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artwork essays This is an on Enforcing example of a first year essay which was given a distinction. Click on the highlights to read the comments. Certain words may be unfamiliar to you. Click on them to read their definitions in shell recruitment day the glossary. In this essay, the Rococo and Romanticism periods have been selected to demonstrate how two art periods can have many similarities yet still hold true to their own beliefs, values and principles to create a definitive style . Antoine Watteau#039;s painting, L#039;Indifferent , 1716, oil on canvas, 25cm x 18cm and Eugene Delacroix#039;s Paganini , 1831, oil on cardboard on wood panel, approx. 43cm x 28cm have been selected to represent the Rococo and Romanticism periods respectively . Abuse. Rococo was a style of art that followed on from the Baroque period in the early 18th century. The artists of this style typically depicted themes of love, artfully and archly pursued through erotic frivolity and playful intrigue . 1 Both the Strategic, art and interior design of the time displayed a sense of rhythm in which [e]verything seemed organic, growing, and in motion, an ultimate refinement of illusion. 2 The artists of this period were also starting to express themselves and their feelings about their themes in their work. Some of the works seem to be edging toward the ideals of the Romanticism period, even though they were at opposite ends of the 18th century . Romanticism in the late 18th century was a revolt against the sober restraint of the Enlightenment period that had preceded it. 3 This was a period encompassing the desire for freedom - not only political freedom but also freedom of thought, of feeling, of action, of worship, of speech and Essay on Enforcing Harsher Abuse of taste. 4 Artists wanted only to Marketing and Positioning, produce pure, truthful art that was based on the predominance of feeling and imagination.

5 Works in the Romantic period depict not only the Romantic ideal of love but also #039;Gothic#039; horror, as this too could be explored to discover the #039;sublime#039; . The works discussed in this essay share obvious similarities. They are both portraits of performers in full, in the context of their performing environment. In Watteau#039;s L#039;Indifferent , there is a sense of the Essay Harsher Animal, subject posing for the portrait in a very festive manner which is characteristic of the Rococo period. By contrast, in Delacroix#039;s Paganini the performer seems to carry himself with a much more intrinsic purpose, perhaps enacting a more truthful value that is typical of the Romantic ideal. There is, nevertheless, a similarity in the two poses that suggests motion, as both performers seem to be caught in mid movement. This dynamic quality was not typical of the other art movements prior to or during the 18th century, where portraits tended to depict people in staid, sober poses . Watteau#039;s painting of the dancer seems soft and flouncy, yet it is obvious that it is a well thought out work.

The writer#039;s choice of language have indicated the conditional nature of the observations. The colours are used to compliment and support the painting#039;s composition, with the hue of the foliage seemingly reflected in Strategic Marketing Trough Differentiation and Positioning Essay the velvet of the dancer#039;s clothes . The colour used in the cape has also been added to the accessories on the shoe and hat. Abuse Penalties. Both of these examples of the use of Strategic Marketing Essay colour show how the clever composition of the Essay on Enforcing Harsher Animal Abuse Penalties, painting successfully draws the viewer#039;s eye around it. When expressing the difference between the Baroque and Rococo periods, one art critic noted that [Rococo] aimed no longer at astounding the spectator with the marvellous, but rather at amusing him with the ingenious. And Ella: And Fit Essay. 6 This statement demonstrates that the Harsher Abuse, attention to in europe times on romanesque churches, compositional detail is both a necessary element of the Rococo period and also of this work by Watteau . Delacroix#039;s painting Paganini also displays a strong attention to colour . However , in this case, it is not just a compositional element, but also contributes to the highly emotive nature of the painting. Essay Harsher Penalties. The colours could be seen to the bet, suggest the way the artist felt about the scene before him. This portrayal of the dancer#039;s performance, using the poignant yet subtle blends of dark earthy background colours which contrast with the smooth deep black tones in the figure, enhances the feeling of balance and melody . Essay On Enforcing Abuse. This combination of art, music, theatre and dance was of shell high interest to the Romantic artists as it was a great source of the #039;true#039; or #039;pure#039; emotion which they sought to represent . The seemingly fast, fluent brushstrokes indicate and portray the motion and spirit within the performer. The colour and form seem to be of utmost importance, above the need for Animal Abuse Penalties, line.

Indeed, a stronger use of line would have contained and possibly even restricted the emotive values in and sikhism the artwork . This style did not go unnoticed by critics. Harsher. Both Delacroix and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres were referred to as Rubenistes and Poussinistes respectively, due to their use of the #039;academic#039; style of line or the #039;romantic#039; truth of colour as the main element in their works, although both are now recognised as Romantic artists. 7. The composition in Paganini is flowing and melodious and is greatly enhanced by Duke, Strong, Willing, and Fit Essay the aforementioned use of colour and the form of the performer. The posture has been exaggerated to on Enforcing Animal, enhance the Romantic principles within the and sikhism, composition by expressing the emotion roused by Essay Harsher Animal the scene. Although there were evident stylistic differences between Rococo and Strategic Trough Differentiation and Positioning Romanticism, artists in on Enforcing Animal Abuse both periods were beginning to express what they wanted to see in the scenes before them. Where Rococo was a time of idealising the frivolity of the upper classes, Romanticism idealised the world around the upper classes, depicting the good, the bad, and the ugly equally by looking for the sublime in everything. Both paintings discussed in this essay provide great insight into their own periods but also into the foundation of the Expressionist movement of the 20th century . Brookner, A. Romanticism and its discontents , London: Penguin, 2000. Honour, H. Romanticism , London: Penguin, 1979. Kleiner, F., Mamiya C. and Tansey, R., Gardener#039;s art through the ages , 11th ed. Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001.

Minor, V. Baroque and Rococo: Art and culture , New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999. Peckham, M. The birth of Romanticism 1790-1815 , Florida: Penkevill Publishing Company, 1986. Hinduism. #039;Rococo#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , accessed 7.8.2006. On Enforcing Abuse Penalties. #039;Romanticism#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ,, accessed 7.8.06. 1 F. Louis, And Ella: Strong,. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the Essay on Enforcing Harsher Animal Abuse Penalties, ages , 11th ed., (Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001), p. And Sikhism. 785. 2 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. On Enforcing Harsher. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 783. 3 #039;Romanticism#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ,, accessed 7.8.06. 4 F. Shell Day. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and Essay R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 863. 5 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Sculptures Roman. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 863. 6 V. Minor, Baroque and Rococo: Art and culture, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999), p 14. 7 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and on Enforcing Abuse R. The Bet. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 870. Problems?

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Skepticism and Essay on Enforcing Harsher Abuse, Content Externalism. [ Editor's Note: The following revised entry has a new title. It was previously titled Brains in a Vat. ] One skeptical hypothesis about the external world, namely that one is a brain in a vat with systematically delusory experience, is modelled on Essay the Cartesian Evil Genius hypothesis, according to which one is a victim of thoroughgoing error induced by on Enforcing Harsher Animal Abuse Penalties a God-like deceiver. Shell! The skeptic argues that one does not know that the brain-in-a-vat hypothesis is false, since if the hypothesis were true, one's experience would be just as it actually is. Therefore, according to the skeptic, one does not know any propositions about the external world (propositions which would be false if the vat hypothesis were true). Hilary Putnam (1981) provided an apparent refutation of a version of the brain-in-a-vat hypothesis, based upon on Enforcing Abuse, content externalism (also known as semantic externalism). This is the view that the meanings and truth conditions of one's sentences, and the contents of one's intentional mental states, depend upon the character of one's external, causal environment. This entry is primarily focussed upon evaluating the Putnamian considerations that seem to show that one can know that one is not a brain in a vat. 1. Skeptical Hypotheses and the Skeptical Argument.

The Cartesian skeptic puts forward various logically possible skeptical hypotheses for our consideration, such as that you are now merely dreaming that you are reading an encyclopedia entry. The more radical Evil Genius hypothesis is this: you inhabit a world consisting of just you and a God-like Evil Genius bent on deceiving you. In the Evil Genius world, nothing physical exists, and all of your experiences are directly caused by the Evil Genius. So your experiences, which represent there to be an external world of physical objects (including your body), give rise to systematically mistaken beliefs about your world (such as that you are now sitting at hinduism a computer). (For an overview of the problem of external world skepticism, see Greco 2007.) Some philosophers would deny that the Evil Genius hypothesis is genuinely logically possible. Materialists who hold that the mind is a complex physical system deny that it is possible for there to Harsher Abuse Penalties be an Evil Genius world, since, on their view, your mind could not possibly exist in a matterless world. Accordingly, a modern skeptic will have us consider an the bet, updated skeptical hypothesis that is consistent with materialism. Consider the hypothesis that you are a disembodied brain floating in a vat of on Enforcing nutrient fluids. This brain is connected to a supercomputer whose program produces electrical impulses that stimulate the Duke, Strong, and Fit Essay, brain in on Enforcing Animal, just the and sikhism, way that normal brains are stimulated as a result of perceiving external objects in the normal way. (The movie ‘The Matrix’ depicts embodied brains which are so stimulated, while their bodies float in a vats.) If you are a brain in a vat, then you have experiences that are qualitatively indistinguishable from those of Essay on Enforcing Harsher Animal Abuse a normal perceiver. If you come to believe, on the basis of your computer-induced experiences, that you are looking at at tree, then you are sadly mistaken. After having sketched this brain-in-a-vat hypothesis, the skeptic issues a challenge: can you rule out the possibility described in the hypothesis?

Do you know that the Strategic Trough and Positioning Essay, hypothesis is false? The skeptic now argues as follows. Choose any target proposition P concerning the external world, which you think you know to be true: If you know that P , then you know that you are not a brain in a vat. You do not know that you are not a brain in Harsher Animal Abuse Penalties, a vat. So, You do not know that P . Premise (1) is the bet, backed by the principle that knowledge is closed under known entailment : Since you know that P entails that you are not a brain in a vat (for example, let P = You are sitting at a computer ), by (CL) you know that P only if you know its entailed consequence: you are not a brain in on Enforcing Harsher Animal Abuse Penalties, a vat. Premise (2) is backed by the consideration that your experiences do not allow you to discriminate between the hypothesis that you are not a brain in a vat (but rather a normal human) from the shell day, hypothesis that you are a brain in a vat. Your experience would be the Animal Penalties, same regardless of which hypothesis were true. So you do not know that you are not a brain in a vat. 2. Hinduism! Putnam's BIVs and Abuse Penalties, the Disjunctive Argument.

In a famous discussion, Hilary Putnam has us consider a special version of the brain-in-a-vat hypothesis. Imagine that you are a brain in a vat in a world in which the Causes Essay, only objects are brains, a vat, and a laboratory containing supercomputers that stimulate the envatted brains. Imagine further that this situation has arisen completely randomly, and that the brains have always been envatted. No evil neuroscientists or renegade machines have brought about the brains' envatment. Call such a special brain in a vat a ‘BIV’. A skeptical argument just like that above can be formulated using the BIV hypothesis. Essay On Enforcing Animal Abuse! Putting things now in the first person, Putnam argues that I can establish that I am not a BIV by hinduism and sikhism appeal to Harsher Animal Abuse Penalties semantic considerations aloneconsiderations concerning reference and and Ella: Strong, Willing, Essay, truth. On Enforcing Penalties! This will block the BIV version of the skeptical argument. Here is how Putnam motivates his anti-skeptical semantic considerations.

Suppose that there are no trees on Mars and that a Martian forms a mental image exactly resembling one of my tree-images as a result of perceiving a blob of paint that accidentally resembles a tree. Putnam's intuition is that the Martian's image is not a representation of a tree. This is Causes and Treatments Essay, due to Essay Abuse Penalties the lack of any causal connection between the image and trees (even, we will suppose, any attenuated causal connection such as interaction with a visiting Earthling who has seen trees). If I were a BIV, then my mental image resembling a tree would no more be a representation of a tree than would the Martian's mental image. Neither of us would have the sort of causal contact with trees which is hinduism, required for our images to Essay Harsher Animal Penalties refer to trees. Louis, Duke, Strong, And Fit! The same reasoning applies to any tokens of the word ‘tree’ which might come to be uttered (or thought) by the Martian and by Essay on Enforcing Animal the BIV. The Bet! (In speaking about on Enforcing Animal Abuse Penalties BIVs, we will use ‘utter’ to mean, in effect, ‘seem to utter’, since a BIV cannot speak or write, but only seems to himself to the first large since can be found on romanesque churches be speaking or writing. Penalties! Similar remarks apply to ‘speak’.) What does the BIV's token of ‘tree’ refer to, if not to trees? Putnam offers three possibilities: to ‘trees-in-the-image’ (I take it that by ‘the image’, Putnam means the succession of experiences had by the BIV ), to the electrical impulses that stimulate the brain and thereby cause it to have experiences just like those a normal human has when it sees a tree, and to the computer program features that are causally responsible for the stimuli described in Duke, and Ella:, (ii) and thus the experiences described in (i).

On the natural , pre-Putnam assignment of references which one would make in evaluating the truth value of a BIV's utterance of ‘Here is a tree’, we would hold that the brain's token of ‘tree’ refers to trees and, hence, that his sentence token is false, since he is Essay on Enforcing Harsher Animal Abuse, not near a tree. On each of the bet Putnam's proposed reference assignments, though, the brain's sentence token comes out true (provided that the brain is on Enforcing Animal, indeed being stimulated so as to have experiences just like those a normal human has when seeing a tree and large found on romanesque churches, that the stimulation is caused by the appropriate electrical impulses generated by a computer's program features). On account (i), for Essay Harsher Abuse Penalties, example, the BIV's utterance of hinduism and sikhism ‘Here is a tree’ is true iff the BIV is having experiences as of being near a tree. Call these considerations about reference and Essay on Enforcing Abuse, truth semantic/content externalism . This view denies a crucial Cartesian assumption about mind and language, viz., that the BIV's sentences express systematically mistaken beliefs about his world, the very same beliefs had by a normal counterpart to the BIV, with matching experiences. And Sikhism! On the contrary: the BIV's sentences differ in reference and truth conditions (and, accordingly, in Essay on Enforcing Harsher, meaning) from those of his normal counterpart. His sentences express beliefs that are true of his strange vat environment. The First Large In Europe Since Roman Can Be Found On Romanesque! The differences in the semantic features of the sentences used by the BIV and those used by his normal counterpart are induced by the differences in the beings' external, causal environments. Account (iii) of the referents of the BIV's words gives the most plausible semantic/content externalist reference assignment, since recurring program features that systematically cause the BIV's ‘treeish’ experiences play a causal role vis a vis the Essay Harsher Animal Penalties, BIV's uses of ‘tree’ that is analogous to the causal role played by trees vis a vis a normal human's uses of ‘tree’. Using account (iii) and some of Putnam's remarks, we can reconstruct the following Disjunctive Argument (hereafter ‘DA’), which is aimed at establishing that I am not a BIV. The First Since Roman Found Churches! If DA succeeds, then we have a response to a skeptical argument involving the Essay on Enforcing Harsher Animal Penalties, BIV hypothesis which shares the shell recruitment day, form of the Animal Abuse Penalties, Cartesian argument (1)-(3) above. Causes! If DA succeeds, then it generates knowledge that I am not a BIV.

Thus we would have a response to the skeptic's claim that since I do not know that I am not a BIV, then I do not know any target external-world proposition P . Let ‘vat-English’ refer to the language of the BIV, let ‘brain*’ refer to the computer program feature that causes experiences in the BIV that are qualitatively indistinguishable from normal experiences that represent brains, and Essay on Enforcing Animal, let ‘vat*’ refer to the computer program feature that cause experiences that are qualitatively indistinguishable from normal experiences that represent vats. A BIV, then, is hinduism and sikhism, not a brain* in a vat*: a BIV is not a certain computer program feature located in a certain other computer program feature. Here is Essay on Enforcing Harsher Penalties, DA: Either I am a BIV (speaking vat-English) or I am a non-BIV (speaking English). Causes And Treatments Essay! If I am a BIV (speaking vat-English), then my utterances of ‘I am a BIV’ are true iff I am a brain* in a vat*. If I am a BIV (speaking vat-English), then I am not a brain* in a vat*. Essay Harsher Animal Penalties! If I am a BIV (speaking vat-English), then my utterances of ‘I am a BIV’ are false. [(b),(c)] If I am a non-BIV (speaking English), then my utterances of ‘I am a BIV’ are true iff I am a BIV.

If I am a non-BIV (speaking English), then my utterances of ‘I am a BIV’ are false. [(e)] My utterances of ‘I am a BIV’ are false. [(a),(d),(f)] DA stops short of delivering the desired result, namely a proof of. (¬SK) I am not a BIV. To establish (¬SK) we need to add a couple of further steps: (h) My utterances of ‘I am not a BIV’ are true. (T) My utterances of ‘I am not a BIV’ are true iff I am not a BIV. (¬SK) follows from Duke, Willing,, (h) and (T). On Enforcing! Step (h) itself follows from (g) on natural assumptions about negation, truth, and quotation, but (T) is problematic in the current anti-skeptical context. The assumption of hinduism and sikhism (T) seems to Essay on Enforcing Harsher beg the hinduism and sikhism, question against the skeptic. Harsher Animal! Putnam's semantic externalist picture is this: if I am an the bet, non-BIV (speaking English) then (T) is the correct statement of the truth conditions of my sentence ‘I am a BIV’, using the device of disquotation; but if instead I am a BIV (speaking vat-English), then the on Enforcing Animal Abuse Penalties, correct statement of shell my sentence's truth conditions is the on Enforcing Harsher Animal Penalties, strange one given in of Schizophrenia, (b) of DA, not using the device of disquotation.

So in order to know that (T) is the Harsher Animal Abuse, correct statement of my sentence's truth conditions, I need to know that I am a non-BIV (speaking English). But that is what the and Treatments Essay, anti-skeptical argument was supposed to prove (Brueckner 1986). According to this objection, Supplemented DA (DA plus (h) and (T)) is epistemically circular , in William Alston's sense: knowledge of Essay on Enforcing Harsher Abuse one of and Ella: Willing, its premises(T)requires knowledge of its conclusion (Alston 1989). Let us consider two other reconstructions of Essay on Enforcing Harsher Abuse Putnam's thinking regarding BIVs. Here is Simple Argument 1 (‘SA1’see Brueckner 2003):

If I am a BIV, then my word ‘tree’ does not refer to trees. My word ‘tree’ refers to trees. So, I am not a BIV. [(A),(B)] We will discuss (B) below. The First Sculptures In Europe On Romanesque Churches! Premise (A) comes from Putnam's semantic externalism, as seen above. On Enforcing Animal Abuse! DA's claims about the BIV's sentences' truth conditions are grounded in claims about reference such as (A): since the BIV's words differ in Marketing Trough Differentiation and Positioning, their referents from the corresponding words of a normal speaker, the BIV's sentences accordingly differ in their truth conditions from the corresponding sentences of a normal speaker.

The semantic differences just mentioned induce differences at the level of Harsher Abuse Penalties thought content that are exploited in the following Simple Argument 2 (‘SA2’Brueckner 2003, Ebbs 1992, Tymoczko 1989): If I am a BIV, then I am not thinking that trees are green. I am thinking that trees are green. So, I am not a BIV. We will discuss (E) below. Shell Day! Regarding (D): since the on Enforcing Penalties, BIV's word ‘tree’ does not refer to trees when he uses the sentence ‘Trees are green’ as a vehicle for thinking a thought, his thought does not have the content that trees are green . Louis, Duke, Strong, And Fit Essay! Rather, it has some content concerning tree*'s, that is, computer program features that cause in the BIV experiences that are qualitatively indistinguishable from normal experiences that represent trees. Perhaps the content is something like this: the Harsher Abuse Penalties, program feature that causes ‘treeish’ experience is associated with a program feature that causes experiences that are qualitatively indistinguishable from normal experiences that represent objects as being green. SA2 highlights the connection between semantic externalism and Strategic Marketing Trough Differentiation and Positioning Essay, the mind.

Not only do meaning, reference, and truth depend upon one's external environment in the ways we have discussed; further, the representational contents of one's thoughts, beliefs, desires and other propositional attitudes also depend upon circumstances external to Essay on Enforcing Animal Abuse Penalties one's mind. The simple arguments are simpler than DA, and they also do not commit the anti-skeptic to a specification of the referents of the BIV's words and the contents of its thoughts. The arguments rest only upon the claim that the Trough and Positioning Essay, referents and contents in question differ from my referents and contents. Another advantage of the Simple Arguments is that they do not, on the face of Animal Abuse Penalties it, seem to beg the question against the skeptic, as did DA when supplemented so that it validly implied the conclusion (¬SK): that I am not a BIV. Let us now turn to an objection to shell SA1. Though the Essay on Enforcing Harsher Penalties, argument does not obviously require knowledge that I am a non-BIV (speaking English), as Supplemented DA seemed to, its premise (B) does seem upon reflection to be question-begging. On a natural understanding of (B), the truth of this premise requires the existence of trees as referents for my word ‘tree’. So to know that (B) is hinduism, true, I would need to Animal Penalties know that I am a non-BIV in a world containing trees, rather than a BIV in a treeless vat world. This problem infects SA2 as well, since my ground for holding that I can think tree-thoughts while the times found churches, BIV cannot is ultimately the claim that the words we use to on Enforcing Animal Abuse express our respective thoughts differ in reference (trees versus things that are not trees, such as tree*'s).

SA1 can be modified so as to Marketing Trough Differentiation avoid this objection (Brueckner 2003): A*. If I am a BIV, then it is not the case that if my word ‘tree’ refers, then it refers to Essay Harsher Abuse trees. B*. If my word ‘tree’ refers, then it refers to since found churches trees. So, C. I am not a BIV. Premise (A*) comes from semantic/content externalism.

Re premise (B*): knowledge that there are trees in my world is not required in order to justify this premise. But a problem still remains. Essay On Enforcing Animal! In order to know (B*), don't I need to know that I am a non-BIV (speaking English), so that I can use the the bet, device of disquotation in on Enforcing Penalties, stating the referents of Essay my words (if they do have referents at on Enforcing Penalties all)? A similar worry can be laid at hinduism and sikhism the door of SA2. In order to know its second premise, (E), I need to know what I am now thinking. But if I am a BIV, then I use the sentence ‘Trees are green’ to express some thought concerning tree*'s.

So in order to know what I am now thinking (in order to Essay on Enforcing Animal Abuse Penalties know that I am thinking that trees are green ), it seems that I need to know that I am not a BIV thinking a thought with a strange content (Brueckner 2003). A reasonable response to the foregoing objection to Causes Modified SA1 is as follows. In advance of working through Modified SA1, I do not know whether or not I am a non-BIV (speaking English) or a BIV (speaking vat-English). On Enforcing Harsher Animal Penalties! But I do know certain things about my own language (whatever it is and wherever I am speaking it). By virtue of knowing the meaning of ‘refers’ and the meaning of quotation marks, I know that disquotation can be correctly applied to any successfully referring term of my language, in the way that (B*) indicates for my word ‘tree’. This is a priori knowledge of of Schizophrenia Essay semantic features of my own language (whatever it isEnglish or vat-English). I know (A*) in virtue of my a priori , philosophical knowledge of the theory of Essay Abuse semantic externalism and of how it applies to the case of the BIV.

Knowing (A*) and (B*), I can then knowledgeably deduce that I am not a BIV (Brueckner 1992). A similar response to the foregoing objection to SA2 is that I have knowledge of my own mind that is not experientially based. I can gain the knowledge that I am now thinking that trees are green via introspection. Strategic Trough Essay! Putting this self-knowledge together with my a priori , philosophical knowledge of Essay SA2's first premise, (D), (knowledge based upon my understanding of semantic externalism), I can then knowledgeably deduce that I am not a BIV. Duke, And Ella: Strong, Willing,! A problem for Essay on Enforcing Harsher Animal Abuse Penalties, this response has been raised by various philosophers. It has been suggested that semantic/content externalism engenders severe limits on self-knowledge: if I do not know that I am not a BIV, then I do not know which contents my thoughts possess: the and Ella: Strong, and Fit, normal ones that I think that they possess, or the strange ones that they possess if I am a BIV. So the response we have considered may be in on Enforcing Harsher, trouble if semantic externalism gives rise to such skepticism about knowledge of content. (Ludlow and Martin 1998)

The foregoing defenses of the Simple Arguments emphasize a constraint on anti-skeptical arguments: their premises must be knowable a priori . Hinduism And Sikhism! The justification of their premises must not require any appeal to the deliverances of sense-experience. Now Modified SA1 is driven by the following thought: the referent of the BIV's ‘tree’ is something strange, viz., tree*'s (certain computer program features); but the referent of my ‘tree’ (if such there be) is trees ; so I am not a BIV. This thought in turn rests upon on Enforcing Harsher Animal Penalties, the natural assumption that trees are not computer program features . But is that assumption something that I know a priori ? In work unrelated to skepticism, Putnam has claimed that even though it is hinduism, necessary that cats are animals (just as it is necessary that water is Essay on Enforcing Harsher Animal, H 2 O), it is not knowable a priori that cats are animals (just as it is not knowable a priori that water is H 2 O). According to Putnam, the concept of cat allows that in advance of gaining knowledge of their inner structure, cats could turn out to be robots . The worry is Essay, that in Essay on Enforcing Abuse, a similar way, the concept of sculptures since can be tree is Essay on Enforcing, such that in advance of gaining knowledge of the existence and nature of trees, trees could turn out to be computer program features . Hinduism And Sikhism! If I hold in abeyance my seeming a posteriori knowledge about trees, then, I cannot fairly say that in Essay on Enforcing Harsher Abuse, the vat world, there are no trees . The Bet! Thus, I do not know a priori that the BIV's word ‘tree’ refers to things other than trees (in virtue of referring to computer program features which are distinct from trees) (Brueckner 2005). This objection to Modified SA1 can be answered by focusing upon the dialectical situation between skeptic and anti-skeptic. The skeptic wishes to impugn my seeming knowledge of the external world by putting forward a skeptical hypothesis that is incompatible with the external-world propositions I believe. On Enforcing Harsher Abuse! We are considering the Strategic Differentiation and Positioning Essay, skeptical hypothesis SK (= I am a BIV). On the current objection to Essay Penalties our anti-skeptical argument, the hinduism and sikhism, skeptical critic undermines his own position by suggesting that SK is compatible with external-world propositions such as that I am in on Enforcing Harsher, the presence of hinduism green trees. I can now argue as follows in Penalties, response to the skeptic's current objection. I know a priori that either (I) trees are computer program features, or (II) trees are not computer program features.

On the first alternative, the skeptic undermines his own overall position, and on the second alternative, the skeptic's objection is withdrawn. So we could view Modified SA1 as being an argument by cases: it is not known a priori which case obtains, but it is known a priori that the skeptic loses in each case. Another objection to shell recruitment the semantic arguments we have considered springs to mind when we imagine a BIV working his way through, say, Modified SA1. When the Essay, BIV thinks thoughts via the sentences (A*), (B*), and (C), he is not , for example, thinking about trees when he thinks his second premise. The (used) occurrence of the Louis, and Ella: Strong, and Fit Essay, word ‘trees’ in his premise does not refer to trees but rather to Essay on Enforcing Animal Penalties something elsetree*'s, that is, certain computer program features. Shell Recruitment! Understood in this way, his second premise is true. His first premise concerns the on Enforcing Animal Abuse, referent of his word ‘tree’ on condition that he is a brain* in a vat*. Thus, the BIV's first premise is true in virtue of having a necessarily false antecedent (since it is not logically possible for him to Causes and Treatments of Schizophrenia Essay be a computer program feature).

So the BIV's version of Modified SA1 is sound. Animal Abuse! But he uses the argument to prove the conclusion that he is not a brain* in and sikhism, a vat*, rather than the on Enforcing Harsher Abuse Penalties, conclusion that he is not a BIV. The following worry arises. Perhaps I am a BIV who uses Modified SA1 to prove that I am not a brain* in a vat*, rather than the desired result that I am not a BIV. However, this worry is unfounded. If Modified SA1 is sound, then it proves just what it appears to provethat I am not a BIV. Just read the the bet, argument carefully when you work through it! It makes no difference to my argumentative situation if someone on on Enforcing Harsher Animal Abuse Alpha Centauri uses those very sentences with different meanings from mine and proves that muons move rapidly (Johnsen 2003, Brueckner 2004).

A final objection to the semantic arguments is hard to dispute. Duke, Strong, Essay! The problem is the narrow scope of the arguments. They cannot prove that I am not a recently disembodied brain in a vat (as opposed to a Putnamian BIV). If I have been speaking English up until my recent envatment, then my words will retain their English referents (to trees and so on) and my thoughts will retain their normal contents (about trees and so on). Thus, the Essay Abuse, Putnamian semantic externalist considerations will find no purchase against the skeptical hypothesis that I am a fledgling brain in a vat (Brueckner 1986). However, in such a “recent envatment” scenario, the pertinent skeptical argument leaves unscathed many of my knowledge-claims (such as that I was born in the USA, that I own a black cat,) So the “recent envatment” scenario lacks the skeptical power of the Putnamian BIV scenario.

This leads to reconsideration of the Cartesian evil genius skeptical hypothesis of Meditation I. The Bet! Recall that in the Cartesian scenario, all that exists is on Enforcing, my mind just as it actually is and a God-like Evil Genius that directly causes my mental states. Nothing physical exists. The First Roman Times Can Be Found On Romanesque Churches! On what basis can I knowledgeably rule out the possibility that I am involved in an Evil Genius scenario, in which all my external-world beliefs are mistaken? If I cannot rule it out that I am in Essay on Enforcing Harsher, such a scenario, then, according to Descartes, I do not know any of the external-world propositions that I claim to the bet know. Harsher Animal! The Putnamian semantic considerations over which we have obsessed can be brought to bear against the foregoing radical skeptical scenario. It seems that we should assign referents to the terms of the evil genius victim that are analogous to the “computer program feature” referents in Differentiation and Positioning, the BIV storyreferents that are states of the Abuse Penalties, evil genius, those systematically causally responsible for, say, my “treeish” experience. Marketing Essay! So contra Descartes, if I were the Essay on Enforcing Harsher Penalties, victim of an Evil Genius, I would not have thoroughly mistaken beliefs about things apart from my mind.

Instead, I would have as many correct beliefs about things apart from day, my mind (in this case beliefs about states of the Evil Genius) as does a normal thinker in Essay Animal Abuse Penalties, a normal environment. Differentiation And Positioning! An analogue to a “simple argument” could also be constructed against on Enforcing Harsher Penalties, the traditional Cartesian hypothesis. Finally, two other, more radical skeptical hypotheses that are left unscathed by semantic externalism are that (1) I am a brain in a vat whose experiences are randomly caused by a supercomputer, or (2) there is a whimsical evil demon inducing my experiences with no stable mental sources to serve as referents. In such scenarios, there are no systematic causal connections, for example, between the and Treatments, computer program features or the nature of the demon and my recurring ‘treeish’ experiences. The semantic externalist would say that, in such scenarios, my words fail to refer to things in my world, and no truth conditions can be properly assigned to Essay on Enforcing Penalties my sentences. These sentences accordingly fail to express contentful thoughts. On these radical skeptical hypotheses, I am asked, then, to the bet countenance the (alleged) possibility that I am not thinking contentful thoughts via meaningful sentences with reference and truth conditions. Essay Abuse! But if these ‘possibilities’ are actual, then there is no such thing as a skeptical argument upon which I am reflecting. Shell! Thus, these radical skeptical hypotheses may well in Essay on Enforcing Animal Abuse, the end undermine themselves. The brain-in-a-vat hypotheses are crucial for the formulation of skeptical arguments concerning the possibility of knowledge of the external world that are modeled on the Cartesian Evil Genius argument.

We have seen that the BIV hypothesis may well be refutable, given semantic/content externalism and given the assumption that one has a priori knowledge of some key semantic properties of one's language (or, alternatively, a priori knowledge of the contents of one's mental states). Even if Putnamian arguments fail to rule out all versions of the brain-in-a-vat hypotheses, their success against the radical BIV hypothesis would be significant. Further, these arguments highlight a novel view of the the first large in europe since roman can be, relations between mind, language, and the external world. Alston, W., 1989, “Epistemic Circularity”, in Essay Harsher Animal Abuse, his Epistemic Justification: Essays in the Theory of Knowledge , Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Louis, Duke, And Ella: Strong, Willing,! Brueckner, A., 1986, “Brains in Abuse Penalties, a Vat”, Journal of the bet Philosophy , 83(3): 148167. Essay Animal! , 1992, “Semantic Answers to Skepticism”, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly , 73(3): 200219; reprinted in DeRose and Warfield (eds.) 1999, pp.

4360. , 1994, “Ebbs on Skepticism, Objectivity and Brains in Duke, and Ella: Willing, and Fit, Vats”, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly , 75: 7787. , 1999, “Transcendental Arguments from Essay on Enforcing Animal, Content Externalism”, in R. Stern (ed.), Transcendental Arguments: Problems and Prospects , Oxford: Clarendon Press. , 2003b, “Trees, Computer Program Features, and Skeptical Hypotheses”, in S Luper (ed.), The Skeptics: Contemporary Essays , Burlington: Ashgate. Strategic Marketing Trough! , 2004, “Johnsen on Brains in Vats”, Philosophical Studies , 129(3): 435440. , 2010, Essays on Skepticism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2011, “Skepticism and Semantic Externalism”, in S. Bernecker and D. Pritchard (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Epistemology , New York: Routledge. Brueckner, A. and G. Ebbs, forthcoming, Self-Knowledge in Doubt , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. On Enforcing Animal Abuse Penalties! Christensen, D., 1993, “Skeptical Problems, Semantical Solution”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research , 53(2): 301321. Dell'Utri, M., 1990, “Choosing Conceptions of Realism: the Case of the Brains in a Vat”, Mind , 99(393): 7990. DeRose, Keith, and T. Warfield (eds.), 1999, Skepticism: a Contemporary Reader , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ebbs, G., 1992, “Skepticism, Objectivity and Brains in hinduism, Vats”, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly , 73(3): 239266. , 1996, “Can We Take Our Own Words at Face Value?”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research , 56: 499530. Essay Abuse! , 2001, “Is Skepticism about Self-Knowledge Coherent?”, Philosophical Studies , 105(1): 4358. Forbes, G., 1995, “Realism and Trough Differentiation, Skepticism: Brains in a Vat Revisited”, Journal of Philosophy , 92 (4): 205222; reprinted in Essay Penalties, DeRose and sculptures in europe roman times on romanesque, Warfield (eds.) 1999, pp. 6175. Penalties! Gallois, A., 1992, “Putnam, Brains in Vats, and Differentiation and Positioning Essay, Arguments for Scepticism”, Mind , 101(402): 273286. Harsher Animal Penalties! Greco, John, 2007, “External World Skepticism”, Philosophy Compass , 2(4): 625649. Hinduism! Johnsen, B., 2003, “Of Brains in Vats, Whatever Brains in Vats Might Be”, Philosophical Studies , 112(3): 225249.

Ludlow, P. and N. On Enforcing Harsher Abuse Penalties! Martin (eds.), 1998, Externalism and Self-knowledge , Stanford: CSLI Publications. McIntyre, J., 1984, “Putnam's Brains”, Analysis , 44: 5961. Noonan, H., 1998, “Reflections on Putnam, Wright and sculptures since times found on romanesque, Brains in Vats”, Analysis , 58(1): 5962. Nuccetelli, S. (ed.), 2003, New Essays on Semantic Externalism and Self-Knowledge , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Putnam, H., 1981, Reason, Truth, and History , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Chapter 1, pp. Harsher Abuse! 121; reprinted as “Brains in a Vat”, in Louis, Duke, Willing, Essay, DeRose and on Enforcing Harsher, Warfield (eds.) 1999, Chapter 2, pp. 2742. Roth, M. and G. Ross (eds.), 1989, Doubting: Contemporary Perspectives on Skepticism , Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Smith, P., 1984, “Could We Be Brains in a Vat?”, Canadian Journal of shell recruitment day Philosophy , 14(1): 115123. On Enforcing Harsher Animal Abuse Penalties! Steinitz, Y., 1994, “Brains in a Vat: Different Perspectives”, Philosophical Quarterly , 44(175): 213222. Tymoczko, T., 1989, “Brains Don't Lie: They Don't Even Make Many Mistakes”, in Roth and Ross 1989, pp. Shell Day! 195213. Warfield, T.A., 1992, “ A Priori Knowledge of the World: Knowing the on Enforcing Harsher Animal Abuse, World by Knowing Our Minds”, Philosophical Studies , 92: 127147; reprinted in DeRose and Warfield (eds.) 1999, pp. 7692. Wright, C., 1992, “On Putnam's Proof That We Are Not Brains-in-a-Vat”, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society , 92: 6794. Epistemology Research Guide, maintained by Keith Korcz, University of Louisiana. Strategic Differentiation Essay! The Epistemology Page, maintained by Keith DeRose (Philosophy, Yale University) The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free.

View this site from Essay Harsher Animal Penalties, another server: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Causes of Schizophrenia Essay Philosophy is copyright 2016 by Essay Animal Penalties The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for hinduism and sikhism, the Study of Language and Essay on Enforcing Harsher Penalties, Information (CSLI), Stanford University.

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A Comparison of L1 and L2 Reading: Cultural Differences and Schema. The University of on Enforcing Harsher Abuse Penalties, Arizona, USA. Hinduism! eading in the L1 shares numerous important basic elements with reading in on Enforcing Harsher Abuse a second or foreign language, the processes also differ greatly. Intriguing questions involve whether there are two parallel cognitive processes at work, or whether there are processing strategies that accommodate both first and second languages. This paper will examine how reading in the L1 is different from and similar to reading in the L2. More specifically, factors of cultural differences: content (background knowledge) schema, formal (textual) schema, linguistic (language) schema, will be examined. Based on such a discussion, a profile of a biliterate reader is provided. This paper will examine how reading in the L1 is different from and similar to Louis, Strong, Willing, and Fit reading in the L2. More specifically, factors of cultural differences: content (background knowledge) schema, formal (textual) schema, linguistic (language) schema, will be examined. Based on such a discussion, a profile of a biliterate reader is provided.

While the research in Abuse this domain encompasses a great deal of literature which cannot possibly be covered in its entirety here, it is hoped that this discussion will nonetheless provide readers with an overview in this area. Found! Research on the theory of schema has had a great impact on Essay on Enforcing Harsher understanding reading. Researchers have identified several types of schemata. Content schema, which refers to a reader's background or world knowledge, provides readers with a foundation, a basis for comparison (Carrell Eisterhold, 1983; Carrell, Pharis, Liberto, 1989). Formal schema, often known as textual schema, refers to the organizational forms and rhetorical structures of written texts. Marketing And Positioning Essay! It can include knowledge of different text types and genres, and also includes the Essay on Enforcing understanding that different types of texts use text organization, language structures, vocabulary, grammar, level of formality/register differently. The Bet! Schooling and culture play the largest role in providing one with a knowledge base of formal schemata.

While formal schemata cover discourse level items, linguistic or language schemata include the decoding features needed to recognize words and how they fit together in a sentence. First language readers, may through repeated examples, be able to Essay Penalties generalize a pattern or guess the meaning of a word, which may not have initially been part of their linguistic schema. The building of linguistic schema in the first large since on romanesque churches a second language can proceed in the much the same way. From the Essay Harsher Penalties above discussion it is evident that schema plays an important role in text comprehension, both in the L1 and Differentiation and Positioning L2 context. For example, whether reading in a first or second language, one can assume that both native and non-native readers will understand more of a text when they are familiar with content, formal, and linguistic schema.

An L2 reader, however, who does not possess such knowledge can experience schema interference, or lack of comprehension- ideas which are examined further in the following discussion pertaining to relevant research in this area. Content Schema, Cultural Orientation, and Background Knowledge. Steffensen and Essay Harsher Animal Abuse Joag-Dev (1984) conducted a study using two descriptions of weddings both written in English. Causes Essay! One was a descritption of an American wedding, while the other was of and Indian (subcontinent) wedding. Both the Indian students, for whom English was an L2, and the American students, for whom English was the L1, read the on Enforcing Abuse descriptions and were asked to the first times can be churches recall the descriptions. It was found that readers comprehended texts about their own cultures more accurately than the other. While the readers indicated that the words were easy to understand, the unfamiliar cultural protocol of an Indian wedding made the passage more difficult to remember.

Johnson's (1981) study investigated the effects of the cultural origin of prose on the reading comprehension of 46 Iranian intermediate advanced ESL students at the university level. Essay Abuse! Half of the subjects read the unadapted English texts of two stories, one from sculptures in europe roman can be churches Iranian folklore and on Enforcing Animal Penalties one from American folklore, while the other half read the same stories in adapted English. The subjects' reading comprehension was tested through the use of multiple-choice questions. The recall questions and the texts were also given to 19 American subjects for Causes Essay, comparison purposes. Essay Harsher Animal Penalties! Results revealed that the cultural origin of the story had a greater effect on comprehension than syntactic or semantic complexity of the text. In another study, Johnson (1982) compared ESL students' recall on Strategic Trough Differentiation and Positioning Essay a reading passage on Halloween.

Seventy-two ESL students at the university level read a passage on the topic of Halloween. The passage contained both unfamiliar and familiar information based on the subjects' recent experience of the custom. Some subjects studied the meanings for unfamiliar words in the text. Results of recall protocols suggested that prior cultural experience prepared readers for comprehension of the familiar information about on Enforcing Penalties Halloween on the passage. However, exposure to the unfamiliar words did not seem to hinduism and sikhism have a significant effect on Essay Animal their reading comprehension.

An interesting study was carried out by Kang (1992). Kang's study examined how second language readers filter information from second language texts through culture specific background knowledge. Korean graduate students with advanced English read stories and answered questions. A think-aloud protocol assessing their understanding and inferences indicated an effect of Marketing and Positioning, culture specific schemata and inferences upon text comprehension. Although all the variables and factors surrounding the issues of Animal Penalties, how culture shapes background knowledge and influences reading are not fully understood, there is agreement that background knowledge is important, and that content schema plays an integral role in reading comprehension. Overall, readers appeared to have a higher level of comprehension when the content was familiar to them. Given this, second language readers do not possess the same degree of content schema as first language readers, and since roman found churches hence, this can result in comprehension difficulties. Formal and Linguistic Schema and Text Comprehension. For the Essay Penalties most part, these studies suggested that different types of text structure affected comprehension and recall (Bean, Potter, Clark, 1980; Carrell, 1984).

Some studies also showed that there may have differences among language groups as to which text structures facilitated recall better (Carrell, 1984). For example, Carrell's (1984) study showed that Arabs remembered best from the bet expository texts with comparison structures, next best from problem-solution structures and collections of descriptions, and least well from causation structures. Asians, however, recalled best from texts with either problem-solution or causation structures, and least well from either comparison structures or collections of descriptions. These results; however, must be taken as suggestive as further studies examining the interaction of language background with text structure are needed. Regardless of these findings, as previously stated, it is important to recognize that organizational structures in text will differ across cultures. Stone's (1985) study examined whether language patterns found in English, which differed from those in Spanish, would have a significant effect on ESL learners' comprehension while reading English text. Average fifth grade readers were randomly assigned to Essay on Enforcing Penalties either an initial Spanish-speaking group or an initial English speaking group. Nine stories were developed for the study, three for each of three different language patterns categories: similar, moderately similar, and dissimilar.

Measures included a retelling and comprehension questions. Results showed that on the retelling measures, the lowest scores were found on stories that were most dissimilar from the students' initial language, and oral reading errors increased as language pattern similarity decreased. The results support the contention that texts violating readers' expectations about language patterns can have disruptive effects. Over the last few years, the field of contrastive rhetoric has emerged initiated by the work of Kaplan (1966). Its areas of focus are the Louis, and Ella: Strong, Willing, and Fit Essay role of the first language conventions of discourse and rhetorical structure on Essay Animal Abuse L2 usage, as well as cognitive and cultural dimensions of transfer, particularly in relation to writing. For the most part, contrastive rhetoric identifies problems in composition encountered by L2 writers and by referring to rhetorical strategies of the first language, attempts to explain them.

It is recruitment clear that such differences in text structure can lead to difficulties in reading. Mauranen (1992) examined cohesion in both Finnish and English economic texts and found that Finnish writers employed relatively little metalanguage for organizing text and orienting the reader. In contrast, native English speakers used plenty of devices for orienting the reader in terms of Essay Harsher, what is to follow in the text and how the reader should understand the different sections of the text. This pattern was found in and sikhism their writing as well. Essay Animal Abuse! Finnish writers used less demonstrative references than native English writers. Lindeberg (1988), in her examination of text linguistic features, found differences between Finnish and English writers in terms of topic development and the functions of verbs.

Numerous differences have also been found in terms of writing styles between American-English and other languages. Causes! American students for example will often comment on on Enforcing Penalties the more theoretical and Duke, Essay abstract essays of French writers whose essays lack the details and rhetorical patterns found in Harsher Penalties the American essay tradition. Chinese writing is often described as being verbose, ornamental, and lacking in coherence from a Western point of view, while Japanese writing has been noted for differences in text organization. It appears that they prefer a specific-to-general pattern placing the Strategic Marketing Trough Differentiation general statement at Essay on Enforcing Harsher Abuse Penalties the end of paragraphs (Connor, 1996). Lastly, it is Causes important to point out that The differences between the writing systems and rhetorical structures of the native language and the target language may be another factor that influence reading. Orthographic systems vary widely and while some languages may contain many numbers of symbols, other languages contain a limited number.

For example, Chinese calligraphy is a writing system with numerous symbols and Essay Abuse one that has strong aesthetic elements thereby differing from Engish. Arabic also has a unique writing system in that it is written and read from right to left. These kinds of differences in writing systems can pose difficulties for second language readers. Undoubtedly, students reading in a second language will encounter such difficulties not faced by shell recruitment day first language readers. In summary, teachers must therefore be explicit about the on Enforcing Penalties structures of the materials the students are reading in the L2 class through which students can become aware of culturally shaped expectations about text and language. Connor (1996) provides an extensive survey on this issue and considers the shell day types of Harsher Abuse, differences between the native and target language that can interfere with text comprehensibility. Second language refers to the chronology of language learning; a second language being any language acquired after the native (Stern, 1983, p. Shell Recruitment Day! 12). This definition implies a firmly developed native language.

In addition, the term second language implies that the language is probably not spoken in the home. Furthermore, the second language may contain a linguistic base that is syntactically, phonetically, semantically, and rhetorically distinct from the target language. Essay On Enforcing Abuse Penalties! As previously discussed, schema plays an important role in shell recruitment day reading comprehension. An L2 reader who is not familiar with culturally based knowledge or content schema, or a reader who does not possess the same linguistic base as the L1 reader will encounter difficulties. Such difficulties may be greater when there is a greater difference between the on Enforcing Harsher L1 and hinduism the L2.

If for example, syntactic structure in Essay on Enforcing Abuse a second language student's native language is Strategic Differentiation very different from that of the Essay Harsher Animal Abuse Penalties target language, a greater degree of cognitive restructuring is required (Segalowitz, 1986). Grabe (1991) also notes that students begin reading in an L2 with a different knowledge base than they had when starting to read in their L1. For example, L1 readers already have a sufficient vocabulary base and know thousands of words before they actually start to read. They also have some grammatical knowledge of their own language. L2 readers on the other hand, do not share these advantages. Furthermore, while the second language reader may have linguistic skills, they often do not have finely honed sociocultural skills, which often means that a second language reader is not equipped with the knowledge to perceive texts in a culturally authentic, culturally specific way, an recruitment day, idea related to lack of Essay Abuse, content schema. The end result, comprehension, is the bet based on on Enforcing Animal Penalties linguistic data. Large In Europe Since Found Churches! Given the above discussion, a profile of a biliterate reader can be offered. Biliteracy means that one can read in Animal two more languages. The ability to read and read successfully implies text comprehension and the knowledge of which reading strategies and skills to use, and recruitment under what conditions in Animal Abuse Penalties the languages in question.

A biliterate reader in Causes of Schizophrenia Essay Spanish and on Enforcing Harsher Abuse English, for example, would mean that the reader is able to read successfully in both languages and would engage in some of the following reading behaviors to enhance reading comprehension and to read effectively. Such a reader would overview text before reading, employ context clues such as titles, subheading, and diagrams, look for important information while reading and pay greater attention to it than other information, attempt to Differentiation and Positioning relate important points in text to one another in order to understand the Harsher Animal Abuse text as a whole, activate and use prior knowledge to interpret text, (which includes content, formal, and linguistic schema), reconsider and revise hypotheses about the meaning of text based on and Ella: and Fit text content, attempt to Harsher Abuse infer information from the text, attempt to determine the meaning of words not understood or recognized, monitor text comprehension, identify or infer main ideas, use strategies to remember text (paraphrasing, repetition, making notes, summarizing, self-questioning, etc), understand relationships between parts of Marketing Differentiation, text, recognize text structure, change reading strategies when comprehension is perceived not be proceeding smoothly; evaluate the qualities of Harsher, text, reflect on and process additionally after a part has been read, and anticipate or plan for the use of hinduism, knowledge gained from the reading. While this list is not prioritized or complete, it does provide one with a description of the characteristics of successful biliterate readers. Such a reader would employ these strategies and reading behaviors when reading in all languages. Furthermore, the biliterate reader, regardless of Harsher Animal Penalties, text type, language, or orthography would develop strategies and schemas for dealing with different languages and texts.

The biliterate reader therefore is a flexible reader and one who possesses the and Treatments Essay knowledge, skills and Essay Harsher Penalties strategies to accommodate to each language situation, and hence the process of the bet, reading in either language will not be seen as different by Essay Harsher Abuse Penalties the reader. In summary, this paper has attempted to discuss some of the large sculptures since roman can be found on romanesque differences and similarities between reading in on Enforcing Animal Penalties a first language and reading in shell recruitment day a second language. Factors of cultural differences were considered with special attention directed to Animal Abuse Penalties the role of schema and how this relates to text comprehension in an L1 and L2. There are certainly a number of other factors which would contribute to the difference in L1 and L2 reading, but it hoped that this discussion shed some light on Duke, Willing, and Fit Essay how cultural factors, namely differences in types of schema can contribute to this difference. While the two processes are also similar in some ways, it must be noted that students' perception of Essay on Enforcing Animal, their reading difficulties are also similar in many ways across languages.

Readers, especially L2 readers, can better understand some of shell recruitment, those similarities. Teachers must therefore question students about their reading and reading behaviors, as students themselves can offer tremendous insights into both their L1 and L2 reading experiences.

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Discuss the Essay Animal Abuse, separation of law and morality in analytical jurisprudence. The notion of analytical jurisprudence (also called “positive law”) is merely one aspect of Louis, Duke, and Fit Essay, a wide range of legal theories that are evident throughout legal history, and in Harsher Abuse, the contemporary legal system. Legal positivism had its origins in the early 19th century, and owes much of its foundation to the combination of many ideas from the modernist and liberal schools of legal thought. This allowed for a movement away from natural law theory, especially at a common law level, and the bet gave the opportunity to take a more scientific approach to the law ‘as it is’. This approach was first taken by figures such as Jeremy Bentham and John Austin. However, the positive view of the law struggled to adapt to the 20th century legal system, and it was HLA Hart who redeveloped the concept of positive law in England in the 1960s. Legal positivism holds the belief that the law should remain separate from morals and other social factors (such as religion, etc), and Essay Penalties thus the theory was that the law could have much more general application.

This brief will consider the ideas of the hinduism and sikhism, founders of the school of analytical jurisprudence , and Penalties highlight the strict separation of Duke, and Ella: Willing, Essay, law and morality that these theorists adopt in their approach to analysing the law (thus supporting Austin’s claim). It will explore the theories set out by Bentham, Austin and Hart, and consider them in the context of the modern law, and determine their validity in the contemporary context. This brief will seek to focus particularly on the ways that Hart has reformed the ‘harder’ positivist theories with his combination of natural law and positivism into the more contemporary analytical jurisprudence that we see today. As a result of this combination, there are often conflicts between Hart and Lon Fuller (a natural law theorist) due to the obvious differences that these two theories possess. These will be discussed in more detail in the relevant chapters of this brief, however it is important to Essay on Enforcing Abuse Penalties note at Duke, Strong, Willing,, this point that many perceive that positivism is not as different to other theories as it once was, due to Essay Harsher Animal Penalties the critical elaboration of Differentiation Essay, positivism by Hart into Essay on Enforcing Harsher Animal the analytical jurisprudence that we see in effect today.

Many authors refer to recruitment positivism and analytical jurisprudence as one and the same, and they are in effect, however it is important to Animal Penalties consider their subtle differences between Bentham, Austin and Hart, and the individual contributions that these theorists have made to the development of analytical jurisprudence. This brief will now seek to hinduism and sikhism cover the Essay on Enforcing Harsher Abuse Penalties, general principles of analytical jurisprudence, including the need for a clear and succinct law that everyone is able to understand, is not prejudicial and can be applied to everyone equally. Strategic Marketing Trough Differentiation And Positioning! It will then consider each individual theorist and their unique contributions, before moving onto the Hart/Fuller debate. Essay Animal Abuse Penalties! Finally, it will attempt to conclude that while analytical jurisprudence has become softer in more modern times, this was more out of hinduism, necessity to Essay Harsher Animal Abuse fit into a modern legal context; however the obvious separation of law and morality quite clearly exists, and is still used by some judiciaries. Basic Ideas of Strong, and Fit Essay, Analytical Jurisprudence. Before being able to critically assess each individual theorist’s ideas of legal positivism (or analytical jurisprudence), it is important to Essay Harsher Animal Abuse firstly have a sound understanding of this school of thought in general terms.

Many authors have written on analytical jurisprudence, some praise it, others criticise it. However, there is no denying that analytical jurisprudence has made some form of contribution to the way some people interpret and apply the law. One author has defined analytical jurisprudence as the following: First, analytical jurisprudence was created on the assumption that there ought to be a sharp separation between law and politics. In order to recruitment day establish such a separation, a science of jurisprudence had to be created. It was a system whose definitions, dichotomies and Essay on Enforcing Penalties boundaries were designed, above all, to produce one right answer. Its formal definitions, which sought to map the province of jurisprudence, had thus become the critical starting points of the system.

The sharp, bright line distinctions between law and custom or law and morality were originally crafted for the central purpose of creating a hermetically sealed intellectual system designed to yield only one set of meanings, only one right answer. This passage highlights the day, desire of positivists to maintain a certain degree of separation between one’s political views and one’s analysis of the law. Essay On Enforcing Animal! The general rationale behind this idea was that one’s political views could influence the way one interprets the law and thus, by maintaining this separation, there could be a much more consistent and clear approach to hinduism and sikhism the law then there had been in the past. HLA Hart, a legal theorist in this area (who will be discussed in more detail in due course) concurred with the notion of a strict separation of morals from law, as he insisted on Essay on Enforcing Animal Abuse, a “precise and so far as possible a morally neutral discussion of the law [as Jeremy Bentham did]”, and called this the “very centre, I would say the sane and healthy centre” of legal positivism. One of the main arguments of analytical jurisprudence is that the law needs to be in a form that is and sikhism, easy to understand.

This was Bentham’s main idea in restructuring the outdated English common law system in the 17th century to a more clear and concise legislative system, which will be discussed in more detail in due course. One author wrote of legal positivism: But [law] is Essay Penalties, only possible if the directives can be identified in a way independent of appeal to those very reasons. Law cannot help anyone know what he ought to do if in order to know what law requires he must first figure out what he ought to Marketing Differentiation Essay do. This is now one of the most-discussed arguments in analytical jurisprudence. In other words, Leslie Green has here pointed out that analytical jurisprudence requires a clear and understandable set of rules that can have a general application to all subjects, which eliminates the need for people to work out what they must do to obey the law; rather they will know ahead of time what their legal obligations are. As this brief will discuss, Bentham and Austin (who founded the school of Essay, positivist thought) upheld these views strongly, whereas scholars such as Hart tended to ‘soften’ the previously ‘hard’ arguments of positivism into and Ella: Strong, Willing, and Fit a form that was more adaptable to a modern legal system.

One author wrote of Hart: However, at least since Hart announced in Concept of Law that the positivist project should be understood as both an exercise in 'analytical jurisprudence' and 'descriptive sociology', positivism has to some extent lost its substantive moorings. This shows that the softer analytical approach that Hart has taken in recent times is different to the approach taken by Bentham and Austin earlier. Essay On Enforcing Harsher Animal Abuse! Hart has incorporated parts of natural law theory into his arguments and, as will be discussed later, has contributed to an ongoing debate between the analytical jurisprudence works of Hart and the natural law philosophies of Lon Fuller. Trough Differentiation Essay! It is difficult to highlight the basic ideas of analytical jurisprudence without referring to the individual theorists themselves, as they have each made individual contributions to the school of positivist and analytical thought. This brief will now seek to consider each individual theorist in significant detail, in conjunction with Austin’s claim that law is one thing and Essay Harsher Animal Abuse its merits are another, in order to appropriately address the issue at hand. As mentioned, John Austin played a significant role in establishing the sculptures can be churches, legal positivist movement. Essay Abuse! Before we consider his ideas on positivism, it is important to firstly understand Austin’s concept of the law. Large Sculptures In Europe Since Found On Romanesque Churches! This can be illustrated by on Enforcing Harsher the following passage: A law is the hinduism, most general and Essay Penalties comprehensive acceptation in which the term, in its literal meaning, is employed, may be said to be a rule laid down for shell the guidance of an intelligent being by Essay Animal Abuse an intelligent being having power over Strategic Trough him. Therefore Austin’s concept of law is Essay on Enforcing Harsher Penalties, that it implies a certain amount of clarity and certainty when laying down its principle.

It also acknowledges the existence of a hierarchy system of government, saying that the law needs to be laid down by a higher authority, rather than by people of the same level. Austin also acknowledges that a law (or a ‘command’, as he calls it) is the bet, made up of a number of elements, including: A wish: The person giving the command has an Animal, intention of the bet, a person to behave in a particular way; Communication of the wish: The wish must be communicated by words, or some other form that is able to be understood; Sanctions: The law carries with it the promise of an action if the wish is not complied with (e.g. the Essay Harsher Animal Abuse Penalties, threat of harm, or a polite request). We can see from Austin’s works that this is the beginning of what we know as the modern legal system. Austin quite often spruiked the idea that law needed to be put into terms that were understandable to the subjects being governed. He borrowed this from the earlier works of the bet, Jeremy Bentham, who will be discussed in due course, who invented the modern system of legislation as we know it today. But perhaps most importantly to the issue at Penalties, hand, Austin was perhaps one of the main theorists to Causes and Treatments maintain a separation between law and morality. This is quite obviously evidenced in the quote that this brief is Harsher Penalties, discussing, but it is also displayed right throughout his works.

Austin writes: A law in Causes of Schizophrenia Essay, the most general and comprehensive acceptation in Essay on Enforcing Harsher Animal, which the term, in the first sculptures since roman times can be on romanesque churches, its literal meaning, is employed, may be said to be a rule laid down for the guidance of an intelligent being by an intelligent being having power over him. Essentially then, this shows that the Austinian theory assumes a great deal. For example, the on Enforcing Harsher Animal Penalties, assumption is made by Austin that those enacting laws are ‘intelligent’ or in other words, are competent in exercising their authority to do so. Based on this assumption, the courts can then be free to apply the and Treatments, law in on Enforcing Abuse, its ‘literal meaning’, without having regard for shell recruitment day any other extraneous factors that may influence a judge’s decision. According to Essay Abuse Austin, it is not the Causes, role of the courts to adjudicate on whether a law is Essay Animal Abuse Penalties, just or not, but rather to apply and hinduism uphold that law. This also rings true with certain elements of the doctrine of separation of powers that we see in place in modern democracies, where the legislature makes the law and the judiciary applies it. Thus, in the Austin system, both branches would keep checks on the other, and ensure that they did not exceed their constitutional authority.

This brief will now focus on Jeremy Bentham, one of the founders of legal positivism who gave many of his ideas to Austin to write about and publish. It is important to understand the works of Bentham in order to truly understand how law and morality tend to be separated in the world of analytical jurisprudence. One of the main rationales for Essay on Enforcing Animal Abuse Bentham establishing the positive law theory was that he thought the system of common law, that was then in since times found churches, use in England in Essay on Enforcing Abuse Penalties, the 17th century, was insufficient and inconsistent. He classified this common law system as ‘dog law’, referring to the way it often applied retrospectively and assimilated it to and Fit the way in which we treat animals. He criticised the lack of on Enforcing Abuse, legal certainty and Marketing Trough and Positioning clarity that the Essay Penalties, common law system provided. Bentham proposed a system whereby the limits of power and and Ella: Willing, conduct were specifically outlined, and Essay Harsher Animal Abuse Penalties were available for all to see and abide by. He often intertwined his own ideas with the ideas of Strategic Differentiation and Positioning Essay, utilitarianism (i.e. “the greatest good for the greatest number”), which then obviously formed the basis of the scientific approach to the law. His “science of legislation” approach meant that the law had a rigid format, was clear in its terms, and achieved a positive result overall for the subjects of the law, thus satisfying the requirements of the utilitarian aspects of Bentham’s theory. He also identified that human behaviour is often governed by two key factors: the desire for pleasure, and the avoidance of pain.

It was Bentham that proposed a system of codification of the law, similar to the system of legislation we see in the modern context, where the premise was that it would create a universal set of laws that was easy to understand, and was able to Essay Animal Abuse be easily communicated to the public, so they knew what they had to do to obey the laws. It also meant that judges would effectively have their law-making powers reduced or rescinded, meaning they assumed more of an administrative role in the judiciary. Louis, Duke, And Ella: Strong, Willing,! Bentham had a similar view of the sovereign, believing that the sovereign is Essay on Enforcing, a person or group to whom the people of the society are “in a disposition to pay obedience” to. For Bentham, law had to contain the following factors: A collection of signs Which indicate an Duke, Willing, and Fit Essay, intention. Which are conceived or adopted by a sovereign in a state. Which describe the desired behaviour. Of the Harsher, people to whom the the first in europe times can be churches, intention is directed.

Which should also provide a motive for those subjects to Essay Animal Penalties obey. This heavily itemised list is Marketing Differentiation, similar to that of Austin; however Bentham’s theory came first according to Harsher Abuse Penalties the history books. It shows the much more scientific approach to the law that a positivist tends to take rather then, say, a natural law theorist. Bentham’s rationale for creating such a system was that, as mentioned, judges were much more restricted in their law-making powers. This meant that they were not able to apply any form of morality to their legal arguments, as they were simply bound to apply the law as it was enacted by the Parliament. This further supports the fact that those who follow analytical jurisprudence maintain a strict separation from the law and any social or political factors surrounding it, leaving the debate of shell recruitment, merits and demerits to the legislature. Hart’s Elaboration of Analytical Jurisprudence. Limited understanding and strength of Abuse, will.

Hart identified these factors as the minimum that need to be in place in order for Strong, Willing, Essay a legal system to function effectively. Hart talks about law as ‘obligation rules’, and continues to maintain a separation between the obligations of the law and the obligations of morality. Abuse! He talks about the law as ‘rules’, where a disobedience is generally frowned upon by the rest of the community, and hence the peer pressure can often force people to obey. Moving back to the factors that Hart identified, it is clear that he does not support a law that does not protect, for example, basic human rights. Any law that places the public in any form of a vulnerable position could not be judged to be a valid law. In a similar way, any law that attempts to confuse the public, or jeopardises the equality of the the first in europe times can be found on romanesque, human race could also not be seen as a valid law. In an extension to these principles set out by Hart, one author also wrote that Hart (as a positivist) “does not think that positive laws contrary to justice should be obeyed as a matter of on Enforcing Animal Penalties, conscience”. What this could be interpreted to mean is that, as Hart as said, any law that places the and sikhism, wellbeing of the human race into Essay Harsher doubt could not be adjudged to the bet be a just law. It is easy to see that Hart has adapted the original concepts of Bentham and Austin to Essay on Enforcing Harsher Animal Penalties a modern standard, and has made it applicable in the contemporary context. It is clear to recruitment see that Hart draws his main arguments from the original positivism, but has adapted it slightly with the inclusion of some basic natural law principles.

This has softened his positivist approach somewhat compared to on Enforcing Harsher Animal Abuse Penalties Austin and Bentham, however it is clear that Hart still maintains a certain degree of separation of law and morality, just not to Causes Essay the same extent that ‘harder’ positivists may. There has been a conflict between the principles of Hart (a positivist) and Lon Fuller (a natural law theorist) due to their obviously adversarial views and ideologies. Fuller’s views are generally that the law needs to meet certain standards and needs of the Essay on Enforcing Harsher Animal Abuse Penalties, population in order for it to be effective. This obviously conflicts with Hart, as he insists that law and morality need to be kept distinctly separate, in order for the law to be applied generally and impartially. Fuller makes reference to the ‘morality of duty’, which consists of the minimum standards that a legal system must meet (i.e. it needs to cover the basic ‘moral’ offences such as murder, defamation, deception etc), and the ‘morality of aspiration’ (i.e. what a legal system can become when it function in an excellent way). Hinduism And Sikhism! Fuller was more concerned about the ways that the laws regulate human conduct (the ‘internal morality of the law’) than the on Enforcing Animal Abuse, more substantive aims of the law itself (the ‘external morality of the and Treatments, law’). Effectively then, Fuller accused Hart (and the rest of the positivists) of only Essay Harsher considering half the picture in terms of how the law should be analysed. Fuller claimed that the the bet, law needed to be considered in light of moral obligations and objectives in order to on Enforcing Abuse establish whether there was any effectiveness in the system.

Hart has also made his contribution to the natural law theory, in shell recruitment, the sense of his five facts of the Essay on Enforcing Harsher Animal Abuse, human condition, which are outlined above. Hart, while being a positivist, recognises that morality does perhaps play some role in the establishment of Causes of Schizophrenia Essay, law and a legal system, but should be disregarded when one is analysing the law within that established system. While Hart does acknowledge that there are occasions where law and morality must necessarily intermingle with one another, he is quick to point out that this is Essay on Enforcing Animal Penalties, only limited to a situation where there is no pre-established rule of law, and identifies these five requirements as necessary for a legal system to sculptures on romanesque function effectively. He still maintains his more scientific application of the law (by contrast to other theorists) in the sense that law and Essay on Enforcing Animal Penalties morality remain distinctly separate from one another, and that this is the Causes Essay, only effective way for a law to be applied, due to its ability to have general effect. Fuller’s view of Penalties, Hart’s approach was that it only just barely met the and sikhism, morality of duty (i.e. the bare minimum standard that law should achieve, according to Fuller). Fuller also used the idea that the community could actively contribute to an excellent standard of community functionality, through the use of the morality of aspiration. This concept was based upon the idea that the community would communicate with one another about how an adherence to Harsher Animal Abuse Penalties the principles of law would ideally lead to a good life and a happier community. Essentially, the idea was that the regulators would provide the minimum standards for the community to live by, and the community would in turn make its own ‘moral’ laws, thus the development of the law stemmed more so from ‘internal morality’ (within the community) rather than ‘external morality’ (from a higher authority).

Hart was more concerned with the application of the law from institutions, such as courts and legislative bodies, and how any extraneous influence on these institutions may skew the applicability of the law in general. In other words, Hart (and other positivists) only saw the law as the law and the bet not a question of it being right or wrong, which was a question for the law-makers and not for the judiciary. This effectively upholds the claim made by Austin that ‘the law is one thing, its merit and demerit is on Enforcing Harsher Animal Abuse Penalties, another’, given that Hart was always concerned with analysing the day, law separately from any other extraneous factors that might influence one’s interpretation of the law. Fuller was quite clearly more concerned with how the law affects the on Enforcing Animal Abuse Penalties, community, and how the community can assist in developing the hinduism, law. The object of this brief is not to adjudicate as to what theory is more superior to another, but rather to highlight the differences between analytical jurisprudence and other legal theories.

It would appear that the debate between Hart and Fuller is not one that can be easily resolved in any case, due to on Enforcing Animal the complexity of the arguments for both sides. In any event, what this chapter of this brief has demonstrated is that analytical jurisprudence approaches the the bet, law in a manner that is significantly different from other legal theories or theorists. It approaches the on Enforcing Abuse Penalties, law as being the law, and is not concerned in the bet, addressing whether the existence of such a law is right or wrong. Therefore, the positivists tend to accept the law how it is, and do not necessarily concern themselves with the on Enforcing Abuse Penalties, merits and demerits of it, as per Austin’s claim. Ronald Dworkin: Analytical Jurisprudence’s Main Critic. • Dworkin, R, Law’s Empire (1986), Harvard University Press: Massachusetts.

• Freeman, MDA, Lloyd’s Introduction to Jurisprudence (2001, 7th ed), Sweet and Maxwell: London. • Hart, HLA, The Concept of Law (1994, 2nd ed), Oxford University Press: London. • Hart, HLA, Essays on Bentham (1982), Clarendon Press: London. • Leiboff, M, and Thomas, M, Legal Theories in Principle (2004), Lawbook Co: Sydney. • Dyzenhaus, D, ‘Positivism’s Stagnant Research Programme’ (2000) 20 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 203. • Goldsworthy, J, ‘Is Jurisprudence Liberal Ideology?” (1993) 13 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 548. • Green, L, ‘ General Jurisprudence : A 25th Anniversary Essay’ (2005) 25 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 565, 570. • Horwitz, MJ, ‘Why is Anglo-American Jurisprudence Unhistorical?” (1997) 17 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 551.

• Orrego, C, ‘HLA Hart’s Understanding of the bet, Classical Natural Law Theory’ (2004) 24 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 287. • Riggs v Palmer (1889) 115 NY 506, 22 NE 188. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Law essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on Animal Penalties, hand, waiting to help you. Hinduism! Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Law work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Law essay was submitted to us by Harsher a student in order to help you with your studies.

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Keep up with the on Enforcing Harsher Abuse Penalties latest in Photography. I remember when I first used a Leica camera. Strategic And Positioning Essay. It was back in 1986 when I was photographing the Americas Cup in Fremantle. Local WA photographer Roger Garwood had invested in Harsher Animal Abuse Penalties, an R4s system and showed me the results on Kodachrome. I was intrigued, not to mention impressed, and borrowed an outfit from what was then Perth Pro Sales. The results were quite remarkable. I was used to the contrast of the Nikon and Canon systems; the Canon L series glass was awesome, less contrasty than the Nikons but still more contrasty that the and Treatments of Schizophrenia Leica. It was this ‘openness’ of image that attracted me to the Leica results, something that is hard to Essay Harsher Animal Abuse pin down but is quite obvious when you see it. I was not in a position to buy the R4s in hinduism and sikhism, those days, but I remember clearly the build quality, the image quality and the overall feel of the hand-built cameras and lenses. Fast forward to 2010 – I was invited to Essay on Enforcing become the Leica S2 Ambassador in Australia and hinduism, started to use the S2 as my ‘large format’ camera much as I used to do when I used actual large format film in Essay on Enforcing Harsher Abuse Penalties, a 4?5 field camera. (Of course I am still using my Canons for specialist 35mm style work like wildlife, macro, long lens and flash work, plus of course video, and the bet, all my printing is done on Canon printers these days. ‘ Horses for courses ‘ I say, no camera is capable of shooting all styles so I tend to Essay on Enforcing use the and sikhism right camera for the job.)

It was therefore a great opportunity to be invited to the Leica factory in Essay on Enforcing Harsher Animal, Solms, not far from Frankfurt in Germany, to see for myself how Leica run their manufacturing processes and to be able to talk to the technical people about the philosophy and technology behind this remarkable camera. Leica S2 Assembly. On the first day our group (Australian Leica retailers’ staff) visited the large in europe roman can be found factory and were able to look through the glass walls to Animal Abuse Penalties see the factory floor where white suited technicians were assembling lenses and camera bodies. The Bet. Surprisingly it’s not a big place, computer controlled lens element grinding machines, camera focus calibrators, and lots of complicated machines of Harsher, diverse and varied functions, are packed into a relatively small area which gives a clue as to why Leica camera products are in somewhat short supply these days. There is nowhere, at the bet, present, to Penalties expand into. Hinduism And Sikhism. Production has been boosted hugely in the last two years, it’s been almost doubled, but the voracious worldwide demand for the M9 and S2 still outstrips production and shows no sign of slackening off. These are hand made products quite literally. On Enforcing Animal Abuse Penalties. It’s why they are desirable in the first place and the process can only proceed so fast. I’m told it takes 8 hours to shell recruitment assemble an Essay on Enforcing Abuse Penalties, M9 body and having seen the care and precision with which they are assembled, I can certainly believe it.

This unprecedented demand is remarkable; the M9, for example, was projected to sell 14,000 units over its production life. Currently that production life is still underway and they have sold over 30,000 units so far. Revenue has jumped from 150M Euros to 250M Euros, and is projected to exceed 500M Euros over the next few years. Recruitment Day. Every lens made is sold, and this gives a clue as to why the Animal Penalties release of new lens designs appears slow. It’s not like they are dragging their heels, no, it’s basically for two reasons. One, nothing will be released until it is as perfect as it can be, and, two, adding a new lens to the line up will not actually sell more lenses when they are already selling as fast as they can be made. There are plans in progress to move to a new purpose built 25,000 square meter facility back in Wetzlar in 2013.

The architects’ drawings look impressive the proposed factory complex is considerably bigger and is topped off by what looks like 35mm film spooling around the Marketing Trough and Positioning Essay upper floor making the on Enforcing Penalties building look very modern and stylish. There will be a gallery, show room and a bigger factory floor capable of doubling the Causes Essay current production capacity, but in the meantime the Solms factory is pretty much ‘ maxed out ‘. During our tour we were not allowed to take photos through the glass, or anywhere else for that matter. Fortunately, for Harsher Animal Penalties me, I was allowed to re-visit the following day and was granted a 30 minute opportunity to go inside the clean room (wearing a hair net, white coat and shoe coverings) to take some images of the Strategic Trough Differentiation and Positioning Essay S2 and M9 camera assembly room. I have been photographing for Essay Harsher Animal almost 30 years, I have worked under intense pressure, in difficult situations, and in privileged places but having just thirty minutes to make some quick images of such a fascinating and significant place was daunting to large roman times can be say the least. On Enforcing Penalties. I grabbed my S2, the 35mm and 120mm lenses, and that was it, no bags allowed in, but luckily I was allowed to take in my Gitzo tripod. My impression on the inside was one of quiet and purposeful industry with immense attention to the finest details. Everyone was focussed on the task in hand and, more importantly, everyone appeared to shell recruitment day be taking great care in their work. There was no idle chatter, no distractions, no superfluous activity, but at Essay on Enforcing Harsher Animal, the same time it was not tense or ‘pressurised’. Just a group of skilled craftsmen (and women) going about their tasks quietly and efficiently. As an example, I was able to watch the antireflection coating being applied to the edges of each glass element that combine to sculptures in europe times can be on romanesque churches make a lens.

This is essentially a coat of black paint on the outside circumference of each glass element; every element needs such a black rim to Animal Penalties reduce the possibility of stray light scattering inside the lens, thus reducing contrast. This coating is applied by and Ella: Strong, Essay, hand to each and every element. Apparently the machines were simply not able to Essay on Enforcing Abuse perform to the level of consistency that Leica required. There are four technicians with the the bet required level of skill, only four. That means that every lens made (and they produce a lot, maybe 1,000 per month), containing multiple lens elements, will have had each one hand painted around its edge by one of four people. This is what you are paying for not only are the products of superb quality but their hand-crafted nature appeals to Essay on Enforcing Harsher Animal Penalties many people in and sikhism, this era of mass production, short product cycles and the emphasis on more bells and Animal Abuse, whistles to shift boxes off shelves. In Europe Since Roman Times Found Churches. Leica cameras do not change much from model to model, each is a refinement over the previous iteration. There is an almost nostalgic aura to the cameras, reminiscent of fine watches, high-end hi-fi systems or any other fine hand made luxury items. I get all this, and I quite like it on Essay on Enforcing Harsher Abuse, a personal level, but at the end of the day a camera has to perform its task, not just look and feel good. I have an old Rolex Tudor watch which I adore it keeps quite poor time being fully mechanical, but I love the feel of it and would never swap it for a digital watch that is accurate to one second every century.

Fortunately, Leica cameras not only look and Duke, and Ella: Willing, and Fit Essay, feel good, but they also perform at the highest levels. Images from the M9 can be every bit as good as those from a top of the line Canon or Nikon; actually, given the uncompromising quality of the optics, probably even better. Essay Harsher Abuse. The S2 is also a delight to use and the results are second to none, so you are getting genuine value for money a lot of money to be sure, but then you do get a lot in return. Checking M9 Focus. After my visit to the heart of the factory I was able to spend some time with some of the production and development team, people like Stephan Schulz (Head of Causes of Schizophrenia Essay, Professional Imaging), Maike Harberts (who lead the original development of the S2), Gerald Wagner (Service Manager) and Andreas Dippel (Public Relations). I spoke to Stephan Schulz at length and was able to put some questions to him; I will present our conversation in on Enforcing Abuse, an interview style but this is not a transcript, more of Willing, and Fit Essay, a summary, and should not be taken as verbatim. When will we see the CS lenses? We had some issues with some suppliers of Essay on Enforcing Harsher Abuse, parts for the very precise shutter mechanisms and we had to change the way they are made and assembled. We are testing the new shutters now, probably through until September at the bet, the earliest. We won’t release them until they are as precise as possible. I’m told there is a new 30mm due out ‘very soon’, when will we see this lens?

Very soon. (grin) You will be very happy with the on Enforcing Abuse new lens. It is Strategic Marketing Trough Differentiation and Positioning Essay, maybe a little better than the current 35mm with almost perfect edge sharpness. It’s almost the same size as the 35mm but it is Essay Animal Abuse Penalties, f2.8, not f2.5 like the current lens. When will we see the 30-90mm zoom? Again, it is definitely part of our roadmap and will be released as soon as it is finished. We are aiming for the bet a very versatile design, so it will be smaller than you expect, and there will not be a CS version. This means we can design a smaller and lighter lens which is something a zoom lens should be.

Will we ever see LiveView on Essay on Enforcing Harsher Animal, the S2 or future models? Not with a CCD sensor. It is not possible. However, CCD sensors will not be used for ever, so future models may be able to have this. Given that other brands are continually increasing their megapixel size, will Leica be following the same trend? No, no more megapixels. It is enough we think.

Future development will be concentrating on hinduism, shooting rates, lower noise, higher Dynamic Range and higher ISO abilities. There is a rumour on the Internet Forums that the Harsher Animal histogram on the S2 is raw based is this true? No, it is based on the jpeg preview. A histogram from raw data is not possible as the image cannot be said to exist yet. A white balance needs to be chosen and the red blue and green channels need to hinduism and sikhism be combined to give a meaningful histogram. So we always give you more than you think.

If your histogram is good, then you will actually have more data in the raw file than you expect. Early in the last decade Leica cameras were not setting the world on Essay Harsher Animal, fire. The brand was strong, the hinduism product was solid but sales were heading in the wrong direction. The DMR Digital Module-R for the R8 and R9 was brilliantly innovative back in 2003 and at 10MP was very competitive (given that the opposition brands were still offering 6MP cameras like the Canon D60 and the premium priced 11MP Canon 1Ds), but never really caught on. Then the R9 and the R-Series was discontinued in 2009. The M8, a digital version of the M7 with a 10MP crop sensor came out at the end of 2006 and was well received, although it had some teething problems that were rather exaggerated by the internet forum pixel peepers. I asked Stephan Daniel, Director of Product Management, about the beginnings of the newly found success of the company and he told me that “ The roots were laid out (the developments started) in 2007/2008 which resulted in the success starting 2009 and Harsher Animal, which is continuing still today .” I asked what were the main reasons for the turnaround. Causes Essay. He added “ First of all, successful important products such as M9, S2 System, X1 and the compact cameras.

Furthermore, the development in the Leica Store concept (now more than 50 stores / boutiques worldwide) and last but not least the growing markets in Eastern Europe and Asia .” Leice S2 Eyepieces. The M9 is a sensational camera, and, at 18MP with no anti-alias filter and on Enforcing, superb optics, rivals the 20+ MP offerings from Canon, Nikon and Sony. Sales of this camera took off and show no sign of abating so the recruitment day pressure to Essay on Enforcing Animal bring out a new model (M10) at Photokina 2012 is probably less intense. Trough Essay. With no confirmed comments to support this I’d expect to Abuse Penalties see the M10 still running an 18MP sensor, along with some ergonomic changes, better high ISO performance and maybe a faster shooting rate. None of that is of Schizophrenia, particularly surprising if it ain’t broke don’t fix it ! Then there is the on Enforcing Abuse Penalties rumoured ‘compact mirrorless system’, also slated for Strategic Marketing Trough and Positioning a 2012 release. Obviously there is a broad price gap between the X1 and Harsher Penalties, the M9 and a prudent manufacturer will want to hinduism fill that gap. There are also a lot of R-Series and M-Series lenses out there so maybe we will see some sort of EVF-based camera, not unlike the X1 which takes interchangeable lenses from these two systems either by Penalties, adapter or built in. I guess we will all have to wait and see!

The S2 remains a runaway success. Duke, And Fit Essay. Even at its current lofty price point demand outstrips production. At the time of writing it’s almost three years since its announcement back in Essay on Enforcing Harsher Abuse, September 2008 so speculation is shell, rife about a possible replacement model (S3?). Again, given the on Enforcing Harsher Animal success of the current model and the clearly stated position of not following the megapixel race, I’d not expect to see a quantum leap, more of a refinement. Hinduism. Think in terms of Essay on Enforcing Harsher Animal Abuse, even better high ISO performance, longer bulb exposures (please!), maybe a faster shooting rate and faster AF. With all that going on hinduism, maybe Photokina 2012 will probably see a whole raft of new Leica products but in the meantime the guys (and gals) at Leica are not giving much away! About The Author. Nick Rains has been photographing landscapes all over the world since leaving University in 1983. In 1986 he spent a year in Essay Harsher Animal Abuse Penalties, Perth, Western Australia covering the Americas Cup for a variety of International magazines such as Yachting World, London Times, and Boat International. Strategic Differentiation And Positioning Essay. Images from this event also appeared in Harsher Animal Penalties, Sports Illustrated, Stern, Paris Match, Regatta and many other well known publications.

Over the last 20 years Nick has traveled the length and breadth of Australia covering over 500,000km in his search for fine “Australian” images for the stock photography market. Louis, Duke, Strong, Essay. He makes his home in Brisbane, Queensland. Nick is now concentrating on photographic books of on Enforcing Animal Abuse Penalties, his favourite places, the Marketing Trough and Positioning Essay latest title, “Australia’s A Photographer’s Eye” was published by on Enforcing Harsher Animal Abuse, Explore Australia Publishing in late 2009. In between outback trips, Nick shoots commercial and stock photographs at home and overseas as well as editing the magazine Better Digital Camera. He is a Leica S2 Ambassador and a Canon Training Lecturer.

You may also wish to visit Nick’s Web Site (, or contact him by e-mail ( Nick Rains has been a professional photographer for the past 31 years during which time he has worked for well known publications such as Australian Geographic, Outback, GEO, Sports Illustrated, TIME, BBC and m. Hinduism And Sikhism. [ Author’s Page and Essay Harsher, Articles ] Nick Rains has been a professional photographer for the past 31 years during which time he has worked for and sikhism well known publications such as Australian Geographic, Outback, GEO, Sports Illustrated, TIME, BBC and Essay on Enforcing Harsher Animal Abuse Penalties, m. [ Author’s Page and Articles ]