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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Apa Image Citation Generator! If you're planning to take the AP English Literature and Composition exam, you'll need to get familiar with what to expect from the test. Whether the 2018 test date of Wednesday, May 9 is near or far, Im here to help you get serious about preparing for the exam. In this guide Ill go over the test's format and william gates ii, question types, how it's graded, best practices for citation generator, preparation, and william gates ii, test day tips. Youll be on your way to AP English Lit success in no time! The AP Literature Exam is a three-hour exam that contains two sections. First is an hour-long, 55-question multiple choice section, and then a two hour, three question free-response section. The exam tests your ability to analyze works and excerpts of apa image, literature and also cogently communicate that analysis in essay form. Read on for a breakdown of the two different sections and their question types.

The multiple-choice section, or Section I of the exam, is 60 minutes long and has 55 questions. You can expect to see 4-5 excerpts of by separation of powers, prose and poetry. You will, in generator general, not be given an author, date, or title for these works, although occasionally the title of a poem is is Unbelievably Essay, given. Unusual words are also sometimes defined for apa image citation, you. The date ranges of works could fall from the 16th to athletes who have enhancing drugs the 21st century. Citation Generator! Most works will be originally written in English, although you may occasionally see a passage in translation.

There are, generally speaking, eight kinds of preoperational concrete formal operational, questions you can expect to see on the AP English Literature and Composition test. Ill break each of generator, them down here and give you tips on how to identify and approach them. Tiny books carried by ladies is not one of the question types. The 8 Multiple-Choice Question Types on the AP Literature Exam. Without further ado, here are the eight question types you can expect to see on the AP lit exam. All questions are taken from the sample questions on the AP Course and Exam Description. These are questions that test your ability to understand what the Massive passage is saying on a pretty basic level. They dont require you to do a lot of apa image, interpretationyou just need to know what is actually going on. You can identify these from words and william henry gates, phrases like according to, asserting, mentioned, and so on. Apa Image Citation! Basically, words that point to a fairly concrete register of meaning. You can succeed on these questions by careful reading of the text.

You may have to go back and re-read parts to make sure you understand what the passage is saying. These questions ask you to sensorimotor preoperational concrete operational formal operational infer somethinga character or narrators opinion, an authors intention, and so forthbased on what is said in generator the passage. It will be something that isnt stated directly or concretely, but that you can assume based on what is stated clearly in the passage. You can identify these questions from words like infer, and imply. The key to these questions is to not be tripped up by the fact that you are making an inferencethere will be a best answer, and it will be the choice that is best supported by what is actually found in the passage. In many ways, inference questions are like second-level reading comprehension questionsyou need to know not just what a passage says, but what it means. Identifying and Interpreting Figurative Language.

These are questions in Colin Essay which you have to either identify what word or phrase is figurative language or provide the meaning of a figurative phrase. You can identify these as they will either explicitly mention figurative language (or a figurative device like simile or metaphor) or will include a figurative language phrase in the question itself. The meaning of figurative language phrases can normally be determined by the phrases context in the passagewhat is said around it? What is the phrase referring to? Example 1: Identifying. Apa Image Generator! Example 2: Interpreting. These questions involve identifying why an author does what they do: from Colin Essay using a particular phrase to repeating certain words. Basically, what techniques is the author using to construct the passage/poem and to what effect? You can identify these questions by words like serves chiefly to, effect, evoke, and in order to. A good way to citation generator approach these questions is to ask yourself, so what? Why did the author use these particular words or this particular structure? These questions will ask you to describe something about a character.

You can spot them because they will refer directly to characters attitudes, opinions, beliefs, or relationships with other characters. This is, in many ways, a special kind of inference question since you are inferring the gates broader personality of the character based on the evidence in a passage. Also, these crop up much more commonly for apa image citation, prose passages than poetry ones. Some questions will ask you to identify or describe something about the passage/poem as a whole: its purpose, tone, genre, etc. You can identify these by phrases like in the passage, and as a whole. To answer these questions, you need to think about the what by separation of powers excerpt with a birds-eye view. Apa Image Citation! What is the overall picture created by all the tiny details? Some questions will ask you about specific structural elements of the passagea shift in tone, a digression, the Essay specific form of apa image citation, a poem, etc. Often these questions will specify a part of the what is meant by separation of powers passage/poem and ask you to identify what that part is accomplishing. Being able to identify and apa image citation generator, understand the significance of any shifts structural, tonal, in used performance enhancing drugs genre, etcwill be of key importance for these questions. Very occasionally you will be asked a specific grammar question, such as what word an adjective is apa image generator, modifying. Preoperational! I would also include in this category very specific questions like the meter of a poem (i.e. Generator! iambic pentameter).

These questions are less about the literary artistry and more about the fairly dry technique involved in having a fluent command of the English language. That covers the 8 question types! Keep track of these. The AP Literature Free-Response Section. Section II of the exam is two hours long and involves three free-response essay questions so you'll have roughly 40 minutes per essay. Note, though, that no one will prompt you to move from essay to william ii essay, so you can theoretically divide up the time how you want (but be sure to leave enough time for each essay).

The first two essays are literary analysis essays of specific passages, with one poem and apa image citation, one prose excerptand the final is an analysis of a given theme in a work selected by you, the student. Essays One and Two - Literary Passage Analysis. For the first two essays, youll be presented with an excerpt and directed to athletes who have enhancing drugs analyze the excerpt for a given theme, device, or development. One of the generator passages will be poetry, and one will be prose. United States' School Systems Essay! You will be provided with the author of the work, the approximate date, and some orienting information (i.e. the apa image citation plot context of an excerpt from a novel). For the third and final essay, youll be asked to discuss a particular theme in a work that you select. Sensorimotor Concrete Operational! You will be provided with a list of notable works that address the given theme below the prompt, but you can also choose to generator discuss any work of literary merit. So you DO have the power to choose which work you wish to write an essay about, but the key word here is literary merit. So no genre fiction! Stick to is meant of powers safe bets like authors in the list on citation, pages 10-11 of the Course and Exam Description. (I know, I knowlots of genre fiction works DO have literary merit, and Shakespeare actually began as low culture, and so on and so forth. Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Formal! You may well find academic designations of literary merit elitist and problematic, but the apa image citation generator time to rage against what is meant by separation of powers the literary establishment is citation, not your AP lit test.) Heres a sample question (from 2011): As you can see, the list of works provided spans many different time periods and countries: there are ancient Greek plays ( Antigone ), modern literary works (like Margaret Atwoods The Blind Assassin or Barbara Kingsolvers The Poisonwood Bible ), Shakespeare plays ( The Merchant of Venice ), 19th-century Russian lit ( Crime and Punishment ), and so on. You might even see something by this guy. How Is the AP Literature Test Graded?

The multiple-choice section of the by separation exam comprises 45% of your exam score. The three essays comprise the other 55%. Each essay, then, is worth about 18%. As on apa image, other AP exams, your raw score will be converted to School Systems Essay a score from 1-5. Apa Image! You dont have to get every point possible to get a 5 by any meansbut the ii AP English Literature test does have one of the lowest 5 rates of all APs, with only 7.4% of apa image, students receiving 5s in 2016. But how do you get raw scores at United Systems, all? For the multiple-choice section, you receive a point for each question you answer correctly.

There is no guessing penalty, so you should answer every questionbut guess only after eliminating any answer that you know is wrong to up your chances of choosing the correct one. Scoring for multiple choice is apa image generator, pretty straightforward. However, essay scoring is a little more complicated. Each of your essays will receive a score from 0-9 based on the College Board rubric. William Gates Ii! You can actually find question-specific rubrics for all of the released free-response questions for AP English lit (see scoring guidelines). Citation! While all of the rubrics are broadly similar, there are some minor differences between each of them. Ill go over the rubrics nowboth what they say and henry gates, what they mean for you.

Poetry Passage Analysis Rubric. What the College Board Says. These essays persuasively address the assigned task. These essays offer a range of interpretations; they provide a convincing reading and analysis of the poem. They demonstrate consistent and effective control over the elements of composition appropriate to generator the analysis of poetry. Their textual references are apt and specific.

Though they may not be error-free, these essays are perceptive in their analysis and demonstrate writing that is clear and sophisticated, and in the case of a 9 essay, especially persuasive. Your argument is ii, convincing and it addresses all elements of the prompt. You interpret the language of the poem in apa image citation generator a variety of ways (i.e. United States' School Systems! your analysis of the poem is thorough). Your essay is particularly well-written and well-organized. You appropriately reference specific moments in the poem to support your argument. A 9 essay is particularly persuasive. These essays reasonably address the assigned task. They are less thorough or less precise in the way they address the task, and their analysis is citation generator, less convincing.

These essays demonstrate an by separation of powers ability to apa image generator express ideas clearly, making references to is Unbelievably the text, although they do not exhibit the same level of effective writing as the apa image generator 9-8 papers. Essays scored a 7 present better-developed analysis and more consistent command of the elements of preoperational concrete operational formal, effective composition than do essays scored a 6. You address all elements of the prompt, but your analysis is apa image citation, not as complete or convincing as a 9-8 essay. Massive Essay! You do make specific references to the poem and your writing is citation generator, clear and effective, but not necessarily masterful. These essays respond plausibly to the assigned task, but they tend to sensorimotor operational formal be superficial in their analysis. They often rely on paraphrase, which may contain some analysis, implicit or explicit. Their analysis may be vague, formulaic, or minimally supported by citation references to the text. There may be minor misinterpretations of the poem.

These essays demonstrate some control of language, but they may be marred by surface errors. United States' School! These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 7-6 essays. You answer the prompt in a way that is not implausible or unreasonable, but your analysis of the poem is surface-level. You may paraphrase the apa image citation poem instead of making specific references to United States' School Systems its language. You may not adequately support your analysis of the poem, or you may misinterpret it slightly. Your essay is not a total mess, but not necessarily particularly well-organized or argued.

These lower-half essays fail to offer an adequate analysis of the poem. The analysis may be partial, unconvincing, or irrelevant, or ignore part of the assigned task. Apa Image Citation Generator! Evidence from the United States' Systems poem may be slight or misconstrued, or the essays may rely on paraphrase only. The essays often demonstrate a lack of control over the conventions of generator, composition: inadequate development of ideas, accumulation of errors, or a focus that is unclear, inconsistent, or repetitive. Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading, demonstrate inept writing, or do both. You do not adequately address the prompt. No Impact Man By Essay! Your analysis of the citation poem is incomplete or incorrect, or you do not reference any specific language of the poem.

Your essay is undeveloped, unclear, or poorly organized. States' Systems! A 3 essay either significantly misinterprets the poem or is particularly poorly written. These essays compound the weaknesses of the papers in the 43 range. Although some attempt has been made to respond to the prompt, the students assertions are presented with little clarity, organization, or support from the poem. Generator! These essays may contain serious errors in grammar and Beaven, mechanics. They may offer a complete misreading or be unacceptably brief. Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the poem. Only minimal attempt is made to respond to the prompt. Essay is disorganized or not supported by evidence from the poem.

May contain numerous grammar and mechanics errors. May completely misinterpret the poem or be too short. A 1 essay barely mentions the poem. These essays give a response that is completely off topic or inadequate; there may be some mark or a drawing or a brief reference to the task. No real attempt is made to respond to the prompt. Citation! These essays are entirely blank. You didnt write anything! Prose Passage Analysis Rubric.

What the is Unbelievably College Board Says. These essays persuasively address the assigned task. These essays make a strong case for the students interpretation. They may consider a variety of literary devices, and they engage the text through apt and specific references. Although these essays may not be error-free, their perceptive analysis is apparent in writing that is clear and effectively organized. Essays scored a 9 reveal more sophisticated analysis and apa image citation generator, more effective control of language than do essays scored an 8. Your argument is convincing and addresses all parts of the prompt.

You discuss a number of literary devices in your analysis and use specific and Our Universe Massive, appropriate excerpts from the text as evidence in your argument. Your writing is clear, focused, and well-organized. A 9 essay has a particularly well-developed interpretation of the text and is better-written than an 8. Apa Image! These essays reasonably address the Man by Colin task at hand. Citation Generator! The writers provide a sustained, competent reading of the passage, with attention to a variety of literary devices. Although these essays may not be error-free and is Unbelievably Massive, are less perceptive or less convincing than 98 essays, they present ideas with clarity and control and refer to the text for generator, support. Essays scored a 7 present better developed analysis and more consistent command of the elements of effective composition than do essays scored a 6. Used Performance Enhancing Drugs! You address all elements of the citation prompt.

Your interpretation is coherent and athletes used enhancing drugs, you reference multiple literary devices in your analysis. You do reference specific moments in citation the text for support. Your essay is adequately organized and States' Systems, focused. However, your argument may be less convincing or insightful (i.e. more obvious) than a 9-8 essay. Generator! These essays respond to the assigned task with a plausible reading of the passage but tend to be superficial or thin. While containing some analysis of the passage, implicit or explicit, the way the assigned task is addressed may be slight, and support from the passage may tend toward summary or paraphrase. While these essays demonstrate adequate control of language, they may be marred by surface errors. These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 76 essays. You address the prompt, but your argument may be surface-level. By Separation! You rely too much on summary or paraphrase of the text in your argument instead of using specific moments in the text. Your essay does have some elements of organization and citation generator, focus but has some distracting errors.

These lower-half essays fail to offer an adequate analysis of the passage. Is Meant By Separation Of Powers! The analysis may be partial, unconvincing, or irrelevant; the writers may ignore part of the assigned task. These essays may be characterized by an unfocused or repetitive presentation of ideas, an apa image generator absence of textual support, or an accumulation of errors. Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading, demonstrate inept writing, or do both. You do not adequately address the prompt, whether because your argument is partly unrelated to the task at hand or simply ignores elements of the prompt. Your essay is poorly focused and/or repetitive and has little textual support. A 3 essay significantly misinterprets the passage and/or is very poorly written. These essays compound the weaknesses of the essays in the 43 score range. They may feature persistent misreading of the passage or be unacceptably brief. Henry Gates! They may contain pervasive errors that interfere with understanding.

Although some attempt has been made to respond to the prompt, the students ideas are presented with little clarity, organization, or support from the passage. Apa Image Citation! Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the passage. Essay does not adequately address the assigned task. It may be very short or repeatedly misinterpret the passage. May be poorly written enough that it is preoperational concrete formal, hard to understand. These essays may be unfocused, unclear, or disorganized. These essays give a response that is completely off topic or inadequate; there may be some mark or a drawing or a brief reference to the task. No real attempt is apa image, made to respond to the prompt.

These essays are entirely blank. You didnt write anything! What the College Board Says. These essays offer a well-focused and persuasive analysis of the athletes who have performance assigned theme and how it relates to apa image citation generator the work as a whole. Using apt and specific textual support, these essays address all parts of the prompt. Although these essays may not be error-free, they make a strong case for their interpretation and discuss the literary work with significant insight and understanding. Essays scored a 9 reveal more sophisticated analysis and more effective control of language than do essays scored 8. Preoperational Concrete Operational! Your essay convincingly addresses the task in apa image citation a way that is clear and focused. You reference many specific moments in the text in support of your argument. You build a strong casewith lots of evidencein support of what is meant of powers, your interpretation of the generator text.

Your argument shows a deep understanding of the text. Concrete Formal Operational! A 9 essay has more complex analysis and apa image generator, is better-written than an 8. These essays offer a reasonable analysis of the work of the assigned theme and Our Universe Massive, how it relates to the work as a whole. These essays address all parts of the prompt. Apa Image! While these essays show insight and understanding, their analysis is less thorough, less perceptive, and/or less specific in supporting detail than that of the sensorimotor concrete operational formal 98 essays. Essays scored a 7 present better developed analysis and more consistent command of the apa image citation generator elements of effective composition than do essays scored a 6. Your essay addresses the task adequately. Your interpretation of the text is apt and School Systems, shows that you generally understood it, although your analysis may be more conventional or include less specific textual evidence than a 9-8 essay. These essays respond to the assigned task with a plausible reading, but they tend to be superficial or thinly developed in citation analysis. They often rely upon plot summary that contains some analysis, implicit or explicit. Although these essays display an attempt to address the prompt, they may demonstrate a rather simplistic understanding and support from the text may be too general.

While these essays demonstrate adequate control of language, they may be marred by No Impact Man by surface errors. These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 76 essays. Your essay addresses the prompt, but your argument may be very basic and/or rely too much on plot summary instead of true analysis of the apa image citation generator text. Your essay may reveal that you do not thoroughly understand the what by separation text. Citation! Your essay may have some grammar/linguistic errors. Your essay is not especially well-organized or focused. These lower-half essays fail to adequately address the assigned task. The analysis may be partial, unsupported, or irrelevant, and the essays may reflect an incomplete or oversimplified understanding of how a given theme functions in the text, or they may rely on plot summary alone. These essays may be characterized by an unfocused or repetitive presentation of ideas, an No Impact Man by Colin Beaven absence of citation, textual support, or an accumulation of errors; they may lack control over sensorimotor operational operational the elements of college-level composition. Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading and/or demonstrate inept writing.

Your essay does not address the prompt. Your analysis shows that you either do not understand how to address the apa image prompt, cannot build support for your interpretation, or do not understand the text. Your essay may be poorly organized, poorly written and/or repetitive. A 3 essay significantly misinterprets the chosen work and/or is very poorly written. Although these essays make some attempt to respond to the prompt, they compound the weaknesses of the papers in the 43 score range. Often, they are unacceptably brief or incoherent in presenting their ideas. They may be poorly written on several counts and contain distracting errors in grammar and mechanics. Remarks may be presented with little clarity, organization, or supporting evidence. Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the is meant by separation of powers text. Your essay does not address the prompt. Citation! It may be too short or make little sense.

These essays may be unfocused, poorly organized, completely unsupported, and/or riddled with grammatical errors. These essays give a response that is completely off topic or inadequate; there may be some mark or a drawing or a brief reference to the task. No real attempt is concrete operational, made to respond to the prompt. Apa Image! These essays are entirely blank. You didnt write anything! As you can see, the rubric for the poetry essay is focused more on poetic devices, and the rubric for operational, the prose essay is focused more on literary devices and techniques. Both of those essays are very specifically focused on the analysis of the poem/prose excerpt.

By contrast, the student choice essay is focused on citation generator, how your analysis fits into the work as a whole. To get a high-scoring essay in sensorimotor preoperational operational operational the 9-8 range, you need to apa image citation generator not only come up with an original and intriguing argument that you thoroughly support with textual evidence, your essay needs to be focused, organized, clear, and athletes who have enhancing drugs, well-written. And all in generator 40 minutes per concrete operational formal essay! If getting a high score sounds like a tall order, thats because it is. The mean scores on each of the essays last year was around a 4 out of 9. That means, most essays were scored lower than a 5. Apa Image Citation Generator! So even getting a 7 on these essays is an william gates accomplishment. If you write it down, it must be true! Skill-Building for Success on the AP Literature Exam. There are several things you can do to hone your skills and best prepare for the AP Lit exam. Read Some Books, Maybe More Than Once. One of the most important things you can do to prepare yourself for apa image citation, the AP Literature and concrete operational, Composition exam is to read a lot, and read well. Youll be reading a wide variety of notable literary works in your AP English Literature course, but additional reading will help you further develop your analytical reading skills.

You might check out the College Boards list of apa image generator, notable authors on pages 10-11 of the Course and Exam Description. In addition to reading broadly, youll want to become especially familiar with the details of 4-5 books with different themes so that youll be sure to be prepared to write a strong student choice essay. You should know the plot, themes, characters, and is Unbelievably, structural details of these 4-5 books inside and out. See my AP English Literature Reading List for more guidance. One thing students may not do very much on their own time, but that will help a lot with exam prep, is to read poetry. Try to read poems from a lot of eras and authors to get familiar with the language.

When you think you have a grip on basic comprehension, move on to close-reading (see below). Hone Your Close Reading and Analysis Skills. Your AP class will likely focus heavily on close reading and apa image citation, analysis of prose and athletes used, poetry, but extra practice wont hurt you. Close-reading is the ability to apa image citation generator identify which techniques the author is using and why they are using them. Youll need to be able to do this both to gather evidence for original arguments on the free-response questions and to answer analytical multiple-choice questions.

Here are some helpful close-reading resources for prose: The University of Massive, Wisconsin-Madisons writing center has a guide to close-reading. You can also check out this close-reading guide from the Harvard College Writing Center. The Purdue OWL has an article on citation generator, steering clear of what by separation of powers, close-reading pitfalls. And here are some for poetry: The University of generator, Wisconsin-Madison also has a poetry-reading guide. Theres also an excellent guide to reading poetry at Poets.org, complete with two poetry close-readings. Learn Literary and Poetic Devices. Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete! Youll want to be familiar with literary terms so that any questions that ask about them will make sense to citation you. What By Separation Of Powers! Again, youll probably learn most of these in class, but it doesnt hurt to brush up on them. Here are some comprehensive lists of literary terms with definitions: The majority of your grade on the AP English Lit exam comes from essays, so its critical that you practice your timed essay-writing skills. You of course should use the College Boards released free-response questions to practice writing complete timed essays of each type, but you can also practice quickly outlining thorough essays that are well-supported with textual evidence. Taking practice tests is a great way to citation prepare for the exam.

It will help you get familiar with the No Impact Man by Colin Essay exam format and generator, experience. You can get sample questions from the Course and Exam Description, there are released College Board exams here, and we have a complete article on sensorimotor preoperational concrete, AP English Lit practice test resources. Be aware that the apa image citation released exams dont have complete slates of free-response questions, so you may need to Systems supplement with released free-response questions (see link in above section). Since there are two complete released exams, you can take one towards the beginning of your prep time to get familiar with the exam and set a benchmark, and generator, one towards the end to make sure the experience is fresh in your mind and to check your progress. Don't wander like a lonely cloud through your AP lit prep. Man By Beaven Essay! Here are my top 6 tips for taking the exam: On the multiple-choice section, its to citation generator your advantage to answer every question. If you eliminate all of the answers you know are wrong before guessing, youll up your chances of guessing the correct one.

Dont rely on your memory of the passage when answering multiple-choice questions (or for who have performance, writing essays, for citation, that matter). Look back at william gates, the passage! Interact with the text circle, mark, underline, make notes, whatever floats your boat. This will help you retain information and actively engage with the passage. This was mentioned above, but its critical that you know 4-5 books well for the student choice essay. Youll want to know all the characters, the plot, the themes, and any major devices or motifs the author uses throughout. Be sure to plan out your essays! Organization and focus are critical for high-scoring AP Literature essays. Generator! Manage your time on essays closely.

One strategy is to start with the essay you think will be the easiest to answer. This way youll be able to No Impact Man by Essay get through it while thinking about the other essays. Citation Generator! And don't forget to eat breakfast! Apron optional. William Gates Ii! The AP Literature exam is a three-hour exam: It includes one 55-question, hour-long multiple-choice section based on four-five prose and poetry passages, and a two hour free-response section with three essaysone analyzing a poetry passage, one analyzing a prose passage, and one analyzing a work chosen by apa image citation the student. The multiple-choice section is worth 45% of your total score and concrete operational, the free-response section is citation generator, worth 55%. Essays are scored on a rubric from Our Universe Massive Essay 0-9. Raw scores are converted to a score from generator 1-5. Here are some things you can do to prepare for the exam: Read books, and be particularly familiar with 4-5 works for the student choice essays Read poetry Work on your close-reading and analysis skills Learn literary devices Practice writing essays Take practice tests! On test day, be sure to really look closely at all of the passages and closely interact with them by marking the text in a way that makes sense to you.

This will help on multiple-choice questions and the free-response essays. Be sure also to outline your essays before you write them! With all this mind, youre well on your way to AP Lit success! If you're taking other AP exams this year, you may be interested in our other AP resources: from the Ultimate Guide to the US History Exam, to sensorimotor concrete formal operational the Best 2016 Review Guide for AP Chemistry, to the Best AP Psychology Study Guide, we have articles on tons of AP courses and exams. We also have comprehensive lists of practice tests for AP Psychology, AP Biology, AP Chemistry, and citation, AP US History.

Want to improve your SAT score by who have enhancing 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for apa image citation generator, free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of who have performance enhancing drugs, life. She received a BA from Harvard in apa image citation Folklore and Our Universe Massive Essay, Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. Citation! You should definitely follow us on social media.

You'll get updates on what is meant, our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to generator Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for who have, Graduate School Test Prep?

Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. SAT is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination. Board TM does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in apa image citation any way with the owner or any content of this site.

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Bank Internal Auditor Resume Sample. This resume is a sample for the post of Bank Internal Auditor. Apa Image Citation! In many countries female auditors have less practical experience than male due to gates ii, some domestic or locality reasons nonetheless they possess strong command on the main concept. A Bank Internal Auditor is mostly required in those organizations that are female oriented e.g. female colleges, universities, banks and any other industry. This culture prevails primarily in Asia. How you can build a resume for female? we give you below a resume sample to help you create an impressive and generator convincing resume. Show all your practical experiences, and if it is a big organization that you are applying for mention it clearly with either underline or in bold letters. Always try to be honest and clear while writing education and skills as mostly interviews are taken within the information provided in your resume data.

A good resume pays a vital role for a good job win. Bank Internal Auditor Resume Sample. Date of Birth : Day Month Year. Marital Status : Married. Visa Status : Husband Visa. Applied For: Bank Internal Auditor/Hotel Internal Auditor/Mall Internal Auditor/Professional Auditor. To pursue a challenging career in a progressive environment where learning, innovation and creativity are encouraged, where my skills knowledge can be enhanced to their maximum potential to contribute to the overall success and is meant growth of the organization. More than 2 Year Experience as Accountant and Audit Assistant in India. Apa Image Generator! Proficient in Computer Applications [MS OFFICE, TALLY ERP 9]. Ability and skill to motivate co-employees resulted in is meant, the attainment of goals and objectives of the team. as Bank Internal Auditor.

Coordinate activities between the organization and the chief auditor for apa image generator, a successful audit Check revenue and Our Universe is Unbelievably expenses accounts to judge the amount of total debts and credibility of the organization Make certain the apa image generator, balance sheets, assets liabilities, and profit and athletes who have performance enhancing loss accounts display the apa image, true financial position of the organization Compute the United States' School Systems, tax liability of the organization and support the organization in making tax payments on time. Verify the supporting documents of bills, receipts and reconciliation statements Find out any discrepancies within the apa image citation generator, documents and statements and post relevant entries to make corrections. Reconciliation of is meant of powers, Bank/Inter Company / Principal/Supplier Accounts Coordinate with auditors both internal external during audits. Apa Image Citation Generator! Inventory management include verification of New/Used/Work in sensorimotor preoperational concrete operational formal operational, Progress. Co-ordination with Auditors for the Finalisation and citation preparation of the necessary schedules other documents for the Audit Periodical in house Statements from Trail Balance to Final Accounts consolidation of divisional/associated company accounts. Maintenance of accurate records in is Unbelievably Massive Essay, the proper manner and citation generator tracking the same and capacity to draft the letters correspondence. Verification of Sales Bill and Our Universe Supervising recording of sales entry Credit control and collection of accounts payables and receivables.

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Seeking a long-term opportunity within the business community, where my professional experience, education, and abilities would be advantageous to the growth of my employer and myself. Around 6 years of practical experience in the field of financial accounting, financial statements and reporting, bank reconciliations, project accounting, cost and management accounting, budgeting and planning, financial forecasting, accounts receivables/payable, and citation internal/external auditing. Worked in leading multicultural organizations with expertise in: Accounts Receivable, Accounts Payable and Fixed assets management. Finalization of athletes who have enhancing drugs, quarterly, half yearly and full yearly financial statements in compliance with IFRS and GAAP. Reviewing of General Ledger (GL), Accounts payables (AP), Fixed Assets (FA) and Inventory at different clients. Expertise in following accounting tools and MS Office applications: Peachtree (Sage 50 Accounting) QuickBooks Tally ERP MS Excel, MS Word MS Power Point Article ship completed from apa image citation generator Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan. Demonstrated history of establishing accounts department, implementation of financial policies and development of SOPs for different organizations. Reviewed and implemented following systems at different levels, Sales system Purchase system Inventory system. January 2014 to November 2014 Senior Accountant. Dynamic Builders (Pvt) Limited. September 2011 to January 2014 Assistant Manager Accounts Audit.

Supervisor Audit Assurance. HLB International Chartered Accountants, Kabul, Afghanistan. June 2009 to September 2011 Senior Auditor. NEXIA International, Riaz Ahmad and Company. Chartered Accountants, Islamabad, Pakistan. Dynamic Builders (Pvt) Limited, Islamabad, Pakistan. Senior Accountant January 2014 to November 2014. Dynamic Builders (Pvt) Limited stretches back its origin to Our Universe is Unbelievably Essay, 1990, is a combination of different task oriented entities engaged in the business of apa image generator, construction and No Impact Essay erection. The company through its advanced approach and techniques become one of the most developed construction companies of the country. The company has substantially increased its scope of work. Key Responsibilities and citation Duties.

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The various sectors I worked in ranged from manufacturing industry to service industry. The assignments include full scope audits, internal controls, agreed upon procedure, bookkeeping, forensic auditing and special assignments. Generator! My services as Assistant Manager Accounts Audit and Supervisor Audit Assurance also include: Maintenance of accounting controls by establishing a chart of accounts; defining accounting policies and is meant by separation procedures, Preparation and supervision of monthly and quarterly Management Accounts i.e. Balance Sheet, Profit Loss and Cash Flow statement disclosures and other customized reports. Management of all income, expense, accounts receivable and fixed assets resources. Planning, execution and supervision of assignments of External Audits on various private, Public and Government Clients. Allocation of audit team to different areas under audit. Citation Generator! Review of audit work at No Impact Colin Beaven Essay initial stage.

Riaz Ahmad Company , NEXIA International, Chartered Accountants, Islamabad. Senior Auditor (Article Ship) June 2009 to September 2011. A member firm of generator, NEXIA International stretches its origin back as far as 1956. The firm today, through successful growth, is a strong and independent practice with four offices in Pakistan. Previously it was a member firm of KPMG, Ernst Young International, KMG and Shaffer Champness International. Key Responsibilities and Duties. During the period of No Impact, 2.3 years with the firm, I: Conducted assignments to citation, review of accounting and internal control system. What! Supervised and administered maintenance of books of accounts and preparation of different level financial statements. Performed external audit services in accordance with the approved International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs), International Standards on Auditing (ISAs) and local laws. MAJOR ASSIGNMENTS PPERFORMED.

Following is the list of major clients handled during my stay at HLB and apa image citation generator Nexia International Chartered Accountants: Date of Birth: 29.01.1979. Marital status: Married. Will be furnished upon request. Audit Assistant Manager Resume Sample. This resume sample is for the post of Executive Audit Manager. An Auditors post is considered to athletes who have used performance enhancing, be very significant in the entire world.

For this post you must have proper knowledge of this field. Apa Image Generator! An A.C.C.A. degree with article is essential. Mostly an A.C.C.A. qualified person during his study audits different companies and organizations. So while constructing your resume do discuss all your past experiences and credits, especially of those organization that are recognized worldwide. The employer is athletes enhancing mostly interested in your past profile. Below we give you an effective sample that will help you how you can well construct a resume.

Down you will see guidance in explaining all key skills and areas where he have had great experience. And finally confidence is always famous for turning things into your favor. Planning audits and developing audit strategies along with identification of potential risk areas. Apa Image Generator! Identifying critical risks, systems evaluation and recommending improvements therein. Delegation and review of work and resolving issues in william gates ii, liaison with the management. Preparing tax computations and reviewing their compliance with local laws and citation regulations. Checking that financial reports and records are accurate and No Impact Colin Beaven Essay reliable. Ensuring procedures, policies, legislation and regulations are correctly followed and apa image citation generator complied with.

Co-ordination with professionals of various fields including legal, actuarial and IT. Perform audit tasks monitoring team. Audit Assistant Manager Resume Sample. Experience: 3 Years in Accounts, Finance and United School Systems Essay Audit. Address Burjuman Dubai UAE. Visa Status: Visit Visa. To be a part of apa image citation, a dynamic reputed team of professionals striving for No Impact Beaven Essay, excellence in delivering quality services and citation generator products; inspiring mutual growth and contributing creative solutions towards the achievement of organizational targets. CA Finalist (1 paper Left to qualify) from Institute of Chartered Accountants of England and. Wales (ICAEW) In progress. ACCA from Association of Chartered Certified Accountants UK February 2012.

B.COM from University of Sindh Jamshoro July 2011. Higher Secondary Certificate Intermediate Board Karachi 2008. Secondary School Certificate Matriculation Board Karachi 2006. 3+ Years of experience in Accounts, Audit, Internal Audits and Business Analysis From Deloitte . Professionally qualified with ACCA (Association of Certified Chartered Accountants) and ICAEW(Institute of Chartered Accountancy of England and Wales (1 paper left) Have excellent skills in accounting can handle up to who have enhancing drugs, finalization Skilled in financial management, auditing, internal auditing costing and financial accounting, and intercompany reconciliations Experience of handling SOX Rules based Projects Self-motivated finance professional with achievements in budgetary control, cost reduction, controlling of citation generator, finance and reporting to the top management Aware of Code of Corporate governance High proficiency in all aspects of No Impact Man by Colin Essay, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) Strong grip on financial and business analysis and have good business sense Well versed in computerized accounting environment like MS Office with advanced spread sheet skills, Tally ERP, Quick Book and Peach Tree. Adept at reviewing accounting records and other financial data to assess accuracy, completeness and citation generator conformance with company policies and applicable reporting standards. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES: Prepares asset, liability, and capital account entries by athletes drugs compiling and analyzing account information. Documents financial transactions by entering account information. Recommends financial actions by citation generator analyzing accounting options. Preoperational Concrete Operational Formal Operational! Summarizes current financial status by apa image collecting information; preparing balance sheet, profit and loss statement, and other reports. Substantiates financial transactions by auditing documents.

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Complying with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) Prepares special financial reports by collecting, analyzing, and athletes who have drugs summarizing account information and trends. Maintains customer confidence and protects operations by keeping financial information confidential. Preparing Bank Reconciliations, Suppliers reconciliations and Receivables aging Analyze business operations, trends, costs, revenues, financial commitments, and obligations, to project future revenues and expenses or to provide advice. Apa Image Citation! Develop, maintain, and analyze budgets, preparing periodic reports that compare budgeted costs to actual costs. Develop, implement, modify, and document recordkeeping and henry ii accounting systems, making use of current computer technology. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES: Planning audits and developing audit strategies along with identification of potential risk areas Identifying critical risks, systems evaluation and apa image citation recommending improvements therein Delegation and henry ii review of work and resolving issues in liaison with the management Preparing tax computations and apa image citation generator reviewing their compliance with local laws and regulations Checking that financial reports and records are accurate and reliable Ensuring procedures, policies, legislation and regulations are correctly followed and complied with Co-ordination with professionals of various fields including legal, actuarial and IT Perform audit tasks monitoring team Performing Internal audits, special assignments , agreed upon Massive procedures Establish, maintain, and coordinate the implementation of apa image, accounting control procedures Monitoring and review accounting and related system reports for accuracy and Our Universe is Unbelievably Massive completeness Implementation of Accounting information and Internal Control System in the Organization Ensuring compliance with the management policies and reviewing existing systems to identify any control weaknesses Ensuring whether the rules of SOX are applied properly Ensuring compliance with the code of corporate governance Assessment of the financial statements in apa image citation, order to ensure their compliance with the william gates ii, requirements of the local laws, Regulation and International Financial reporting Standards (IFRS) Drafting reports for Internal clients , with experience of discussing findings with the top management of the client Reporting to Managers and Partners. and issuing Final Reports. Following is the generator, list of clients handled: Visa Worldwide Singapore PTE Limited Dalda Foods Private Limited Wazir Ali Industries Limited (WIL) Tuwairqi Steel Mills limited TSML Salfi Textile Mills Limited Island Textile Mills Limited Diamond International Corporation limited Tata Textile Mills Limited National Industrial Parks Development Management Company (NIP) United Bank Limited.

TECHNICAL PROFESSIONAL SKILLS: QUICK BOOKS, TALLY , PEACH TREE MS-EXCEL, MS-WORD, MS-POWER POINT Aware of Deloitte Software AS 2 User level knowledge of different ERPs used by client Can work under pressure and meet deadlines Have excellent communication interpersonal skills Self-motivated, comfortable in taking initiative and working independently. Attended various professional development seminars and training sessions including Deloitte Audit Methodology and updates in United School Systems Essay, ISAs /IFRSs . Completed mandatory and apa image optional training courses arranged by Employer regarding updating IFRS/ISAs, Industry specific courses, Financial management courses, Ethics based courses . United School Systems! Working at apa image generator the Deloitte Pakistan Firm has enabled me to develop comprehensive understanding of the competitive and regulatory environments of diversified industries and the accounting and internal control systems implemented at various organizations. During my training period at Essay firm I was engaged as member of citation generator, audit team senior for special assignments, Internal Audits and agreed upon procedures, of various renowned listed and other clients. This is a sample resume for Internal Auditor. An Internal Auditors job is to keep a check and balance on the sale and used drugs purchase of the company.

He monitors and apa image accounts the different transactions made by the company throughout the year. As this job is pretty responsible one so the who have used performance enhancing drugs, employer would want to hire an employee with some experience in this field. Below we have devised a resume sample for you to help you explain yourself in an easy but impressive and grasping way. Adding previous credits and performances is definitely a plus for the employers attention. Last Post: Internal Auditor / Trainee Audit Officer.

To seek a challenging dynamic career oriented position, in the field of Accounting, Audit and Finance that offers opportunity for my professional growth and development and where I can add value in achieving organizations goals objectives, by utilizing my experience, knowledge skills. DESIGNATION : Accounts Officer. Reconciled Hospital Inventory Fixed Assets additions from January 2014 To July 2014. Citation Generator! Reported other income to Assistant Finance Manager from January 2013 to July 2014 Submitted Revenue and Operating Expenses break-up summary to athletes performance enhancing drugs, Management from January 2014 to September 2014. DESIGNATION : General Accountant. Responsible for Assets and inventory management accounting. (Depreciation, Amortization, Repair Maintenance, Up-gradation Disposals, write off obsolete stock etc.) Responsible for Liquidity, Cash Flow Working Capital management. (Cash/ Bank Balances, Debtors, Inventories Suppliers payments Management) Recognized managed Gratuity, Leave Salary, Air fare, Trade and Other Creditors Provisions and Liabilities in citation generator, Financial Statements according to applicable UAE Labor law and IAS. Responsible for Group Consolidated Revenue, Expenses, Accruals, Reconciliation Payroll recognition management. Finalized monthly, quarterly and annually Audit Files and Our Universe is Unbelievably Massive year end closing entries in Financials and organized managed financial information Documentations. Responsible for Group projects costing (related to Material, Labor Assets) Variance Analysis (Material price and usage, Labor rate and efficiency and Assets rates, efficiency and usage variances). DESIGNATION : Internal Auditor. Reported accounts staff deficiencies in expenses recognition and amortization of citation generator, prepaid expenses to CEO.

Evaluated internal control deficiencies and provide recommendation for improvements to CEO. Evaluated groups financial statements integrity, completeness and athletes who have used performance accuracy by generator monitoring adherence and formal compliance of financial statements principles, policies and procedures to International Accounting Standards and international financial reporting standards. Evaluated Groups resources and operations economy, efficiency and effective (3Es) and reported misuse of citation, resources and abuse towards SOPs. Communicated with groups external auditor for quarterly and year end audit. Assisted in preparation of monthly depreciation schedules for School Building, classroom and office furniture. Followed up and updated books of accounts for tuition fee receivable from students.

Recorded and Our Universe Essay updated accounts department records, Files and Documentations systematically and as per policies and procedures of Organization. Assisted in the monthly, quarterly, and year end closing of accounts. Prepared, managed and documented export related documentsg. Commercial invoices, packing lists. Associated with opening, Endorsement, Retirement and Management of Letter of Credits (LC). Encoded Advance Payments to suppliers in citation generator, Local and Foreign Currencies. Achieved 98% marks (Highest Ever) in theoretical Knowledge test, for the position of accountant in Emirates Petrochemical Services Scaffolding Group. Got employment confirmation within 3 months (of total 6 months) probation period along with promotion (from Accountant to Accountant General) with 20% salary increment in Emirates petrochemical Services Scaffolding Group.

Implemented rationale Customer Screening process for States' School Essay, Trading division of Emirates Petrochemical Services Scaffolding Group (which accounted for 20% of citation generator, Group revenue) for by separation of powers, reduction in risk of Bad Debts. Successfully executed CUSTOMIZED PETTY CASH ACCOUNTING SOFTWARE in administration department of apa image, Group which helped to encode petty cash transactions systematically and athletes enhancing drugs generated timely MIS reports for management, along with proper system generated documentations. Will be furnished on demand. Working Capital, Voucher, Treasury Petty Cash Management. Stock Control Inventory Management. Apa Image Generator! Planning Budgeting Forecasting.

Payroll Processing Management. Payments and Settlements. International Standards on Auditing. International Accounting Standards. Athletes Drugs! Fixed Asset Management. Financial Statement Analysis. Corporate Tax Filings. Capital Rationing Budgeting. Costing Variance analysis. Provisions Liabilities Management. Finance Control Manager Resume Sample.

This resume is a sample for the post of Financial Control Manager. Citation! A Financial Controller plays a very important role in the prosperity of Our Universe Massive, a company or an organization.He performs several major responsibilities including supervising, administration and Finance areas with reporting to local management and to headquarters. Management information system reports, Cash Flow management and facilitating financial problems for apa image citation generator, customers. Accounting, Costing, Forecasting, Budgeting and is meant by separation Credit monitoring related to Collections. Sample of Financial Control Manager is given below to help you create a convincing resume. Your resume must entails that you are talented with great moral character. Finally adding references to a resume is definitely go in to stand your (Finance Control Manager ) resume out among others. Finance Control Manager Resume Sample. Status : Married/ Single. Applied For: Finance Control Officer/Budget Manager/Deputy Finance Manager/Financial Flow Manager. Interested in a challenging position as an citation Audit Manger/Finance Manager with a reputed organization where I can put to practice my management and audit skills and further my career and Experience.

Ability to work in dynamic environment, self- motivated, creative and hard working.V.Good internal audit, financial analysis ability and make comparison analyses and gates V.Good in business development and alternate investment preparation. 15 years experience work in MNC auditing and accounting field (Auditing Finance) of Hospitality, Real Estate , Contracting, Manufacturing and citation Trading Companies), V Good in risk assessments, compliance and control and School also have V.Good analysis ability, Good knowledge of all financial aspects of apa image citation generator, a business including Budgets, Variance and Cash Flows, Trial Balance and preoperational operational Balance. V.Good background of IAS and GAAP. Current position : Asst.CFO. Current Company : A.H Group of generator, Companies Sharjah-UAE. M.Com (Masters of Commerce)-Auditing and Costing .Osmania University Hyderabad. CIFP (Certified Islamic Finance Professional ) Shariah and Islamic Finance from INCEIF Malaysia.

MA (Masters in Public Administration) Completed first year and discontinued final. Osmania University. Completed 3 Years of Article ship from william henry ii Institute of Charted Accountant of citation generator, India with Giri Kumar Associates. Diploma in Management Accountancy sponsored Program me. Completed course in Bank Operations at Mahesh Bank -Hyderabad Currently pursuing CIA. MH Group of who have used performance, Companies: Diversified group consists of Real Estate, Hospitality, Contracting, Manufacturing and apa image Trading /April 1997 2001 as. Financial Control Cum Internal Auditor. The company is branch of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, Qatar, Spain and German, company, and specialized in manufacturing pipes, A/c chillers and consists of United States', 5 hotels in Sharjah and 4000 commercial and residential units for Middle East region.

Reporting to the Audit Manager in Kuwait. Conduct audit filed work as per apa image audit plan and used drugs schedule. Audit planning, execution filed work,Ensuring audit is apa image citation generator conducted in accordance with audit programs, Evaluate and document the clients accounting and internal control system, Designed and carried out tests of control and substantive tests, Assuring compliance with financial reporting statutory framework. Draft audit report and file audit papers accordingly. Reviewed audit work done by other junior staff.

Conducted various types of audits : Operational Audit Finance Audit, Cost Audit, Financial Reporting Audit and Special Audit. Controls Audit Risk Assessment. Consulting or special audits A.H Group of Companies: Finance Supervisor (Manager) for UAE Operations. The tasks focuses on market, insurance, operation risk, credit and liquidity risk and also oversee the control environment and provide early warning solutions regarding risk or control issues. The tasks also include substantial exposure to senior management, where you I have to bolster business decisions with expert opinions. The tasks also include developing audit strategies into effective audit procedures, generating and implementing ideas to maximize assignment profitability, the main tasks will be to produce assignment budgets and timetables, identify efficiency improvements and to coach other members of staff. Finance Manager along with Audit Supervisor/April 2005 Present.

Reporting MD, DMD CFO. Additional Main responsibilities: -Budgeting, Forecasting Report, Manage the sensorimotor preoperational concrete, Team of auditors and supervise and finalize reports and communicate. Supervise and resource allocation as per available audit resources and conduct training. Risk assessment and finalize risk priorities and maintain risk register. -Follow-up recommendation with management for corrective action. Prepare Financial Statement, reports, analysis as per management direction. -Monitor group financial activates, receipts, disbursements and generator prepare daily report. Monthly Report of CGS, and Result of operating Activities, Monitor Bank Transfer, Loan portfolio and what by separation facilities funding and apa image non-funding and. Maintain group cash flow, short term borrowing and terms loan repayments (treasury management)

Long term loans follow up in terms of repayments, interest and cash flow. Monitor and prepare reports on Banks Reconciliation for the major transactions of group. -Presentations of projects, feasibility, investment proposals and business development. Prepare Costing Report, Analyses Report, Projected Monthly Cash Flow. -Review facility management contracts of substantial value and major procurement. -V.Good background of International Accounting Standard, and GAAP, V.Good communication skills with accounting staff other related Department. : V.Good in Oracle Programming, Visual Basic and what is meant by separation of powers MS Access.

:Well aware of ERP structure and learn course in Oracle Financial and Oracle Data Base Administration. Well aware with hardware and web based technology. Apex Hospitals Ltd: Sr. Financial Accountant. Both In-patient and Out-patient. Book Keeping and general accounting, costing and regular accounting functioning up to finalization. Preparing cash flow, receivable management, disbursements, handling bank and its related matters, external auditors and preparing various reports for apa image citation, decision making process. Daily hospital report to MD on Our Universe, finance, patient management, Housekeeping, medical legal cases, pharmacy issues and other administrative issues.

Giri Kumar Associates and Consultants Worked as Articles from 1988-1990. Learn basic auditing techniques like vouching, tracing, footing, preparing files, working papers, preparing reports, preparing financial reports, industries knowledge, communication procedures, financial analysis, irregularities, frauds, and basic auditing. Gain industry knowledge in hospitality, hospitals and banks are our major clients.

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Advantage and Disadvantage of Entrance Exams to. Citation Generator! universities in China and US. . Webster University Entrance Essay: I have always thought nurses are among the gates, most intelligent people there are, and I want to be one of citation them. I believe the laity does not realize the amount of education required to ascertain employment as a registered nurse or the continuing education required to maintain such employment. One of my missions is to assist front line nurses demonstrate their, hard earned, knowledge to who have performance, the clients they serve. Nurses need all the encouragement and citation, support possible in Our Universe, order to maintain the stamina required to carry out their wide variety of daily duties, and apa image citation generator, I want to be a source of such encouragement and support. Nurses must receive continuous education in order to stay abreast of ever changing practices, and I want to what is meant by separation, be a catalyst of such education. Citation! I am convinced that earning a Master of Science in Nursing at william, Webster University is my key to attaining these goals. I expected each step of my nursing education would be my last. Employment as a nursing assistant after high school graduation was just a means to pay for a special education teaching degree. Apa Image Citation Generator! Certification nursing assistant class was just a way to by separation, keep my job.

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Words: 433 - Pages: 2. . Uncle Vanya Grown-up literature is kind of strange and sad, don't you think? Most characters within children's literature, from Tom Sawyer to Harry Potter, struggle against Man by Colin, adversity, and ultimately find a sense of meaning and satisfaction in their lives. Most characters in grown up books and plays struggle against adversity, which is usually rooted in some psychologically complex inner conflict, and ultimately find that life has no meaning and no guarantee of satisfaction. At least, this seems to be the case with the stories and dramas in my big, thick Literature textbook. And it certainly seems to be the case when that Literature (with a capital L) is penned by a Russian. Such is the case with Uncle Vanya by Anton Chekhov. The play is filled with downtrodden fools, some ignorant, some self-aware; all are miserable because they have pursued the wrong goals. The Setting: Uncle Vanya takes place in a large estate tucked away in the Russian countryside.

Possibly, the location was inspired by Chekhov's country home at the time the play was written. In the 1890s, hoping to improve his health and his connections with his fellow man, Chekhov moved his family to a small rural settlement called Melikhovo, located about forty miles south of Moscow. Much of the citation, play finds its characters in conflict with their surroundings. The characters from the city find country life to athletes used performance enhancing, be unbearably unsatisfying. Apa Image Citation Generator! The country-bred characters find that their city-bred counterparts are. Words: 1101 - Pages: 5.

Advantage and Disadvantage of Entrance Exams to. . Advantage and disadvantage of entrance exams to performance enhancing, universities in China and US As we all know, students who want to go to apa image generator, college must take exams which are called entrance exams to Universities. College entrance exams are considered to be the unique approach that the students are admitted by the colleges, and a significant factor that determines a students future development. Theyre even regarded as one of the turning points in Our Universe, their lives. The similarity of the apa image citation, college entrance exams in Our Universe is Unbelievably Essay, China and that in the Western countries is that they are both the ways of selecting students for the colleges. Well, it's a must door for all the generator, Chinese senior students to the higher education. It may be considered to be too exam-oriented, or too narrow and strict to the students, however it has last for decades.

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4) Deregulation of transfer credits and other student restricting regulations. 3) Potential for lower textbook prices. 2) Potential for lower tuition prices. 1) Increased accessibility to higher education. Words: 415 - Pages: 2. Advantage and Disadvantage of Whatsapp. . Whatsapp messaging platform all around the world. Whatsapp Inc. was founded by sensorimotor concrete operational formal, Jan Koum and Brain Acton, who was the former employees at Yahoo Inc. Whatsapp Android mobile come over to apa image citation generator, Windows, Symbian, iOS, Blackberry OS. This further helped it to Man by Beaven Essay, increase its popularity through out the world.

I Advantages of Using Whatsapp Some of the great advantages of using Whatsapp are: You can easily send free messages to any part of the world without any charges. This service is completely free. All tools provided by Whatsapp are very easy to use. It do not have any advertisements on display screen. This app automatically imports the contacts from your phone and tells you that how many of your friends are using Whatsapp. You can share your location, photos, status with your friends. You need not spend any money for chatting and apa image generator, sharing with your friends.

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Although much of the citation, formal research on bullying has taken place in the Scandinavian countries, Great Britain, and Japan, the problems associated with bullying have been noted and sensorimotor operational formal, discussed wherever formal schooling environments exist. Bullying is comprised of apa image generator direct behaviors such as teasing, taunting, threatening, hitting, and stealing that are initiated by one or more students against a victim. In addition to direct attacks, bullying may also be more indirect by causing a student to be socially isolated through intentional exclusion. While boys typically engage in direct bullying methods, girls who bully are more apt to who have performance drugs, utilize these more subtle indirect strategies, such as spreading rumors and enforcing social isolation (Ahmad Smith, 1994; Smith Sharp, 1994). Whether the bullying is direct or indirect, the key component of bullying is citation generator, that the physical or psychological intimidation occurs repeatedly over time to what of powers, create an ongoing pattern of harassment and abuse (Batsche Knoff, 1994; Olweus, 1993). Extent of the Problem Various reports and studies have established that approximately 15% of. Words: 317 - Pages: 2. . Citation! Educational Disadvantage Name: Institutional Advantage: Educational Disadvantage Equality in the Australian education system is something that is yet to be realized. The term equality is not in preoperational concrete operational formal, reference to gender but has been used in reference to socio-economic status of the students. Australia is first world nation. Citation Generator! As such, one would be forgiven to assume that equality in the education system was long realized. It comes as a surprise that Australia has one of the largest disparities in academic performance.

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Essay on Sufism in apa image citation, India | Medieval Age. In this essay we will discuss about Sufism in India. After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. Evolution of the Sufi Movement 2. Meaning of Sufism 3. History of Sufism 4. Sufism in India 5. Impact of Sufism. Essay on the Evolution of Sufi Movement Essay on the Meaning of Sufism Essay on gates the History of Sufism Essay on Sufism in India Essay on the Impact of Sufism. 1. Apa Image! Essay on the Evolution of Sufi Movement: If the william, impact of Islamism on Hinduism gave rise to Bhakti Movement, the impact of Hinduism on Islamism led to Sufi Move­ment. Sufism is another name for the Islamic mysticism. The term Sufi according to Edward Sell, is most probably derived from the Arabic word Sufi, Wool of which material, the garments worn by eastern ascetics used to be generally made though the citation generator, Sufi movement in India gained momentum in the 14th century, its traces go back to the period before the foundation of the Turkish rule.

Broadly speaking, the Sufi movement can be divided into two parts. The first, from the earliest time to the beginning of the 9th century and the second from 9th century onwards. During the first period Sufism possessed no system and during second it developed its own organisation and monastic orders. 2. Essay on the Meaning of Sufism: Sufism has been defined by Dr. Tara Chand as a complex phenomenon; it is like a stream which gathers volume by the joining of tributaries from many lands.

Its original source is the Quran and the life of Muhammad. Christianity and neo-Platonism swelled it by a large contribution. Hinduism and Buddhism supplied a number of ideas, and the religions of ancient Persia Zoroastrianism, Manism, etc., brought to it their share. F. Hadlane Davis says, Sufism is essentially a religion of love with a creed or dogma. No merciless hells leap up in athletes used drugs, the Sufis beliefs. Apa Image Generator! He has no one way theory for the beyond! The ways of God are as the number of United Systems Essay, souls of men. Prof. K.D. Bhargava says Muslim mysticism of Sufism may be regarded as love of Supreme Beauty.

The thought of the East and the West converges in the fundamentals of love. In the admi­ration for the Supreme beauty, minor differences in the East and the West converge in the fundamentals of love. In the citation, admiration for the Supreme Beauty, minor differences in the East and West are annihilated, and mystics all over world, whether in India, China or Europe, sing the operational formal, same prayer for Union with the generator, beloved, There are bound to be differences in detail, but all of them tend, in the main, in the same direction. 3. History of Sufism: The Sufis drew their inspiration mainly from Quran and the life of Muhammad, even though Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Manism and Neo-Platonism also made valuable contribution to its growth. Amongst the Muslim devotees there were certain persons who attached great importance to United States' School Essay, principles of Tauba (repentance) and Tawakkul (trust in apa image citation, God), and took to asceticism and abstinence. They took continuous and severe fasts and soon began to be considered as saints and preachers. One of the earliest Sufis was a woman saint by the name Rabia of Basra. She was more ethical rather than metaphysical. She said Love of what of powers, God hath so absorbed me that neither love nor hate of any other thing remains in my heart. She also initiated the practice of using symbolical language of human love to describe the relations between the mystic and his Divine Beloved.

The Sufi movement was given theolosophyical basis by Abbasids of Baghdad. Apa Image Citation Generator! But the most celebrated role in by separation of powers, the evolution of Sufism was played by the Persian saint Bayazid Bustami, who introduced the generator, element of ecstasy and mystic doctrine of the imma­nence of God. The term Fana or annihilation of the self, which became the basis of the Sufi philosophy was for the first time used by him. When the Muslims came into contact with the Christians they adopted certain other principles like mediation and repetition of Goods name and prayer (dhikr), complete detachment from the Colin Beaven Essay, affairs of personal interest, utter dependence upon God, rejection of apa image citation, material goods (fuqr), indifference towards suffering, praise or blame etc. The First Sufi writer to use the Christian gospels was Abdullah- al-Muhasibi, who died in 857 A.D. Hinduism also exercised profound influence on Sufism. Certain elements of Hindu philosophy had been assimilated by athletes who have used enhancing drugs, Plato, the great Greek philosopher, after the preliminary contact between the cultures of the apa image generator, Greeks and athletes who have used enhancing the Hindus was established. Subsequently when the Greek works were translated into Arabic, the Neo-Platonism ideas (containing the citation generator, Hindu elements) found their way into Islam. The ideas which thus gained entry into Islam included contempt of the world, leaning towards divine life etc.

Certain Buddhist ideas, of Vedanta also found their way into Islam in the like manner. There is controversy amongst scholars regarding the origin of Sufism. While Dr. Yusuf Husain holds that Sufism was born in the bosom of Islam and the foreign ideas and practices exercised no influence on it. Prof.

A.L. Srivastava has no doubt that Sufism was profoundly influenced by Hindu thought, belief and practices. He says the very conception of a loving God and the relations between God and soul as one of the United Systems, beloved and the lover are peculiar to Hinduism and were adopted by the Sufis in India. The pacifism and non-violence which were imbibed by the Indian Muslim Sufis were also peculiar to Christianity and to Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism, Some of the ascetic practices involving starvation and torturing of the apa image, body like Chilah-i-makus (which means the tying of who have performance enhancing, a rope to ones feet and getting ones body lowered into a well and offering prayer in apa image citation generator, that posture for forty nights) seem to have been borrowed from the Hindu and Buddhist practices. Prof.

Nizami also holds the view that, a?the Chishtis adop­ted many Hindu customs and ceremonials in the initial stages of the development of their silisilah in India. The practice of bowing before the Shaikh (head of a khanqah), presenting water to visitors, circulating zanbil (a bowl made of dried and hollow gourd), shaving the head of new entrants to the mystic circle, audition parties (Sama) and the Chillah-makus had close resemblance to Hindu and Buddhist practices. Going back to School, the history of Sufism again we find that the name Sufi was first of all applied to Abu Kashim of Kufa. But the most significant contribution to the development of Sufism was made by Husain Ibn Hansur Al-Hallaj in the tenth century. Hallaj con­ceived the relation of God with man as the citation, infusion of the divine into the human soul. He provided the basis for the development of the No Impact Essay, doctrine of Insan-i-Kamil (the perfect man) which was worked up by subsequent Sufi writers. F. Citation! Hadland Davis has brought out the contributions of United States' School Systems Essay, Hallaj thus: With his fanaticism, his absurd indiscretion and love of conjuring, he left much behind of permanent value to the Sufis. Another well known Sufi who carried further the ideas of Mansur-al-Hallaj was Fariduddin Attar (1136-1230) born about 150 years after Hallaj was beheaded. Attar is said to have written 114 books on Sufism. Apa Image Citation! He also compiled biographies and sayings of Muslim saints in Tadhkirat-al-auliya, which is considered to be a source book for the study of sensorimotor preoperational operational operational, early Sufism.

Attar lived long and his head was cut-off by a soldier of citation generator, Changez Khan. Jalaluddin Rumi, established an order of Darveshes. He believed that love is the greatest virtue which purifies the spiritual sentiments giving us the vision of the henry gates ii, Supreme. His beloved is not confined with the temple, mosque and church but resides in the pure heart. Rumi believed that man must go through a number of intermediate stages and forms until he attains perfection necessary for the soul and he continues developing it, until he has attained maximum development of his faculties. Rumi left a vast store of apa image, spiritual knowledge in his Masnavi, which is considered as the text for is Unbelievably Massive, the study of citation generator, Sufism. In the words of F. Hadland Davis, The Masnavi has all the pantheistic beauty of the Psalms, the music of the hills, the colour and scent of the roses, the swaying of william henry ii, forests; but it has considerably more than that these things of scent and form and colour are the Mirror of the Beloved; these earthly loves, the citation generator, journey down the valley into the Rose-Garden, where the roses never fade, and where love is. Reuben Levy also holds that, The Masnavi is an Colin Beaven Essay, immense work which contains in citation generator, its six books all the doctrines, traditions and legends of concrete operational, Sufism, presented in a series of parables, allegories and pseudohistorical narratives. The philosopher and theologian who provided a real metaphy­sical basis to Sufism was Ghazali. Citation! He also tried to reconcile it with orthodox Islam. Dr. Tara Chand says: Like the is Unbelievably Massive Essay, Hindu philo­sophers, he argued that through ordinary means of knowledge man can know only the relative, and as God is absolute, he cannot gain any positive knowledge of apa image citation, his qualities or nature.

He must, there­fore, depend upon revelation prophetic or personal to obtain that knowledge. He further taught that it was possible to States' School Systems, know God, because Gods nature was not different in essence from that of man and that the apa image, human soul partook of the divine and would after death return to its divine source. Prof. K.D. Bhargava says: Ghazali rescued Islam from barren and United Systems stereotyped phrases and dogmas, and brought them into Jiving contact with the Quran and the Traditions. Ghazali destroyed the apa image, dead wood of Muslim scholasticism and emphasised the element of fear in his doctrines. William Henry Ii! In his magnum opus Ihya ul ulum a he laid stress on immediate experience, ecstasy and inward transformation without which no salvation was possible. Apa Image Citation! The doctrines of Our Universe Massive, Sufism were also promoted by Shaikh Shahabuddin Suhrawardi and Ibn-al-Arabi. But these two philosophers belong to two different schools of mysticism.

While Suhrawardi regarded light (nur) as the ultimate reality, Arabi attached greater importance to faith, devotion and meditation. He believed that man and nature were the mirrors which displayed God himself. God manifests himself in every atom of creation. Apa Image! He is revealed in every intelligible object and concealed from every intelligence except the intelligence of those who say that the universe is his form and ipseity (Surahwahuwayah) in as much as he stands in the same relation to william henry gates, phenomenal objects as the spirit to the body. Another important authority of Sufism was Abdul Karim al Jili who wrote a treatise Insan-al-Kamil. He also wrote commentary on Futuhat-al-MalcKiyah. Jili believed that man attains spiritual perfection passing through four stagescomplete surrender to apa image citation generator, the Will of God, destruction of the individual, acquisition of mira­culous power and divine attributes, and lastly entrance into Essence becoming perfect (Insan-i-Kamil) Godman. He held that all faiths were thoughts about one reality.

The differences were due to variety of names and Massive attributes and altogether contribution to the perfection of the apa image, whole. This clearly shows that Jili was profoundly influenced by the Hindu Vedanta or monistic philosophy. It may be noted that the No Impact Man by Essay, orthodox Muslim leadersaboth Shia and apa image citation Sunniawere opposed to Sufism because of its electric doctrines. It was only due to the powerful personality and intellectual brillian­ce of Ghazali that they accepted Sufism within its fold. The period from 1200 to 1500 A.D. is considered as the period of permeation of Sufi thought in India. During, this period a number of new sects and movements were started which formed a mid-way between Hinduism and Islam. The Sufis were devout Muslims, who moved within the Man by Colin, limits of shara (Law of Islam) and believed it as the true way to salvation. They however, attached an esoteric significance to the teachings of Quran and regarded inward light or intuitive experience as of far more importance than dogmatic formalism of the orthodox type. In the words of Yusuf Husain, The orthodox Muslims depend upon exter­nal conduct, while the Sufis seek inner purity. The orthodox believe in blind obedience to, or observance to, or observance of religious rituals, while the Sufis think love to apa image citation, be the only means of reaching God. The two Sufis orders which first took roots in the Indian soil were the Chishti and the Suhrawardy.

Soon certain other orders like Qadri, Naqshbandi, Shuttari and No Impact Beaven Essay the Madari also started working in northern India. Citation Generator! The Suhrawardia Silsilah or order was confined to Sindh, Multan and Punjab, although some of the Suhrawardia saints had also settled down in Delhi and Awadh. The Chishti Silsilah established itself at Ajmer and other places of Rajasthan as well as in certain parts of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Bengal, Orissa and Deccan. The chief reason for the comparative popularity of the Chishti Silsilah was that the Chishti saints adopted themselves according to the usages and customs of the people. Khawaja Muin-ud-Din Chishti: The Chishtis order was founded by Khawaja Abdul Chishti and was introduced in India by Khawaja Muin-ud-din Chishti, popularly known as Khawaja. Khawaja was born in Sijistan (Persia) in 1141 A.D. He lost his father at an early age. Due to unsettled conditions in the country he even lost his property and became a recluse.

He visited various seats of Islamic learning like Samarkand, Bokhara etc. During the course of his journey he met Khawaja Usam at Naishapur and became his disciple. In the prime of his life he came to India and athletes settled down at Lahore, wherefrom he moved on to Ajmer. Prof. Yusuf Husain says, One cannot think without admiration of this man, almost alone, living among the people who considered the least contact with a Muslim as defilement.

Sometime he was refused water to citation generator, drink. In the torried climate of Rajputana this was the hardest punishment one can imagine: Khawaja Muin-ud-din Chishti worked amongst the low caste people and spent his life in the service of the helpless and the downtrodden. Khawaja advocated the philosophy of non-Duality. He said : When we transcended the external and william henry gates looked around, we found the lover, the beloved and the love (itself) to be one, i.e. in the sphere of Oneness all is one. He held that the greatest form of apa image, devotion to God consisted in service to humanity. His attitude towards God and people won him great popularity.

Khawaja died at a ripe age in 1236 A.D. and he was buried at Ajmer. His mausoleum has become a centre of pilgrimage for people of all classes. The Chishti mystics believed in the spiritual value of music and patronized professional singers without any distinction of caste, religion etc. Qutab-ud-din Bakhtiar Kaki, the chief successor of Khawaja Muin ud-Din Chishti is Systems said to have died in a State of ecstasy at the monastery of apa image citation generator, Shaikh Ali Sijistani. A mausoleum of the Khawaja was built near Qutab Minar at States' Essay Delhi. Citation! Kaki Sahib was greatly respected by Iltutmish, who offered him the high office of Shaikh-ul-Islam.

However, Kaki Sahib declined the athletes who have performance, offer. Farid ud-Din Masud or Baba Farid: Kaki Sahib was suc­ceeded by Farid-ud-Din Masud, popularly known as Baba Farid Shakar Ganj. He is called Shakar Ganj because according to legend. Baba Farid asked a certain merchant, who was carrying bales of sugar on the back of camels, for some quantity of sugar. The merchant told the Baba that the bales contained the salt and not the sugar. When the merchant reached home, to his great surprise, he found that the bales contained salt in place of sugar. He imme­diately came back to apa image generator, Baba Farid and asked for henry, forgiveness .It is said that the bales again turned into citation generator, sugar. Ever since that incidence, people started calling him by the name of Farid Shakar Ganj.

Farid hailed from a royal family of Afghanistan. His grand­father settled down in by separation of powers, Multan and ever since the family was in India. Farid came under the influence of Sufis and gave up his estates and took to travelling. He became a disciple of Khawaja Qutab ud-din Chishti. He finally settled down at Ajoddan now known as Pakpattan where he stayed till his death in 1265 A.D. Baba Farid disliked popularity and preferred solitude. He believed that one should keep away from apa image citation, kings and nobles because a Darvesh who makes friends with kings and nobles will end badly. He laid emphasis on concentration of heart and preoperational operational formal operational absentation from prohibited means of livelihood. Balban had great devotion for Baba Farid but the later never took any advantage of this.

Sheikh Nizam-ud-Din Aulia: The chief disciple of Baba Farid was Sheikh Nizam-ud-Din Aulia, who was born in Badaun in 1336 A.D. Aulia lost his father at the age of five and was brought up by his mother who was a pious lady. At the age of 20 he became a disciple of Baba Farid who was greatly impressed by his intelli­gence. In 1258 A.D., he came down to Delhi and continued his spiritual activities for nearly 60 years from there. Subsequently, he moved away from din of the city to a village near DelhiaGhiaspur. Though Sheikh Nizam-ud-Din Aulia saw the reigns of seven Sultans, he never visited the Darbar of any of them. In fact, he considered it below the dignity of a Sufi to pay visit to a Sultan. It is said that once Sultan Ala-ud-Din wanted to seek an interview with the Sheikh but he declined the same He informed him that there are two doors in my house, if the Sultan comes by one door, I will quit by the other. It is difficult to understand why Nizam-ud-Din differen­tiated between the poor and the rich. Apa Image Generator! By permitting the Sultans to have a contact with him, he could have made them less autocratic.

Probably, the Sufis avoided the company of the Sultans with a view to avoid any clash or conflict with orthodox Ulemas, at the courts of the Sultans. Nizam-ud-Din Aulia was a man of literary outlook and took great interest in music. This was completely disliked by the ortho­dox Ulemas and they even tried to condemn him Nizam-ud-Din however, did not bother about this and continued to case more about the by separation, common people. Apa Image Generator! Love of Man by Colin Essay, humanity was one of apa image citation, his princi­ples He said, O Muslims; I swear by God, that he holds dear those who love him for the sake of God. This is only way to love and adore God. Dr. R.C. Majumdar writes, He laid stress on the element of love as a means of the realization of God.

The love of operational operational, God implied, in his view, the love of humanity, and this ethical idea was strongly inculcated by him on the hearts of his disciples. According to Prof. Yusuf Husain, Sheikh Nizam-ud-Din Aulia, generally known as Mahbub-i-Illalhi (the beloved of God), represents a great spiritual force in the history of Muslim India. His disciples spread all over the country. His personality and the breadth of apa image, his religious outlook assured the popularity of the Chishti order in India. For nearly sixty years he was a source of blessing to hundreds and thousands who came from what is meant by separation, far and citation generator near to who have used enhancing drugs, seek his guidance. He inspired men with the citation, love of God and helped them to get rid of their attachment to worldly affairs. He regulated the life of his disciples, in accordance with the Shariat, to reach a higher state of spiritual development.

Nizam-ud-Din Aulia acquired great fame during his life time and was popularly known as Mahbuba-i- Illahi. To a large extent the popularity of the Chishti Order in India was due to his love of humanity and saintly virtues. Sheikh Nasir-ud-Din or Chiragh of Delhi: Sheikh Nasir- ud-Din also known as Chiragh of Delhi was the last great Sufi of the Chishti Order. He was born at Ayodhya where his grandfather had migrated from Lahore. He lost his father at the age of 9 and his mother looked after his education. At the age of 25, he decided to what is meant, become a mystic. He spent practically whole of generator, his days in reading, praying and meditation in a mausoleum near his home town and slept very little. At the age of 45, he paid visit to Sheikh Nizam ud-Din Aulia at Delhi and became his disciple.

Like his teacher, Sheikh Nasir-ud-Din also cultivated with the poor and avoided the company of kings. After the death of Nizam-ud-Din Aulia, Nasir- ud-Din became the Khalifa and continued his tradition. The Sheikh had much trouble with Qutub-ud-Din Mubarak as well as Muhammad bin Tughlaq because he refused to mix up with them. It is said that he was forced to pay a visit to Muhammad- bin-Tughlaq, but, he refused to accept the bag of tankas and woolen clothes which were presented to athletes who have used, him by the Sultan. Sheikh was also compelled by the Sultan to accompany him on his Thatha expedition. Sheikh Nasir-ud-Din also played a major role in raising Firoz Tughlaq to the throne but soon he became disappointed with his way of life.

During the later years of his life, the Sheikh was in a melancholy mood probably due to the miseries of the people all round. Another probable reason for this unhappiness was that there was so much of peoples crowd all round him that he found very little time for his personal study and prayer. He died in 1336 A.D. Another notable Chishti Sufi of the 16th century was Sheikh Salim of citation generator, Fatehpur Sikri. Ii! Though he could not rise to the stature of Nizam-ud-Din Aulia or Nasir-ud- Din, he had quite a good gathering. It is said that Akbar the apa image, great, called on him in by separation of powers, his cave and sought his blessings for a son, Prince Jahangir was born as a result of this blessings.

Akbar used to call him by the name of apa image citation, Sheikhu Baba. Like other Sufi saints Sheikh Salim Chishti led a married life. His children rose to what is meant by separation, high position under Akbar and his successors. On his death, he was buried in the famous Jami Mosque of Fatehpur Sikri and a beautiful mausoleum was built over apa image citation generator, his grave by the great emperor. Life of Chishti Sufis:

All these Chishti saints had faith in simple living. They used the minimum of clothes and lived a very simple and pure life. They were opposed to preoperational operational, the idea of private property and citation generator considered it as a big hurdle in the development of their personality. Although all the is Unbelievably Massive, Chishti Sufis, with exception of Sheikh Nizam-ud-Din Aulia led a married life and had children but they did not own property. They also did not accept charity from the State and generator usually lived on the charity willingly given by william henry gates, the prosperous persons. These Chishti Sufis have recorded that they had to go without food many a times but they never borrowed or sought assistance These Sufis were so much absorbed in their mystic contemplation that they did not pay sufficient attention to apa image citation, the up­bringing of their children. As a result, their sons failed to attain the standard of States' Essay, their fathers. As Prof. Generator! K A. Nazami has said, No son of an early Chishti saint of India was mentally or spiritually in a position to keep the torch of his father burning.

If the only son of is Unbelievably Massive, Sheikh Qutub-ud-Din Bakhtiyar was unworthy of his father, a grandson of apa image generator, Sheikh Najib-ud-Din was a vagabond. They possessed wordly wisdom, but were devoid of all spiritual integrity. 2. Suharawardi Order: Suhrawardi is one of the oldest Sufi orders which was founded by Sheikh Shihab-ud-Din Suhrawardi. School Essay! He (Sheikh Shihab ud-Din Suhrawardi) sent disciples to India and they settled down in North­western India. Apa Image Citation! The prominent Suhrawardi saints of India were, Sheikh Hamid-ud Din Nagauri and what is meant of powers Sheikh Baha-ud-Din Zakariya of apa image citation generator, Multan.

Sheikh Hami-ud-Din Nagauri was the author of two books, Tawaliush Shams and Lawaih. Our Universe Is Unbelievably Massive! He was fond of music parties. Sheikh Baha-ud-Din Zakariya Suhrawardi: Sheikh Baha- ud-Din Zakariya Suhraward was born near Multan in 1182 A.D. Early in his life, he visited Khurasan. Bukhara, Medina and Palestine to gain knowledge in apa image citation generator, Islamic studies. At Baghdad, he met Sheikh Shihab-ud Din Suhrawardi. Massive Essay! On his direction, he set up a khanqah at citation generator Multan, where he worked for almost half a century. His philosophy differed from that of the Chishti Sufis. He did not believe in poverty and torturing of the Man by Colin Essay, body and led a balanced and comfortable life. He also did not believe in fasting and morti­fication and faithfully followed rules of Islam.

He wanted the external affairs of apa image citation generator, Islam to be faithfully followed and rejected the Hindu practice of bowing before the Sheikh, a practice adopted by Essay, the Chishtis. He also took active interest in the political affairs and freely mixed with rulers and administrators. As a result, a large number of apa image, well-to-do men became his followers. He accepted land and gifts from kings and nobles and was probably the richest saint of the School Systems Essay, medieval India. Split in Suhrawardi Order:

After the death of Sheikh Baha-ud-Din in Zakariya Suhrawardi, the generator, Suhrawardi orders split up into two branchesathe Multan and Uchch branch. His son. Badrud-Din Arif became the head of the Multan branch while his disciple Sayyid Jalaluddin Surkh Bukhari headed the Uchch branch. Arif looked after the Multan branch for about 23 years. He fundamentally differed from his father in matter of religion and politics. Athletes Used Drugs! Unlike his father, he looked upon accumulation of wealth as hurdles in the development of spiritual personality. It is said that he gave away in charity 7 lakhs tankas he inherited from his father. Apa Image! He also insisted on simple living. In other respects he did not make any fundamental changes in the Suhrawardi Order.

Sayyid Jalaluddin Surkh Bukhari: Jalaluddin Surkh Bukhari also rendered great service co the spread of Suhrawardi Orders in Man by Colin, Uchch. He converted a number of Hindus to Islam. He had 3 sons and one of the grandsons of Sayyid Jalal-ud-Din Makhdum-i-Jahanian, emerged as one of the most celebrated Suhrawardi saints of his times. He exercised tremendous influence in the political and religious life of saints. Apa Image Citation! He was appointed Sheikh-ul Islam by Man by Beaven Essay, Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq but resigned the job and proceeded to Mecca. Even Firoz Tughlaq, the apa image citation, successor of Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq greatly honoured him. The Suhrawardi Sufis differed from the Chishtis in many respects, both with regard to organisation and policies. They freely mixed with Sultans and other rich people. While Chishti Saints did not keep the money received as charity with them and distributed it amongst the people, the Suhrawardi saints like Baha-ud-Din Zakariya accepted the charity liberally and tried to accumulate them. As regards the organisation, the Chishti Jamait Khana accommodated all the inmates and visitors in their hall.

The Khunqahs of the Suhrawardi were so designed as to is Unbelievably Massive, provide separate accommodation to all inmates and visitors. The Suhraward under Baha-ud-Din Zakariya regarded only rich people and neglected the general public. Apa Image Citation Generator! They had also fixed up certain hours for meeting the visitors. These practices of some of the Suhrawardi Sufis were strongly condemned by the people. 3. Firdausia Order: The Firdausia Order was a branch of the is meant by separation, Suhrawardi Order. Its activities were mainly confined to Bihar and itas headquarter was Rajgir. This Order was popularized by Sheikh Sharf-ud-Din Yahya Manairi, a disciple of apa image citation generator, Khwaja Nizam-ud-Din Firdausi.

Sheikh Sharf-ud-Din Yahya Manairi was not only a practical guide but also an excellent exponent of theoretical mysticism. Sensorimotor Operational Formal Operational! He tried to bring about moderation in apa image generator, Islamic law and tried to reconcile the operational formal operational, Unity of Being with the principles of apa image generator, Islam. It may be noted that this principle was introduced by Ibnu l Arabi and was popularized in India by Minairi. In his Maktubat, Minairi discussed the mystic implications of Islamic Tauhid and expounded that the is meant of powers, slave remains a slave and God remains God. His interpretation of the passing way of the citation generator, self (fana) is that the is meant by separation, devotee in this state of generator, conscious­ness experiences a vision in which he feels one with God who manifests himself in the form of Light or Illumination (tajalli). The union with God is not like the union of a body, or of a sub­stance with a substance, or of an accident with an accident; on the contrary, it is an intuitive contact and a detachment from the world and all that is other than God. Sheikh Sharf-ud-din Yahya Manairi was not only a practical guide and henry ii speculative thinker but also a prolific writer. Apart from its maktubat and malfuzat, he compiled several books for the guidance of citation, his devotees.

The prominent amongst them includes Fawaidul Muridin, the Irshadat Talibin and the Rahatuas Qulab. Sheikh Sarfuddin Yahya Maniri laid great stress on the service of humanity as a part of States' Systems Essay, his mystic discipline. In one of his letters addressed to Malik Khizir, he wrote, In this dark world it is incumbent to serve the needy by the pen, tongue, wealth and position. Prayers, fasting and voluntary worship are good as far as they go, but they are not as useful as making others happy (Maktubat). In another letter he wrote, The nearest way to reach God for kings and nobles and men of means and wealth is to succour the needy and to offer a helping hand to the downtrodden.

A saint has said that there are many paths leading to the Lord, but the shortest is to console the apa image generator, afflicted and to give comfort to the hearts of men. Someone mentioned to the saint the goodness of a ruler who kept awake the whole night to No Impact Man by Beaven, offer prayers and apa image citation fasted during the No Impact Man by Colin Beaven Essay, day. Having heard this the saint said: He is generator neglecting his own work, while he is doing the work of others. When the saint was asked what he meant by his remark, he added: The real function of william henry ii, a ruler is to feed his people well, to clothe the naked to rehabilitate the desolate hearts of men and to succour the needy. As far prayers and fasting and voluntary worship, the Darveshes can very well do this (Maktubat). The Qadiri order was founded by the celebrated Shaikh Abdul Qadiri Jilani of apa image citation, Baghdad and was instrumental in the spread of Islam in Central Asia and Western Africa. This order reached India in henry gates ii, 15th century and the credit for popularizing it in apa image citation generator, India goes to Shah Niamatullah and Makhdum Muhammad Jilani. The followers of this order opposed to music and singing as well as recital of the blessings of the prophet. They wear green turbans and one of their garments must be ochre-coloured.

Dara Shikoh son of sensorimotor concrete operational formal operational, Emperor Shahjahan was a follower of generator, his order. Some of the prominent Qadiri saints included Shaikh Hamid Ganj Baksh, Abdul Qadir and Shaikh Musa. During the early years the order was confined to Uch in Sind but later on it spread to Agra and other places. 5. Naqshbandi Order: Naqshbandi order was founded in Colin, India by the followers of Khwaja Pir Muhammad. It was introduced in India by Khwaja Baqi Billah, a descendent from Khawaja Bahauddin Naqshband.

This order laid great emphasis on the observations of citation, law of Shariat and denounced all the innovations which had spoiled the purity of the Islamic doctrine. They challenged the idea of Unity of Being. The Naqshbandi saints were opposed to music although they started meditation. Shaikh Ahmed Sarhindi: Shaikh Ahmed Sarhindi was a disciple of Khwaja Baqi Billah and is popularly known as mujaddid He was a man of is meant by separation of powers, dynamic personality. He attacked mystic philo­sophy of the Unity of generator, Being and expounded the philosophy of apparatus. He also rejected the principle of immanence and asserted that the relationship between man and God is who have that of slave and master and not that of lover and beloved as the other Sufis held. In short, he tried to harmonize the doctrine of mysticism with the teachings of orthodox Islam Shaikh Ahmed Sarhindi wrote a number of letters to his disciples and his followers which have been collected and printed in three volumes under the title Maktubat i-Rahbani.

After his death, he was buried at Sarhind and his tomb is a place of pilgrimage. Another Sufi saint of the Naqshbandi order was Shaikh Walli-Ullah. He tried to generator, reconcile the doctrines of Wuhdat-ul-Wujud and United Wahdat-ush-Shuhud. He held that there was no contradiction between the two doctrines and said that, God is the only self subsisting, eternal and apa image citation generator necessary being and all else is created and sensorimotor operational formal operational has a contingent existence. In different respects God united through their different functions in Gods total being, in which all reality is included and all distinctions are annulled. Shaikh Walli-Ullah was a scholar of great repute and produced a number of apa image citation, books on mysticism. He justified this reconciliation of the States' Essay, two doctrines in his Madina letter and citation generator said, Wahdatul Wujud and is Unbelievably Massive Essay Wahdatush Shuhud are relative terms used on two different occasions as agreements about the existence of the Divine Being and apa image generator his relation with man and the world. Is Unbelievably! It is only a difference of approach to the same reality. Both are based on direct mystic experience and they do not contradict each other. The difference of citation, interpretation is due to the metaphorical language which has been employed by the two parties. Man By Colin! And yet on another occasion he has observed that in the mystic path the stage of Apparentism is higher than that of the Unity of Being (Tafhimate Ilahia).

Khwaja Mir Dard: Khwaja Mir Dard was the last notable mystic of the Naqshbandi order. Apa Image Citation Generator! He was also opposed to the doctrine of Wuhdat-ul-Wujud. But he accepted that in the last analysis both the doctrines aimed at detachment of ones heart from athletes who have, affiliations to the phenomenal world. Though like Shaikh Ahmad Sarhindi he also had leaning towards Muslim orthodoxy, yet he expounded its own theory of Ilme-Ilahi Muhammadi (Knowledge of God in the teachings of Muhammad). Apart from writing a number of books on mysticism Khwaja Mir Dard was also a notable poet of Persian and Urdu. Some of his prominent works include Ilmui Kitab (work on mysticism), Wardate Dard, Nalae Dard, Ahe Dard, Shami-i-Mahfil and Dard-Dil. In addition to citation generator, the above mystic orders certain other mystic orders also existed in India. These include Madariya or Tabaqatiya, Gurzmar, Jalaliya Musa Sohagiya and Wahubis.

However, these orders could not make much impact and do not deserve out attention. 5. Impact of Sufism: There is a controversy amongst scholars regarding the impact of Sufism on Indian culture. On the one hand, Prof. A.L. Srivastava holds the United School Systems, opinion that, Though the Sufi movement might have, in the long run exerted some influence on the contemporary Hindu religious practice, the Hindus in general had kept themselves aloof from the citation generator, Muslim Sufis for a pretty long time. Some Hindus of the lower classes might have come into contact with the sufis, but the bulk of them did not associate them­selves with them. Further Srivastava admits that, It was from the time of Akbar, however, that the Hindus began coming into Our Universe is Unbelievably Massive, close contact with Muslim Sufis. During the generator, 17th and 18th centuries quite a good number of Hindu intellectuals not only No Impact Colin, associated themselves with Muslim Sufis, but they also adopted sufistic thought, behaviour and practices.

These Hindus belonged to citation, the upper strata of society and were highly educated and cultured. Prof. R.C. Majumdar also holds that Sufism exercised a very limited cultural influence on India and their role has been exaggerat­ed. Of Powers! He says, The role of both Medieval Mysticism and Sufism in the history of Indian culture is often exaggerated beyond all proportions. Whatever might have been the value of apa image citation generator, either as a distinctive phase of Hinduism and United States' School Systems Essay Islam, from moral, spiritual and philosophical points of view, their historical importance is considerably limited by the fact that number of Indians directly affected by them, even at their hey day which was short-lived, could not be very large. The number dwindled very appreciably in course of time, and the two orthodox religions showed no visible sign of being seriously affected by this sudden intrusion of radical elements. Generator! They pursued their even tenor, resembling the two banks of a river, separated by athletes used, the stream that flows between them. Attempts were made to build a bridge connecting the two, but ended in citation generator, failure. Even if there were any temporary bridge it collapsed in no time.

Prof. J.N. Sarkar also holds that Sufism gained popularity only in the 17th and 18th centuries. Explaining the reasons for the popularity of Sufism during this period in United States' Essay, India, he says that it was mainly due to two factors: (1) The political and economic anarchy that came in apa image citation generator, the wake of downfall of Mughal Empire, (2) And an urge on the part of the two communities to come nearer, because in this alone lay their salvation and that of their country. He says that the Bhakti Movement and preoperational formal operational Sufi philosophy intended to bring the ruling sect and dominated people closer together.

Prof. Sarkar says. It was essentially a faith aoften an intellectual emotional enjoyment served for the Philosophers, authors and mystics from bigotry. The eastern variety of Sufism is mainly an apa image citation, off-shoot of the Vedanta of the Hindus and it rapidly spread and developed in India from the sensorimotor preoperational concrete, time of citation generator, Akbar. Prof. Yusuf Husain has appreciated the role of the Sufis in these words, The Sufis in India, as elsewhere, attached an esoteric significance to the teachings of the Quran. To them it had a deeper and more inward sense, but they did not claim any exclusive knowledge of the mysteries of existence.

They, however, propound­ed a scheme of life within the limits set by the law of Islam (Shariat) which, they considered formed the true path (Tariqat) to the ultimate goal of attaining nearness to God. Athletes Used! They preached inward light as against the dogmatic formalism of the ecclesiastics and the legists, and their exalted idealism brought spiritual solace and comfort to many a heart tossed on the sea of uncertainty and doubt.