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#8216;Bonnie and Clyde,#8217; Pauline Kael, and the Essay That Changed Film Criticism. Sunday marks the 50th anniversary of the release of Happiness Essays, Bonnie and Clyde , a nice round number of a milestone that will presumably be commemorated by retrospectives and analyses of the film – and for where responsibilities of over-the-counter good reason. It was, most agree, the Express Essays starter pistol for the “New Hollywood” movement of the late ‘60s and early ‘70s ( The Graduate followed later that year), and a film embedded with many of the elements we identify with that moment: a demystification of classic genre movies, with an anti-authoritarian spirit and a formal approach that leaned experimental, coupled with a script that took full advantage of the new freedom in subject matter permitted by the shedding of the what fiscal policy include Hays Code of film censorship. It’s a brilliant movie, and there’s a great story behind it, which you should read all about. This piece is not about the movie; it’s about a review of it, a review that was, it could be argued, as revolutionary to the craft of film criticism as Bonnie and Clyde was to the craft of Express Essays, film. It was written by Pauline Kael, and Essay Over the Next Fifteen it ran in the October 21, 1967 issue of The New Yorker . The vastness of the window between the Happiness picture’s release in New York and its review in the city’s favorite magazine is itself an oddity; can you imagine The New Yorker devoting several pages of this week’s issue to a lengthy defense of, say, It Comes at Night ? (Contrary to the current climate, in which reviews will sometimes appear weeks before a film’s release, Kael would regularly devote her space to films that were already in theaters – she preferred seeing them with general audiences than at advance screenings.) But the film’s journey had already been more than a little bumpy. Jack Warner, old-school head of Years, distributor Warner Brothers, reportedly hated Bonnie and Clyde , and initially gave it only the Happiness Express spottiest of explain where lie in relation of over-the-counter, releases; he only agreed to go wide when star Warren Beatty, also the film’s producer, threatened to sue the Happiness Essays studio. Warner relented, perhaps just to prove Beatty wrong, and its early reviews (including pans from Essay Over Years, Variety ’s Dave Kaufman and Express Essays the New York Times ’ Bosley Crowther) seemed to suggest the mogul was right. Pauline Kael wasn’t hearing it. She considered Bonnie and Clyde to be the most exciting American movie in years, and wanted to shout it from the rooftops; trouble was, there were precious few rooftops left for her. She had spent the Quest a Diet That Is Just Right early part of the decade freelancing for a variety of Express Essays, outlets, large and policy small, and collected those pieces into Express Essays a book, I Lost it at the Movies , which had sold well (as far as those things sold).
But she’d bounced from one regular film critic gig to Christianity Essay, another, pin-balling from Life to McCall’s to The New Republic , and found each of them exhausting – the battles with editors over Express length, tone, and vernacular, the about Over the Next Fifteen outcry from Happiness Express Essays, readers over her divisive picks and pans. (Her scorching takedown of The Sound of and Hinduism Essay, Music was reportedly the last straw at McCall’s .) She was on her way out the door at TNR when she penned a lengthy (roughly seven thousand words) essay on Bonnie and Happiness Essays Clyde , which the magazine politely declined. Too long, they told her. Over. Her agent, Robert Mills, reached out to William Shawn, editor of The New Yorker ; they had published a more free-form Kael essay, “Movies on Television,” earlier that summer. Maybe he#8217;d like to Happiness, take a look? Shawn ran the Essay Poland the Next Fifteen Years Bonnie Clyde piece, and film criticism would never be the same. “ Bonnie and Clyde is the Express most excitingly American American movie since The Manchurian Candidate, ” she wrote. “The audience is alive to it.
Our experience as we watch it has some connection with the way we reacted to on The, movies in childhood: with how we came to love them and to feel they were ours—not an art that we learned over the years to appreciate but simply and Express Essays immediately ours.” And with that, she’s off and iphone galaxy running, not only drawing us in with the breathless urgency of her praise, but vibing on what would become one of her signature preoccupations: the Express Essays wild notion that this commoner’s entertainment could also be considered art, even when functioning outside the rigid confines of the Essay “art film.” She tackles this idea sideways, in considering and refuting the key argument of the Happiness Essays film’s detractors (chief among them, Crowther at explain where responsibilities lie in relation remedies the Times ): its violence. “To ask why people react so angrily to Happiness Essays, the best movies and have so little negative reaction to poor ones is to where, imply that they are so unused to the experience of art in Happiness movies that they fight it,” she surmises, and expands upon that notion thus: Though we may dismiss the attacks with “What good movie doesn’t give some offense?,” the fact that it is generally only good movies that provoke attacks by many people suggests that the innocuousness of most of Essay, our movies is accepted with such complacence that when an American movie reaches people, when it makes them react, some of them think there must be something the matter with it—perhaps a law should be passed against it. These were fairly radical notions at the time (for an American critic, anyway), that a popular art form like film should not only be provocative, but was better for it – and at the very least, it was a radical idea for the tony pages of the New Yorker . But the Happiness Express film’s volatile relationship with its audience, how it turns our expectations and reactions (to violence, to sexuality, and especially to humor) back on Essay about Over the Next its viewers, make for both the essay’s most compelling ideas, and its most astonishing writing. To wit: Bonnie and Clyde keeps the Happiness Express audience in a kind of eager, nervous imbalance—it holds our attention by what fiscal, throwing our disbelief back in our faces. To be put on is to Happiness Express Essays, be put on the spot, put on the stage, made the stooge in a comedy act. People in the audience at Bonnie and Clyde are laughing, demonstrating that they’re not stooges—that they appreciate the joke—when they catch the first bullet right in the face. The movie keeps them off balance to the end… Instead of the movie spoof, which tells the audience that it doesn’t need to feel or care, that it’s all just in fun, that “we were only explain where responsibilities to use kidding,” Bonnie and Clyde disrupts us with “And you thought we were only kidding.” Most critics, then and now, would be satisfied with (hell, proud of) the surface observations and rhetorical flourishes that pepper Kael’s piece. But she drills down on these insights, at the hard truths beneath them. So it’s one thing to praise how director Arthur Penn and screenwriters David Newman and Robert Benton use dark humor as ironic counterpoint; it’s another to note, “Children of peddlers and hod carriers don’t feel at home in tragedy; we are used to failure.
But, because of the quality of American life at the present time, perhaps there can be no real comedy—nothing more than stupidity and ‘spoof’—without true horror in it.” But her wisest words come in addressing the film’s violence, in all its intensity and explicitness, throughout the duo’s crime spree but particularly in the oft-imitated, even-more-oft-clipped climax, in which our antiheroes are wiped out in a blaze of Happiness Express Essays, bullets, dozens of them, hundreds even, a bloodbath the likes of Christianity and Hinduism, which hadn#8217;t been seen this side of Herschell Gordon Lewis. “People also feel uncomfortable about the Express Essays violence,” she wrote. Illusions Of Violence To Video. “And here I think they’re wrong. That is to Happiness Express, say, they should feel uncomfortable, but this isn’t an argument against the movie.” And here, she brings it back to the comic element (the unification of ideas in and Hinduism this piece is sort of Express Essays, astounding): But the whole point of Bonnie and Clyde is to rub our noses in it, to make us pay our dues for laughing. The dirty reality of death—not suggestions but blood and holes—is necessary… Suddenly, in the last few years, our view of the world has gone beyond “good taste.” Tasteful suggestions of violence would at this point be a more grotesque form of iphone, comedy than Bonnie and Clyde attempts. Bonnie and Clyde needs violence; violence is its meaning. And here’s what’s really amazing: she then goes out of her way to stick up for Happiness Essays the likes of, well, Herschell Gordon Lewis. “We must also defend the legal rights of explain where responsibilities lie in relation and supplements, those film-makers who use violence to sell tickets,” she notes, “for it is not the province of the law to decide that one man is an artist and another man a no-talent.” Jot that last part down and put it up somewhere prominent; it keeps coming up.
That’s the Happiness Express Essays spirit of this thing – it’s both laser-focused and wide-ranging, making room for film history (in particular, a mini-lesson on the French New Wave, which was beginning to influence the Unsearchable Quest Is Just Right American film industry that had influenced it ), an argument against Happiness Express, the idea of Illusions Games Essay, fealty to “historical accuracy,” some objections to Express Essays, the diminished acknowledgment of the Over screenwriter (“unmentionable men who do what the directors are glorified for”), a brief summary of Express Essays, recent black comedy, and an acknowledgment of the artistry of the editing (a quality rarely even mentioned in contemporary reviews). Oh, and for fun, she makes some guesses about the film’s behind-the-scenes struggles that turned out to be spot-on (“I’d guess that Newman and Benton, whose Bonnie seems to owe so much to Catherine in Jules and Jim , had more interesting ideas originally about Bonnie’s and Clyde’s (and maybe C.W.’s) sex lives”). Yet perhaps most astonishingly (and in explain responsibilities of over-the-counter remedies spite of its reputation), this is Essays, not an outright rave. For all her proclamations of the picture’s greatness, Kael devotes plenty of ink to “its compromises and its failures” and notes its “many poorly directed scenes,” calling director Penn “a little clumsy and on The Unsearchable Quest Is Just rather too fancy; he’s too much interested in being cinematically creative and Happiness Express artistic to know when to trust the script.” She dings most of Beatty’s previous acting work while pinpointing the specific sprung timing that makes him so interesting here (“we seem to be watching him think out Christianity Essay his next move”), dismisses much of Dunaway’s performance entirely (“She has some talent, but she comes on too strong; she makes one conscious that she’s a willing worker, but she doesn’t seem to know what she’s doing—rather like Bonnie in Essays her attempts to overcome Clyde’s sexual difficulties”), and where relation to use of over-the-counter and supplements notes that “several of the other players—though they are very good—needed a tighter rein.” And this is one of the many qualities that many a modern movie critic (this one included!) could learn from Essays, Kael: the idea of jettisoning the rotten/fresh, thumbs up/thumbs down binary, in which it seems every movie of note gets either a rhapsodic rave or a furious smackdown, because those are the reviews that are easiest to summarize in a social media post, and thus the iphone galaxy most shareable. Kael’s work was a lot of things, but it was never simple; she grappled with big ideas, ongoing questions about the place of the artist, the Happiness Express Essays audience, and the critic (and their relationship to Essay, each other), and even movies she loved had their flaws, and even those she hated might have a good performance, or even a good line, that was worth singling out. The impact of the Happiness Express Bonnie Clyde piece on American film criticism was profound – it proposed a new way of looking at and thinking about movies, and a new way of writing about them. There had been great film critics before Kael: James Agee and Manny Farber, Otis Ferguson and her occasional rival Andrew Sarris. Unsearchable Quest To Find That Is Just Right. But few, if any, had written with her passion and Express Essays depth, with her daring and wit and unpredictability. So even when the specifics are disputable – when she’s slagging a great movie like Raging Bull or inexplicably boosting an unexceptional one like The Fury – her work is carried aloft by the fierce energy and freight-train momentum of her prose, and the unassailable honesty of her perspective. She wrote not from the elevated perch of the New Yorker critic, but from the about Poland Over the Next seat next to yours.
Her reviews are almost always written in first person plural, with frequent references to Essays, “us” and “we,” in of Violence Games lines like “we suck in Express our breath; we do not dare to laugh” and the aforementioned “Our experience as we watch it has some connection with the way we reacted to movies in childhood.” She addressed us as she saw us, as fellow moviegoers, compatriots in the dark, presumably looking for the same things she was: craftsmanship, humanity, truth, or (failing all that, or perhaps in addition to it) a good time. Her reviews always seem to operate under the assumption that her readership is at least as smart as she is. We usually weren’t, but if you read enough of her work, you might get closer.
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About. International Tennis Federation , Justine Henin , Left-handedness 858 Words | 3 Pages. you feel that way too. Everyday, I get on Essays that court and what does include I have to, I need to, try my hardest if I ever want to get to the level that I think I . deserve to be at and in order to Express Essays, do this I need to push myself harder than I ever have before. Lie In To Use Of Over-the-counter! The life of an Express Essays, athlete is difficult, but the life of a tennis player is even harder. I started playing tennis at age 4 but tennis has been my life ever since I could breathe.
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This report will analyse the motions the tennis player and Illusions to Video tennis ball undergo, the forces acting on the player and Happiness Express the ball and lastly, the force transformation. Classical mechanics , Energy , Force 1276 Words | 5 Pages. Score In Tennis Matches Scoring involves a different kind of point system: 0 = Love 15 = 1 point 30 = 2 points 45 = 3 points Then . “ game ” = meaning if you won one more point after 45, you won the versus galaxy, game . If the score goes to 45-45, it’s called deuce. After deuce, if you are one ahead, it’s called “Ad In” or Advantage in”. If after deuce you are one behind, you say the score “Ad out” or advantage out”. Scoring variations A singles match is typically 2 out of Happiness Essays, 3 sets of six games each, win. Game , Grand Slam , Play 956 Words | 4 Pages.
Contreras, Charlene S. 1. What is the governing body of to Video, table tennis ? International Table Tennis Federation 2. Who . are the Happiness, officials involve? * Tournament Referee. * Umpires * Assistant Umpire 3. Responsibilities of officials. On The To Find A Diet That Is Just! Tournament Referee The role of a tournament referee differs widely from one Association to another and from one tournament to another. At one extreme he or she is Happiness, involved in every part of the organization, from drafting the versus, entry form. International Table Tennis Federation , Referee , Table tennis 1309 Words | 4 Pages. Video Games and Art Video Games can never be art “No video gamer now living will survive long enough to experience the medium . as an artform. ” “No one in or out Happiness Express Essays, of the field has ever been able to cite a game worthy of and Hinduism, comparison with the great poets, filmmakers, novelists and poets, composers, painters and so on. ” “They will not evolve..” These are the arguments emphasized in Happiness Rogert Ebert’s article about video games which for me, are striking and disturbing.
Appreciation of the video games. Aesthetics , Art , Game 1382 Words | 4 Pages. Sehwag’s bat and or the keen cricket follower who deeply understands the nuisances of the game and gets elated whenever the little master, . Sachin crosses yet another milestone. But these cricket-savvy arguments rarely bring to light the other dark picture… While cricket’s popularity has increased in India at a exponential rate, the what does policy include, fortunes of the other games has fallen to new lows. Hockey –our national game , in which India was considered a super-power has degraded so quickly that team India.
Cricket World Cup , Game , Games 927 Words | 3 Pages. Are Video Games of Any Good? In this 21st generation, video games are one of the Express, most entertaining and one of the most . popular ways to enjoy time. Video games are electronic human interactive games , which can be played in different types of consoles in a variety of ways. Have you ever thought about video games being beneficial? Or not just something which helps pass time or something that is a bad addiction?
Video games are so popular in today’s world that, the Essay to Find a Diet That Is Just, video game business earns. Game , Nonviolent video game , Pong 1553 Words | 5 Pages. My favourite sportsman Kimi Raikonnen is my favourite sportsman. He is a Finnish racing driver. . Express Essays! When he joined the Sauber Formula 1 team he was only 21 and had raced in only 23 car races in his life. But he had won more than half of them. He won the Championship with Ferrari in 2007. Does Fiscal Policy Include! Then he took a break from Formula 1 for a while and raced in Essays rallies, but last year he returned back, driving for the Lotus team. Does Policy! Raikkonen is Express, very calm, cool, and calculating in his race strategy and he is known. Auto racing , Fernando Alonso , Formula One 662 Words | 2 Pages.
?Table Tennis Table Tennis is an Olympic Sport which is and Hinduism Essay, played indoors – although it can be played outdoors as a recreational . sport. The game was invented in Happiness Express Essays the late 1880’s when game makers tried to and Hinduism, emulate the popularity of lawn tennis by developing indoor versions of it. Around 1898 the English sports company John Jaques Son were manufacturing the first table tennis sets and popularizing the game . They used rackets (bats/paddles) with velum stretched over an outer casing (similar to small drum). Game , Play , Player 1156 Words | 3 Pages. My favorite game (sport) My favorite game /sport (Essay 1) The outline: 1. Name of . game 2. How famous it is 3. How it is played 4. Why I enjoy playing it 5. The end My most favorite game is Football. It is a world famous game . Happiness Essays! Football is such a popular game that it is Essay about Poland Over Years, played even in the most remote corner of Happiness Express Essays, my country.
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Whenever I get time I sit down with my paint box, canvas, brushes and paint . beautiful landscape. My hobby does not infringe on the rights of other people. It is not a noisy hobby like music. I can also earn money by selling my paintings to lover of fine arts. My hobby fills my heart with joy and colours and Express Essays there it is my favourite hobby. Everybody has different hobbies that they like to of Violence Games Essay, do for fun or just to relax.
There are many. Amateur , Collecting , Girl 531 Words | 2 Pages. think about my favorite things. For instance my favorite color is green. I think what it would be like to have everything that . color must get boring to after a while of Happiness Express, always seeing that color right well my sister’s room is all pink and she still buys a lot of other oink stuff.
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?HISTORY OF TABLE TENNIS Ping Pong Anyone? The sport got its start in England towards the end of the 19th century when, after dinner, some . upper-middle class Victorians decided to responsibilities to use, turn their dining room tables into Happiness Express Essays miniature versions of the traditional lawn tennis playing field. Several different every-day objects were employed in constructing the sport. They used a line of books as the net. Rackets were lids from empty cigar boxes, and a little later, parchment paper stretched around a frame. Iphone Versus! The.
Coin flipping , International Table Tennis Federation , Point 818 Words | 2 Pages. My Favourite Book It's hard to imagine our lives without books. We learn a lot of Essays, interesting things when we read books. Books . are our great friend, teachers and advisers. Explain Where Responsibilities Lie In Relation Of Over-the-counter! They teach us how to take the next step when we are in Express Essays a difficult situation.
They help to shape our life. Iphone Versus! It is impossible to Happiness Express Essays, become an educated person without books. Besides, books play an important role in upbringing our feelings, views and tastes; give us a lot of useful information. Frankly speaking I'm not a bookworm but. Bella Swan , Edward Cullen , Friendship 856 Words | 2 Pages.
have you ever attempted to buy a game , and, of course, you got turned down, because, once again, you were not old enough? Although, you . probably do know why you were denied or turned down, because of those great warning or rating systems on what policy include every form of Happiness Express Essays, media nowadays. Video games have been a part of American culture since the late 1970’s and first emerged as a controversial social problem in late 1994 and has continued until the present. Responsibilities Of Over-the-counter! Violence in video games is one of Express Essays, important issues that most. Arcade game , Atari , Entertainment Software Rating Board 2221 Words | 6 Pages. ?Sports and games Sports can be generally divided into indoor and outdoor sports. Gymnastics is and Hinduism Essay, a typical indoor sport which includes . apparatus training on uneven bars, horizontal bar, balance beam, mat, spring-board or rings. Athletics, a typical outdoor sport, includes track amd field events (the Marathon race, long-distance run, cross-country run, relay-race) and sprinting events ( a hundred metre sprint, hurdle-race). Jumping (high jjump, long jump, triple jump, pole jump) and throwing (hammer.
Ancient Olympic Games , Association football , Game 1731 Words | 5 Pages. Analytical Interpretation of Express, “ Games ” In his article, “ Games ,” Steven Johnson argues that the nonliterary popular culture, like . What Does Fiscal Policy Include! video games , have intellectual and Happiness Essays cognitive virtues in their own right. Johnson carefully and iphone versus galaxy consciously aims his argument at the people who do not like and insist a common bias against video games , such as the teachers, the parents, the Essays, cultural authorities and the avid readers. Following his argument, Johnson uses many techniques, like making an does policy include, interesting hypothetical. Battle of Happiness Express Essays, Reading , Critical thinking , Culture 840 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Hunger Games Essay “Suzan Collins integrated various themes to create an Illusions Games, exciting and unforgettable story of Happiness Essays, “The Hunger . Games ” Discuss this statement choosing three themes from the novel. Ensure that you discuss three to four techniques as well. The novel “The Hunger Games ” is an exhilarating science fiction novel that has been written by Suzan Collins has been unforgettable and Essay about Poland Over the Next spectacular novel through its themes.
The story takes place in a post-apocalyptic world with the fascinating. Fiction , Genre , Government 913 Words | 2 Pages. Sport tourism tours bring visitors to their favourite sport event, facility, or destination throughout the world. These tours may be self . Happiness Express Essays! guided or organized depending upon access, location, and to Video Essay nature of the activity. For example, many ski tour packages provide air travel, accommodation, local transportation, and ski lift tickets with no special guide or amenities. Happiness Express! In contrast, some companies specialize in Essay on The a Diet travel packages that fly fans to an away game , put them up in Express a hotel for a few nights, provide.
Australian Open , Fed Cup , French Open 2858 Words | 10 Pages. October 11 My First Game (yawns and stretches out arms) Oh good morning . everyone, didn’t know I had company (walks over to spotlight). You could never imagine how excited I am. Why you ask? Well… today is my very first soccer game this season and I’ve been waiting for this day for 5 whole months! But that’s okay because it’s going to to Video Games, be worth it (walks to kitchen).
My coach told my team and Express Essays I that we have to eat good the whole entire day, drink. 2005 singles , Butter , Debut albums 484 Words | 2 Pages.
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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Express Essays! Before you even walk into a job interview you’ve made a first impression on about Years, the interviewer. How? Through your resume. According to a study conducted by the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume. So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and well organized.
How do you do that? You start by using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out from the Happiness Express Essays rest (here#8217;s how you do that). When you have both these things you go into Canva and design the Essay Over the Next Fifteen Years thing for free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from Happiness Express this article into Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Canva to start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for resumes — the very reason you should avoid it, and Essay on The Right, why it appears on our “Worst” list. Express Essays! So if you don’t want your resume to look like hundreds of others, you’ll want to choose something else. And Garamond is a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in use for around 500 years. The modern version has the explain where lie in relation of over-the-counter and supplements benefit of Express Essays giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the overused Times New Roman. As a bonus, if you’re struggling to condense your resume to iphone galaxy, one to two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the font size or crowding your design by tightening up the spacing. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in Express Essays, England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is both classic and modern.
It’s used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by galaxy, the BBC) and elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to Essays, the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and iphone, Carry On” poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the design. You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is part of Happiness Express Essays a suite of typefaces called the ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and explain responsibilities lie in remedies and supplements, Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for Happiness Express on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for on The a Diet That Is Just print,” thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at Essays, small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and printed resumes. Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is Illusions to Video, still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our “Worst” list for that reason.
This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Happiness Essays, Calibri at a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume. Our third and last selection from Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces. It’s also suitable for Unsearchable Quest to Find a Diet Is Just Right use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for when you need to Happiness Essays, distribute your resume in both digital and of Violence Games, hard copy form. Originally designed for corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for resumes. It comes in a wide range of weights and styles, though the “hairline,” “thin,” and “light” weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. Happiness Express! It’s available for download (free for both personal and Essay Is Just Right, commercial use) and for web use on Google Fonts. Didot is a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to Express Essays, your resume and seems to where responsibilities relation remedies, be particularly popular for industries like fashion and photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for headings rather than body copy.
Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by Express Essays, many designers and typographers to be the king of iphone versus galaxy fonts. It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from Happiness Express Essays major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York City’s subway signs. To give your resume a clean and Essay Unsearchable Quest to Find a Diet Is Just Right, contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica. It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to Express, use it with Windows, you’ll have to purchase it. Georgia is versus galaxy, another alternative to Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to read even at small sizes. Plus, because it was created specifically for Express Essays clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on the Next, any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF. This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look. Happiness Express Essays! It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the various sections and features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the explain where responsibilities relation remedies and supplements “book” and “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to read.
Avenir Next is another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to improve the font’s on-screen display capabilities. Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Surprised this one is on the list? There’s nothing wrong with the font in itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and abused. Essays! Since everyone else is using it on their resumes, yours won’t stand out.
Plus, Times New Roman is Illusions of Violence Essay, hard to read at very small sizes and doesn’t display particularly well on screens. Like Gill Sans on our “Best” list, Futura was created in the 1920s. Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and is more geometric in form. Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is somewhat stylized and atypical. Happiness Essays! With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and does fiscal include, interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for text-heavy documents like resumes. In the overused category, Arial is Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent. Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into your resume. Plus, Arial is basically an adaptation of Helvetica that’s a little looser and more irregular in its construction. There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial.
Designed to replicate the look of a typewriter and later adapted for use on Happiness Express, actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on a typewriter. Relation To Use Remedies And Supplements! Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in 30 some-odd years. Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to Happiness, most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for on The to Find a Diet That Right whole pages of text. Happiness Express Essays! Tempted to put your name at where relation, the top of your resume in a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Don’t do it!
And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and nostalgic (it was designed in 1942). While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the appearance of Express Essays your resume, when in doubt, it’s always a safe bet to stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is considered the cardinal sin of font choices. Explain Where Responsibilities Relation! It was created in 1994 to replicate the Express Essays look of Illusions of Violence to Video Games Essay comic book speech bubbles, and that’s about Happiness Essays all it’s appropriate for. The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context. And in case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to this manager, it does happen.
Just remember: it’s a good rule of thumb to Christianity, stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for resumes. Additionally, the thin letters of this font’s regular weight can be hard to Happiness, read, particularly at small sizes. There’s really no good reason anyone should want to use this on a resume, but people seem to like it. So if you’re tempted to give your resume an Over the Next Fifteen, adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. Happiness Express Essays! This font is so cliche (probably second only to Over, Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke — Fast Co.
Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You don’t need a bold, heavy font to do it. Impact is most likely intended for use in Happiness Express, all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for where responsibilities lie in to use of over-the-counter body copy, where it’s almost impossible to read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on your resume. That’s because the typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into Happiness, Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to versus galaxy, the Roman emperor of the same name. The font only has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out Happiness Express Essays, readable sentences on your resume. So it’s probably a good idea to leave Trajan to the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe. Essay Poland Over Fifteen! For resumes, a font size of 10 to 12 pt. (depending on the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings.
Remember that everyone viewing your resume on a computer will have different fonts installed, and Express, you don’t want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the document’s appearance and formatting. That’s why it’s a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for resumes? Share in explain responsibilities relation to use of over-the-counter remedies and supplements, the comments below. Bring great design to Happiness Essays, your entire workplace. Janie is a freelance writer and the Next Fifteen, graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio.
After college, she built on Express Essays, her background in does policy, art to explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of Happiness Express Essays traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of galaxy graphic design. Build Your Brand: How to Choose The Right Fonts. 60 Free Sans Serif Fonts to Express, Give Your Designs a Modern . Over Fifteen! 60 Free Serif Fonts to Happiness Express, Give Your Designs a Traditional . 60 Free Calligraphy Fonts to Bring Charm to Your Design. 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for Contemporary Desi. 60 Free Fonts for Illusions of Violence Games Minimalist Designs. 50 Free Headline Fonts Built For Impact And Audience En. Express Essays! 50 Beautiful Free Wallpapers For Creatives [2015 Editio. 50 Design Terms Explained Simply For Non-Designers.
The 30 Best Free Social Media Icon Sets of Illusions Games 2015. 100 Brilliant Color Combinations and How to Express Essays, Apply Them . Free Icons: 49 Best Sites To Find Beautiful And Useful . 60 Awesome Free Tools To Create A Visual Marketing Camp. Free Stock Photos: 73 Best Sites To Find Awesome Free I. You're almost there! You’ll receive an email soon to confirm your subscription.
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Essay: Using Humor in the Teaching-Learning Process To Improve the Students’ Speaking Skill. It is important for English techniques and strategies to help enhance students’ speaking abilities, among other English skills they also need to develop. Furthermore, realizing that speaking is very important for English learners, it is Express Essays, essential for English teachers to encourage the students to explain to use, speak. They seem to have difficulties in deciding what material must be used and how to teach speaking appropriately. Moreover, they must be able to find out the ways of Happiness how to make speaking easier and introduce the fun activities for the students to learn. In this case, teachers have responsibilities to guide the Essay on The Unsearchable Quest That Right, students during the learning process and to give motivation to them to improve their English especially in Happiness Express the speaking skill. Teachers’ effective use of humor is generally viewed as a positive factor in the classroom (Check 1986:5).
It may even influence the effectiveness of teacher power and compliance-gaining strategies. Of Violence Essay! Wheeless, Stewart, Keamey, #038; Plax (1987) note that compliance is an Express Essays, enactment of power. Likewise, if teachers exert humor in the classroom, they will be seen as more powerful by their students. Possibly, teachers could gain more compliance from students through the utilization of humor. 1.1Statement of the problem.
Teachers come in two types: Boss teacher and lead teacher. Boss teacher is substantially known as authoritative, imposing, demanding, dominant, and oriented. Christianity Essay! Undoubtedly, these characteristics lead to learners’ misbehavior, poor self-esteem, and low learning motivation. Conversely, lead teacher is known as democratic, open-minded, facilitator and most importantly motivator and friendly; He plays up the emotional growth of learners in an effective classroom environment. Happiness Express! Students are entirely influenced by classroom setting, the content of the syllabi and especially the way they are presented. This means that the Unsearchable to Find Is Just Right, more inappropriate learning conditions occur the less enjoyable lessons; and the more bored the students will be.
Hence, teachers should be aware of how to harmonize students with EFL learning, and Essays hasten to look for the suitable strategy that allows them to enhance learning especially speaking skill. Because teachers at Abbes Laghrour university face many obstacles in English language teaching and as for the students, they lack confidence to speak English with their teachers and classmates because most the Illusions Games Essay, of them complain about such difficulties in pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, psychological obstacles as shyness, fears, hesitation They also lack of opportunity to use English in their daily lives.for learning and helps them feel at Happiness Express Essays, ease, secure, increases their sense of The study is a suggestion to versus galaxy, use humor as a pedagogical and psychological strategy in classroom which makes students influenced positively to Happiness Essays, raise their desire belonging to the class. So that allows them to be engaged and get involved into the lesson, creates friend-ship between teacher and where lie in relation to use learners; as well as, facilitates communication between them. Students certainly will get rid of anxiety and boredom; they will get ready to receive information and enhance learning in Happiness Essays general and speaking skill in particular. 1.2. What Fiscal Include! The aim of the study. The researcher aims in this study to Express Essays, interview EFL learners by increasing their level of speaking skill.
Admitting the fact that students need to enjoy learning to progress, the study attempts to Illusions Games Essay, attest to the effectiveness of humor as a pedagogical and psychological strategy through investigating its positive effects on learning. In order to check the validity of the hypothesis, the following questions should be answered: A- Does the use of humor in Happiness Essays the English foreign language classroom facilitate the students’ speaking skill? B- How can teachers use humor in the teaching process? C- What guidelines can be made for the use of humor in English as a foreign language? 1.3. The Hypothesis. This work attempts to test the following hypothesis:
Teaching English by using humor can improve the students -speaking skill. Humor is a powerful tool needed by on The Unsearchable to Find a Diet That teachers to create a multi-harmony relationship: teacher-teaching, teacher-students, students -students, students-learning. It represents the effectiveness of Happiness Essays communicative classroom since it helps avoid classroom monotony and anxiety as well as it allows students’ self-esteem and self-confidence to arise. Humor not only establishes students’ engagement and involvement in the lesson, but also develops students’ productivity in EFL through providing positive learning atmosphere. Teachers’ mood is one of the major factors that impacts students’ attitudes toward learning. Harmer (1998) claims that teachers’ characteristics like being fed up and in a bad-humor negatively influence their learners, so they should look for enjoyable and invigorating strategies. Humor, for instance, is a pedagogically effective strategy that can be used to avoid the negative impact of the negative characters of teachers since “students enjoy being entertained and amused”(Harmer, 1998, p.1).In other words, the iphone versus, happier learning students feel; the Happiness Essays, more successful they will be. Humor is defined by saying what makes the Illusions of Violence Games Essay, others amused.(Vossler, Sheidlower, 2011)say that in classroom, humor is not only being funny or saying what is Happiness, laughable, but also is giving the impression of being friendly and Illusions having affinity with learners .Gatt (2000) defines Humor as follows: It is the ‘breathing-out of the soul’. Happiness Express! When during the lesson the students only listen to the teacher, who may be teaching in the same tone, then it is as if they only breathe in and have no opportunity to breathe out. They need humor, which the teacher can find in very different places.
Therefore the teacher must bring in humor during his lessons and this humor should result from the explain responsibilities of over-the-counter remedies and supplements, vitality and momentum of the lesson. Students prefer being in classroom situation that stimulates them to Essays, learn. Leonard (1968) asserts that the Essay to Find a Diet That, best environment for learning is the interactive (as cite in Wrench, 2008, p.46) where students participate rather than being merely receptive (Jones #038; Jones, 1981, as cited in Wrench, 2008, p.46).As for Essays, the fundamental role humor plays in classroom, it creates active students in a communicative environment. The smooth running of lessons ensues. Furthermore, (Morrison, 2008) describes humor by tonic for effective teaching.
She states that the purposeful use of humor ignites students’ boredom, stress, depression, shyness, fear, and anger. Humor is the best “brain food”. Christianity And Hinduism Essay! It is the link between brain and learning; it rings the brain’s bell to activate “memory” to start storage to push them up for exchange information’ to speak out Express Essays, loud without any fears. So, information presented humorously is responsibilities remedies and supplements, extremely memorable. Happiness! Berk, also, notes that Humor can create an unforgettable image if it is accompanied by the use of” your words plus your physical expressiveness in your eyes, face, hands and arms, and Illusions of Violence to Video Essay the rest of Express Essays your body”(2003, p. 64). Sylwester assumes that emotions are considered as the stimulus of learning; they attract the attention which is required to learn (as cited in Morrison, 2008, p.2).Emotions can be presented by humor. When teacher uses humor, students become enthusiastic to fiscal policy include, attend the class for a long time, and feel interested in what is Happiness Express, being said by the teacher. Humor does not only prepare successful learners but also successful speakers whereas, the pronunciation is the most important goals of learning languages. As for teaching, it is necessary to iphone galaxy, use humor since it retains students’ attendance, improves trust between teacher and learners, and Express Essays provides positive energy. This latter maintains high morale and makes flexible learners; it enables them to be up to different situations and changes by evaporating stress when facing obstacles.
Humor is “catalyst for explain responsibilities lie in relation to use of over-the-counter remedies, creativity”. It allows thinking critically which results producing and combining new ideas. Those ideas are necessarily demanded for Happiness Essays, managing problems-solving .Correspondingly, Morrison (2008) states that humor gives an “optimistic energy” that increases confidence so as to respond to stress and adapt to difficulties. Christianity And Hinduism Essay! She distinctly mentions humor is the paramount source of creativity and imagination. Humor positively affects the brain. It enables learners create various ideas. Loomans #038; Kolberg #038; Weston #038; Allen go further, arguing that what makes somebody laugh may be is Happiness Express, not for another since humor differs according to gender, generation and culture. However, some forms of humor are universal.
Therefore, teachers should apply that latter to suit all learners (2002).Moreover, they confirm that teachers necessarily have positive attitudes toward what they do to fulfill their satisfaction and enthusiasm in order to, at the end, lighten the class. Being humorous as well is one of the essential basics for much more lightened class; it permits learning to be a “joyous experience not a dread one”. Loomans categorized humor benefits. Social benefits: it sparks creativity, improves the likelihood of belonging to teams, and decreases conflicts. What Fiscal! Physical benefits: it contacts the internal organs and sends them messages to reduce stress, as well as regulates blood pressure. And most importantly, benefits for learning: it reinforces many learning skills such as critical thinking skill, communication skill, and cooperative learning skill. 1.5. Research method.
In this study, the researcher has been looking for a correlation between two variables humor and students’ speaking skill achievements. Essays! In other words, this study examines whether humor is an effective pedagogical, and psychological strategy or not; it is a students’ requirement or not. The method adopted has been based on two questionnaires delivered to the first year English LMD students and teachers at versus, Abbes Lagrour University. The students’ questionnaire results reveal the Essays, importance of humor in EFL process as a students’ requirement and does its importance to improve their speaking skill achievements. The second questionnaire delivered to Happiness Essays, English teachers of the same students.
Researcher has been based on students and their teachers requirements, needs and Essay about the Next Years point of view about the research topic as they considered the main sides of the teaching- learning process .Analysis and the discussions of the results of Express both questionnaires to decide whether humor is an effective teaching-learning tool to enhance the speaking skill or not. 1.6. Limitation of the study. It is important to indicate some difficulties when collecting background data. Looking for references especially books was the Essay Quest a Diet Is Just, main obstacle the researcher faced. Gathering information for the review of literature took time what hindered the progress of the study conducted. First, this research is conducted through the Happiness, use of two questionnaires as one procedure which is Illusions of Violence, oriented toward students and teachers only. Classroom observation procedures needs a long period of time to collect information and to watch thoroughly what is going on in the classroom and pay attention to Essays, the sudden changes that may take place in order to Poland Over the Next Fifteen Years, guarantee its reliability. Second, the term humor is very assorted that makes the researcher has been obliged to use the term humor in its general meaning without precise one kind at the expense of another, in some times the researcher use terms as (laugh, amusement), as a synonyms of the Express, term humor. Chapter 1 (theoretical part) Section 1 Humor.
Humor is the link between effective teaching and successful learning. A side from being a social behavior and an integral part of our humanity, humor is a powerful teaching tool that promotes non threatening learning environment, and Christianity and Hinduism breaks the ice down between teacher and Happiness students. Poland Over Years! Then rapport and trust Relationship between them are evolved. In that sense, Tom Davis says: “The job of the teacher is to Happiness Express, get students laughing, and when their mouths are open, to give them something on Christianity and Hinduism Essay which to chew”. Express Essays! Why humor is solidly related to Christianity and Hinduism Essay, teaching? “Attitude and behavior are a key part of Happiness Express Essays your role as a tutor, since they can be so influential”(Morss #038; Murray, 2005, p. Where Responsibilities Lie In Relation Remedies And Supplements! 141). Being boring is one of the Express, major sins in teaching (powers, 2005) as boredom and dullness can kill students motivation and negate their desire to Christianity, learn (Deiter, 2000). In addition, content is Express, firmly connected to pedagogy; what is taught is as important as how it is taught(Chickering #038; Gamson, 1987);the teacher should be able to present the lesson in Essay engaging way (Flanagan, 2007) Humor is the demanded strategy.
It helps “to your subject knowledge with influencing social interactions and shaping the climate and motivations of students”(Morss #038; Murray, 2005, p. 141).Appropriate and timely humor in the classroom can foster cognitive processes, affective and emotional processes (Berk, 1996), as well as contribute to over all teaching effectiveness (Kher #038; Molstad #038; Donahue, 1999). Although humor is valuable teaching tool, many teacher underutilize it (Deniere, 1995), and challenge its use in Express Essays classroom (Berk, 1998).Gravely said, ??This is a time in school history when humor is vanishing and in some instances has disappeared altogether” (Morisson, 2008, p.71). Then, a contradiction has arisen between what is discovered, about humor, by scholars and what really happens in classroom. In general, humor is iphone versus, saying something or acting in a way that makes the others amused. To Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary, since the late 16th century, humor takes the Essays, following definition: ‘the quality in something that makes it funny or amusing; the ability to laugh at things that are amusing’.
In Latin, the term derived from ‘umor’ which refers to ‘bodily fluid’ (control human health and versus emotion). Similarly, in ancient Greek, humor derived from ‘humors’ that means ‘the balance of fluids in Happiness Express Essays the human body’. Webster’s Dictionary defines humor as “quality of imagination quick to perceive the ludicrous or to express itself in an amusing way; fun; caprice; disposition; mood; state of mind.”(As cited in Shade, 1996, p. 9) Apart from tending to on The to Find Right, provoke laughter and provide amusement, humor has been differently defined by many authors. According to Levine (1969), ‘humor is regarded as trifling, destructive and degrading force to Express, morality, religion, and art. Seen differently, it is liberating, socially constructive, and Illusions to Video Essay even ennobling art’ (p.1).Morrison believes that our cognitive emotional growth is Happiness, mainly influenced by the use of humor in to Find That our lives (2002, p.23).Humor is ‘an amusing communication that produces positive emotions and cognitions in the individual or in the group’ (Romero #038; Cruthirds, 2006, p. Happiness! 59).However, Hurren thinks that humor is any message, verbal or non verbal, communicated by Over the teacher and makes the Essays, students feel amused (2006). Illusions To Video Essay! ‘At its basic level, humor is an intended or unintended message interpreted as funny’ (lynch, 2002, p423). Vossler #038; Sheidlower go deeper , claiming that humor, at its heart, it is not the Happiness, behavior of and Hinduism Essay telling jokes, but it is Express Essays, that strategy used to create rapport between teacher and students in a way makes them feel closer to to use of over-the-counter, their instructor (2011) since ‘ laughter is the Happiness, shorter distance between two people’ (McGhee, 2002 as cited in Role, 2011, p. 4)May ,Humanistic Psychologist states that Humor is the capacity to perceive, appreciate, or express what is funny, amusing, incongruous, ludicrous, etc. It is and Hinduism, ‘the healthy way’ that keeps you away from problems; it provides you with the appropriate mood needed to perceive and solve problems (as cited in Lyons, 2005, p. 3). Humor is a basic part of ‘humanity’s unique capacity for language’. Essays! It is considered as a universal human experience (Kruger, 1996).
2- Basic theories about humor. 1.2. Theories of Humor. The different definitions of humor reveal the distinct perspectives the authors rely on when expounding humor and what social function it serves. Those perspectives respond to diverse theories that facilitate the process of explaining humor in Essay more organized way (Martin, 2007) because it is crucial to Express, understand theories of humor rather than erect its definition (Brooks, 1992). Although each theory focuses on a certain area of humor, the pioneers allege that their theory is the most reliable. 1.2.1.
Superiority Theory. “Everything is funny as long as it’s happening to someone else!” The superiority theory of Illusions to Video Games humor traces back to Plato and Aristotle. They believe that our feeling of Happiness Express Essays superiority over people we laugh at gives us the pleasure of humor. Cornett (1986) cites that humans feel joy at being superior to others. They laugh at inferior people mistakes which they never do and at their own past follies since they feel superior to who they were in the past.
He adds that what may be funny can be represented by clowns, caricatures, puppets, and impersonators. Iphone Galaxy! Also, ‘Defects in others are humorous as long as they are not harmful to Happiness Essays, the victims’ (p. 26). Monro (1988) asserts that ‘humor is derisive’. Pleasure derives from does, feeling superior at those who have ‘failing’ or ‘defect’; ‘laugher always looks down at Happiness Express Essays, whatever he laughs at’. Essay Poland Fifteen! He claims that the originator of this theory named ‘Thomas Hobbes’ (1588- 1679) who states that laughter results from ‘vainglory’, i.e. we laugh at others ‘misfortunes’ or ‘infirmities’, at our past mistakes. Express Essays! Monro cites laughter definition according to Bregson (1859-1941), supporter of superiority theory of humor: ‘laughter is society’ defense against the eccentric who refuses to and Hinduism Essay, adjust himself to its requirements’. In other words, humor is a reaction to what considered inexplicable. Laughing at inferior and ugly people primarily is caused by feeling superior over them. Hill (1988) indicates ‘We laugh maliciously when we possess superior knowledge over the people we ridicule.
We laugh at people who have an inferior moral character or at people who are uglier or distorted than ourselves’ (p. 40). This type of humor elevates inequality in Happiness Express society. Differences in religions, nationalities, races, and occupations lead some people to Essay Poland the Next Fifteen Years, feel superior at others. The superiority is the core of finding pleasure when laughing at inferior people. 1.2.2. Incongruity Theory. According to this theory, humor is perceived at Express, the moment of realization of incongruity between what really happen and what is expected to happen.
Berk (2005) voices that incongruity can be called ‘contrast resolution’. It is “the juxtaposition of the Christianity and Hinduism Essay, ‘expected’ with the ‘unexpected'”. Deckers #038; Kizers (1975) maintain that the condition for humor takes place is the divergence between what is Happiness Express, expected to happen and what really happens. On The Unsearchable Quest To Find That Right! Kerr (2001, p. Happiness Essays! 2) notes that “Having a sense of explain lie in relation to use remedies and supplements humor is about having a sense of balance, perspective and proportion. A sense of humor is the ability to Happiness Express, recognize the iphone versus, incongruities and Happiness Express Essays absurdities that confront us on a daily basis. In other words, it is the ability to look at the same thing as everyone else and see something just a little different”. Shade (1996) suggests that successful humor is the outcome of the abrupt changes which occur incongruously. It mainly derives from ‘jokes’ and ‘riddles’ in which incongruity may be presented by ‘contradiction’, ‘understatement’, ‘exaggeration’, ‘surprise’, ‘reversal’, ‘ludicrous’. He adds that the incongruity in explain of over-the-counter remedies and supplements humor results when there is: first a discrepancy between the punch line and the body of a joke, and second a violation of expectancies.
These may involve: a) Two conflicting sets of rules, b) Two different frames of reference, or c) The reversal of figure and ground. (p.11) Degrading a value is an essential feature of Essays incongruity theory. Monro (1988) states “humorous incongruity consists in degrading something exalted by bringing it into contact with something trivial or disreputable”(p. 351). This idea is what does fiscal policy include, supported by Spencer (1820-1903) (as cited in Express Monro, 1988, pp. 352, 353). Spencer defines humor as “descending incongruity”. On The Unsearchable To Find A Diet Is Just Right! Nevertheless, he confirms that incongruity, not degradation, is the paramount source of humor. German philosophers Kant (in 1790) and Schopenhauer (in 1819), the developers of Express this theory, proclaim “The basis of this theory is that humor is created when we expect one thing and is (sic) suddenly presented with another .Humor, then, is the result of these unexpected connections” (as cited in Shade, 1996, p. 11). Christianity! For Schopenhauer (1788-1860) (as cited in Monro, 1988, p.352), humor is the pleasure that derives from the “unexpected connections between ideas”.
Kant (1724-1804) (as cited in Monro, 1988, p.351) identifies incongruity by ??frustrated expectation”. He believes that humor comes up when the concept you expect would happen ends into Happiness Express, nothing i.e. humor derives from your recognition that your expectation have not realized. In his point of view, humor is ‘penetrating’ as long as it connects two completely different attitudes, or it makes a reversal of values. Incongruity encompasses both the intellectual and emotional elements. And Hinduism Essay! Kant #038;Schopenhauer phrase that the mental component of humor realized when the unexpected connections between two things come about. Differently stated, pleasure arises as a result of “the rigors of logic, reason, and thinking”. Shade asserts that humor has another imperative component ‘the emotional element’. Happiness Express Essays! ‘Attention’, ‘anticipation’, ‘tension’, ‘surprise’ help humor crop up (1996, p. Christianity! 11).
Furthermore, Spencer declares “laughter is an overflow of nervous energy, and that the abrupt transition from a solemn thought to a trivial or disreputable one leaves us with a fund of Express Essays nervous energy which needs to be expended in laughter”. It means that emotions we feel as sudden changes take place released by humor. 1.2.3. Relief Theory. In this theory, humor is seen as catharsis. It is the Essay on The That, preferable strategy used to challenge pent- up emotions. Seaward (2006) regards humor as a response to stressful situations .Monro (1988) highlights that relief is the core of humor. People laugh as strain removed. He defines humor as the temporary way adopted to Express, get released from the restraint of the does include, conventional social requirements (pp.
353, 354). Freud (1856-1939), the originator of release theory, mentions that through humor, we can trick the ‘censor’, the internal inhibitions, that handicap the achievement of our ‘natural impulses’. He considers his humor theory and his theory of dreams interpretation similar. Humor, exactly like dreams, can beguile censor. Suppressed wishes then may come true.
Through humor, we give ‘vent’ to our ‘repressed desires’ (as cited in Monro, 1988, pp. Happiness Express! 354, 355). For Shade, laughter gives us some temporary freedom from the numerous restrictions, such as constrains of Essay on The Unsearchable Quest to Find a Diet That conventionality and the rigidity of logic, under which we live our daily lives. Happiness Express Essays! This theory focuses on iphone galaxy the social and Happiness Express behavioral elements of humor. Laughter helps elude the dictatorial social conventions .For example “when someone at a meeting uses humor to add a little levity to a tense situation or discussion. This allows everyone to laugh for a moment, break away from the topic at hand for a minute or two, regroup their thoughts, and begin addressing the issue, perhaps with a new perspective” The most noticeable thing about these theories is that each theory has its own perspective and area of focus which means that no theory can fully explain the Christianity and Hinduism, nature of humor and its social functions. 3-Kinds (types) of humor. Humor is in huge variety of more than 20 types .The research focuses on the famous only as below: Types of humor Definitions Examples.
idiom a form of expression peculiar to a language, especially one that has significance other than its literal one. He was as mad as a cut snake means that he was angry. irony a figure of speech or literary device in which the literal meaning is the opposite Essays of that intended Exclaiming, ‘What a beautiful day for a picnic!’ in the middle of a thunderstorm. joke something said or done to excite laughter or amusement; a playful mischievous trick or remark. What does a storm cloud wear under its coat? parody humorous or satirical imitation of does policy a serious piece of literature or writing; to Happiness Express Essays, imitate in such a way as to ridicule. Scieszka , Jon, The true story of the three little pigs. Munsch, Robert, The paper bag princess. pun the humorous use of versus galaxy a word in such a manner as to bring out different meanings or applications, or of words alike in sound but different in meaning; a play on words.
Police were called to a daycare centre where a three-year-old was resisting a rest. a puzzling question, problem, or matter David was out for a walk when it started to Express, rain. He did not have an umbrella and he wasn’t wearing a hat. His clothes were soaked, yet not a single hair on his head got wet. How could this happen? spoonerism a slip of the tongue whereby initial or other sounds of words are transposed My dunny fog is maned Nitsy is a spoonerism for My funny dog is named Mitsy. 4- Forms of Humor in Classroom. Humor in the classroom can take many forms. A study of humor in the college classroom, done by Bryant, Chomsky, and Essay about Poland Over Fifteen Years Zillman (1979), leaks that humor in lectures can be classified as jokes, riddles, puns, funny stories, humorous comments. Cartoons and Happiness Express Essays comic verse have been discovered as other creative ways to incorporate humor in classes (Kher et al., 1999). Riddle is a question that is difficult to understand, and that has a surprising answer, that you ask somebody as a game.
The term riddle derives from the Poland Fifteen Years, old English word “radels” or “radelse; it is related to Dutch “raadsel” and German “ratsel” (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2008). Express Essays! It is a word game; an enigma; a puzzling fact, it is to Video Essay, similar in Express Essays nature to a joke but with a specific format (a question- answer format). For instance, ‘Matt: How do you keep fish from smelling? Jenny: Cut off their noses’. Riddles are preferably related to subject matter. The main objective for utilizing riddles is to versus galaxy, teach students how to analyze and discuss ideas (Shade, 1996). For example, ‘Imagine that you are in a boat, in the middle of the sea. Suddenly you are surrounded by hungry sharks, just waiting to feed on you. Happiness Express! How can you put an end to this’? (The answer is: stop imagining). Unsearchable To Find That Is Just! Such humorous riddle brings students to use their higher order thinking in order to Happiness Express, solve it.
Additionally, riddles may aim to teach vocabulary, spelling, even phonology. Unsearchable Quest To Find! Shade suggests the use of letter puzzlers: Build on a letter to Happiness Essays, make a word: What comes after L? Bow (elbow) What comes after E? Z (easy) What comes after B? 4 (before) Pun is the iphone galaxy, clever or humorous use of a word that has more than one meaning, or words that have different meaning but sound the same (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary).Partingtone describes pun by the “creative use of language” (2006, p. Express Essays! 110). He stresses that pun never play with merely one word but with group of words. In the same line of thoughts, Koestler explains “The pun is the dissociation of a single phonetic form with two meanings ‘ two strings of thought tied together by iphone an acoustic knot”(1964, p. 65). Happiness Express! Pun should occur intentionally, Ritchie (2004) holds that spontaneous puns are not very funny and are rarely kept to be used later. According to Partingtone, puns can take the Essay Unsearchable Quest to Find That Is Just, form of: ‘ Reversals, such as spoonerism, for example, a half- warmed fish (i.e. half formed wish) ‘ Blending (or porte-manteau words) for example; anecdotage (anecdote _dotage, that is, how the aged ramble on) ‘ Anagrams, for example, Mother-in-law ‘ Woman Hitler; Election results ‘Lies, let’s recount. ‘ Re segmentation or meta-analysis, for Happiness Express, example, four candles ‘ fork handles.
‘ Reverse Coinages, for example, speakable (from unspeakable), underwhelmed (from overwhelmed) ‘Not-as-They-Seems, for example, a cat burglar (stole our best mouser). He further clarifies that puns can be categorized into homonymy puns and homophony puns. Homonymy puns means words alike in sound and spelling. For example ‘club’ refers to two homonyms: ‘association of people’ and iphone galaxy ‘heavy weapon’. Whereas, homophony puns are words alike in sound only. For instance, ‘leek’ and ‘leak’. The pleasure takes place when one meaning reinterpreted by the other meaning. Joke is Express, something to on The Unsearchable a Diet Is Just, say or to do to make people laugh.
The term ‘joke’ emerged in late seventeenth century. It is originally slang; it derives from Latin ‘jocus’ which means ‘jest’ or ‘wordplay’ (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2008). It is seen by (Morrison, 2001, p. Happiness Express! 160) as “a short story or short series of words spoken or communicated with the intent of to use of over-the-counter remedies and supplements being laughed at Happiness, or found humorous by the listener or reader”. To be perceived laughable, jokes need comprehending the multiple meaning of words, idioms, and about Poland Over Fifteen metaphors; discovering ambiguity, perceiving and ultimately comprehending the incongruity; and Happiness appreciating the Christianity and Hinduism, unexpected or sudden change of perspective (Shade, 1996, p. 3).According to (Schmitz, 2002, p.93), jokes can be classified into three classes: universal jokes, culture jokes, and linguistic jokes. Universal jokes refer to “humor that is Essays, obtained mainly from the context and versus the general functioning of the world; ?? in Essays other words, they are jokes which any one can laugh at. For example, Teacher: Gwen, come here and Essay point out Africa from this globe.
Gwen: here. Teacher: Correct! John, who discovered Africa? Class: Gwen!. Cultural jokes need cultural background knowledge; jokes teller and listener should share the same culture, or at least, the joke- teller should be aware of the listener culture. For instance, “What do you call a dog at the beach?””A hot dog”. Linguistic jokes “based on specific features in the phonology, morphology or syntax of particular languages”, such as, Grammar teacher: Sam, can you tell me any two pronouns? Sam: Who, me? Teacher: Good answer, Sam!
Shade illustrates this class the following examples: ‘ Lexical based on multiple- meanings of words; Dave: What has 18 legs and catches flies. Lynn: A baseball team. ‘ Deep structure involves alternative interpretation for Happiness Express Essays, a word or phrase; Sam: What animal can jump higher than a house. On The Quest To Find That! Chris: Any animal. Houses can’t jump. ‘ Metalinguistic focuses on the language form instead of the language meaning; Kathy: What’s at the end of everything? Tim: the Happiness, letter g. ‘ The phonological based on the phonological structure of words; Rebecca: What is this?
Waiter: it’s bean soup. Rebecca: I don’t care what it’s been. What is it now? (1996, p. And Hinduism! 3.4). Berk (1996; 2002) mentions that teachers may present humor in form of funny quotations, questions, examples, skits/dramatizations, exercises and problems. ‘ Humorous questions: they are often used in all courses. Essays! The teacher asks series of serious questions followed by funny questions in order to capture the Essay to Find That Is Just, students’ attention. Happiness Express Essays! For example, a. How many of and Hinduism you think this one is the correct answer? b. How many of you think this one is the correct answer? c. How many of you don’t care?
d. How many of you want to go back to bed’? Humorous examples: they are the easiest way the teacher uses to illustrate concrete or abstract content in the subject area. ‘ Humorous problem sets: they may replace the serious textbook problems and practiced as problem- solving exercises or homework. ‘ Skits/ dramatization: they are the best warm- up practice. They can be presented by music, Masterpiece Theater.
‘ Humor forms are sorted into larger groups. Happiness Express Essays! (Chee, 2003) identifies four main forms: textual, pictorial, verbal, action/ games. – Textual examples: stories, jokes. – Pictorial examples: cartoons, comics. – Verbal examples: puns, word games, acronyms. – Action/ games examples: theater, video, role play, contests.
‘ Disparately, (Shade, 1996, p.2) classifies them into distinct forms: verbal, figural, visual and auditory. – Verbal humor includes jokes, puns, riddles, anecdotes, wit. – Figural humor includes comic, cartoons and iphone versus galaxy caricature. – Visual humor includes impersonation, impression. – Auditory humor includes mime, impersonation, practical jokes, and sight gags. 5-Benefits of humor. 5.1. Psychological benefits. John F. Kennedy was reported to have said, “There are three things which are real: God, human folly, and laughter. The first two are beyond our comprehension.
So we must do what we can with the third” (Hunsaker, 1988). One of the things which can be done with humor is to take advantage of its coping mechanism or psychological benefits. For example, humor is seen as reducing discomfort and easing tension, a way of Happiness Express mitigating failure or coping with defeat (saving face), a way of disarming an aggressor, coping with adversity, or to make the serious and less interesting more palatable (Linstead, 1985).Humor can serve as an outlet (though temporary) for frustration, apathy, resentment, hostility and versus anger; it can offer an escape from the harshness of reality and Express lighten the burdens present in the classroom (Weaver, 1987). The psychological benefits of humor are supported by several theories. The Anxiety Reduction Theory purports the level of humor arousal is directly associated with the anxiety level of students which, if true, further buttresses the Illusions, case for the use of Express Essays humor as a release valve in the classroom (Herbert, 1991). The Psychoanalytic Theory contends that humor is a socially acceptable expression of forbidden impulses, often with a release of tension through laughter (Coleman, 1992). Another theory of humor, the Arousal Theory, illustrates the explain responsibilities lie in relation, stress-reducing effects of humor.
This theory explains the Happiness Essays, function or laughter as that of reducing built-up tension and Illusions of Violence to Video Games Essay energy (Lefcourt #038; Martin, 1986). In accordance with this theory is Martin and Happiness Express Lefcourt’s ( 1988) and Wilson’s (1979)contention of humor as an effective implementation device for reducing stress, anxieties ,and hostilities encountered in everyday life situations. Martin and Lefcourt (1988) contend that nurturing children’s sense of humor may arm them with a coping skill to combat the stresses of explain responsibilities lie in relation to use remedies and supplements life. Essays! Freud (1960) labeled humor as, “the highest of the defensive processes (i.e., defense mechanisms).” In his analysis in 1932, Freud went on to explain humor as a reflection of the confidence to reduce stress to a manageable state (Rains berger, 1994). Similarly, laughter was seen as a means of burning off extra energy or tension (Martin #038; Lefcourt, 1986). Martin and Lefcourt attribute this stress reducing effect of humor to its capability of allowing people to put distance between themselves and the problem at hand. Korobkin, (1988); believes that humor may be a classroom advantage by reducing fears and anxieties of students. Korobkin (1988) also found that humor decreases academic stress and anxiety toward the subject matter. Another related theory relevant to the use of humor in the classroom is the Relief Theory.
Meyer (1990), a proponent of the Relief Theory, suggests that reduction of tension and anxiety is its central element. Sullivan (1992) contends that by reducing classroom anxiety through the use of humor, test anxiety may be reduced simultaneously. There also exists evidence from a study conducted by Sarason (1960) that highly anxious students perform better on tests when humor is introduced into on The Quest Is Just Right, the testing situation (Gibbon, 1988). Another psychological implication of humor is the Happiness Express, enhancement of learners’ self-esteem (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997). And Hinduism Essay! A successful learning process involves the assumption, “I can do it.” Humor, or taking oneself lightly, can encourage students in the learning process, which often involves risk-taking, temporary setbacks, and Happiness Express Essays embarrassing exposure. Low self-esteem limits a student in policy the ability to Happiness, take risks beyond the narrow role of perceived competency (O’Connell, 1996). The Next Fifteen! By using humor and the skill of laughing at oneself, a student can be more self- forgiving, thereby allowing him or herself to become lost in Happiness Essays the learning process.
5.2. Sociological benefits. The sociological implications of humor are equally telling. The social theory of humor explicates the means both for establishing better group interactions and transmitting cultural mores (Coleman, 1992). One of the major functions of schools is socialization: To acculturate knowledgeable, understanding, compassionate, and Essay empathic new members to society (Callahan, Clark, #038; Kellough, 1992). Effective teachers are individuals, according to Happiness, Hageseth (1995), who can “take themselves lightly, but take their work and life seriously as they encourage others to do likewise.” They are individuals who can modulate a tense, difficult situation into an intriguing challenge, who can interject an uplifting gesture into on The Unsearchable Is Just, a stressful moment. As such, teachers can encourage students to appreciate the universality of the human condition, that all are here to make the world work by complementing one another (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997).Teachers can model achieving power through knowledge and equality, not through exploitation, manipulation, and one-up man ship .Through teaching, teachers facilitate learning through enthusiastic, generous sharing, laughing at their own foibles, and Happiness Express Essays their encouragement to take risks in the safe environment of the learning situation.
The socialization process involves learning how to be with oneself, with others, and with life’s adversities and challenges. Students learn this valuable skill by using humor as a tool of on The Quest to Find a Diet That Is Just Right growth and wisdom. Humor can be used as a binding force through which group members share common experiences, develop group cohesiveness, and Happiness Essays play and work together toward common goals (Duncan, 1984). Humor can help bond relationships or be used as the lubricant for healthy competition within or between groups (Herbert, 1991). In general, humor, when used appropriately, can be an effective tool for socialization and Illusions to Video Games Essay interpersonal relations. 5.3. Educational benefits. Humor serves many educational (communication) functions as well. Maslow, after all, defines humor and laughter as “education in Express a palatable form” (Weaver #038; Cotrell, p. 168).Colwell and Wigle (1984) further believe that humor strengthens teacher-student rapport by enabling students to see teachers have “well rounded personalities”. Other proponents of on The Quest That humor in the role of fostering a strong, positive rapport between student and teacher are Ackerman and Dummer, (1982); Bryant, (1979); and Wilson (1979).
A teacher who shares a warm, genuine sense of humor with the class portrays oneself as being human just like the Essays, students (Herbert, 1991). Pollak and Freda (1997) ask “If a teacher cannot laugh at what he or she does not know, then how can students be expected to recognize their own educational needs and Essay about Over Years be truly willing, even anxious to learn?” For example, if an English teacher puts a sentence on the board to label parts of speech and Happiness Express Essays a student points out a mistake the teacher has made in labeling one of the more complicated components, that teacher has several options. One is to deny the mistake; another is to pretend the mistake was made on purpose; another is to own the iphone versus, error, thereby revealing his or her humanness and ability to recover. Students are endeared to that teacher because of the willingness of the “authority figure” to dethrone him or herself to model the learning process in its reality. The reality of learning is that trial and error, stumble and recovery, are not only inevitable but crucial for real learning to take place. If a teacher can laugh at himself or herself and laugh with (never at) students, the teacher is well on the way to establishing a positive climate and Express Essays eliminating much of the stress that is often present in classrooms today. Students may never give a teacher the chance to share knowledge or brilliant insights if rapport is Essay to Find a Diet, not first established. Perhaps Weaver and Cotrell (1987) best summarize the educational role that humor plays in the classroom:
A warm, genuine, sense of humor can reveal humanness- a comfortable, secure attitude with themselves as instructors, with their course material (knowledge), with their students, and with their relationship with students. Certainly, one of the important benefits of humor is that it breeches the broad gap between instructors and students. It brings them closer together-joining them, in a sense, in a quest for knowledge. When teachers confront negative students with humor, they often find that this use of humor is an effective way to reduce the students’ anger and hostility (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997). Humor is a powerful tool in education and can be used within the classroom to Happiness Express Essays, put the students at ease and make the learning process more enjoyable. As educators become active participants in their students’ laughter, they will have an opportunity to does fiscal policy, become engaged with them (Ackerman #038; Dummer, 1982). A humorous response exerts a powerful force over a tense situation. Students, as a result, feel more comfortable in situations in which they are not entirely in control of their own feelings. Happiness Express! Weaver and Cotrell (1987) encourage teachers to establish a climate of reciprocal humor.
Asking students for humorous material encourages class interaction and what does fiscal a more “give-and-take” classroom atmosphere. Happiness Express! Humor “…has a central place whether as a natural product or as a life-saving response to the exigencies of the institution – boredom, ritual, routine, regulations, oppressive authority” (Gibbon, 1988). And Hinduism Essay! Essentially, the primary value of humor in the classroom is to “stimulate, illustrate, motivate, and ease tension” (Kelly, 1983). The reduced tension affects and creates benefits in other areas as well (Rainsberger, 1994). Harris (1989) contends that frequent laughter in a classroom creates an environment in which the students feel safe to Happiness Essays, try new things. Students are not bound by the confines of rigorous expectancies, but have freedom from these boundaries to experience true knowledge for its own sake. Kelly (1983) believes that a large reason for Essay about the Next, increased enjoyment of school is the positive attitude and learning climate created as a result of the reduced stress level. Classrooms with decreased tension and reduced stress foster greater creativity and imagination and contribute to an enjoyable classroom setting in which students portray a positive attitude conducive to enthusiastic learning. Express Essays! By reducing stress, humor can make learning more enjoyable, which leads to Christianity, a relaxed atmosphere as well as a positive attitude about school in general. Neu liep, (1991); Korobkin, (1988); Perret, (1984); Long, (1983); Ziv, (1976); Ziv, (1983); and Bergen (1990) propose that creativity, imagination, and ideas are encouraged and enhanced by an enjoyable classroom where the students eagerly await new challenges. Evidence suggests that asking students to Happiness, use humor in answering test questions improves creativity scores (Ziv, 1983).Creative thinking, a necessary tool for problem solving can also be facilitated by Quest Right the use of humor.
When employing brainstorming techniques, for example, if a teacher offers a thought that is Happiness, “incongruous or unexpected or incompatible” (Fry #038; Allen, 1996), that input can help students see a situation in and Hinduism Essay two very rational but drastically different perspectives. Coleman (1992) finds that humor, creativity, and cognition were closely related and like Fry and Allen (1996) determine that the use of verbal, incongruous humor increases the likelihood of students developing more creative thinking processes. The essence of creative thinking therefore, is that ability to perceive situations from Happiness Express, various points of view. Humor is an effective device in interpersonal communication skills. Victor Borgeonce stated that “laughter is the shortest distance between two people” (Sullivan, 1992).One knows that communication and versus interpersonal skills are extremely important tools in the academic classroom. These tools can be effectively implemented when students feel comfortable or non-threatened.
Many scholars argue that the use of humor aids in creating an open communication climate in the classroom (Herbert, 1991; Korobkin, 1988; Perret, 1984; Long, 1983; Ziv, 1983; Mogavero, 1979; Ziv, 1976; Dixon, 1973; Gilland #038; Mauritsen, 1971; and Coser, 1960). Laughter can help ensure a rapturous reception of the instructor’s forthcoming prophetic lecture. Express Essays! In addition, laughter is seen to coordinate human interaction as a turn-taking cue, approval and invitation for the hearer to respond in kind, an invitation to elaborate, and a resource in affiliation (O’Donnell-Trujillo #038; Adams, 1983).Power struggles often surface in classrooms .When two sides come into conflict, humor can be used to the Next Fifteen, relieve the pressure to provide both opponents with the opportunity to cool off (Iapoce, 1990). In such situations, humor provides the teacher with the chance to re think the situation and react with a rational consequence as opposed to a punishment established out of stress and anger (Curwin #038; Mendler, 1990). Express! Such a rational response spares the child’s self-esteem. As a result of the ability to diffuse tension in such situations, humor actually enhances relationships and brings people closer together.”When humor is shared, people feel close and warm with each other” (Chenfeld, 1990). Sullivan (1992) believes the bottom line is that utilizing humor to reduce stress makes school a more enjoyable experience for both teachers and students. 6- Guidelines of using humor in Illusions of Violence to Video Games teaching process.
Humor can be a liberating force, or it can be a destroying one. Some guidelines to ensure that humor has a positive effect may include: beginning class with an Happiness Express Essays, amusing thought or joke; the use of humorous stories and anecdotes; relating student-oriented activities that often contain comic material; and taking “commercial breaks”(O’Donnell-Trujillo #038; Adams, 1983). The aim here is to Christianity Essay, actively involve students on an intellectual and emotional level- to assume an involved, interested stance .Stat (1988) writes, “To involve your audience emotionally, you must create a drama- comedy (humor) is often the best tool to use.” There are situations in which humor can prove counterproductive. If used at Happiness Express Essays, the wrong time, it has the ability to cause distraction. If used in excess, it may become uncontrollable and transform the classroom into Unsearchable to Find That Is Just Right, a circus. If used inappropriately, it may potentially damage self-esteem, or cause embarrassment (Bariaud, 1988).
Considering the potential of Express Essays humor to Poland Over the Next Fifteen Years, be abused, there is clearly a need for guidelines concerning its use in the classroom. Bryant and Zillman (1988) cite that teachers’ use of humor must be perceived as natural, or else it may backfire. Teachers who normally feel uncomfortable using humor must be wary of attempting to force it into their classrooms. If humor is irrelevant to the subject matter, valuable class time may be wasted and Happiness Essays the class may become unruly, thereby contributing to poor classroom management (Sullivan, 1992). Bryant and Poland Over Fifteen Years Zillman (1983) suggest that teachers of children, especially young children, should refrain from using humor unless they are certain that the children have the faculties and knowledge to Happiness Express Essays, understand it. For example, irony and Essay about Over the Next Fifteen Years other forms of “distortion humor” can confuse children and create faulty ideas that are difficult to correct.
The basic component of some humor is ridicule. Some researchers suggest that sarcasm and Essays other forms of ridicule may be useful as a behavior management technique , although most strongly discourage it .Collins (1986) notes that sarcasm is brutal by nature and can severely damage students’ self-esteem, as well as teacher-student relationships. Bryant and Zillman (1988) suggest that although sarcasm and what fiscal policy include ridicule may serve a corrective function, the long-term consequence of diminished esteem in the eyes of students may make the Express Essays, immediate gains in terms of behavioral correction not worth the costs. In addition to the guidelines previously discussed, a number of researchers offer other suggestions. Sullivan (1992) cautions that: (1) teachers must recognize when humor is not appropriate; (2) teachers should never joke about a student’s name because of the potential damage to the student’s self-esteem; and (3) teachers should not simply tell jokes in class, but should keep their humor relevant to the instruction since telling jokes reduces valuable class time and may result in sexist and racist humor that will create problems. The use of non-relevant humor, or that which is not at all related to the subject matter at hand, is shown to Essay about Poland the Next Years, be an especially effective aid in information acquisition for younger children, those of preschool to early primary school age (Zillman #038; Bryant, 1983).
The effectiveness of non-relevant humor diminishes with age so that by adulthood, non-relevant humor is Express Essays, not only acceptable, but can even hinder the acquirement of information. It is Essay Unsearchable to Find That Right, also crucial that a student never feels that he or she is being made the object of ridicule. Although the teacher may dominate the student for the moment, often deep and strong resentments result that may last throughout the school year (Quina, 1989). Sullivan (1992) and Herbert (1991) contend that teachers should be willing to laugh at themselves and should be careful to match their humor to the level of their students. In addition, Herbert (1991) recommends using visual examples of humor, opening class with a joke, and Essays telling humorous anecdotes. However, he suggests that humor should always serve a specific purpose; it should not be aimless. Cornett (1986) presents a list of forty-nine specific ways in explain where lie in to use remedies and supplements which planned humor can be incorporated in the classroom. Express Essays! Her only guidelines are that teachers should adopt a playful mind, think funny, and encourage humor from their students. Although a vast array of of over-the-counter remedies and supplements humor categories exists, one must carefully and cautiously discriminate in the choice of Happiness humor being used.
Clearly, the misuse or abuse of what fiscal policy include humor in the classroom may have negative effects. Humor arising from a sexual or racial context should have no place in the classroom and should be avoided at all times. The victims of such humor may feel that they are being forced to hear a derogatory statement about their heritage or gender. One might assume that the teacher has a prejudice against that particular group of people, and Express the classroom environment becomes negative and hostile (Dickmeyer, 1993). Humor may unconsciously allow the person to get at the target of such humor. The “target” is the individual who is placed in one of to use of over-the-counter these situations by humor (Edwards #038; Gibboney, 1992).
The target is on the receiving end of the Express, humorous comment, whether it be joke, pun, or funny story and is focused on when the humor takes place. As mentioned earlier, targets of what fiscal include instructor’s humor can be self, student, or other. Humor may be ineffectively utilized to promote the superiority of one group or person over another as expressed by the Superiority Theory of Express humor (Gruner, 1978). Christianity And Hinduism Essay! This theory focuses upon Happiness Express Essays the heightened sense of self- esteem, confidence, and reduced threat that are coupled with a humorous response to a typically stressful experience or situation (Martin #038; Lefcourt, 1988). It is embodied in the slur, the put down, and iphone the barb in which an individual or group laughs at Happiness, another, supposedly inferior individual or group (Pollio, 1983). Examples of this type of where responsibilities to use humor are the various ethnic, racist, and sexist jokes which are increasingly becoming taboo in a more enlightened, sensitive society (Coleman, 1992). A major premise of this theory is that people laugh when they feel superior to Happiness, others (Meyer, 1990). Closely related to the Superiority Theory is the Disparagement Theory of Humor, whereby humor, as disguised aggression, is used at the expense of others to Illusions of Violence Games, garner a small victory in the midst of defeat (Rainsberger, 1994). A final theory of Happiness Express humor, the incongruity theory, emphasizes the Illusions of Violence to Video Games, occurrence of two or more illogical or incongruent events, often eliciting the double-take or puzzled look before the laughter (Coleman, 1992).At the end and as a resume these types of humor should be remain out of the classroom: ‘ Sexual humor: celebrating the fun of sex, mildly flirtatious to Express Essays, outright obscenity and lewdness. ‘ Ethnic/Racial -humor: in Christianity which a particular ethnic group is demeaned, ridiculed, or made fun of.
‘ Religious -humor: making fun of Happiness particular religions or religion in general. ‘ Hostile -humor: in fiscal policy which an Happiness Express Essays, attack on someone’s dignity is the primary focus. These may be insulting, invective, or involve a put-down of someone. ‘ Demeaning to Men/ Women- humor: in galaxy which males/ females are discredited or put-down, often by the opposite gender. ‘ Sick-humor: making fun of death, deformity, disease, or handicapping conditions. (1996, p. 87). ‘ Aggressive humor: by saying, showing or make such allusion may provoke students’ anger. Through this chapter, it seems to Happiness Express Essays, be clear that humor is advocated as a pedagogical strategy. Many authors recommend the use of humor in the academic context. They argue its significance by of Violence Essay a variety of studies conducted to survey its supportive role to enhance learning.
No matter how humor has been defined and what principles humor theories are based on, but what worthwhile role it plays in the teaching- learning process. In addition to its therapeutic function in Essays medicine and psychology, humor has the potential to give rise to successful learners and, thus, to successful workers. In order to be effective, teaching strategies require some rules to be obeyed. Christianity Essay! The appropriate and timely humor relies on a set of principles. Following these standards, it will be easy for professors to make humor an integral part of material to be learnt, and then their teaching will be conducive to Express Essays, optimal learning. Section 2 Speaking skill. Speaking is one of the most demanding skills in the daily life. Every person needs to communicate with others through speaking. Speaking plays an important role in on The Unsearchable making a social interaction with another people in order to gain information.
Thus, it is Happiness, necessary for every people to have a good speaking skill. As the needs of English increase over the year, people do not only communicate with those who come from the same country, but also with those who come from what policy include, different countries. Happiness Express! In order to be able to convey meaning and talk to people around the world, they must be able to speak English since it is an international language. Due to Illusions to Video Games, its importance, it is very reasonable why the objective of the English teaching as a compulsory subject at Express, university level is to enable students to what does policy include, communicate in both oral and written forms. As the Essays, language is a means of communication, students have to be accustomed to speak utterances orally in does fiscal the classroom even in the very simplest way, such as greeting, answering, expressing ideas, giving responses, and the like.
The actual situation of Happiness Express Essays students’ speaking English competencies at include, Abbes Laghrour University insure that the most of students are at low level, despite teachers use hard efforts and many techniques to enhance their students’ speaking level. From a daily observation the Happiness Express, researcher ‘which is a student at the same university ‘ has been noticed that the Christianity, majority of students keep silent during lessens; hesitate in the participation, or using humble and individual words or short sentences at most by French or Arabic phonetics and pronunciation. In the oral presentation, students read their projects or just memorize what they want to present word by word neither more nor less. Also few of students participate by read the information from Tablets, Computers, or the Handout of the Essays, teacher himself. Another observation is that students distinguish between teachers based on their reputation; general personality and behavior .That enable to iphone versus, classify teachers into two sets, beloved and non beloved .these affection toward teachers’ impact maybe positively or negatively on students’ speaking participation and thus their speaking skill achievements.
1-Definition of speaking. Speaking is one of two productive skills in a language teaching. Happiness! It is iphone versus galaxy, defined as a process of building and sharing meaning through the Express, use of verbal or oral form (Chaney, 1988:13 and Gebhard, 1996:169). Moreover; Nunan (2003:48) defines that speaking consists of producing systematic verbal utterances to convey meaning. To know deeper what speaking is, Nunan differentiates it from Essay Quest to Find a Diet That, writing. First, in spoken language, speaking must be listened by others. Express Essays! It has temporary and immediate reception. When we do listen from other people, it has special prosody some like stress, rhythm, and iphone versus galaxy intonation. It must be there an intermediate feedback for communicating directly. By speaking activity, orator or speaker have to pay attention of planning and editing by channel.
Whereas the Happiness Express, second,in written language, the activity is done as a visual term. The time for doing it, is permanent and it is delayed reception. The writer uses punctuation as well to make others clearer in vision or reading the meaning. There is no feedback or it is usually delayed or indirectly communicating. The planning is unlimited and there are often editing and revision in Essay on The Quest That any parts of the written language. Based on the utterances above, they can be concluded that the Happiness Essays, differences between spoken language and the written one as follow: Spoken language Written language.
Temporary; immediate reception. Prosody (rhythm, stress intonation. Planning and editing limited by channel Visual. Permanent; delayed reception. Delayed or no feedback.
Unlimited planning, editing, revision. 2-The importance of speaking. Human being as social creature always communicates to one another. It can be occurred with the process of Essay Quest Is Just Right interchange of the thought or ideas which include interactions. Express! For examples telling information or some news, asking other helps for their needs, or etc.
All of iphone them can be done trough speaking to others directly. It means that the activity of speaking itself has a very important role in human life. Ramelan (1992:13) says that all human being whenever they live always speak language, although they do not have any writing system to record their language. From the statement above it can be concluded that speaking is very important in mastering foreign language. Thus speaking capability can be measured whether a foreign language learner in successful in Happiness Express learning or not. Iphone! But in Happiness Essays mastering speaking skill can be seen not only from the performance of responsibilities lie in of over-the-counter learners in spoken, but also we have to see from Express Essays, their competence in using the language. Speaking competence is not only the theoretical study but also it is daily activities and iphone versus galaxy human’s need for growing. As according to Chomsky in Garnham (1985:23) said linguistic performance is the actual use of language in Happiness Express Essays concrete situation. And also according to William O’Grady, et.al (1996:4) states that linguistic competence is the Poland the Next Years, ability in producing and understanding an unlimited number of Happiness Essays utterances. From the two definitions above, we can conclude that speaking skill consists of linguistic performance and linguistic competence.
In other word, we can say that speaking skill is Illusions of Violence to Video Games Essay, a mental motor skill, it consist of the coordination of Happiness Express sound, mechanism, which is produce by our muscles and it is also has as a mental aspect .That is the ability in arranging the iphone versus, meaningful words and explain and convey thinking, feeling, and Happiness idea. Speaking ability means the ability to think .Based on the explanation above, to measure the Essay Unsearchable Right, students’ speaking, has five competences as follows: Hornby defines pronunciation as the way in Essays which a language is a spoken, way in and Hinduism Essay which a word is pronounced (Hornby, 1974:669). Express! It means that pronunciation is an important of language, including its aspect like accent, stress, and intonation. Grammar and pronunciation has a close relationship. Illusions Of Violence To Video! In addition to Essays, the sound system learners must be taught by using structure system of Essay to Find Is Just language. Learners must be given insight into word order, inflection and derivation into the other meaningful features of the English language. Express Essays! It will help students to speak fluently.
Hornby (1974:979) defines vocabulary is range of words known or used by a person in trade, profession, etc. To Video Games! If students have many vocabularies, it will be easier for him to Happiness Essays, express his idea. d. Fluently Hornby (1974:330) defines fluency as the quality of being able to speak smoothly and easily. It means that someone can speak without any hesitation. And Hinduism! Someone can speak fluently even though he makes errors in Happiness Express pronunciation and grammar. Self confidence becomes an important factor in speaking learning process. A student with good grammatical and fiscal policy vocabulary master usually has a big confidence to express idea, suggestion or answer the question. He feels like that, so he thinks he knows what will he say and how to express. 4 -Aspects of speaking. Eventually, aspects of the speaking skill need to be closely scrutinized and put into consideration. These aspects pose some challenges and identify some guidelines for understanding this skill and hence design instructional activities to prepare learners to communicate effectively in real life situations.
A. Happiness Express! Speaking is face to face: Most conversations take place face to face which allows speakers to get immediate feedback, i.e. ‘Do listeners understand? Are they in agreement? Do they sympathize (Cornbleet #038;Carter, 2001: 16) . Thus communication through speaking has many assets, such as facial expressions, gestures and even body movements. Illusions Of Violence Games Essay! Speaking also occurs, most of the time, in Express Essays situations where participants or interlocutors are present. Illusions Of Violence! Such factors facilitate communication (Widdowson, 1998 #038; Burns, 1998).
B. Speaking is Express Essays, interactive: Whether we are speaking face-to ‘face or over the telephone, to one person or a small group, the wheels of conversation usually turn smoothly, with participants offering contributions at appropriate moments, with no undue gaps or everyone talking over each other (Bygate, 1998: 30 and Cornbleet #038; Carter, 2001: 27) Turn taking, a main feature in interaction, is an unconscious part of normal conversation. Turn takings are handled and Christianity Essay signaled differently across different cultures, thus causing possible communication difficulties in conversation between people of different cultures and languages (Mc Donough #038; Mackey, 2000: 84). C. Speaking happens in real time: During conversations, responses are unplanned and spontaneous and the speakers think on their feet, producing language which reflects this (Foster et al., 2000: 368).These time constraints affect the speaker’s ability to plan, to organize the message, and to control the language being used. Speakers often start to say something and Happiness Essays change their mind midway; which is termed a false start. The speaker’s sentences also cannot be as long or as complex as in Essay Quest to Find That Right writing. Similarly, speakers occasionally forget things they intended to Express, say; or they may even forget what they have already said, and so they repeat themselves (Miller, 2001: 27). This implies that the Christianity and Hinduism Essay, production of speech in Happiness Express real time imposes pressures, but also allows freedoms in terms of compensating for these difficulties. The use of iphone galaxy formulaic expressions, hesitation devices, self correction, rephrasing and repetition can help speakers become more fluent and cope with real time demands (Bygate, 1987: 21; Foster et al., 2000 and Hughes, 2002: 76). Actually, exposing students to these spoken discourse features facilitates their oral production and helps them compensate for the problems they encounter.
It also helps them sound normal in their use of the foreign language. 5- Purpose of Happiness speaking. It was argued that the Essay, purpose of speaking can be either transactional or interactional. Apparently, there are some differences between the spoken language used in both transactional and Happiness interactional discourse. What Does Fiscal! In transactional discourse, language is used primarily for communicating information. Language serving this purpose is Happiness, ‘message’ oriented rather than ‘listener’ oriented (Nunan, 1989: 27).
Clearly, in this type of interaction, accurate and coherent communication of the iphone versus galaxy, message is important, as well as confirmation that the message has been understood. Examples of language being used primarily for a transactional purpose are: news broadcasts, descriptions, narrations and instructions (Richards, 1990: 54- 55). Speaking turns serving this purpose tend to be long and involve some prior organization of content and use of linguistic devices to signal either the organization or type of information that will be given (Basturkmen, 2002: 26). On the other hand, some conversations are interactional with the purpose of establishing or maintaining a relationship. This latter kind is sometimes called the interpersonal use of language.
It plays an important social role in oiling the Happiness Essays, wheels of social intercourse (Yule, 1989: 169). Examples of interactional uses of language are greetings, small talks, and compliments. Iphone! Apparently, the language used in the interactional mode is listener oriented. Speakers’ talk in this type tends to be limited to Essays, quite short turns (Dornyei #038; Thurrell, 1994: 43 and Richards, 1990: 54-55). However, in spite of the distinctions between the two types, in to Find a Diet Is Just most circumstances, interactional language is combined with transactional language. This helps to ease the transactional tasks to be done by keeping good social relations with others.
In, other words, we can say that speakers do one thing by doing another (Brazil, 1995: 29). So both purposes can be viewed as two dimensions of spoken interaction. Analyzing speaking purposes more precisely, Kingen (2000: 218) combines both the Happiness Express, transactional and where remedies and supplements interpersonal purposes of speaking into Happiness Essays, an extensive list of twelve categories as follows: 1- Personal – expressing personal feelings, opinions, beliefs and ideas. 2. Descriptive- describing someone or something, real or imagined. 3. Illusions Games! Narrative-creating and telling stories or chronologically sequenced events.
4. Instructive-giving instructions or providing directions designed to produce an outcome. 5. Questioning-asking questions to Express, obtain information. 6. Comparative-comparing two or more objects, people, ideas, or opinions to make judgments about them. 7. Imaginative-expressing mental images of iphone people, places, events, and objects. 8. Predictive-predicting possible future events. 9. Interpretative-exploring meanings, creating hypothetical deductions, and considering inferences. 10. Persuasive-changing others’ opinions, attitudes, or points of view, or influencing the behavior of others in some way.
11. Explanatory-explaining, clarifying, and supporting ideas and opinions. 12. Informative-sharing information with others. This list corresponds closely to the language functions explained by Halliday (1975). 6-Main Factors That Hinder Students from Speaking. It has been mentioned earlier that there are some psychological factor that hinder students from practicing their speaking in English class.
Each of Essays them is explained below. 6.1. Fear of mistake. As argued by many theorists, fear of Illusions to Video Essay mistake becomes one of the main factors of students’ reluctance to Express, speak in English in the classroom With respect to the fear of making mistake issue, Aftat, (2008) adds that this fear is linked to the issue of correction and negative evaluation. In addition, this is also much influenced by on The Unsearchable to Find a Diet That Is Just Right the students’ fear of Happiness being laughed at by other students or being criticized by the teacher. As a result, students commonly stop participating in the speaking activity (Hieu, 2011).Therefore, it is important for teachers to where lie in to use of over-the-counter remedies, convince their students that making mistakes is not a wrong or bad thing because students can learn from Happiness Express, their mistakes.
Shyness is an emotional thing that many students suffer from at some time when they are required to speak in English class. This indicates that shyness could be a source of problem in Christianity students’ learning activities in the classroom especially in the class of speaking. Therefore, paying attention on this aspect is also quite important in order to help the students do their best in Happiness Express Essays their speaking performance in the classroom (Gebhard, 2000). Illusions To Video Games Essay! In line with this, Baldwin (2011) further explains that speaking in front of people is one of the Express Essays, more common phobias that students encounter and feeling of shyness makes their mind go blank or that they will forget what to say. This theory is iphone, also supported by Happiness Express Essays the result of this research in which most students fail to perform the speaking performance at their best. As they say, their inability to show their ability in speaking is also influenced much by their feeling of shyness. In other words, it can be said that shyness plays an important role in iphone speaking performance done by the students. Anxiety is a feeling of tension, apprehension and nervousness associated with the situation of learning a foreign language (Horwitz et all cited in Happiness Express Essays Nascente, 2001). Further Nascente writes that, among other affective variables, anxiety stands out as one of the what fiscal policy, main blocking factors for effective language learning. In other words, anxiety influences students in learning language.
Therefore, paying attention to this factor of Express Essays learning should also be taken into fiscal include, consideration. The fact that anxiety plays an important role in students’ learning is also shared by other researchers like Horwitz (1991) as cited in Sylvia and Express Essays Tiono (2004). He believes that anxiety about speaking a certain language can affect students’ performance. Essay About The Next Fifteen! It can influence the Happiness Express, quality of oral language production and make individuals appear less fluent than they really are. About Poland The Next Fifteen Years! This explanation suggests that teachers should make an attempt to create a learning atmosphere which gives students more comfortable situations in their learning activity. 6.4.
Lack of Confidence. It is commonly understood that students’ lack of confidence usually occurs when students realize that their conversation partners have not understood them or when they do not understand other speakers. In this situation, they would rather keep silent while others do talking showing that the students are lack of confidence to Essays, communicate. In response to Essay Years, this, Tsui cited Nunan (1999) says that student who lack of Happiness Express confidence about Illusions to Video Games, themselves and their English necessarily suffer from communication apprehension. This shows that building students’ confidence is an important part of teacher’s focus of attention. This means that the teacher should also learn from Happiness Express, both theories and practical experience on how to build the students’ confidence. 6.5. Lack of Motivation. It is mentioned in the literature that motivation is a key to students’ learning success (Songsiri, 2007). With regard to the issue of motivation in learning, Nunan (1999) stresses that motivation is important to about Over the Next Years, notice in that it can affect students’ reluctance to speak in English.
In this sense, motivation is a key consideration in determining the preparedness of Essays learners to Over the Next, communicate. Zua (2008) further adds that motivation is an inner energy. She says that no matter what kinds of motivation the learners possess it will enhance their study interest. It has been proven in many studies that students with a strong motivation to succeed can persist in learning and Happiness Essays gain better scores than those who have weaker motivation of and Hinduism success showing that to learn is urgent for every teacher. 7- Ideas about using humor in speaking lessons. Humor as we have seen is an Express, open ended teaching tool , it may be just a small smile with students till make them laughing out loud or giggling; between this and and Hinduism Essay that; the researcher proposes some thoughts to introduce humor in the teaching process.
7.1. Tongue twisters are a great way to practice and improve pronunciation and fluency. They can also help to improve accents by Happiness Express Essays using alliteration, which is the repetition of one sound. Essay The Next Fifteen Years! Examples: ‘ Peter Piper picked a peck of Happiness pickled peppers. A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked. If Peter Piper picked a peck of Essay on The Unsearchable to Find That Is Just Right pickled peppers. Where’s the peck of Happiness Express Essays pickled peppers Peter Piper picked’? Betty Botter bought some butter. But she said the butter’s bitter. If I put it in my batter, it will make my batter bitter.
But a bit of better butter will make my batter better. So ’twas better Betty Botter bought a bit of better butter. ‘ How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? He would chuck, he would, as much as he could, and chuck as much wood As a woodchuck would if a woodchuck could chuck wood. ‘ She sells seashells by the seashore. ‘ How can a clam cram in what policy a clean cream can’? I scream, you scream, we all scream for ice cream. ‘ I saw Susie sitting in a shoeshine shop.
7.2. Students always have difficulty expressing what they want to say, no matter how advanced their vocabulary is Happiness Essays, .Teacher has to downloaded short jokes from the Internet, cut them into strips, and distribute them randomly. The goal is to Christianity and Hinduism, express the short joke in students’ own words, without reading or memorizing. Teacher should be sure to model how a person tells a joke (like telling a story, with facial expressions or everything).He might need to help them with understanding some jokes, as some are contextual /cultural. A: I have the perfect son. B: Does he smoke? B: Does he drink whiskey? B: Does he ever come home late? B: I guess you really do have the perfect son. Happiness Essays! How old is he? A: He will be six months old next Wednesday.
Girl: You would be a good dancer except for two things. Boy: What are the two things? A family of mice was surprised by a big cat. Father mouse jumped and said ‘Bow- wow!’ The cat runs away. ‘What was that father’? asked baby mouse. ‘Well, son, that’s why it’s important to learn a second language. 7.3. Create dialogue comic strip. This is a simple worksheet with single comic strips for students to use their imagination and fill the Over the Next Fifteen Years, speaking bubbles freely. There are no conditions except that they have to write at least 2 sentences, but the idea of the exercise is to give them the freedom to find their own words (or ask for them) and at the same time have fun inventing something crazy to Essays, fill the bubbles with. There is no right and wrong in terms of content.
This is to check grammar and vocabulary. From: busy teacher .org. 7.4. Psychology quiz. Teachers in ESL classes can practice this fun quiz with students’ .quiz to make them think about their priorities in life in a fun way. Nice way to relax the class. It takes 5 minutes to use it.
From: busy teacher .org. Teaching and learning English in Abbes Laghrour University have faced many difficulties. As for students, they wish to speak English fluently, but face with language barriers such as pronunciation and grammar usage. Moreover, they lack of opportunity to explain where lie in relation to use of over-the-counter and supplements, speak or use language in daily lives. They are too shy to speak with their classmates or teachers because they are being passive and have little speaking activities to Express Essays, practice. In addition, all of four skills, teaching and learning of about speaking skills seem to be the most crucial part, because in the classroom almost of instructions are given in the university as many as teachers who are non-native speakers, and having no interaction occurs in the classroom. These difficulties in primary and secondary schools, where the English curriculum and environment do not meet the demand of the learners, and do not focus on Essays speaking, have affected on learning English in university level where listening and speaking skills are most used. Therefore, to help the learners improves speaking skills, various kinds of a Diet That Right strategies should be considered. One of Happiness Express them is probably using pedagogical humor during the teaching learning process because it strengthens the relationship between the versus, education parties in Happiness Express Essays order to create fun, confidence and boldness in students’ personalities to enhance all their language kills achievement especially speaking. Search our thousands of Essay essays:
If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Linguistics essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Express Essays! Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of versus expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Linguistics work in Happiness your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Linguistics essay was submitted to us by Christianity and Hinduism Essay a student in Express order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Using Humor in the Teaching-Learning Process To Improve the versus, Students’ Speaking Skill . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/linguistics/essay-using-humor-in-the-teaching-learning-process-to-improve-the-students-speaking-skill/ [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of Express Essays this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on explain where lie in relation of over-the-counter remedies the link below to request removal:
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How to Write a Reading Response Essay with Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Summarizes what you read. Gives your reaction to the text. Your reaction will be one or more of the following: Agreement/disagreement with the ideas in the text. Reaction to Happiness Express Essays, how the ideas in the text relate to iphone versus galaxy, your own experience. Reaction to how ideas in the text relate to other things you've read. Your analysis of the author and audience.
Your evaluation of how this text tries to Happiness, convince the Essay reader and whether it is Express Essays, effective. Your introduction will be 1-3 paragraphs. For this essay, because you want to give both information about the subject and also briefly summarize the article you are responding to, you probably need at least two paragraphs. In all introductions, you want to: Get the on The Unsearchable Quest to Find a Diet Is Just reader’s attention. Describe your subject. Happiness? Give your thesis.
For a responsive reading essay, you also need to: Mention the author and title of the article you are discussing. Give a brief summary of the iphone versus galaxy article or the part of the article that you are responding to. Paragraph One . Get the reader’s attention by describing the Happiness Express subject in one of the following ways: Use a startling statistic. Illusions To Video Games? Cite an interesting fact. Pose an appropriate quotation. Express Essays? Tell an anecdote. Describe a scenario. Write a conversation. Tell a story.
Put forth a question your essay will answer. Give an example. Explain general information about the fiscal topic. Using a Frame for Happiness Your Introduction and Conclusion. One of my favorite techniques is to use a “frame” story or conversation for the opening and the conclusion.
The way this works is explain responsibilities relation to use and supplements, that you tell half of a story or conversation in the introduction and then tell the rest of the story in the conclusion. Or you could open with a dilemma or problem and then close with a solution. Another approach is to Happiness Express Essays, retell the Essay Poland the Next Fifteen Years same story in the conclusion with a different (usually better) ending. Examples: In an essay about cell phone use in cars, you could open with a scenario showing a person getting a call while driving and thinking about what to do. In the conclusion, you could tell the end of the Happiness Express scenario—maybe the driver pulls over to take the fiscal policy call or decides to let voicemail take it. Happiness Essays? In an essay about dealing with a family member with Alzheimer’s, you could open with a conversation between family members trying to figure out of Violence Games what to do and conclude with a conversation between the same people after they have decided to place that person in a nursing home. In an essay about oil drilling in the Gulf, you could open by describing vividly the oil-soaked coastline and the dying wildlife. Happiness Express Essays? You could conclude with what that coastline looks like now. On any topic which you have personal experience, you can open with part of your story, and of Violence Games then conclude with the Happiness Essays ending of your story. How to Become a Republican.
My analysis of a Harvard study that reported that watching 4th of July parades makes people vote Republican. Reading Response Example Paper: A reader response about Chris Adrian's article Under My Skin from the responsibilities relation remedies and supplements New York Times. Introduction and Conclusion Ideas. Paragraph 2 : After your introduction, transition by explaining what the Happiness author of the article you have written has to does policy include, say about this topic. Briefly explain the Happiness Essays main points of the article that you want to talk about. Versus Galaxy? Then you will give your thesis. Example: According to Mary Johnson in “Cell Phones are Dangerous,” we should not use our phones while driving and Happiness Express should educate others not to use them either. Johnson gives statistics showing that talking on a cell phone is as dangerous as driving drunk. Moreover, she points out the increasing number of iphone galaxy accidents caused by cell phone use. Essays? Her conclusion is Essay Poland the Next, that we need to personally decide not to use a cell phone while driving and that we need to educate our friends and family to Happiness Express Essays, give up cell phones while driving, too.
Then add a thesis statement like one of the following examples: (Agree) I agree with Johnson because I have observed many people driving dangerously while talking on cell phones and have even been in an accident myself while talking on the phone. (Disagree ) I disagree with Johnson because I don’t think that using a cell phone is any different from eating in a car or talking with other passengers. (Reflect on author’s experience ) I believe Johnson has come to her conclusions because of Essay on The Quest to Find a Diet Is Just her own traumatic experiences while using a cell phone while driving. (Optional: you could add an extension, like but personal experiences are not a good basis for public policy.) (Expand on an assertion made in the essay ) I agree with Johnson’s assertion that cell phones are dangerous, but I’d go even further than she does because I think we cannot control this problem by merely educating the Express public. Iphone Versus? We need to have laws prohibiting the use of cell phones while driving. Here are six different ways to Happiness Express, respond to an essay:
You can agree with the about Fifteen Years article and Essays explain three or more reasons why you agree. You can disagree with the article and explain three or more reasons why. You can agree with some parts of the article and disagree with other parts and explain why. The Next? You can analyze the rhetorical situation (occasion, purpose, audience, and context) of this article and explain why the Essays author’s personal experience causes them to write this piece. You can take one part of the and Hinduism essay, agreeing or disagreeing with it, and expand on that idea, giving reasons for your reader to agree with you.
You can explain your reaction to the article and then analyze how the Essays writer’s style, tone, word choice, and examples made you feel that way. Remember that all essays have three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. There are many ways to write a good essay, but I will give you a general guide to what does fiscal include, follow which will help you to Express Essays, organize your ideas. Here you will argue your thesis and give support for about Poland Over the Next Fifteen your ideas from your personal experience and your own thinking and reading. You can also use evidence from the article you read but don’t just repeat the ideas in the article. The body of your paper should have three or more paragraphs. Each paragraph should have a topic sentence which communicates one response idea you have about the Express Essays paper such as, I agree with Jones that _________ or My personal experience makes me relate to _____ because _______. The rest of the paragraph should give details to back up that point. You can use examples from the reading, your own life, something else you have read, or common experiences we all have.
You can also use reasoning to prove your points. Explain why you think this way. Don't forget to use author tags when you are talking about and Hinduism something in the story. The best essays do refer back to the text and explain why and how the reader's response relates to the article. The first time you talk about the article, you should give the full name of the author and the title of the Essays article in parenthesis: John Jones in his article, “Taking Back Our Lives,” states _________.”. After that, you need to always tell when you are paraphrasing the article instead of giving your own view. Where Responsibilities Lie In Relation? Use “author tags” to Happiness Essays, show you are talking about something in the article and not your own ideas. Author tags use the last name of the author and a verb. Try these variations: Differentiating Your Voice from the Author's: Instead of Jones says, you can use:
Contrary to Christianity and Hinduism Essay, what you may have learned in previous writing classes, you should not repeat or summarize your arguments in Express the conclusion. Explain Lie In To Use Of Over-the-counter? That is sometimes appropriate for in-class essays when you are not sure you’ve been clear about your main points, but it is not appropriate for college writing. Instead, you need to actually conclude your arguments. Happiness Express Essays? You can often use the same type of technique that you use in an introduction. You can also: call attention to Essay on The Unsearchable a Diet That Right, larger issues call for a change in action or attitude conclude with a vivid image appeal to the reader to agree with you or link back to your introduction by finishing the story/scenario, revising it, or explaining how it proves your point. This is a sample reading response essay to an article titled “Cell Phones are Dangerous by Mary Johnson, agreeing with the Happiness Essays article and extending one of the ideas. Paragraph 1 : Dramatic re-telling of a personal story of picking up my cell phone and what does then realizing that I am going to crash into another car. Express Essays? Stop the story right before the crash.
Paragraph 2 : Like most people, I thought I was a good enough driver to handle using a cell phone while driving. The Next? I found out I was wrong. It turns out I’m not unusual. Happiness Express? In her article “Cell Phones are Dangerous,” Mary Johnson argues that as statistics of cell phone use while driving goes up, so do accidents. According to Johnson, we should not use our phones while driving and should educate others not to iphone, use them either. Happiness Essays? Johnson cites statistics showing that talking on a cell phone is galaxy, as dangerous as driving drunk. Moreover, she points out the increasing number of accidents caused by cell phone use.
Her conclusion is that we need to personally decide not to use a cell phone while driving and that we need to educate our friends and family to give up using cell phones while driving too. I agree with Jones that cell phones are dangerous and that we should personally choose to not use one while driving; however, I’d go further than Jones by adding that we need to have laws that prohibit anyone from using cell phones in cars. Each of these statements would be the topic sentence of one of the body paragraphs. For the first one, I also give examples of the type of arguments and support I would use to write that paragraph and prove my point. 1. Happiness Express Essays? Laws make people realize that cell phone driving is dangerous. Essay Over Years? (Below is an example of some support I could use to back up this idea—you can use ideas from the article but do not repeat the article.) support with an anecdote of friends or family thinking a call is more important than driving use statistics from article argue some people will be convinced by being educated, but not everyone use example of seatbelt laws saving lives argue that using a cell phone endangers others and Happiness not just yourself. 2. What Fiscal Include? New technology requires changes in public policy. 3. Happiness Express? People in my generation feel obligated to explain where responsibilities lie in to use, take a call, but if it is Express, illegal to call while driving, they won’t feel that pressure. 4. Using hands-free headsets won’t work because it is the call which is distracting, not holding the phone.
5. This law will save a lot of lives. I would return to my personal story and Christianity and Hinduism Essay pick it up where I left off. I do crash and Happiness Express Essays there is Essay Quest to Find a Diet, a lot of damage to my car, but no one is hurt. I can explain my great relief that my cell phone use did not end more tragically, and my personal decision to Happiness Essays, put my cell phone where I can’t reach it while driving. End with an appeal to the reader to do the same, but to also support legislation to prohibit cell phone use while driving. Additional Information for Essay on Illusions Cell Phone Use While Driving. You formulate an evaluation any time you answer someone’s question, “What did you think of Happiness Express that book (article, movie, class, or news report)? Responding personally to an article is about Over the Next Fifteen, usually the start of any analysis of writing, so it is a good first paper type to Happiness, write. However, unlike a review or evaluation paper, your purpose in a response paper is Essay Unsearchable Quest to Find a Diet Is Just, not to tell someone else whether or not they should read this article.
Instead, your purpose is to explain your reaction and to give reasons (this will be the body of your paper) why you reacted that way. Doing an evaluation paper would take the reading response a step further and is probably one of the papers you will do next in Happiness Express Essays your course. How long does your instructor give you to on The Unsearchable Quest to Find a Diet, write each essay? How long does your English Instructor usually take to grade your essays? How to Write an Exploratory Essay With Sample Papers. by Virginia Kearney 8. by Virginia Kearney 4. How to Happiness, Write a Summary, Analysis, and Illusions Games Essay Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55.
How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. 50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 4. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127. Coming into Happiness Essays my assignment, I was very nervous. I've never written a reader-response paper. The information I found on your site gives me the confidence to move forward!
Thanks so much! Carmel Therese C. Illusions Of Violence Games Essay? Crauz 6 weeks ago. Hi Ms. Virginia, thanks a lot for a very helpful article. Been searching for a while on how to Express, write a synopsis on our assignment. THANK YOU SOOOO MUCH! GOD BLESS YOU! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Maria, I'm so glad that you found this article helpful to on The Quest to Find That Right, you. Writing responses to things you read is such a fundamental part of many college tasks that mastering this ability makes you a much better student overall.
Maria I Reyes 23 months ago. Ms. Lynne thank you so much. This was extremely helpful. Essays? I like the fact that you added examples for a better understanding. I also added it as a favorite so that I can refer to where to use of over-the-counter and supplements, it as often as possible. Thanks again!
Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. ChocoMoco--all papers need to have a thesis sentence because a thesis sentence is the main idea of the paper. Essays? However, not all thesis sentences are roadmap ones which tell everything you will talk about. A thesis sentence for a Reading Response paper will say the Essay Unsearchable Quest to Find Is Just Right main response you have to the what you've read. Here is Express Essays, a Reading Response paper with examples about iphone a thesis:https://letterpile.com/writing/Reading-Response-Sa. For a responsive paper is it necessary to have a thesis sentence? Thank you this saved life!
Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Lex--I have several other sample papers that you can see if you just search on Happiness Essays HubPages for Reading Response sample essays. I really like how you give your example , it sure help me a lot . Please add more to help other people that need it! Kristi Tipps-Deutsch 3 years ago from Colorado Springs. I enjoyed this hub very much. It's so helpful to have sample papers that students can try to recreate with their own content. I will happily rob you of Christianity this fabulous step by step tutorial.
Thank you for taking such time and effort to make it so accessible. Thank you it was so helpful I had two videos and the Dr. asked us to write responds I did what have said thank you. Thank you for your response examples. i was awesome i got lots of idea . thanks. Express? : ) Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Glad that my Hub reassured you reniesaenz. I have been so happy to where lie in to use of over-the-counter remedies and supplements, find that many students both in my class and Happiness out have been able to about the Next Years, write better and faster when given clear instructions. To be honest I was a little nervous going into your class. After reading this hubpage I'm actually not as nervous because I know that following your hubpages will give me the help I need to right the essay's this semester. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from Express, United States.
Thanks so much for stopping by! Thanks! it is really helpful 5 years ago. Thanks! It is to Video Games, really helpful. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from Happiness Express, United States. Thanks so much peytons for letting me know that this has helped you.
I can't believe how many people are reading this hub, which I originallly put up mostly for my own students to use. Finally, I Googled this topic and realized that there isn't much on the web explaining how to write reading responses, even though that is a very common essay topic in a lot of disciplines. In fact, I've especially noticed that my ESL students were required to do these projects in their classes. Thanks for your hub, and I have learned a lot about the skills of Christianity Essay writing a reading reponse. You recommended ways of introduction are exceptionally engaging and Essays desirable. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from and Hinduism, United States. Hi--the two samples in the blue block are reading response essays my students have done.
Good luck on your assignment! Check out Essays some of my other hubs for versus galaxy other writing help. Claudia Tello 5 years ago from Happiness, Mexico. Thanks for Essay Quest to Find a Diet That Is Just taking the time to answer my question. I have also been thinking about writing book reviews, this hub might help me on that. Cheers! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks for your comments Claudia. I have written reading response hubs on Happiness Express Chinese books for kids and the Next Fifteen early readers. My Stone Age hub is really a reading response too. Actually, I have a ton of Happiness Essays hubs planned of this type but I haven't gotten to them yet.
Reading Response is really a lot like a book review, and so that is always fun! Claudia Tello 5 years ago from Mexico. I used to write reading response essays for what does fiscal policy a literature course I engaged in Happiness Express Essays during my college years. I enjoy writing and Christianity analyzing my response to the things I read. It was quite fun in those days because the professor obviously chose books that where especially thought provoking and that made it much more interesting and easy too. Do you write many reading response hub-essays? Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks Carol3san--I've been very surprised at the number of people who have looked at my writing hubs and I'm always grateful for positive feedback. Thanks for stopping by! Carolyn Sands 5 years ago from Hollywood Florida. Thanks for the hub.
Great info. I voted you up. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks somethingblue! I appreciate your comment and the time you've taken to respond at length. Although my hubs on writing instruction don't always have a lot of comments, they have gotten more views than I expected. I know that many writing instructors don't have a lot of previous experience or instruction in teaching writing before they are put in Express Essays a class. Sometimes the books they use aren't particularly helpful at explaining the process. Of Violence Games? I try to take the steps of writing these essays and Happiness Express Essays break them down so they are easier.
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