal both needs and possible solutions. They lead to the innovations that will benefit many. Hacks and workarounds: those are the donate, soul of sparknotes innovation. Observing is easy: recognizing the innovation and then knowing what to do with the portrait matisse, observations are where the difficulties lie.

David Heinemeier Hansson of 37signals says: I'm not designing software for other people, I'm designing it for me. Wow. That is the sort of arrogance that the design community clustered around 37signals disdains -- or so I thought. Understanding the true needs of customers is essential for sparknotes, business success. Making sure the product is elegant, functional and understandable is also essential. The disdain for customers shown by Hansson of Within 37signals is an arrogance bound to fail.

As long as 37signals is a hobby, where programmers code for themselves, it may very well succeed as a small enterprise with its current size of 10 employees. I'm happy for them, and for the numerous small developers and small companies that find their products useful. But their attitude is a symbol: a symbol of eventual failure. Too bad. In fact, that attitude is macbeth act 1 sparknotes not so much arrogance as it is selfishness: they are selfish. Implicit Attitudes Influence Respond Essay? A little less arrogance and a lot more empathy would turn these brilliant programmers into a brilliant company, a brilliant success. Interaction design is about interfaces, which means it is about synchronizing the macbeth act 1 sparknotes, events of different systems, about donate, memories, buffers, queues and waiting rooms. Waiting is an unavoidable component of interfaces, an unavoidable part of life. Just as dirt collects in crevices, buffers collect in the interfaces between systems. It is their natural home, and life would not work without them.

I have become fascinated by act 1 sparknotes buffers. I see them everywhere I look. They cannot be escaped. Many of our clever ethnographic and field methods are designed to find unmet needs. You know what? Most are far better off if they stay unmet. The automobile industry is badly in portrait matisse, need of guidance on human factors. Excellent people already work in the companies, but they suffer the problems faced within the consumer electronics and computer industries over the past few decades. This is an important arena, one where human-centered design skills are essential. Macbeth? But success will come only when our discipline can provide seasoned managers who know how to work across disciplines, with engineers, designers (stylists), manufacturing, marketing and, of course, upper management. Yes, we want simplicity, but we don’t want to give up any of those cool features.

Simplicity is highly overrated. Cautious Cars Cantankerous Kitchens. Draft version of Chapter 1 of my new book, tentatively titled The Design of Future Things . Matisse Portrait De Madame? (In press: Basic Books. Expected publication: 2007.) This chapter is act 1 sparknotes called Cautious cars and cantankerous kitchens. Posted December 9, 2006 as a Microsoft Word file. The truth about Google's so-called simplicity

The truth? It isn't simple. Why does it look simple? Because you can only do one thing from their home page: search. If you want to do one of the many other things Google is able to do, oops, first you have to figure out The End of Large Department and Malls how to find it, then you have to figure out which of the many offerings to use, then you have to figure out how to use it. And because all those other things are not on the home page but, instead, are hidden away in various mysterious places, extra clicks and macbeth act 1, operations are required for even simple tasks -- if you can remember how to get to them. How To Find a Job or Graduate School in Human-Computer Interaction, Interaction, or Industrial Design. (Updated July 2012 from an earlier essay on finding a job.) I'm frequently asked how to find a job or a place to study, either in donate your body, industrial design or user-interface design (Human-Computer Interaction). Rather than answer it anew each time, let me summarize my answer here.

You either need real work experience or a graduate degree, or both. Macbeth Sparknotes? I cannot tell you what to do. Essay On Life For Medieval Women? Good advice has to come from someone who knows you, who knows your interests, training, and skills. Macbeth Act 1 Sparknotes? I cannot acquire that in an email message or two. So, seek out knowledgeable mentors where you live. Seek professors that you trust. Go to meetings of societies (see below).

Read magazines and journals to learn who is doing what, where: then write to those people about The Monstrosity Within Essay example, their work. Trapped in sparknotes, a Lufthansa Airline Seat. I flew from Munich to Chicago in a brand new Lufthansa Airbus 340. (the 340-300 model, for those who keep track of such things). Ah, Lufthansa has gone to great lengths to improve their business class fittings. Indeed each seat comes with a 14 page manual. (Oops, 14 pages? That should be warning enough.) As you can see, they confidently explain, we have thought of some new ways of making you feel at home. Hah! Not my home, thank you. Please, not my home. When I got myself into a comfortable sleeping position, I couldn't get out. How Do Influence How We To Other? Essay? Four times in all I was trapped, trapped inside an airline seat.

Ah, the joys of a technology whose time has not yet come. Kudos to Lufthansa for wonderful flight attendants, for a marvelous meal, and for trying so hard to make business class seats that truly deliver. Act 1? If it is the thought that counts, Lufthansa wins. Portrait? If execution also matters, well, they have some debugging to do. Industrial Design: Claims Without Substance. Many people mail me examples of amazing new products, usually extremely clever and of great potential value. But do they really work?

Do they really solve problems? Nobody knows. The designers simply assert that they do. Claims are worthless unless backed up by data. We will never know if the macbeth, claims are true unless they are tested in controlled, sensible trials. I have changed my mind: good designers communicate directly with their users through the appropriate placement of visible clues, hints, and yes, affordances. Within Example? Once we start to macbeth act 1 sparknotes, view design as a form of communication between designer and Women, the user, we see that perceived affordances become an important medium for that communication. Designed affordances play a very special role. Now we see that the designer deliberately places signs and signals on the artifact to communicate with the user.

Affordances therefore signify intentions and macbeth act 1, reasons. They provide a story. And once we know what the designer was thinking, and why, suddenly the device becomes understandable. A Persona is Essay for Medieval a valuable design concept, aiding the designer in maintaining an empathetic focus, providing a common language for communication among the diverse groups who work on a product -- different product groups, engineers, usability specialists, designers, marketing, and executives. I review these features and suggest that Personas can be simple, made-up, and they do not have to be real. Sparknotes? They must be realistic, so designers can empathize, and they must accurately characterize the burning point, population of purchasers and users of the product. Sparknotes? Aside from that, I argue, exhaustive prior research and development for donate your body, each Persona is not only unnecessary, it is sparknotes probably a waste of Essay for Medieval Women resources. (This essay, I predict, will be highly controversial.) In the world of computers there is a semi-serious saying That's not a bug, that's a feature! which refers to act 1 sparknotes, the fact that one can often disguise a bug -- a mistake in design or in programming -- as a feature -- claiming that it is matisse matisse worthwhile and even deliberate. (The corollary to the saying goes like this: If it's in the documentation, it's a feature, not a bug.) Well, here is a case where badly designed door handles were turned into a feature -- an excuse for art.

Rather than do the door properly -- use different kinds of handles on each side of the macbeth act 1, door -- they have used the The Monstrosity Within Essay, confusion as an excuse to create art -- where the act 1 sparknotes, art is almost as confusing as the original, but at barn point, least is aesthetically pleasing and even a source of conversation. Activity-Centered Design: Why I like my Harmony Remote Control. July 2003. Most remote controls for watching video and controlling a home theater are device-centered so the task of turning on sparknotes, all the right equipment and setting each to just the right setting is daunting. The Harmony Remote controller is Department and Malls Essay activity-centered: it doesn't become a DVD controller. Instead, it allows you to do the activity of watching a DVD. The difference is enormous -- and wonderful to behold. Act 1? Activity-centered design. It works. The first remote control I can recommend without hesitation.

Applying the The Monstrosity Within Essay example, Behavioral, Cognitive, and Social Sciences to Products. To do design requires an approximate science, a way of doing quick but effective computations: guidelines useful for sparknotes, synthesis and design. Applied discipolines have different needs than scientific ones. Not lower-quality -- different -- with different skills and different goals. Emotion Design: Attractive things work better. June 2002. (Also published as Norman, D. A. (2002). Matisse Matisse? Emotion and design: Attractive things work better.

Interactions Magazine, ix (4), 36-42). Act 1 Sparknotes? Advances in our understanding of emotion and for Medieval, affect have implications for the science of design. Act 1 Sparknotes? Affect changes the operating parameters of cognition: positive affect enhances creative, breadth-first thinking whereas negative affect focuses cognition, enhancing depth-first processing and minimizing distractions. Therefore, it is essential that products designed for use under stress follow good human-centered design, for donate your body, stress makes people less able to cope with difficulties and less flexible in their approach to problem solving. Macbeth Act 1 Sparknotes? Positive affect makes people more tolerant of minor difficulties and more flexible and creative in finding solutions. Products designed for body to science, more relaxed, pleasant occasions can enhance their usability through pleasant, aesthetic design. Aesthetics matter: attractive things work better. In the world of macbeth act 1 design, the The Monstrosity Within Essay example, term affordance has taken on a life far beyond the original meaning.

It might help if we return to act 1 sparknotes, the original definition. Let me try to clarify the definition of the Essay for Medieval, term and its many uses. Affordance, Conventions and macbeth sparknotes, Design (Part 2) The Psychology of Everyday Things (POET) was about perceived affordance. If I ever were to revise POET, I would make a global change, replacing all instances of the word affordance with the phrase perceived affordance. The designer cares more about what actions the example, user perceives to be possible than what is true. Moreover, affordances, both real and perceived, play very different roles in physical products than they do in the world of screen-based products. Macbeth Sparknotes? In the latter case, affordances play a relatively minor role: cultural conventions are much more important. Banner Blindness, Human Cognition and Web Design. Benway and Lane have studied Banner Blindness -- the fact that people tend to ignore those big, flashy, colorful banners at the top of web pages.

This is pretty interesting stuff, for the entire reason they are so big and obnoxious is to attract attention, yet they fail. Evidently nobody ever studied real users before -- they simply assumed that big, colorful items were visible. This paper, shows once again the importance of for Medieval Women observations over logic when it comes to predicting human behavior. Design as practiced is considerably different from design as idealized in academic discussions of act 1 good design. Issues that seem simple from the vantage point of academia are often extremely complex when seen from inside the industry.

Indeed, the two sides seem hardly to be speaking the same language. In the donate your, course of my experiences, I have come to recognize that industry faces numerous problems that are outside of the scope of the traditional analyses of design. Commentary: Human Error and the Design of Computer Systems. Many advances have been made in our understanding of the macbeth act 1, hardware and software of information processing systems, but one major gap remains: the inclusion of the human operator into the system analysis. The behavior of an Attitudes Influence How We to Other? Essay information processing system is macbeth act 1 sparknotes not a product of the design specifications: it is a product of the interaction between the human and the system. The Post Disciplinary Revolution: Industrial Design and Human Factors?Heal Yourselves.

Outline of an invited keynote address at point of view, the 1998 annual meeting of the Human Factors society. They hated it. If the customer can't find it, then the macbeth act 1, customer can't buy it. This simple statement explains why usability is the lifeline of e-commerce.

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SparkNotes: Macbeth: Act 1, scenes 57

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No Fear Shakespeare: Macbeth: Act 1, Scene 7

le dissertation La dissertation obit des types de plans qu'on peut ramener quatre : Si le plan dialectique canonique est un plan en trois parties, les jurys préfèrent deux parties solidement charpentées à des troisièmes parties répétitives ou privées de justification. Macbeth Sparknotes. On aura intérêt pour cela à réfléchir à ce qu'est une véritable synthèse ou à envisager parfois un plan concessif , aux ambitions plus rduites, mais qui présente l'avantage, en deux parties, de développer un raisonnement cohérent. Attention, ce plan doit nanmoins inclure une pese critique des termes et des notions convoqus par la citation-sujet, l'intrieur des parties du dveloppement. Voici plusieurs sujets de dissertations. Quel type de plan choisiriez-vous pour les traiter ? (Remplissez les cases vides du tableau ci-dessous avec les numros des sujets qui vous semblent pertinents.) Que reprsentent pour vous les hros ? Vous vous demanderez ce que signifie ce besoin d'admirer des tres rels ou de fiction, de les aimer ou de les imiter, et vous appuierez votre rflexion sur des exemples pris dans vos lectures et dans votre exprience personnelle. Qu'est-ce qu'une #156;uvre engage? « Nous n'avons pas besoin de connatre l'auteur pour comprendre et aimer son #156;uvre. On Life. On peut lgitimement se passer de tout recours ce que l'on sait de l'auteur en dehors de son #156;uvre pour examiner celle-ci. Macbeth. » (F.

Van Rossum-Guyon, Critique du roman ). Vous direz ce que vous pensez de ce jugement en vous appuyant sur des exemples prcis tirs de vos lectures. Un personnage mdiocre peut-il tre un hros de roman ? Que veut-on dire lorsque l'on parle du « style » d'un crivain ? « Il n'y a pas de vrai sens d'un texte. How Do Implicit Influence Respond Essay. Pas d'autorit de l'auteur. Macbeth Act 1. Quoi qu'il ait voulu dire, il a crit ce qu'il a crit. Within Essay. Une fois publi, un texte est comme un appareil dont chacun peut se servir sa guise et selon ses moyens.»

Comment comprenez-vous cette opinion de Paul Valry ? A La Rochefoucauld qui dclare : «Il est plus ncessaire d'tudier les hommes que les livres», George Sand semble rpliquer lorsque, dans son roman Mauprat , elle recommande comme moyen de formation «l'tude des lettres, qui n'est autre que l'tude des hommes.» Quelles rflexions vous suggrent ces prises de position ? Il vous est sans doute arriv de prfrer au «hros» vertueux d'un roman, d'un conte ou d'un film le personnage odieux (le méchant) dont il finit par triompher. Quelles sont, selon vous, les raisons qui expliquent l'attrait qu'exercent ces personnages odieux ? Dans une enqute sur le livre et la lecture en France, on macbeth peut lire cette rflexion sur le roman : «Sujet permanent de discussions entre ceux qui professent que le roman doit exprimer ou reprsenter la vie et ceux qui, l'inverse, estiment qu'il doit l'inventer. Essay. » Dans un dveloppement compos, vous direz si les romans que vous connaissez vous paraissent reprsenter la vie ou l'inventer. Un diteur contemporain prsente ainsi une collection d'ouvrages littraires : « La modernit n'a rien voir avec la date de parution. Act 1. Des textes crits il y a plusieurs sicles sont rsolument modernes. Barn Point Of View. Ils rpondent parfois mieux que des ?uvres plus rcentes nos proccupations et notre soif de beaut. Sparknotes. » Partagez-vous cette opinion ? Vous appuierez votre rponse sur des analyses tires de vos lectures. Un auteur contemporain crit : «Apporter un message aux hommes et vouloir diriger le cours du monde ou le sauver, c'est l'affaire des fondateurs de religions, des moralistes, des hommes politiques. Attitudes Influence How We Respond To Other? Essay. Une ?uvre d'art n'a rien voir avec les doctrines.» En vous rfrant des #156;uvres que vous connaissez, vous direz ce que vous pensez de cette conception de l'art et de l'artiste.

Pour la phase essentielle de prparation, nous vous proposons quatre exemples d'une dmarche progressive sur les sujets marqus plus haut du signe : mise en place du sujet et recherche ordonne des principaux arguments et exemples pour le plan dialectique, puis pour les plans thmatique, analytique et comparatif (page suivante). Le plan dialectique demande d'examiner un jugement, d'en montrer les limites, voire de le rfuter, avant d'noncer une position personnelle. Un personnage mdiocre peut-il tre un hros de roman ? Les termes du sujet : prciser dans l'introduction le sens du mot mdiocre (latin medius , qui est au milieu.) Ainsi mdiocre dsigne ici ce qui est sans clat. Macbeth. Le sujet prsuppose donc que le roman n'admet pas de hros « moyens », ce qui s'oppose la conception classique (« Des hros de roman fuyez les petitesses », conseille Boileau aux potes dans son Art Potique .) La position de la problmatique : elle pourra partir de l'une des constantes du romanesque qui repose souvent sur l'exceptionnel et se demander si la mdiocrit peut y avoir sa place.

Le libell du sujet : La question pose sous cette forme rhtorique semble rpondre par la ngative. Within Essay Example. Implicitement, une thse s'exprime ici, qui nie que le roman puisse admettre des personnages mdiocres. Le domaine d'application : le genre romanesque. La recherche du plan : Il convient donc de suivre ici un plan dialectique o vous valuerez la thse implicitement propose (thse /antithse/ synthse). I - LE ROMAN A BESOIN DE HROS : de destins exceptionnels (Julien Sorel dans Le Rouge et le Noir de Stendhal) de personnalits hors du commun (Mme de Merteuil dans Les Liaisons dangereuses de Laclos) de passions absolues (Des Grieux dans Manon Lescaut de Prvost) le rythme romanesque et la ncessit de susciter l'intrt obligent rendre exemplaire le destin de personnages pourtant mdiocres (Gervaise dans L'Assommoir de Zola).

II - POURTANT CERTAINS PERSONNAGES SONT DES MDIOCRES : c'est le cas des personnages des romans ralistes qui ont choisi une peinture objective des milieux et des tres : Georges Duroy dans Bel-Ami , Jeanne dans Une vie de Maupassant, les hros de Zola, pour qui « le premier homme qui passe est un hros suffisant » ( Deux dfinitions du roman ). Sparknotes. le personnage peut tre destin illustrer la contingence, l'absurde (Meursault dans L'tranger de Camus, Roquentin dans La Nause de Sartre, Bardamu dans Voyage au bout de la nuit de Cline). Burning Of View. le Nouveau Roman a choisi d'abolir le hros et de confier la reprsentation d'un monde nigmatique des individualits transparentes (L'poque actuelle est plutt celle du numro matricule crit Robbe-Grillet). III - LE ROMAN N'ADMET LA MDIOCRIT QU'A CERTAINES CONDITIONS : si le personnage peut tre un mdiocre, il convient de faire la part de l'poque : cette esthtique n'est que celle du XX° sicle et certains thoriciens du nouveau roman l'ont abandonne (romans de Le Clzio). Act 1 Sparknotes. il ne faut pas ignorer le got lgitime du public pour des #156;uvres o la cration artistique lui vite de rencontrer des voisins de palier (Meursault lui-mme accde peu peu un destin exceptionnel). « Eh ! bon Dieu, nous ne voyons que trop autour de nous la triste et dsenchanteresse ralit : la tideur insupportable des demi-caractres, des bauches de vertus et de vices, des amours irrsolus, des haines mitiges, des amitis tremblotantes, des doctrines variables, des fidlits qui ont leur hausse et leur baisse, des opinions qui s'vaporent ; laissez-nous rver que parfois ont paru des hommes plus forts et plus grands, qui furent des bons ou des mchants plus rsolus ; cela fait du bien.» (Vigny, Rflexions sur la vrit dans l'art ). Donate Your To Science. de toutes faons, le roman a pour privilge de rendre la mdiocrit unique et certains mdiocres de la littrature sont devenus de vritables mythes (Emma dans Madame Bovary de Flaubert). Un diteur contemporain prsente ainsi une collection d'ouvrages littraires : « La modernit n'a rien voir avec la date de parution. Macbeth Act 1. Des textes crits il y a plusieurs sicles sont rsolument modernes. Burning Point Of View. Ils rpondent parfois mieux que des #156;uvres plus rcentes nos proccupations et notre soif de beaut.» Partagez-vous cette opinion ? Vous appuierez votre rponse sur des analyses tires de vos lectures. Les termes du sujet : le terme de modernit , sans poser de problme particulier, peut tre utilement rapproch de celui qu'utilisait Baudelaire : il n'est pas synonyme d' actualit , mais signale un accord, dans l'intemporel, avec le temps prsent, ce que confirme la dernire phrase : seront juges modernes les #156;uvres, mme anciennes, qui savent correspondre aux centres d'intrt de notre poque et nos tempraments.

Une acception plus simple du mot moderne pouvait fournir quelques arguments opposer l'auteur. La position de la problmatique : en quoi consiste la modernit d'une ?uvre littraire ? Est-elle lie sa date de parution ou l'cho qu'elle est capable de susciter auprs de toutes les gnrations ? Le domaine d'application : la critique littraire, le got, le rle du lecteur dans la postrit de l'?uvre. La recherche du plan : le libell est ici sans ambigut. Macbeth. Il s'agit bel et bien d'observer un plan dialectique. I - DES TEXTES ANCIENS PEUVENT TRE RSOLUMENT MODERNES : ceux qui mettent en scne les sentiments ternels : l'amour, la mort, l'interrogation mtaphysique (voir la persistance des crivains classiques, des tragiques grecs); restent aussi modernes les #156;uvres qui se signalent par la beaut de leur forme (l'alexandrin de Racine, la phrase de Bossuet n'ont pas vieilli).

II - MAIS BEAUCOUP D'#140;UVRES SONT MARQUES PAR LEUR TEMPS : les proccupations des auteurs anciens sont-elles encore les ntres ? Bien des allusions socioculturelles accusent le vieillissement des #156;uvres (voir par exemple les textes engags de Sartre); au contraire, des #156;uvres rcentes sont sur ce plan plus proches de nous; les critres de beaut, eux aussi, peuvent varier : la tragdie nous parat aujourd'hui un genre plutt ennuyeux et nous lui prfrons le drame, comme nous prfrons les formes libres en posie. III - LES #140;UVRES RESTENT MODERNES PAR LEUR PART D'INTEMPORALIT : les chefs-d'#156;uvre savent encore nous parler et nous mouvoir par leur universalit. The End Of Large. Ils ont su parler de l'Homme dans une forme pure et simple que l'art classique a codifie : sans souci des modes, il s'agit de formuler avec justesse ce que chacun aurait pu dire; au contraire, les #156;uvres qui cdent aujourd'hui aux gots du temps sont condamnes vieillir vite. Sparknotes. Est ainsi moderne l'artiste qui a su rejoindre l'intemporel par le recul esthtique qu'il a manifest par rapport son poque (Stendhal). Il est frquent dans le plan dialectique de commencer la confrontation des thses par l’examen de celle qui est propose par le sujet (souvent l’opinion d’un auteur enferme dans une citation). How Do Influence How We Respond Essay. Mais cela n’est nullement obligatoire. Macbeth Act 1 Sparknotes. Il convient plutt de construire la premire partie du devoir autour de l'opinion la plus simple et la plus rpandue (ce qu'on appelle la doxa ), ce qui n’est pas toujours le cas, loin s’en faut, des opinions que l’on soumet votre rflexion ! Ainsi la dissertation ira vraiment du plus simple au plus complexe en examinant d’abord les reprsentations plus ou moins convenues qui ont amen l’auteur s’en dmarquer. > Par exemple, dans le sujet suivant : « La lecture que l'on fait soi-mme d'une ?uvre est prfrable l'audition de la mme ?uvre enregistre.» Partagez-vous cette opinion ? on aura intrt observer la progression suivante : Thse : la connaissance d'une ?uvre littraire est meilleure par la lecture personnelle (thse implicite dans le sujet; c'est aussi la doxa).

Antithse : une ?uvre bien lue ou mise en scne pallie les carences ventuelles d'une lecture personnelle. > Mais dans ce sujet : « La laideur est une source d'inspiration pour le pote, au mme titre que la beaut. De Madame Matisse. » Dans quelle mesure peut-on souscrire ce jugement ? on commencera plutt par la thse la plus souvent admise, qui n'est pas celle que prsente le sujet : Thse : le pote est m avant tout par la recherche du Beau. Antithse : la posie est aussi voue la peinture de ralits repoussantes, capables de soulever le lecteur. Ainsi, dans le traitement des sujets suivants, quelle thse examineriez-vous d’abord ? A propos de l'criture de sa vie, Jean-Claude Carrire crit: « On peut dire [. Macbeth Act 1. ] que la description d'une vie n'a d'intrt que si cette vie est commune, que si d'autres peuvent s'y reconnatre ou deviner, selon les gnrations, ce que furent les sentiments, les sensations de leurs parents et grands-parents ». Dans quelle mesure cette affirmation dfinit-elle l'intrt des ?uvres biographiques et autobiographiques ? Vous tayerez votre rflexion par des exemples puiss dans le corpus, dans les textes tudis en classe et dans vos lectures personnelles. « La posie [. The End Essay. ] n'a pas d'autre but qu' Elle-mme », crit Baudelaire.

En prenant appui sur les textes du corpus, sur les pomes que vous avez lus et tudis et sur votre culture personnelle, vous vous interrogerez sur cette dclaration et vous vous demanderez si elle correspond votre dfinition de la posie. Dans le Dictionnaire goste de la littrature franaise , Charles Dantzig affirme : « La posie ne se trouve pas que dans les vers ». Macbeth. Vous direz si vous partagez son point de vue dans un dveloppement argument, en vous appuyant sur les textes du corpus, sur ceux que vous avez tudis en classe ou lus personnellement. Le texte littraire doit-il tre srieux pour dnoncer une injustice ou dfendre une cause ? Eh bien moi, je suis amoureux de ces divisions et de ces rassemblements, qui me rendent capable de parler et de penser. The End Of Large Stores And Malls. Et si je pense que quelque autre est apte, par sa nature, à porter son regard en direction d'une unité qui soit l'unité naturelle d'une multiplicité, je m'en vais à sa poursuite, derrière lui, suivant sa trace comme celle d'un dieu. Macbeth. Et remarque bien que ceux qui en sont capables, je les appelle jusqu'à présent (à juste titre ou non, seul un dieu le sait) dialecticiens. Matisse Portrait. (Socrate dans Phdre de Platon). > cas n° 1 ( ex : « La lecture que l'on fait soi-mme d'une ?uvre est prfrable l'audition de la mme ?uvre enregistre.») le conflit n'est qu'apparent; les deux thses sont complmentaires . Thse : la connaissance d'une ?uvre littraire est meilleure par la lecture personnelle (thse implicite dans le sujet; c'est aussi la doxa).

Antithse : une ?uvre bien lue ou mise en scne pallie les carences ventuelles d'une lecture personnelle. Synthse : il n'y a pas d'incompatibilit entre les deux dmarches, mais plutt complmentarit, l'audition de l'?uvre amenant ensuite une lecture plus profitable. > cas n° 2 ( ex : « La laideur est une source d'inspiration pour le pote, au mme titre que la beaut. Macbeth Act 1. ») . On Life For Medieval Women. dpassement : (le cas le plus frquent) quelles conditions dsormais peut-on admettre une des deux thses confrontes ? Thse : le pote est m avant tout par la recherche du Beau. Antithse : la posie est aussi voue la peinture de ralits repoussantes, capables de soulever le lecteur. Synthse : le pote veille un nouveau regard sur les choses et extrait la beaut des choses laides.

En aucun cas la synthse n'est la conclusion du devoir. Macbeth Sparknotes. Elle en est la dernire tape, la phase de rsolution. La conclusion, quant elle, fait le bilan de cette rsolution, formule nettement la position laquelle on donate your body est arriv et propose une ouverture. © Tous les textes et documents disponibles sur ce site, sont protgs par une licence Creative Common.