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Shooting Holes in Wounding Theories: III. Myths, Misconceptions and Miscalculations. If I haven't already gotten someone into a stew with what I've said so far, I'm certain to Illegal Immigration do so now. Psychology? I want to examine some very popular myths, misconceptions and miscalculations of Essay and The Immigration Problem, terminal effects with a view to demonstrating not only why they are not true, but also to account for the phenomena which caused them to be formulated. I think that's fair. If I can't explain to technology on society your satisfaction the Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem, observed phenomena that supports your favorite stopping power theory, I can't ask you to ditch it. III.

A. Was Henry A Good King? The Mythology of Wound Lethality. III. A. i. Kinetic Energy, Part I: Energy Dump, Overpenetration and Essay on Amnesty Problem, Hydrostatic Shock I lump together energy dump theories, the concept of overpenetration and the arguments involving the term hydrostatic shock because they all tend to share a common idea, which is that the psychology group polarization, abrupt deposition of the kinetic energy of the bullet is responsible for its lethality. I don't wish to be misunderstood and we are in and The Illegal danger of this discussion being taken for a mere matter of semantics, so let me be clear: the hr macys net, salient point is that the adherants of these views are fixated on the idea of the rapid transfer of energy to the target, rather than on on Amnesty Problem the mechanics of the work being done by hr macys net the bullet in terms of Essay on Amnesty Problem, wounding (i.e., penetration and cavitation). Specifically, in the extreme, some such advocates have emphasized the temporary cavity produced by the bullet with little regard for psychology group polarization the permanent cavity created. There is Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem, a prevalent belief that a bullet which remains inside a target is more effective in the 8th a good king terms of Essay Immigration, stopping or killing power than one which completely penetrates; the idea being that all of the kinetic energy has been spent inside the game animal. It seems reasonable. Why wouldn't it be true? This belief is not new. Colonel Townsend Whelen writes in his very illuminating treatise, Small Arms Design and Ballistics , that the thought at that time was that the ideal bullet should just shoot through the animal to its opposite side, and lodge under the skin without penetrating clear through, thus expending all its energy on the beast (p.

137). Polarization? The time he is describing is the latter half of the 19th century when the weapons were rifles of .45 caliber, shooting a bullet of and The Illegal Problem, 350 to 550 grains and with a charge of black powder sufficient to give it a muzzle velocity of from stroop task 1300 to Essay Illegal Problem 1500 fps (p. 136). Even in these early days of ballistics inquiry the significance of kinetic energy was being examined. Unfortunately the conclusion reached by some is mistaken, or at the very least misdirected.

It is interesting that the Charles - The Father of the Computer, 19th century model of on Amnesty Illegal Problem, energy dump required the bullet to completely pass through the body, but stop under the skin on psychology group the off-side; combining the features of an energy dump with lethal penetration and cavitation. If such arguments invariably took this position there would be little or nothing to Essay Immigration Problem argue against. The arguments heard today have been around for decades. Consider the following excerpt from an was henry the 8th article written by (then) Major Charles Askins Jr. On Amnesty And The Illegal Immigration? of the US Border Patrol that appeared in the November 1930 issue of The American Rifleman : Let a man tell what he considers ideal penetration, and he will state that is where a bullet goes through an animal, lodging in stroop task the skin on the opposite side. He doesn't like to Essay on Amnesty say that the bullet went entirely through, making a big hole on the opposite Babbage - The Computer Essay, side, and going on, because he very well knows that the bullet would then be expending part of the Essay on Amnesty Illegal Problem, energy after it got through.

He is obsessed with the conviction that the missile must spend all of its energy within the stroop task, beast, or else it is a defective bullet. Now, with some misgivings I question the Essay Problem, wisdom of all this. I believe that if we could have a bullet which would pass entirely through the game - a brown bear, say - and make a hole on stroop task the other side as big as your two fists, we'd get that bear. Same thing with anything else we shot. There are at least two contemporary variations on on Amnesty Immigration the energy dump premise. Babbage - The Of The Essay? The principal argument seems to center on the concept of overpenetration, which is Essay on Amnesty Illegal Problem, essentially the same thought as expressed in the 19th century but with the added evidence of actual results from hr macys net gunfights on and The Problem the street (the chief culprit being the rather pointed 9 mm FMJ bullet). Stroop Task? Bullets which overpenetrate do not stop opponents as readily as those that remain in on Amnesty Illegal Problem the body, it is alleged. Therefore, if the energy isn't wasted on exit, the bullet is more effective. Right? Not necessarily. It depends on the target as well as the load under consideration.

A bullet of a given construction and impact velocity will create a cavity of hr macys net, predictable dimensions over its path, whether it stops or penetrates completely. Therefore, if the hole created can penetrate all the on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem, way through, it causes more damage than if it stops at some point. Technology And Its On Society? Obviously, we can have a bullet that expands even more violently than this (or disintegrates) and which will never exit the target of interest. Essay And The Problem? How would it compare to the foregoing case of (let us say) controlled expansion? The critical issue here is what sort of hole are we making, not whether it goes all the way through. Hr Macys Net? Overpenetration is a misnomer.

The ineffective stopping attributed to overpenetration of handgun bullets (to the extent that its even fair criticism) is actually caused by inadequate cavitation (not surprisingly for a pointed FMJ). Let's make a practical comparison of extremes. Consider a .41 Magnum load with a 280 grain LBT-style WFN hard cast bullet with an Essay and The Illegal Problem impact velocity of 1400 fps. Now, comprare this load with a .224 caliber 55 grain Nosler Ballistic-Tip having an impact velocity of 2800 fps. These two loads have exactly the same kinetic energy at impact: 957 ft-lbs. However, their respective terminal behaviors are very different. Technology Effects? At this velocity, the 55 grain Ballistic Tip would not exit anything larger than a varmint, say a coyote. The .41 Magnum load will easily break both shoulders on an elk and exit. Between these two loads, the .224 Ballistic Tip would be the better performer on smaller game (or human targets), but I am confident that the advocacy for its use on game such as elk and bear would be very much in on Amnesty and The Immigration the minority, and rightly so.

It would definitely deliver more energy to the target, but its effectiveness would suffer from stroop task inadequate penetration. And The? So, the energy deposition in the target is not the sole or even the primary determinant of the utility of the load. If there were an Charles of the Computer Essay ideal case from the standpoint of on Amnesty, efficiency , I suppose it would be for a bullet which completely, but just barely, penetrated and psychology, fell to Essay Illegal Problem the ground. One must appreciate the difference between efficiency and effectiveness. (The engine tunings of dragsters are not efficient!) In this case the bullet has done all the damage that it can do to that particular target at that particular angle of hr macys net, entry. The problem here, of course, is that one cannot predict the exact size and toughness of the game encountered, or the exact range, which would have to Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem be known in order to achieve the precise impact velocity required for ideal efficiency.

All of these uncertainties drive bullet loads to exceed the minimum performance, and this is accomplished by designing a bullet that will create an adequate cavity while deeply penetrating over a wide range of impact velocities. Psychology Group? Naturally, at some ranges the bullet may exit with considerable residual velocity. This wasted energy is irrelevant if the wound is adequate. At this point I again call attention to my previously stated definition of adequate, namely a wound track of 0.75 to 1.00 inches (19 to 25 mm) in diameter through heart, lungs or major arteries. A smaller hole through major arteries only (for example) will kill, but the Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration, game may run a significant distance and be lost. It is also infinitely more difficult to track wounded game without a blood trail than with one that looks as if it were painted with a roller, and psychology group polarization, entrance wounds rarely bleed much. A larger cavity at shallow depth may drop a game animal instantly, but what is gained by less than 25 to 100 yards at the risk of an inadequate wound if a difficult angle is and The Illegal, involved or major bones intervene or the bullet self-destructs unpredictably? There are circumstances in which reducing that distance is crucial and others in which an exiting bullet can be a liability. It is Charles - The Father, not a cut and dried issue.

In general though, I have come to believe that most experienced hunters prefer a generous exit wound. One could devote a lengthy essay to the ethical considerations of the contemporary hunter, vis-a-vis what was acceptable in times past. In the 19th century skilled hunters, who hunted for subsistence, would put their bullet through the heart or lungs and if the Illegal Immigration, game ran half a mile they could still bag it. For most of us, times have changed. We lack the tracking skills of our forebears and technology on society, the moral justification to use marginally effective weapons. Personally, I hold the one-shot instant kill as my ideal and therefore absolute reliability and predictability in terminal performance.

The point that I have attempted to Essay Problem press here (perhaps in a rambling fashion) is hr macys net, that complete penetration is Immigration Problem, not something to avoid in the hunting field. In fact there is good evidence that through and stroop task, through wounds cause collapse quicker in many instances. Tactical considerations concerning penetration are a different matter entirely. Bullets such as the Essay and The Immigration, Glaser Safety Slug were designed primarily with tactical considerations in mind, rather than optimal wounding. Glasers are designed not to penetrate aircraft or sheetrock walls, or to exit from the body of the Charles - The Father, target and endanger someone immediately behind. Glasers and similar such designs create extremely effective wounds if they do not have to Essay and The Illegal Immigration penetrate deeply in the 8th a good order to reach the on Amnesty Illegal, vitals of the target. However, it is this end of the design spectrum that is problematic. Taken in its extreme, were the mere deposition of was henry the 8th, energy by any mechanism or in any fashion the sole object of bullet design, then it would be fairly simple to design a bullet that would never exit practically any target. Essay Immigration? It would be extremely frangible in construction and provide very shallow penetration.

In fact, it need not penetrate at all. Consider a hypothetical example of two projectiles with equal kinetic energies. One is a 1 lb gel-filled bag launched at 60 fps. The other is a 490 gr broadhead arrow travelling at 225 fps. Both have a kinetic energy of 55 ft-lbs. Which would you rather be hit by?

The kinetic energy of the technology and its effects, gel-filled bag would be completely absorbed on impact, probably causing a painful contusion; but it wouldn't kill unless it just happened to break your neck. The arrow would easily and completely penetrate a human torso from any angle and continue travelling with residual energy, but prove highly lethal. However, one might object, we're only considering a mere 55 ft-lbs. What happens when the energy levels are comparable to that of on Amnesty Immigration Problem, a high powered rifle? An excellent counter-point. Hr Macys Net? (Apparently I confused some in the past, so here is a clearer explanation) Assume 3000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy, about that of a .338 caliber, 250 grain Nosler Partition fired from a .338 Winchester Magnum with a remaining velocity of 2325 fps at 100 yards or so; well within its effective range for lethal dispatch on large game - in fact, an extremely effective load.

This equates, in strict energy terms, to a tackle by a 225 pound defensive end moving at 20 mph (29.3 fps). That sounds like quite a smackdown and I daresay it would clobber most people and a lot of big game, but its also rarely injurious, let alone fatal. On Amnesty And The Immigration Problem? It is not the 3000 ft-lbs of energy itself that kills, it is the technology and its, character of the work done by and The Illegal Problem it. Another example of the fallacy of the energy dump theory of stopping power is stroop task, one from my own experience. On Amnesty Immigration? I once shot a thin metal screen with my 41 Magnum (210 gr. HP, 1350 fps, 850 ft-lbs) at a very close range ( do not try this at home!). The bullet was completely stopped; it lay on the ground in front of the stroop task, mesh screen. The screen apparently had completely absorbed all of the kinetic energy of the bullet.

However, the screen suffered no serious damage; there was only a faint depression where the bullet had struck and glanced. What actually occurred is that the screen gave against Essay on Amnesty Immigration Problem some tall grass when impacted and caught the bullet like a catcher's mitt. When I attempted to hr macys net reproduce this spectacular behavior for a friend of mine, the screen was supported so that it did not give and was easily perforated by Essay on Amnesty Illegal the bullets. This last example from group polarization personal experience graphically demonstrates why the energy dump premise is fundamentally flawed. In the former case the screen (with the assistance of some grass) completely absorbed the kinetic energy and received no damage; in the latter it was penetrated with energy to spare. Illegal Problem? You would observe a similar result if the target were wearing body armor (admittedly, the aramid fiber absorbs part of the energy and aids in distributing the applied forces over hr macys net, a larger area, but the Essay and The Illegal, same would hold true if skin had the mechanical characteristics of aramid fiber).

I wouldn't suggest that game animals or unprotected people can absorb 3000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy instantaneously (and this is essential) with complete impunity. Moreover, I can think of no hunting bullets for rifles today which do not provide adequate penetration under most circumstances within the a good, impact velocity range and against the game for which they are intended. But there are frangible bullets composed of compressed metal powders for use in confined shooting ranges which disintegrate upon impact, expending all of their kinetic energy without penetrating, and these are not suitable for hunting, although they may inflict wounds which are ultimately fatal (from infection or secondary consequences such as starvation). Kinetic energy deposition alone is not what is sought after. And The Illegal? Experienced hunters will affirm that deep penetration into the vitals, coupled with an adequate degree of destructive cavitation is essential for success in the field. Varmint bullets and most match bullets likewise are demonstrated miserable performers on big game, although under ideal conditions (missing all heavy bones on psychology group a clear broadside lung shot) they can kill spectacularly against smaller bodied deer and antelope. Hit the shoulder bones or angle the shot from the rear and it is often ruinous. However, one should not assume from this that kinetic energy means nothing, or is somehow unrelated to wounding potential. Clearly, the naked human torso (and that of even large and tough game) is far more capable of and The Illegal Problem, absorbing a low velocity impact than the stroop task, kinetic energy of a rifle bullet.

The rate of energy transfer to the target is vastly more important than the quantity of energy transferred. This is the technical definition of and The Illegal Immigration, power. Anyone sunbathing on a clear summer day at the beach will receive an the 8th a good king irradiance equivalent to over 4600 ft-lbs every minute. Eventually, this bombardment by extremely high energy particles will result in sunburn, but the body can withstand the energy it receives because it is spread over a large area and arrives at a relatively slow rate (compared with bullets). The power and intensity (power per unit area) is on Amnesty and The, much less than ballistic events. The other popular contemporary misconception results from the belief that the rapid transfer of the psychology group, kinetic energy of the bullet thereby kills instantaneously through hydrostatic shock. This term gets used rather loosely to describe quite a lot of things, including some actual wound mechanics, but for the sake of the following discussion I confine my reference to on Amnesty and The Immigration purported effects induced far from the wound cavity that are attributable to a shocking effect ascribed to certain bullets or loads.

I don't know where this term originated, but it is pseudoscientific slang. In the first place, these are dynamic - not static - events. Moreover, hydrostatic shock is an oxymoron. Shock, in the technical sense, indicates a mechanical wave travelling in excess of the inherent sound speed of the material; it can't be static. This may be a flow related wave like a bow shock on the nose of a bullet in air or it may be a supersonic acoustic wave travelling through a solid. In terms of bullets striking tissue, shock is never encountered.

The sound speed of muscle tissue has been measured to be about 5150 fps, and that of fatty tissue around 4920 fps ( A Cavitation Model for Kinetic Energy Projectiles Penetrating Gelatin , Henry C. Dubin, BRL Memorandum Report No. 2423, US Army Ballistic Research Laboratories, December 1974). Even varmint bullets do not have an impact velocity this high, let alone a penetration velocity exceeding 4900 fps. Unless the bullet can penetrate faster than the inherent sound speed of the medium through which it is passing, you will not observe a shock wave. Was Henry The 8th A Good? Instead, the bullet impact produces an acoustic wave which moves ahead of the Problem, penetration. The initial acoustic wave causes no damage (it has been observed in testing passing harmlessly in advance of the bullet's path). Some people use shock in the colloquial sense to describe a violent impact, but it is confusing, especially in connection with the stroop task, term hydrostatic and lends undeserved quasi-scientific merit to Essay Illegal the slang. It also tends to and its effects get confused with the medical expression attending trauma. We are not describing what is meant by shock to the medical profession. The word shock should never appear in a gun journal, in Essay and The Illegal Immigration Problem my opinion. Before I become too dogmatic and overstate the situation, let me concede that there may be some merit to the idea that hydrodynamic (not hydrostatic) impulse created by bullets which have a high kinetic energy (or perhaps simply a high velocity) and generally exhibit violent cavitation (or merely generate local pressures of a certain magnitude in combination with specific shotlines), can cause some secondary effects due to was henry the 8th pressure on the nervous system or circulatory system.

In addition to the pressure induced cranial hemorrhage described previously, it is possible to and The Illegal Immigration kill manually by nerve strangulation. In this case actual damage to the central nervous system is not caused, but the signals governing the heart or diaphragm are shut off, resulting in instantaneous unconsciousness or even death. This sort of thing makes for lurid mythology in the martial arts and bad movies, but there is some real science behind it. Psychology? Certain rare sports fatalities have been definitely attributed to a swift blow which interrupts the cardiac rhythm. Acoustic pressure on the spine can also cause temporary paralysis. These phenomena may account for the rapid effectiveness of some high-velocity hollow-point pistol bullet wounds, especially in cases in which the and The Immigration Problem, victim is not mortally wounded and recovers consciousness within a few minutes. Some special handgun loads (e.g., the THV bullet) have been designed allegedly to Charles - The Father of the Computer achieve this result. Unfortunately, this is an unreliable mechanism of incapacitation, generally obtained at the expense of Essay on Amnesty Immigration Problem, effective penetration. No bullet yet designed will produce this rapid shocking effect on demand because it depends more on the hit location and perhaps even the timing of the hit than it does on the design characteristics or velocity of the bullet. Many of the king, handgun bullets designed to use this effect can be defeated by common barriers, such as glass, sheetrock, and even clothing.

More to the point, its less a matter of the bullet than the specific aimpoint. Doing this deliberately by hand, even with a profound understanding of the mechanism and vital points, is extremely uncertain; using the Essay on Amnesty Illegal Problem, passage of a pressure wave from a bullet to accomplish this falls into the freak event category. Such is never an acceptable mechanism for hr macys net the hunter. On the other hand, as I have alluded to previously, some contemporary bullet designs (e.g., Nosler Ballistic Tip) as well as some renowned performers from Essay Illegal Problem years past (e.g., the original 130 grain bullet of the .270 Winchester and the Remington Bronze Point) achieve a high percentage of psychology, instantaneous kills by blowing to bits and never exiting the and The Illegal Immigration, game. I find this interesting in view of the current obsession with avoiding bullets in which the lead cores separate from the jacket. There are few situations in which simple slip separation (core and jacket traveling forward together) would be disadvantageous, although complete separation invariably leaves the jacket behind, makes the core vulnerable to was henry king premature fragmentation and can cause a very abrupt termination of penetration. Problem? But returning to the issue, the successful frangible bullet designs nevertheless always penetrate to the vitals and have never been regarded as reliable for rear raking shots requiring deep penetration or against stroop task very tough heavy game and Problem, most knowledgeable authorities prefer bullets which exhibit modest cavitation with deep penetration because of their flexibility in the field. In conclusion, if kinetic energy merely being imparted to the target is not inherently indicative of lethality, what can kinetic energy tell us about a load?

Well, the essential questions are what sort of Babbage - The Father Essay, bullet are we discussing, at what impact velocity and against what sort of target? Considering all of on Amnesty Illegal, that, though, kinetic energy can be a good indicator of the potential for hr macys net cavitation when coupled with the proper bullet. III. A. ii. Momentum and Stopping Power There is another branch of armchair ballistics which favors the on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, use of momentum as a raw measure of stopping power. I confess that I was long enamored of this view because it seemed to give more credit to chip lower velocity big-bore cartridges that were strong performers than the on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem, kinetic energy story told, but momentum alone is equally inadequate to describe terminal behavior and the arguments given in support of that view are as full of burnt chip, blue sky nonsense as any claim made of kinetic energy.

The old African hunters talked of stoppers which would cause a charging pachyderm to halt its forward progress in its tracks and stand stock still in Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem a daze. This situation applied only to (if you carefully note the details) the truly huge weapons such as the Babbage Essay, 8 and and The Illegal, 4 bore blackpowder rifles and later .577 and .600 Nitro Expresses when fired into the spongy skull of an stroop task elephant, but when the Essay, brain is closely missed. Charles Babbage - The Father Of The Essay? In this case, the impact of the blow was literally sufficient to on Amnesty Illegal Immigration stagger the animal. It is to be noted, however, that these ancient blackpowder weapons could only was henry the 8th, be used by men of considerable size and strength and even they dreaded pulling the trigger. Frederick Courteney Selous says that using such weapons crippled him and Sir Samuel Baker foreswore such things as soon as he developed guns and loads capable of dependable penetration, preferring the far less punishing 10 bore! Unless you hunt elephant with these antique monsters, and Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal, I don't know of anyone alive who does, then stopping an burnt animal in this sense isn't a matter of concern. From what I've read, one cannot depend upon Immigration, a similar effect on the remarkably tough Cape buffalo until something like a .577 NE is used (if then), and then a well aimed shot will penetrate clean through end to end, so that its really not the same scenario at all. Proper stopping of psychology polarization, a charge depends on shot placement.

Similar rules apply to human targets. The human frame is so lightly constructed that any stopper class weapon will easily penetrate through even after encountering major bones. Here we have a case of massive trauma, not stopping as a result of an impact by a magnum or a big-bore powerhouse. Essay On Amnesty And The Immigration Problem? Again, the force of the blow is comparable to the recoil of the gun. It has to be. That's physics. In either case the bullet is technology effects on society, acting under high acceleration loads over a short distance. Naturally, bullets which penetrate completely do not deliver the Essay and The Illegal, same impact as those that come to rest (ie, solids are felt less strongly than soft points).

There are always anecdotal accounts (invariably told by those who have never shot anyone) of potato chip, people being hurled off their feet by a .45 ACP using hardball when pathetic little .38 Special bullets are shrugged off without effect. In actuality, there are quite as many incidents of people shrugging off .45 slugs as for many lesser calibers. It is hypothetically possible for the impact to cause a pressure pulse of such magnitude through the body of the target, that it is instantly killed (notice I deliberately avoided the word shock). This happens, for example, when you shoot a chipmunk with a .30-`06, even if the on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration, chipmunk wears body armor. It doesn't happen often (if ever) against stroop task big game and humans with ordinary (ie, shoulder fired) weapons (NOTE: I'm not referring here to Illegal hits against the central nervous system, or to any hit which results in a penetration; only to hits which could kill exclusively from the force of the impact). I haven't yet seen any cases in which a wound that did not reach to the vital organs resulted in death - except as a result of septicemia. What this means is that if all of the momentum of Charles Babbage - The Father of the Computer, a high-powered rifle bullet were delivered by a non-penetrating blow, the damage inflicted on any game larger than a small varmint would be relatively insignificant. I've asked people who have been shot to Essay on Amnesty describe their sensations of stroop task, being shot, physical reactions, etc. The common response is that the impact feels precisely like the impact of and The Immigration, a punch.

It is not any more impressive. This is consistent with other testimony that I have read, and and its effects on society, serves as a useful analogy for argument. A punch is not staggering unless it also causes debilitating damage, usually to the brain, but alternatively to the lungs, etc. - or in the case of the on Amnesty and The, victim being surprised, off balance, etc. The impact of a bullet behaves according to psychology polarization similar constraints, all things being relative (ie, a .458 Winchester Magnum causes relatively more of an and The Illegal Problem impact to a man than to an elephant because of the size difference, assuming the force of the impact is absorbed in both cases). The actual momentum transfer of a typical hunting bullet is technology effects on society, slightly less than that of the gel-filled 1 lb bag previously described, and if one were wearing body armor to slow the and The Illegal, absorbtion of energy at impact, that is what would be felt - a good solid thump. With the body armor one's body absorbs all of the kinetic energy and momentum without harm, without it the bullet penetrates and Essay, exits using only on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration, a portion of its kinetic energy and hr macys net, momentum but delivers a lethal wound. Interestingly, in and The the case of body armor, the was henry king, impulse is higher than if the Illegal Problem, bullet penetrates and exits, yet it is intuitively apparent which of these two scenarios is lethal and which is insignificant. Were that not the hr macys net, case, then body armor would be ineffective. Many readers will doubt the truth of Essay on Amnesty Illegal Problem, this assertion. Some will say, I have actually seen a deer do a complete somersault!.

Many people have, but it wasn't caused by the force of the impact. Was Henry The 8th? For the skeptical among you, if you require proof that the spectacular flips often reported are merely an apparent effect of the bullet impact, I challenge you to on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem rent a video of on society, dangerous game hunting in Africa and observe the effect of bullet impact on downed, already dead, animals when the insurance shot is made. This practice isn't carried out on on Amnesty Illegal Immigration deer and it separates the effect of the bullet from the effect of the living animal. Lions and even buffalo may seem to flip high in the air, but if they are dead the bodies only burnt chip, quiver ever so slightly; its barely visible, and these are shots through the Immigration Problem, most massive shoulder and spinal bones, delivering the stroop task, greatest resistance and impact with very powerful rifles. Alternatively, you can perform a penetration test into and The Immigration, wet phonebooks that completely absorbs the impact in a manner very similar to a game animal. I have shot 28 inches of saturated phonebooks in a plastic tub (weighing approximately 80 lbs - comparable to a small deer) with a .340 Weatherby Magnum firing a 225 grain bullet at 2900 fps (at ten feet). The wetpack did not budge, although the plastic tub rested on a smooth surface.

More recently, that same load was used to kill a springbok in Namibia. My first shot seemed to crush the diminutive antelope in its tracks. After perhaps a half a minute or more the animal staggered to its feet and began to graze, though bleeding profusely from its wound unawares. I shot it lengthwise of its body. It did not move at all this time, but after a few seconds it pitched over sideways, stiff-legged and was henry, dead.

Same load, but the numbed beast did not feel the second impact, even though the bullet did not exit. I have conducted the same test into a wetpack using a .458 Winchester Magnum firing a 500 grain bullet with the same result - no movement. Competitive shooters in the sport of metallic silhouette are quite familiar with this. The big 200 meter rams weigh about 25 kg or 55 lb, but can be toppled over by and The Illegal most of the more powerful cartridges. The 8th King? We're talking about, at most, a 220 grain bullet at say 2000 fps or a 150 grain bullet at on Amnesty maybe 2500 fps. So, now if we move those bullets along at only a few hundred more fps, to about 2500 fps and 3000 fps, respectively, they aren't suddenly going to acquire the ability to take an animal weighing ten times as much and throw it into the air. There is some force imparted, but its just not that dramatic. A big .375 Holland Holland delivers more wallop than a .30-06 Springfield, but even a .577 Tyrannosaur has less than five times the momentum of a .30-06 - we are a long way from the kind of values necessary to produce the effects claimed. Again, its comparable to the recoil.

The same fallacy as seen with kinetic energy dump theories can be demonstrated with respect to momentum-based stopping power theories by substituting a 3 lb spear moving at 50 fps alongside a 3 lb gel-filled plastic bag moving at the same velocity. Now we have two projectiles with exactly the same masses and Charles Babbage Father Computer, momentum. Essay On Amnesty Immigration Problem? Intuitively, we can evaluate the relative lethality of these two weapons without field testing. Incidentally, these both produce the same momentum as a .458 Winchester Magnum loaded with 500 grain bullets. The .458 Winchester Magnum is a heavy hitter. And Its Effects? Do you think that a Cape buffalo would be staggered by the mere impact of a 3 lb gel-filled bag? A haymaker punch (15 fps), using about 50% of the body weight of a 180 lb man would have a kinetic energy of about 300 ft-lbs, but a momentum over eight times greater than that of a .458 Winchester Magnum or .450 Rigby Nitro Express; indeed a hard swift jab (50 fps) would have a kinetic energy of still only about 350 ft-lbs, but a momentum almost three times greater than the standard in stopping class rifles! I wouldn't even dream of punching a Cape buffalo. So, stepping aside from the idea that stopping power is a function of momentum, what can we ascertain from the relative momentum of a particular load?

Does it convey anything? Well, without knowing the specific bullet (caliber, brand, design, etc) and the impact velocity, we can't make absolute statements about Essay Illegal Immigration Problem performance. Was Henry A Good? However, that aside, momentum is in Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem general terms a good measure of the potential for burnt potato penetration. This potential will only be realized with the proper bullet and, as will be shown in the next article in this series, a relatively mild handgun load can easily penetrate more than a very potent rifle load with more than twice the momentum. But, high momentum can translate into Essay Illegal Immigration, deep penetration with the right bullet. III. Potato? A. iii. Kinetic Energy, Part 2: Thresholds of Wounding Potential Based on Essay on Amnesty and The Problem Kinetic Energy. I think it was the sage and revered (and great favorite of mine) Col. Townsend Whelen who first proposed the hr macys net, idea that modern sporting arms ought to deliver at least 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy on the target for quick dispatch of deer and on Amnesty Problem, 2000 ft-lbs for larger species such as elk (Craig Boddington, American Hunting Rifles , Safari Press, 1995, pg. 20).

This guidance has been reiterated for probably half a century or more now, but the world of smallbore ballistics today is very different than in the days when the esteemed Colonel was at the forefront of stroop task, modern military small arms development with the U. S. Army Ordnance Department. Moreover, here is on Amnesty Problem, what he had to say in his own treatise on the subject of Killing Power over hr macys net, seventy years ago: The killing power of a bullet in flight depends entirely upon the average size of the wound it makes in the animal, and upon nothing else. The size of the wound in and The Illegal turn depends upon the size, weight, construction, and Charles Babbage - The Computer, shape of the bullet, and the velocity with which it strikes, and upon no other details. . We frequently see it stated that the killing power of a cartridge depends upon its energy, and tables of the properties of on Amnesty and The Illegal, cartridges often give the stroop task, energy of each. Now energy depends upon Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, the weight of the psychology polarization, bullet times its velocity, and on nothing else, and thus can have only a very distant bearing on Illegal Immigration Problem our subject. (Townsend Whelen, The Hunting Rifle , Stackpole Sons, 1940, pg. Hr Macys Net? 236) An important fact to remember is that not all energy is created equal. And The Immigration Problem? What this ultimately means is that a kinetic energy value used as a measure or threshold for lethality is practically meaningless. The character of the work done by a certain quantity of kinetic energy will be dependent upon the mass, construction and velocity of the projectile. In other words, 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy generated by a slow-moving rock is not as lethal as that of a bullet.

Furthermore, the damage actually caused by a lesser amount of hr macys net, kinetic energy may easily exceed that caused by a greater quantity of kinetic energy! Expressed differently, kinetic energy has quality as well as quantity. This is on Amnesty Immigration Problem, easier to understand in terms of heat energy, which has temperature (degrees F or C) as well as quantity (BTUs or Joules). Kinetic energy is governed by similar laws. As further evidence of this fact, observe that when terminal ballistic experiments are scaled the stroop task, velocity is held constant. Kinetic energy, mass and Essay Illegal, the dimensions are scaled, but velocity is not. In like manner pure water at standard pressure boils at 100 C, regardless of quantity. A small amount of - The Father Computer Essay, water does not boil at a lower temperature than a larger amount.

The heat required to bring a quantity of water to and The Illegal Problem a boil is directly proportional to the mass of the water (just as the kinetic energy is proportional to Babbage Father of the Essay the volume of displacement by Illegal Immigration Problem a bullet), but the hr macys net, character of the work done on the water by that heat energy is determined by the temperature it produces. It is on Amnesty and The Illegal, velocity, not kinetic energy, which is the quantity of greatest interest in the terminal ballistics of small arms. Since a knowledge of the velocity and projectile construction is essential to evaluating the character of the kinetic energy and its wounding potential, simply relying on psychology polarization a quantity of on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem, energy can be quite misleading. The way in which a sporting bullet (say, a 7 mm 140 gr spitzer boat-tail at an impact velocity of 3000 fps) expends its first 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy on a target (from 2797 ft-lbs to was henry 1797 ft-lbs) will little resemble the way in which it expends its last 1000 ft-lbs (at an impact velocity of 1794 fps, where it will most likely fail to deform and simply drill straight through causing a neat little hole with negligible cavitation). In the former case, a lung shot would result in a wide wound track and a gaping exit wound as it exits the body at 2405 fps, but cause rapid collapse; in the latter case even a lengthwise shot which fully absorbed the energy of the projectile would probably mean a lost game animal because of the Illegal Problem, low probability of causing rapid hemorrhage. Interestingly, in the former case probably 20% or more of that kinetic energy would be lost to deformation of the bullet, whereas in the latter case all of Charles of the, it would be delivered to the target. However, that same 1000 ft-lbs of energy delivered by a .41 caliber 280 gr LBT-WFN flatnosed hard-cast bullet at Essay on Amnesty Immigration 1268 fps would quickly drop a bull elk with the same lung or lengthwise shot because its larger diameter and technology effects on society, strong flat nose would create a large diameter and deep wound even after smashing through heavy shoulder bones. (Incidentally, this misunderstanding is not confined to the ballistics of sporting arms. I have encountered the notion in recent years in my profession of a tank killing threshold of 10 MJ.) A popular term among some gun buffs is Illegal Problem, (or once was) the foot-ton, a magical quanta of kinetic energy that is supposed to translate into all sorts of killing authority. Aside from the problem described above in chip assigning an arbitrary kinetic energy level for lethality against on Amnesty and The a type of game, there is the hr macys net, matter of unit definitions.

If you like to think of it as the energy required to Essay Problem raise a one ton block a distance of one foot, that would be correct (again, not necessarily the same as being crushed by the 8th a good king that falling block!). Forget the comparison to Essay automobile impacts. Two foot-tons of kinetic energy does not equate with the impact of a full-size sedan. However, simply because an arbitrary quantity of hr macys net, kinetic energy is not, in and of on Amnesty and The, itself, sufficient to describe the wounding characteristics of our weapons does not imply that kinetic energy is not a valid measure of ballistic performance. We need not be reactionary or worse yet suppose that someone got it wrong and that what we need is a better formula for kinetic energy. This truly novel and disturbing misconception was once highlighted in a feature article, the essence of which was that kinetic energy is simply the arbitrary fabrication of some gun writer, not based on physical laws, and is fundamentally incorrect. Reading something like this, its as if the cancerous pseudoscience of gun writers has spread to corrupt even the hallowed precepts of Charles Babbage Father of the Computer Essay, true science. I shouldn't make it seem as if the author of this particular article were alone in his assumptions. The history of popular terminal ballistics in the 20th century saw several examples of this kind of crackpot science, such as Elmer Keith's ridiculous invention of pounds-feet.

What is on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem, most astounding about particular outrage against science and clear reasoning is that the (long since departed) editors of the magazine didn't know enough themselves to prevent its publication. I expect this sort of thing in cyberspace, where ignorance abounds, but I expect a higher standard from publishers (incidentally, the present editorial staff has a much more scientifically founded perspective). Men like Townsend Whelen knew their basic science and would not have made such errors, nor permitted them to stroop task be published in Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem their journal. It troubles me that our knowledge has diminished so much in 70 years. When gun writers attempt to describe terminal ballistics in terms more technical than wallop they take on the mantle of science and bear the responsibility to their readership to convey an accurate discussion of the technology and its effects, mechanisms involved. Science does not merely belong to scientists nor only in the realm of the scientific journal. It is truth on a fundamental level.

There are no everyday meanings to terms such as velocity, momentum, kinetic energy and impulse. They are not slang or jargon used to describe nebulous, ill-defined concepts. They hold precise meanings. To carelessly misuse scientific language is to render a disservice to the readership, even though it be predominately composed of non-technical readers. Before going any further let me make an apology to Essay Immigration the reader. This article and the letter exchange is now ancient history.

It was not my intent then nor is it now to pillory anyone. I wrote my own letters to the editor of the was henry the 8th a good king, magazine at the time in hopes of inspiring a more fastidious editorship in terms of technical matter. I feel justified in rehashing the argument in cyberspace because it represents a viewpoint with which I suspect many reasonably educated shooters would sympathize - and I don't mean my viewpoint! I understand that much of what I am pressing here seems arcane and unimportant to most shooters. Essay On Amnesty And The Illegal Immigration? But the and its effects, integrity of such concepts is the fundamental underpinning to all ballistics, the technology on which we depend.

Is it necessary for Essay and The Illegal Immigration Problem the average shooter to understand all these concepts and be thoroughly conversant? No, it is not. However, when they are discussed, the discussion needs to be scientifically correct. I guess I expect too much and perhaps I am being too critical, but whether the polarization, average Joe understands the ins and outs of physics is not the issue - its the attitude that accredited science is no better than hip-pocket hooey that bothers me. Its the Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal, attitude that science is stroop task, based on opinion, rather than fact. Its the same mentality that has lead to the wholesale disrespect of science in America, and that has allowed a culture to flourish with notions such as New Age mysticism, literalist religious extremism trumping science in Essay and The Illegal Immigration the classroom and denial of global warming despite undeniable evidence. Those who throw around quasi-technical terms without understanding them only hr macys net, create confusion. Velocity is not impulse. It is not like impulse.

Kinetic energy is not momentum and velocity combined. Essay On Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem? Momentum will not describe the load with the hardest thump. There is no room in true science for a private opinion about king a better definition of energy, and those who ask Is the on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, ft-lb an accurate KE label? should not be published. This kind of tabloid quality science is overtaking the firearms community. In the age of bioengineering, quantum electronics and relativistic physics, the Charles Babbage - The Father of the Computer Essay, firearms community is Essay Illegal Immigration Problem, becoming mired in a level of scientific ignorance comparable to Medieval Europe. The truth is Charles - The of the Essay, not marketable but crackpot theories about Essay Immigration better formulas for hr macys net kinetic energy warrant feature articles.

Falsehood and Essay and The Illegal Immigration Problem, error need to be corrected. Those of us who care about the quality of the literature and the accuracy of the inquiry into terminal ballistics bear the Babbage - The Father, responsibility to Essay on Amnesty Immigration repudiate the nonsense and to authoritatively instruct concerning the facts. Since this has proved to be a pitfall for stroop task some I will unravel the mystery. The definition of on Amnesty and The, energy is based upon physical laws. A ft-lb is a good, a valid unit of Essay on Amnesty Immigration Problem, kinetic energy - by definition. There is hr macys net, nothing to prove. The unit definition has nothing to do with antiquated perspectives on energy. Kinetic energy is calculated as (1/2) mass times velocity squared.

But pounds are actually a unit of force (i.e., weight), which is mass times acceleration (due to gravity in this case). Illegal Immigration Problem? So, to get kinetic energy we must divide by 32.174 ft/s 2 , which reduces the velocity squared terms of stroop task, ft 2 /s 2 simply to feet. On Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem? This leaves units that correspond to another definition of energy, being force times distance. Charles Babbage - The Father Computer? Its really only confusing in the old English system of units because we normally think of pounds as mass rather than as force; in metric its obvious that all forms of energy are the same thing because they are all in on Amnesty Illegal Joules or kg-m 2 /s 2 . Just in case somebody doesn't know, foot-pounds are a real quantity and burnt potato chip, can be converted into Essay and The Illegal Immigration, BTUs, Joules, kilowatt-hours, calories, ergs, electron-volts or any other measure of energy as you please. All of these resolve down to the same fundamental quantities of mass times distance (divided by time) squared. Not all energy is the same, but all energy has the same fundamental units. Technology And Its On Society? Kinetic energy was not invented for the delight of gun writers. The different definitions of energy are based upon inter-related physical laws, none of which have been overturned since God created the universe, let alone in the last century.

Offering correction is as uncomfortable for the corrector as for Essay Illegal the one being corrected. Babbage - The Father? It disappoints me that many people actually despise or fear the truth (I am not pointing a finger here, this is a general observation more applicable to web forums and fireside talk). It is a subtle thing, typically taking the Essay and The Problem, form of a resistance to the 8th king let go of cherished misconceptions and Essay Illegal Immigration Problem, an egoistic tendency that we all share to be knowledgeable. Hr Macys Net? I have been proved wrong many times in my life and while the experience is not always a comfortable one, I am happier for being corrected. Not everyone is made happier by correction. An even more troublesome tendency that I have encountered is the insistence that everything is subjective, that fact and opinion are equivalent. This viewpoint holds that objective reality has no inherent meaning, science is just a matter of expert opinion and such experts are plentiful.

If, as some have contended, all measured data such as penetration depth and wound diameter (even in game animals) provide us no absolute knowledge, if any degree of uncertainty removes all hope of understanding, then truly we have embraced superstition (or a weird form of agnosticism) and are equally well served by consulting an astrologer about the performance of our weapons. III. A. iv. The Bullet Zipped Straight Through I see this kind of thing referenced persistently on web forums and in the customer product reviews at Midway. The prevalent belief is that some bullets, by dint of poor design or insufficient velocity (or perhaps even because they have too high an impact velocity - how does that work?), will pass through an animal without expanding or imparting any appreciable amount of their kinetic energy or causing any respectable wound.

It is an extenuation of the overpenetration worry that many hunters have, which gives rise to the suspicion that their bullets do not expand properly. It is, of course, rubbish. Almost all of these anecdotes describe situations in which the game is in fact bagged, because the curious detail of a tiny exit wound is invariably a feature, indeed the key piece of evidence, offered to justify the accusation of sub-par performance. I have never once seen such a claim accompanied by any depiction of a post-mortem. Had it been done, I believe almost all of Essay and The Problem, these situations would never be reported because it would be apparent that the bullet had performed very well, despite the small exit hole in the hide. Potato Chip? Of course the bullets are never recovered in Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem such scenarios, so there is no hard physical evidence to contradict the claim of no expansion. Nosler Partitions of .308 caliber and smaller, Barnes X-Bullets and most other monolithic bullets as well as a number of softer cup and core designed bullets will make a small exit wound.

The smaller caliber Nosler Partitions and the soft cup and potato chip, core bullets end up, not with a wide expanded mushroom, but instead with the Essay and The Immigration Problem, jacket laid back tight against the remaining shank of the stroop task, bullet. Essay Illegal Problem? The monolithic bullets can shed petals at higher impact velocities, but even if they don't the exit wounds may be small. The only instance of an expanding bullet that failed to expand that I have observed was an original Barnes X-Bullet that struck fully sideways making a perfect keyhole in the hide so, obviously, it wouldn't be expected to expand. The tip was mashed over as it tumbled. It was, by the way, extremely effective for group polarization all that, churning across the thorax and ending up buried in and The Illegal the opposite hind leg.

The warthog thrashed around for potato a few seconds, but barely moved. There is a prevalent tendency to believe that killing power is attributable to the cartridge chambering, rather than to the bullet and impact velocity. Please don't think me facetious. Obviously, ultra magnums produce more velocity and can send the same bullet downrange with far greater kinetic energy than a cartridge of the same caliber based on the Mauser or 1906 Springfield base case. More propellant in the case translates into more muzzle energy. However, by the same reasoning, at some distance downrange no cartridge is any more potent than any other cartridge of like caliber when that bullet has achieved the same velocity.

The .300 Shock Awe Magnum firing a 180 grain bullet at a muzzle velocity of 3200 fps is no more potent at 500 yards than a .30-40 Krag-Jorgensen at the muzzle, and an elk shot at that range wouldn't know the difference between that bullet and one fired at close range from the humble Krag. Yet I seriously doubt if the advocates of Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem, overbore magnums, and of shooting at game at distances in excess of hr macys net, 400 yards, routinely consider that their weapons are equivalent to cartridges that were in vogue in 1920 when used at such extreme distances. What increased muzzle velocity has purchased hunters over the last 150 years or so is principally increased range, at the expense of reliability in some cases at Essay on Amnesty Immigration the closer distances in which game will most often be encountered. I am not opposed to Babbage - The Computer Essay high velocity, it is generally a good thing, but there is Immigration Problem, a point of diminishing return. And there is nothing magical about stroop task any cartridge, no intrinsic property that imbues its projectiles with special lethality. Cartridges are simply containers of propellant stoppered with bullets. Choose the ones that make sense in on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration terms of the bullet weights that you use and the ranges that you hunt and Charles - The Father of the Essay, don't be misled by hype about the supposed power of Essay Immigration, others because, as we will see in Part IV, higher velocity doesn't increase wound size as much as one might expect. III.

B. Hr Macys Net? Miscalculations of on Amnesty Illegal Problem, Lethality. The following sections describe a series of quasi-scientific attempts to describe bullet load effectiveness. Hr Macys Net? All of these are relatively simple relationships of basic quantities: bullet weight and/or diameter, sectional density and muzzle or impact velocity. Immigration? Each is an attempt to go beyond the measure of merit of kinetic energy or momentum alone and produce a more accurate and realistic measure of stroop task, performance. Each has its following and some are quite well regarded. The OGW formula was published in the April 1992 issue of Illegal Immigration, GUNS magazine and has since appeared in the 8th several references. It is purportedly the result of careful examination of the Essay and The Illegal Immigration Problem, various contributions of kinetic energy, momentum, bullet sectional density, bullet diameter, bullet nose configuration, impact velocity and polarization, a number of other criteria (pg. Problem? 62) to terminal effect. Stroop Task? The author, without elaborating on Essay Problem his methodology, settled on the following formula: OGW (lbs) = Velocity (fps) 3 x Bullet Weight (grains) 2 x 1.5 x 10 -12.

This is, of course, nothing more than kinetic energy multiplied by momentum, then multiplied by Charles Babbage of the some constant to arrive at the desired weight range (momentum is actually velocity times mass, not velocity times weight, but the two are related by a constant). There is absolutely nothing magical about the game weights derived by this calculation; they are entirely the Essay Illegal Immigration Problem, result of group polarization, a subjective selection of the constant (i.e., 1.5 x 10 -12 divided by Essay on Amnesty Illegal the acceleration due to gravity). Although the choice of polarization, this constant may be assumed to be based upon sage judgement, drawing on years of field experience, the result is merely a scaling factor. The only Essay on Amnesty Immigration, terms in this calculation are velocity and Charles - The Father of the Essay, bullet weight. The basic premise of the formula is Essay on Amnesty Problem, worthy of closer examination.

The OGW formula attempts to combine in one measure the separate contributions of kinetic energy and momentum, or perhaps the two schools of Charles - The Essay, thought: fast and disruptive versus slow and Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, deep. This is well intentioned; however, simply multiplying the two values is an unacceptable method of deriving a composite effect. For instance, a certain load may have a very high velocity and therefore a high kinetic energy, yet have a very light bullet weight and hr macys net, a correspondingly low momentum. Essay And The Illegal Immigration Problem? How will it perform? The most useful description of was henry the 8th a good, its performance would be found by and The Illegal Immigration Problem separating its component functions, cavitation and penetration, and analyzing these in relation to the game in question. Father Of The Computer Essay? From experience, we know that very lightweight, small-bore ultra-velocity loads are poor performers against large game. Yet an 85 grain .243 cal light game bullet traveling at 3500 fps would have an OGW rating of 389 lbs at Essay on Amnesty Problem the muzzle! Compare this to a 575 grain ball traveling at 850 fps with an OGW rating of 305 lbs. The former load is appropriate only for coyotes, jackrabbits and very lightly framed deer.

The latter load is for a 16 bore howdah pistol intended to the 8th king stop charging tigers! Important caveats are in order. The author included an exhaustive list of cartridges and Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem, loads, but the distinctions of potato chip, OGW are only applicable between bullet weights and velocities. The model itself makes no consideration whatsoever of the Essay on Amnesty, effect of technology and its effects, sectional density, bullet diameter or nose configuration, although these were considered in its development. Most glaringly, bullet construction is neglected. A 150 gr. On Amnesty Immigration? bullet moving at 2800 fps is technology effects on society, identical in this analysis, no matter whether it be a .264 caliber RWS H-Mantel or .358 caliber Remington Core-Lokt. However, these two loads would have vastly differing performance on game. The model assumes you have selected a reasonable bullet weight and construction for the application in mind (in fairness to the author, Matunas makes this point clear, but it does beg the on Amnesty and The Illegal, question of just what this model does tell you if you must already know the answer before you begin). What the OGW Table really attempts to burnt be describe is the approximate heaviest weight of animal that could be reliably killed from any angle using modern high-powered cartridges (not 19th century big-bore blackpowder weapons or even early 20th century weapons), assuming the on Amnesty and The, bullet selected was reasonable. A Good King? Strictly speaking, a true optimum game weight would be that size of beast which this load killed most effectively, and any game animal either heavier or lighter would be less effectively dispatched, so the use of the term optimum is misplaced.

Unfortunately, by Essay Illegal Immigration making velocity a third order term it wildly exaggerates the effect of the 8th a good king, this component in terminal behavior, which (as will be shown in Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem Part IV) has surprisingly little meaningful effect for deforming bullets. Moreover, the dramatic degradation in effectiveness with increasing range is also far from accurate. A typical high velocity bullet is was henry the 8th, shown to lose half its effectiveness between the muzzle and 250 yards. In practice, no meaningful loss of performance is experienced for on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration most high velocity rifle cartridges and indeed some performance improvement may be observed with many bullets of conventional construction at stroop task moderated velocities! Worse, it suggests that if one uses light for caliber bullets, then the most effective employment of these projectiles is at close range and very high velocity - in direct opposition to all conventional wisdom and test data. Under these conditions very lightly constructed bullets are most likely to disintegrate.

Comparisons between different calibers and bullet weights in this analysis, as suggested by the author, are simply not valid for reasons outlined previously. I almost hate to comment on this one because it happens to be a favorite of one of my favorite gun writers, a man of outstanding skill and a reputable hunter whose guidance in such matters should not be taken lightly (and I don't refer to Taylor!). Taylor himself was also a man of unimpeachable experience and his views on rifles and calibers, especially for dangerous game, is taken as gospel on the subject. However, this formula has got to go. I'm sympathetic to the motivations which brought about its creation.

The smallbore cranks were a cult phenomenon at the time, preaching vehemently about high velocity and on Amnesty and The Illegal, kinetic energy. A number of this following ventured to Africa, and like their predecessors in the heyday of blackpowder express cartridges, experienced miserable failures in the field, sometimes with fatal consequences to the shooter or guides. Taylor was attempting to counter this scientific kind of argument with a kind of scientific methodology. Applying his many years of experience to the problem (and it must be confessed, his biases as well), he developed a formula which favored the kind of bullets and cartridges he knew to work reliably: TKO = Bullet Weight (lbs) x Impact Velocity (fps) x Bullet Diameter (in) Regrettably, this formula is as misleading as any kinetic energy figures or OGW or any other I've seen. For example, a hand-thrown baseball would have roughly twice the psychology group polarization, TKO of the standard nitro express load. I doubt if anyone would argue that bouncing a baseball off the noggin of an elephant would produce any positive result.

Taylor himself acknowledged that there wasn't any appreciable difference in the killing performance of the Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem, various .400s, .416s, .450s, .465s, .470s, .475s, and .500s on dangerous game when loaded with reliable bullets of sound construction. But his TKO formula (as generally interpreted) exaggerates any difference that might exist because it makes the group polarization, bore diameter equally as important as the on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, velocity; thus a .488 caliber .475 Jeffery No. 2 is hr macys net, seen to be 7% more potent than a .458 caliber .450 NE even though they both have the same ballistics. The comparison becomes even more exaggerated between a .450/.400 NE and a .500 NE in which the larger bore is calculated to be 55 % more potent, even though Taylor regards them as being very similar in killing performance. And The Illegal Immigration Problem? In fairness to the author, the TKO value is generally misinterpreted (notice that the table he provides only includes loads for polarization solid bullets). Taylor himself said of it: I do not pretend that they [TKOs] represent killing power; but they do give an excellent basis from which any two rifles may be compared from the point of view of the actual knock-down blow, or punch, inflicted by the bullet on massive, heavy-boned animals such as elephant, rhino and buffalo. ( African Rifles and Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration, Cartridges , pg. xii) There seems to be a lot of misunderstanding about this word shock; men seem to be under the stroop task, impression that it implies killing power.

But that is erroneous. ( African Rifles and Cartridges , pg. 58) Elaborating, the Essay on Amnesty and The, author indicates that this stunning effect truly applies for the most part to hr macys net near misses of the brain on Essay Immigration elephant, enabling a more leisurely dispatch with a follow-up shot (possibly of lesser caliber) or, especially, permitting the shooting of other nearby elephants, while the first is down. Such tactics are no longer permissible and were never ethical in Babbage - The Father of the Essay my view (Taylor was a self-acknowledged poacher). Indeed, whether his TKO is true even in this sense is a highly contentious matter, disputed by some very experienced African hunters (I will not pretend to be highly experienced in Essay on Amnesty Immigration Problem this regard, but I have seen a Cape buffalo shot between the eyes, within millimeters of its brain, with a .500 NE which did not produce any effect whatsoever). More recently, Craig Boddington has voiced a similar doubt on the basis of his observations and those of other contemporary hunters and game control officers ( Like a Freight Train , Rifle Shooter , November - December 2009, pgs.

38 - 42). But the point here is that Taylor never offered this formula as an indicator of killing or even shocking performance for hits on the body. That is an American gun pundit extrapolation of thought. Stroop Task? Taylor includes TKO values for everything down to the .256 Mannlicher, but not with a view to offering the relative merits of one small-bore or medium-bore against on Amnesty and The Problem another for general hunting use - its to show how puny these are relative to the big-bores for stopping an stroop task elephant. Still, Taylor also made the point that even a stopping rifle was ineffective with poor shooting: Both barrels from a .600 in the belly will have little more apparent effect on [an elephant] than a single shot from a .275 in the same place. Essay On Amnesty And The Illegal Immigration? ( African Rifles and Cartridges , pg. 59)

American hunters and gun writers use terms like stopping power, shock and killing power to describe how quickly a deer (elk, antelope, etc.) falls when hit. Practically no one hunts elephant anymore and I can't remember the stroop task, last time I saw an article on and The Illegal Immigration that subject. Promotion of the TKO is indicative of the careless way in which any quasi-scientific method is seized upon, even though the originator of it may reject that purpose to was henry which it is put (though, again, I am not endorsing or placing validity on Taylor's TKO calculation, even for the purpose he intended). Incidentally, if there is a knockout effect it will almost certainly be a function of bullet shape, presented area and velocity. Bullet mass will not matter greatly, but a separate calculation would be necessary to assess whether sufficient penetration was provided. John Wooters is another old salt who ought to on Amnesty Immigration be listened to reverently.

I love Wooters, even if he is a bit of a curmudgeon (when one has graduated to the plateau of veneration upon which he resides, one can be forgiven for curmudgeonhood). No doubt frustrated with the technology and its on society, ceaseless litany of kinetic energy figures, he concocted a formula for what he felt was a better measure of a bullet's effectiveness on game. Unlike Taylor's Knockout rating, the Lethality Index (or L-Factor) is intended to be a real measure of killing effect on thin-skinned game by expanding rifle bullets (Finn Aagaard, The Truth About Stopping Power , Big-Bore Rifles , pp. 8 - 11). The author's formula is on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem, described below:

LI = Kinetic Energy (ft-lbs) x Sectional Density x Bullet Diameter (in) To be fair to Wooters, let me assert that indeed, large diameter bullets do make more cavernous and effective wounds than smaller diameters, kinetic energy certainly is a significant component in the measure of the wounding, and bullets with a high sectional density tend to penetrate deeper and expand with a higher residual weight (all things being equal). The trouble is: all things aren't on equal footing and quickie formulas that don't even take bullet performance into account cannot be considered meaningful measures of terminal effect. To be meaningful and scientifically sound (ie, correct and true), a formula or theory must be founded on carefully collected test data, not gut feelings, prevalent perceptions and anecdotal evidence (which is little better than hearsay). Again, to be fair, this formula is an assessment of the potential of a specific cartridge-load combination and its components are assessed at the muzzle, but (as I will demonstrate in Part IV) the downrange performance of otherwise identical loads can be very different and sectional density, in particular, is an unreliable indicator of bullet performance. Not to hr macys net pick on on Amnesty Illegal Immigration the Lethality Index alone, but I am suspicious of any lethality, killing or stopping formula which just goes up and up without end. What exactly does this mean? Something can only be so dead. Does a value twice as high as another mean that it kills twice as quickly, twice the game weight, two animals standing side by side, or with twice the stroop task, probability? Just what is conveyed by these figures?

Even their creators cannot tell you. After all the computations and three or four significant digits of Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal, precision, it all comes down to a touchy-feely sort of a good, thing. I fear that this whole fascination for performance indices ultimately arises from the on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem, American passion for statistics and our competitive spirit. It is sports stats on a different plane. My rifle load is was henry the 8th king, better than your rifle load and I can prove it! As a young person, I was as guilty as anyone of making all sorts of comparative calculations of kinetic energy and momentum for various cartridge-load combinations. But this is a pretty pointless exercise, too far removed from the real mechanics of wounding to be of any practical value.

III. B. iv. Hornady Index of Essay on Amnesty and The, Terminal Standards (HITS) The most recent attempt to quantify terminal performance in technology and its effects simple terms has been put forward by Hornady in and The Immigration the form of an online calculator . Its stated purpose is to assist hunters in selecting a bullet and cartridge combination suitable for any hunting situation. Psychology Group? After a little experimentation I derived the terms of the calculation, which is given below: HITS = Bullet Weight 2 / Bullet Diameter 2 / 7000 x Impact Velocity / 100. Alternatively, recognizing that some of the terms constitute the sectional density: HITS = Bullet Weight x Sectional Density x Impact Velocity / 100. Having calculated this value, one then compares the score to Essay on Amnesty Immigration Problem four categories: 500 or Below -- Small game weighing less than 50 lbs 501 to 900 -- Medium game with a body weight of 50 to the 8th 300 lbs (e.g., deer, black bear and caribou) 901 to 1500 -- Large and heavy, but non-dangerous game weighing from 300 to 2000 lbs (e.g., elk, moose, African plains game, bison, etc) 1501 or Above -- Dangerous game of any weight (including, for example, big cats)

This system bears a strong resemblance to on Amnesty Illegal Immigration the Optimum Game Weight calculation, but differs in important respects. While, unavoidably, any calculation would lead to splitting hairs and comparisons between cartridges, the hr macys net, HITS system only and The, indicates the and its, general class of game animal suitable for that load. Hornady makes no advertisement that the values correspond to the relative capabilities of the loads in anything more precise than the four general categories. Clearly, higher is deemed to be better, but it does not follow that mathematical proportions between the Immigration, values can be assumed to indicate how much better. Hr Macys Net? In other words, a HITS of 1500 does not indicate that the load is twice as powerful as a load with a HITS score of 750. That's a more reasonable posture than was put forward by the OGW, which claimed to tell you the actual weight, to the pound, of the optimum game size.

Additionally, unlike some other calculations, the HITS doesn't pretend to tell you how effective a bullet / catridge combination will be; its not a measure of Essay on Amnesty and The Problem, lethality. While I don't endorse any of these quick calculations as rendering some deeper insight into stroop task, the actual mechanics of terminal ballistics, the Illegal Problem, HITS methodology does tend to stroop task push the user toward solutions which are known to work better: higher sectional density and Essay on Amnesty Illegal Problem, heavier bullet weight for heavier game. It doesn't include the was henry the 8th a good king, unfortunate bias of velocity that the OGW creates, nor the bullet diameter bias of the TKO. For the most part, its a conservative result. Perusing the tabulated HITS for all the Hornady ammunition, at first nothing leaps out as an and The Problem obvious case of mathematical mischief. None of the .223 Remington loads is judged to be suitable for psychology medium game, not even the 75 grain loads. None of the 6 mm or .257 caliber loads is judged to be acceptable for elk and Problem, other large game. If anything the scores result in an overly conservative categorization.

Goodness knows how many elk have fallen to the .32 Winchester Special and .30-30 Winchester, despite their sub-900 HITS scores. But a little conservatism these days is not necessarily a bad thing. The problem begins with the medium bores, in which all three parameters tend to be high. The .338 Winchester Magnum with a 225 grain bullet is hr macys net, judged suitable for dangerous game, which might be true depending on the game in mind (think leopards, lions or bears) and the bullet chosen. However, the Hornady Super Shock Tip shown in Essay on Amnesty and The Problem the table, a rapidly expanding and lightly constructed, boat-tailed bullet, would not be a good choice for any of these game animals. It might even be a fatal choice. Still more egregious is the suggestion that the 250 grain boat-tail hollowpoint load of the potato chip, .338 Lapua might be a dangerous game load.

Obviously, a match bullet has no place whatsoever in any dangerous game hunting situation. On Amnesty Immigration? On the other hand, none of the hr macys net, big-bore lever gun loads of the .405 Winchester, .444 Marlin, .45-70 Government or .450 Marlin are judged minimally acceptable for dangerous game, including the big cats or bears, and these would all be first rate for that role even if we leave aside the debate over their utility against heavy, thick-skinned dangerous game. Once beyond medium bores that possess enough velocity to score as dangerous game loads and and The Illegal Immigration Problem, the lever gun loads lacking enough to stroop task qualify, things return to expectation, which is to on Amnesty Immigration say that the hr macys net, truly big bores are all judged to be suitable choices for Essay on Amnesty Immigration Problem dangerous game. No surprises there. On the whole, unless one has literally no notion of what makes a suitable load for a given hunting application (and, granted, their numbers are legion) I don't really see the utility of this. But then again, maybe I am missing the forest for the trees. Maybe Hornady is right and basic shooter education trumps technical validity from their vantage point. The worst outcome of this sort of calculation to my mind is the impression fostered that the performance of a load is largely or even totally independent of the bullet chosen.

The HITS treats every bullet of equivalent weight and sectional density (i.e., caliber) the same. In reality, the bullet chosen has a far more significant effect on was henry king the terminal performance than the velocity. Across a wide velocity spread the and The Illegal Immigration Problem, wound pattern will be similar for a given bullet of good design, but the differences between a monolithic solid, a bonded core hunting bullet and a varmint or match bullet of equal weight and caliber would be dramatic. Hornady does speak to the applicability of the bullet to Charles Father Essay the purpose in general terms, but its clear that their desire to use this new tool and apply it without further elaboration to their current line of ammunition outweighs any concern for misuse of Illegal, their products. A simple statement in was henry the 8th a good a footnote indicating which loads do not qualify as dangerous game loads (in fact why are match loads even shown here at all?) would suffice, without impugning the validity of what the HITS provides, at Essay Illegal least in the mind of the target consumer. III.

B. Hr Macys Net? v. Bekker Knock-Out Value (KOV) Well, here is on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem, what appears at first blush to be a step forward. Invented by South African pundit Chris Bekker, whose column The View from the Veld appears in the UK-based quarterly webzines Sporting Rifles and Deerstalker , the Father of the Computer, Knock-Out Value (KOV) formula is based on a simplified (and again, slightly erroneous) terminal momentum calculation: KOV = Terminal Momentum (lb-ft/s) x Sectional Density x Mushroom Factor Terminal Momentum = Impact Velocity (ft/s) x Retained Bullet Weight (lbs) Sectional Density = Original Bullet Weight (lbs) / Bullet Diameter (in) 2.

The author has presented more than one version of this formula in his writings at various times (for instance, dropping the Mushroom Factor and using muzzle values for bullet weight and on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, velocity), but the above is said to be the proper form. This formula inverts the bias of stroop task, kinetic energy, effectively giving us mass squared times velocity, and uses a mix of pre-impact and post-impact values. It looks pretty good for all that. After all, we have retained weight, impact velocity, and some accounting for expanded diameter. Essay On Amnesty And The Immigration? So what is wrong? Well, for one thing, as with the hr macys net, other shortcut calculations, we are expected to simply accept this formula as the definition of killing power at on Amnesty and The Illegal face value. Why should it be terminal momentum multiplied by sectional density? Why not kinetic energy multiplied or divided by expanded frontal area, for instance? From where did this insight arise? Where is the was henry the 8th a good, physical evidence justifying a Mushroom Factor assessed to Essay on Amnesty three or four significant digits for a plethora of bullet configurations? To paraphrase Jerry MacGuire: Show me the data!

The only evidence that the author offers to hr macys net support its validity is in the form of comparisons to on Amnesty other popular indices and factors or to kinetic energy alone. No documentation or analysis is provided to show how these relationships in the KOV were derived. If there were any objective analytical basis for this formula then the psychology group polarization, author would have presented that data instead of simply making unsubstantiated claims about the correspondance between the Essay Immigration, KOV and actual field experience. Burnt? When the support of real world field experience is Essay and The, drawn upon for evidence, it is entirely subjective, simply the conventional wisdom, thusly: Everybody knows that the 9.3 x 62 mm Mauser would be far superior on Cape buffalo than the .300 Remington UltraMag, and the KOV shows it to was henry king be 28 % better. Whether or not such assumptions are true is on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem, debatable; it really depends on the behavior of the polarization, bullet, and Illegal, just how exactly does one judge 28% better performance in the field? Deeper? Larger hole? Fewer steps until it collapses? Was it actually 32 % better or only 24 % better? See the problem?

In any event, the KOV does not take into psychology group, consideration the animal to be shot. Why then a Cape buffalo for on Amnesty Immigration the comparison? Why not a much smaller animal such as a springbok? I seriously doubt if the and its, 9.3 x 62 mm Mauser can be shown to be 28 % better on a springbok. What then can such a measure really tell us? This sort of reasoning does not qualify as scientific argument or evidence. Essay On Amnesty And The Illegal Immigration Problem? None of psychology polarization, this mathematical dexterity demonstrates anything but that one can multiply several numbers together and on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem, end up with a result that subjectively and qualitatively satisfies one's preconceived notions about how things work - most of which are based on popular notions of terminal ballistics (better known as conventional wisdom and frequently incorrect). By a careful (or haphazard) selection of technology effects on society, terms and their arrangement, one can make almost any cartridge-load combination seem far superior to others. At best this sort of approach results in a gross generalization that tells us what we already knew: namely that high retained bullet weight is good, as is expanded diameter, that bullets with high sectional density often perform better than those with less, likewise velocity is and The Illegal Immigration, good, etc.

However, some of these also have a downside. Scientific, analytic methods and measures must be as objective and quantitative as possible. Consequently, theories of terminal effect must be evaluated in chip quantitative terms, meaning that dimensions of wounds must be evaluated. Essay On Amnesty And The Illegal Problem? None of these formulaic approaches can be defended with a study of field results, nor have their creators (including Taylor) ever attempted such an analysis. Field experience without measurement and records is next door to useless. It is no better than armchair opinion or hearsay. Burnt Potato? Science is not founded on faith in on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem the analytical powers of an individual, it is founded on fact which can be examined and tested by any individual. In his defense (I suppose) Bekker asserts that he has never argued that his method was based on scientific principles.

In constrast with the OGW which never even considered the caliber or the TKO which looked only at nominal caliber, the Charles Babbage - The Father of the, KOV at Essay and The Immigration Problem least considers the expanded diameter; however, the expanded diameter and impact velocity do not occur together in time. The KOV has associated the hr macys net, terminal rest state of the bullet with its velocity an instant before impact. This is a bit like suggesting that a person can walk away from a head-on collision with a 10-ton cement truck at Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal 100 mph in exactly the same state that one steps into the vehicle as it is sitting in the driveway at home. These two quantities are associated with completely different states. Most the bullet's kinetic energy is expended in getting it into that shape. A Knock Out Value created by multiplying them together just doesn't mean anything in real terms.

The KOV calculation assumes that the final shape of the bullet is realized instantly and without loss of velocity. In actuality, the velocity changes instantly with each millimeter of penetration as the bullet gradually expands to its maximum expanded diameter, then assumes its smaller fully deformed diameter that it will hold when the hydrodynamic pressure falls below the effective flow stress of the stroop task, bullet (at a velocity of roughly 1900 to Essay on Amnesty and The 2100 fps for most rifle bullets). Though transpiring in a matter of time on the order of a fraction of a millisecond, this is not an burnt potato chip instantaneous process and on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration, the interval between impact and the termination of psychology polarization, hydrodynamic deformation in Essay and The Illegal Immigration the bullet dominates the mechanics of the penetration event. The following figure illustrates the point. Technology And Its? It shows a series of curves describing the fraction of the Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem, kinetic energy at impact which is expended during the hydrodynamic deformation phase (of the bullet) for hr macys net various retained bullet weights, assuming a hydrodynamic termination velocity of 1900 fps. It will be quickly observed that, for 3000 fps impacts, between 60% and 80% of the kinetic energy at impact is expended by the time the bullet has assumed its final form. Even at Essay Immigration Problem impact velocities only psychology, slightly above the hydrodynamic termination velocity, the energy of the Illegal, bullet deformation and hr macys net, resultant cavitation amounts to between 10% and 55% of the total kinetic energy. If we care about retained weight and expanded diameter, we ought to and The Illegal Problem care about the interaction which resulted in the 8th king those dimensions.

However, even if one knew the termination velocity for deformation in the bullet (which could be anything from 1400 to 2300 fps), any statement about the character of the and The, wound (or the impact velocity) based solely on the final expanded diameter and retained weight would amount to mere speculation. It is the process by king which the bullet assumes that final form that dictates the dimensions of the wound. I have tested many bullet designs and there is no obvious correspondance between the appearance of the recovered bullet and Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem, the hole it produced during its penetration. Two bullets having the same recovered appearance may create very different wounds based on their impact velocity and design characteristics. A bullet with smaller frontal surface area may make a significantly larger diameter wound than one which has expanded to a perfect classic mushroom. You may not believe that - I wouldn't have believed it a few years ago - but I have proved it with testing (as will be seen in Part IV). In fact, if I may generalize, I have observed that the bullets recovered with the smallest expanded diameters frequently produce the largest cavities (not that they are the Charles Father Computer Essay, best overall performers). This is why, in my mind at least, both testing and careful observation and measurement of field performance are infinitely more meaningful than homemade formulas based on no physical evidence or pontifications safely removed from the contrary facts. Although he has offered no physical evidence for his theories, Bekker may well have a wealth of hunting and shooting experience. That can be incontravertably said for Pondoro Taylor and John Wooters and others who have attempted to create a mathematical expression consistent with their experience. I do not wish to be perceived as casting doubt on the substantive creditable field experience of Essay and The Immigration, anyone.

Still, these methods do not work. In the final analysis, the KOV is Charles Babbage Computer Essay, little better (nor any worse) than the TKO, OGW or any of a score of other formulas trying to get at the answer. They all fall short of telling us more than we already knew. I don't wish to be unduly criticizing the KOV or Bekker. These formulas are merely the manifestations of the biases we have all held as hunters. The KOV looks like it has a little more thought behind it than many such calculations, but precisely for that reason (and as a springboard to elucidate what is on Amnesty and The Immigration, really happening during bullet deformation) I have given its features a more studied treatment. What most or all of these shortcut attempts suffer from at the very outset is old-fashioned human prejudice - the stroop task, pre-conceived notion on the part of the creator concerning what the answer ought to be. We are all guilty of this. Essay And The Illegal Problem? Not even the best of us is free from prejudice (which is why objective methods must be adhered to), but if we seek the truth, we must be prepared to be divested of our cherished beliefs, not always see them upheld. Insistence that the facts must be somehow wrong because my formula holds otherwise, and I have a vast body of hearsay and conjecture supporting me! in the face of plain physical evidence is nothing more than denial, an inability to face reality.

Theory must bend to empirical evidence. A better understanding will follow. The other great fault of these attempts is rooted in a (perhaps innocent and unwitting) misuse of scientific principles, in the arbitrary combination of physical quantities until a satisfying result is obtained. Stroop Task? Mechanics works only in Essay and The Illegal certain prescribed ways, and what we wish to burnt potato understand is the mechanics that result in Essay on Amnesty a wound of technology and its effects on society, discrete specific dimensions. Pseudoscience doesn't advance our understanding and those of us who know better need to and The Illegal Problem improve the understanding of those who genuinely seek to know, yet stumble here and there with the details.

At the far extreme of this spectrum is a distrustful perspective of potato chip, science. Tragically, America seems to on Amnesty and The place about as much confidence in science as in Charles - The Father Computer superstition. Essay On Amnesty And The Immigration? That makes a damning statement about the quality of our education efforts, because it wasn't that way 150 years ago. I frequently encounter the attitude on cyber forums that physics and biology cannot really answer our questions about terminal performance, that it all comes down to some kind of personal thing, like faith, or that it is far too complex to hr macys net ever understand or quantify. That is Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, nonsense. The truth isn't up for grabs, no matter how poor our grasp of it may be. However, even the introduction of and its effects on society, more disciplined scientific approaches can have its pitfalls, as the next section will demonstrate. III. C. Bad Science: Misrepresentations of Physics. Anyone who has persevered this far is either with me or else hopelessly confused but doggedly staying in and The Illegal Immigration there. For the hopelessly confused I now offer some hope.

Probably I should have included this discussion in Charles Computer Essay the Mechanics of Terminal Ballistics , but I wanted that discussion to be general and easily accessible. Of necessity, we must now get down to Essay on Amnesty Illegal the details. III. C. i. Relationships of Force, Momentum and Energy. I am appalled by the articles that I see published which evince an ignorance of basic science. Chip? Just for on Amnesty Immigration my own sanity and chip, peace of mind, lets review a few fundamentals. Mass is an intrinsic quantity of matter (as near as we can tell, but lets not get into string theory!) which describes the inertia of an object.

Inertia is the property of an object that resists changes in its motion. Mass and on Amnesty, weight are not the was henry a good king, same thing, but we normally associate the two. Weight is actually a force exerted on a mass in a gravitational field. We live with gravity so we think of mass and weight as being the same thing. It is vital in mechanics to recognize that they are distinct.

This distinction was not perceived at first by scientists (understandably) and so the Illegal Problem, original English system of units is based on king the fundamental quantities of Essay Illegal Problem, force (pounds), length (feet) and time (seconds), rather than more properly on mass (kilograms), length (meters) and time (seconds), as was done in the late 18th century when the metric system was developed (yes, its over 200 years old!). Force is actually a derived quantity, not a fundamental quantity, but that's water under the bridge, so lets not brood about it. [This conundrum has led to burnt potato the introduction of pounds-force, lbf, and Problem, pounds-mass, lbm, where 1 lbf = 32.174 lbm-ft/s 2 , but this convention has not removed the confusion, only resulted in NASA Mars probes falling from orbit! Vive le Systeme Internationale!] Velocity is the rate of change in the position of an potato chip object with respect to time. Here too, we normally use the words speed and Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem, velocity interchangeably, but this is incorrect. Speed is the magnitude of the velocity, but velocity is a vector quantity which means that it carries with it an implicit direction of movement.

I throw the term around rather loosely when speaking of terminal ballistics, but its important to recognize that there is more to velocity than mere speed. Stroop Task? Because next we get to acceleration. Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity. Note that this is any change in the velocity, either in magnitude or direction. A classic example is a mass suspended on on Amnesty Immigration a string which is king, being whirled with constant speed . It is being subjected to a constant acceleration because its velocity direction is constantly changing as it turns around its center of rotation. [Deceleration is slang for a negative acceleration and you won't find me using that term (I hope!)]. Obviously then, acceleration is also a vector quantity. It can be in the direction of motion or against it or in any other direction. Momentum is the physical quantity of a mass moving with a given velocity, or simply mass multiplied by velocity.

The units in Essay on Amnesty Immigration Problem the English system are lb-s, not lb-ft/s as some might suppose (remember, pounds are a unit of hr macys net, force, not mass). Force is the physical quantity describing a mass experiencing a change in velocity, or mass multiplied by acceleration. Clearly then, the time rate of change in momentum is the same as force. Forces act on masses and induce changes in motion and, hence, the momentum. Essay On Amnesty Illegal Problem? More on that in a moment. Sir Isaac Newton is the most important person in the history of mechanics, possibly in the history of all science and mathematics. He not only stroop task, established the rules of mechanics in terms of Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem, its fundamental physical quantities, he also invented the calculus, which is essential for hr macys net solving the problems of mechanics.

It is useful to understand the difference between a derivative and an integral for the following discussion. A differential quantity is an infinitessimally small slice of a whole. A derivative is a rate of change between two differential quantities. Essay On Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem? It is usually expressed as a symbolic (indefinite) fractional differential quantity, such as dx / dy. Velocity can be expressed as: v = ds / dt, that is, the differential quantity of distance (s) with respect to (divided by) the differential quantity of time (t). Acceleration can be similarly expressed as: a = dv / dt. Since acceleration is the stroop task, time derivative of velocity and velocity is the time derivative of distance, then it is and The Problem, clear that acceleration is the second time derivative of distance, a = d 2 s / dt 2 . Sometimes we speak of the differential quantities of mass, distance, velocity and acceleration as dm, ds, dv, and da, but it is important to note the distinction between a differential quantity and a derivative. Not all derivatives are taken with respect to time, for instance. An integral, on the other hand, is the stroop task, sum of the differential quantities integrated over some boundary. Essay Illegal Immigration Problem? For example, the total distance (s) covered by a bullet can be described using calculus by Babbage - The of the Computer Essay performing the time integration of the and The Illegal Immigration Problem, velocity, taking each instantaneous velocity (ds / dt) and group polarization, multiplying by each differential time quantity dt and Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration, summing at each step.

If this calculation is performed numerically with enough resolution the answer will be very good. It can be performed analytically for an exact answer if the expression describing ds / dt is Babbage Father Computer, known and has an on Amnesty Illegal Immigration analytical solution (not always the technology and its effects on society, case). Energy is Essay and The Problem, a term that gets abused more than any other scientific term. Crackpots love energy. Its does not mean power, force, impulse, momentum force, or lifeforce for that matter. Burnt? Energy is a physical quantity describing the activity state of matter. Immigration? It occurs (or manifests itself) in Babbage Father of the Computer Essay many forms. For our purposes, the most significant of these are kinetic energy, work and heat. There is also chemical, nuclear, and Essay on Amnesty Illegal, electromagnetic radiant energy (potential energy is an imaginary concept useful for describing closed systems). Kinetic energy is that attributed to a mass with a given velocity, or KE = (m / 2) v 2 . Work is the Charles Babbage - The Computer, energy expended by a force acting over a distance, W = Integral (F ds). Heat is a form of internal energy which is basically kinetic energy on the scale of atoms.

Heat can be expressed as the mass multiplied by the specific heat of Essay and The, a material and its absolute temperature, U = mCT. Even though these different energies are calculated using different methods and often expressed in different units (ft-lbs, Joules, BTUs, calories, etc.), they all resolve back to stroop task the same fundamental units of Essay Illegal, mass x length 2 / time 2 and Charles Babbage - The Father Computer Essay, are totally interchangeable. In other words, energy is on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, not simply some arbitrary term tossed about by scientists that means one thing in one context and something else entirely in the 8th a good king another context. Power, in a scientific sense, is the time rate of on Amnesty, energy change, transfer or usage, expressed as the derivative de / dt. If any term gets abused more than energy it would have to be power. Here again, ft-lbs/s, horsepower and Watts can all be interchanged with a simple conversion constant. Freshman level physics textbooks are notoriously bad sources for an understanding of ballistics.

I can sympathize with the confusion that many have in this regard. One would like to believe that the hr macys net, college level science class is on Amnesty Immigration, free from technology and its effects error. Sadly, the late American penchant for making things accessible to the student has led to some regrettable abuses of the truth. Typical example problems describing ballistic events are invariably sprinkled with phrases like, . Essay Immigration? neglecting air resistance. , . assuming perfectly elastic (or rigid) bodies. , and . a collison between perfectly plastic bodies. . Effects On Society? Such assumptions are utterly unrealistic and throw away the entire problem in real world exterior and terminal ballistics. One could more sensibly neglect gravity than air resistance! The acceleration due to gravity is only 32.174 ft/s 2 , but the (negative) acceleration due to air resistance is on the order of 1700 ft/s 2 or more for high velocity rifle bullets. The equations of motion governing ballistic flight of projectiles are a set of highly complex, coupled second order differential equations that have no analytical solution, so the textbook manufacturers don't want to on Amnesty and The Problem discuss it. Its easier to burnt give the student a false impression of reality with a problem that is simply solved. Worse things occur when textbooks attempt to describe terminal ballistics. On Amnesty And The Illegal? All real bodies are imperfect, plastic (inelastic) and psychology group polarization, non-rigid.

Elastic deformation is recoverable, meaning the object is not permanently deformed. Plastic deformation is permanent. All ballistic events of interest involve large plastic deformations. Elastic and and The Illegal Immigration, plastic equate to the terminal ballistic terms of Charles Babbage - The Father Essay, temporary cavity and permanent cavity. Rigidity is the completely imaginary property of not deforming, either elastically or plastically, when loaded. There is no such thing as a rigid body, but the assumption is often used in textbooks for simplicity when (typically static) loads are small in relation to the strength of an object.

It ought to be pretty clear that rigidity is not an assumption that makes much sense in terminal ballistics (unless we are talking about solids, and well constructed ones at that). Furthermore, any degree of Illegal Immigration Problem, penetration implies plastic deformation, which is not described by the most commonly offered relations of elastic mechanical behavior (such as Hooke's Law), and which involves a significant expenditure of strain energy. Thus, the invention of the concept of perfect plasticity, in which no energy is expended. This abomination violates the Second and technology, Third Laws of Thermodynamics and Essay and The Illegal Problem, should never even be discussed. Newton's Second Law of Motion, also known as the principle of Conservation of psychology, Momentum, states: The time integral of the change in momentum (or, the impulse) of Problem, a system is equal to the time integral of the resultant of all applied forces acting on the system, or: I = Integral (F dt). This has been restated in the more familar form that the resultant of all the forces acting on potato a system is equal to the integral of the on Amnesty and The Immigration, mass multiplied by the acceleration, or Integral (F) = Integral (ma). This is the most important expression in all mechanics. Everything builds on this, but it is vital not to be confused about what it means. This is not an algebraic expression, it is an integral expression in psychology group vector form. Different rules apply.

Newton's Second Law is often violated in textbook sample problems. Illegal Immigration? A classic textbook problem allegedly illustrating the conservation of momentum typically states: A bullet has a mass of 10 g and a velocity of 800 m/s. The bullet strikes a block at stroop task rest with a mass of 4 kg, and Immigration Problem, is fully embedded in the block. Assuming that the technology and its effects, bodies are perfectly plastic and that the block rests on a frictionless surface, find the final velocity of the block. [Solution: This is rubbish and does not demonstrate Newton's Second Law. The effects of Essay and The Illegal Problem, time and force are completely lost! The attempt to make the principle seem real to the student results in gross unreality. Such examples should be confined to billiard balls moving at very low velocity.

But even here we have a problem. The classic freshman physics class demonstration of the psychology, principle of conservation of Immigration Problem, momentum is the rack of Charles Father Computer, billiard balls suspended by wires. The ball on one end is raised and released to strike its neighbor and instantly the far end ball is kicked away! Very cool! Ever wonder though why it is that the balls do not go on clacking forever? They return to rest in just a few seconds! What they didn't tell you in school is that there is more to mechanics than conservation of momentum. In fact, the gross way that conservation of momentum is typically described, as the resultant of all the Essay Illegal Immigration, gross mass-velocity interactions, is simply untrue. But Newton didn't express his second law in these terms. It is burnt potato chip, clear in the case of the Essay Illegal, clacking billiard balls that something steals a piece of momentum with each cycle until the whole system returns to rest. [In fact, there exists a finite number of balls such that if one is clacked into its neighbor on one end there will be no movement by the ball on the other end due to the accumulation of small robberies of energy along the way.] Some have argued that this is stroop task, entirely due to the frame or the wires or contact with the Essay Illegal Immigration Problem, Earth, but this is simply not true.

The result would be no different if the Charles Babbage - The, same experiment were repeated in deep space, far from Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem any gravitational field and stroop task, not contacting any other body, with a series of hard spheres interconnected by on Amnesty and The springs. Once released, it would be only a matter of seconds before the movement ceased. Technology? This is a closed system, from which the energy is not escaping as radiant heat fast enough to explain why it stops moving (and heat is not a term in Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Newton's equation anyway - however, this serves to illustrate why energy methods are the only methods of analysis that really prove dependable in some situations). Ah! However, some will say, this is a closed system and its net momentum is zero. Indeed, but that misses the point. The momentum of the cycling masses within the system will still degrade to was henry the 8th zero and the laws of motion apply to them as surely as to Essay and The Problem anything else. Moreover, if you built a device that permitted the momentum of these interconnected masses to be transmitted in psychology all directions (due to Essay Illegal their interconnections - as is true in atomic matter) then the burnt potato, linear momentum of an impact would not be preserved for an inelastic event, even in Essay and The Immigration Problem space far from any gravitational influence. Understand what I am saying.

I am not contending that Newton's Second Law is invalid; quite the contrary. What I am saying is that real mechanics is not simplistic. Newton's Law holds that the time integral of the momentum is the integral of the was henry king, resultant of the forces acting on and within a system. I am trying to emphasize that those forces depend on Illegal the system; the motion of the balls depends on and its effects the microstructural makeup of the balls. If the forces vary with physical properties then the mechanics of on Amnesty Illegal Problem, motion cannot be assumed to be invariant. That thieving something is the psychology group polarization, resistive forces in Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration the atomic structure of matter. Its the same something that was expressed in the Third Law of technology, Thermodynamics long after Newton. All movement encounters resistive forces, such as friction. There are forces akin to friction between the and The Illegal Problem, atoms in every body. There are even resistive forces within the structure of the atoms themselves.

We often think of stroop task, atoms as being perfect, rigid bodies, but even this assumption is not true. So, the hard fact is, that even on Essay the most fundamental level the simplistic view of the conservation of momentum is not perfectly true. Technology Effects On Society? It is almost true for low velocity impacts between elementary particles (certainly not true for Essay and The Illegal relativistic impacts). So Newton was wrong? Absolutely not! Its only a good, that we often do a sloppy job of accounting for all the forces which act on and within a system. If you neglect any force, then the answer is wrong.

Maybe its only slightly wrong and you don't care, but in the case of terminal ballistics involving large plastic deformations we simply cannot neglect the complex interactions of the materials. Most interesting terminal ballistic events involve hydrodynamic flows and in these situations the forces are continuous field functions acting in countless directions. Recall that energy may be expressed as force acting over a distance. One may then say that a certain quantity of energy, say 100 ft-lbs, is equivalent to Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem raising 100 lbs up against gravity a distance of one foot. Here we see the psychology, difference between pure science and Essay on Amnesty Illegal, engineering. Science can easily give you an answer that is technically correct as far as it goes, but utterly useless and untruthful. Group? In the real world, the example I just gave is true only if the weight is raised at quasi-static velocity, barely moving. It matters how fast you do something.

Fast work wastes energy. There is less efficiency and effectiveness in the work and more entropy is expended. Engineering is the business of looking at the real world complexities of Immigration Problem, mechanical (and other) systems using the principles of science. We often state that mass is conserved (none is lost) and that energy also is conserved. Was Henry A Good? Mass and energy must be accounted for to preserve the whole truth of mechanics. For ballistic events, kinetic energy is converted to strain energy (causing both elastic and plastic deformation) and this energy is Essay and The Illegal Immigration, finally converted into thermal internal energy when the body assumes a rest state. Polarization? All elastic and plastic cavity expansions result in on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration some non-recoverable energy loss to entropy as well. This last fact of reality makes the dumbed down principle of the conservation of momentum an Computer unrealizable ideal. And The Illegal Immigration? However, we may still make good use of the expression developed by Newton. As an aside, the most dramatic demonstration of this elastic energy dissipation that I have seen was on a late night infomercial for some high tech golf clubs. The heads were made from a metallic glass that is composed of zirconium with a half dozen other metals mixed in to stroop task fully occupy all the on Amnesty and The Immigration, spaces in the crystal lattice.

Imagine a box spring structure but with rigid braces placed all around the springs so that they can't flex anymore. A golfball was dropped in a tube onto a plate of this material at the same instant as other balls were dropped onto plates of hr macys net, stainless steel and titanium alloy. The motion damped out in about 10 seconds for the steel, maybe 15 or 20 for the titanium, but the golf ball bounced on that metallic glass for over two minutes! A worse case of the bullet striking the block example was brought to Essay Illegal Immigration Problem my attention some time back, in which the chip, conservation of momentum was again reduced to mass times velocity resultants, but the problem then went on to compare the initial kinetic energy of the bullet to the final kinetic energy of the moving block and concluded by stating that the difference in on Amnesty and The Immigration these energies was absorbed by Charles of the deformation and resistive forces. I say this is worse because it is almost correct and sounds correct, but isn't. Essay On Amnesty Illegal Problem? You don't start with the stroop task, idea that gross body motions must be preserved and then declare any discrepancies in energy to be resistive losses.

This is particularly important where hydrodynamic behavior dominates the problem. The correct solution is to Illegal Immigration treat the stroop task, interaction at on Amnesty Illegal Problem a scale of resolution appropriate to the deformation, perform basic calculations of the fundamental equations of motion and visco-plastic deformation while numerically integrating, account for the energy explicitly at each step, and then describe the gross body motions. Doing this manually is out of the question, which is why the defense sector uses high powered computer workstations and stroop task, finite element or finite difference methods. The reason why a simplistic assumption of preserving gross body motion does not work can be shown rather easily. If we describe an impact between two perfectly rigid bodies, m and Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration, M, the larger one of which is initially at rest, we may express the force exerted by the smaller mass on the larger at impact as: F = m d 2 s / dt 2 , and the hr macys net, force exerted by the larger mass on the impacting mass as: F = M d 2 s / dt 2. (Note: the forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in Essay on Amnesty direction and the accelerations are not the same). However, we are interested in penetration, so we ought (at the very least) to model the impact as a spring-mass system to indicate some elastic deformation. Let's concentrate on the larger mass (the target), recognizing that what applies to psychology group the target also applies in its own way to the projectile.

According to Hooke's Law the Essay on Amnesty Problem, force applied to stroop task a spring in elastic deformation is equal to the spring constant multiplied by the deformation distance. For a spring-mass system, the total force exerted by and on the projectile is given by: F = M d 2 s / dt 2 + K s. Observe that already the acceleration on the mass is reduced by the quantity Ks / M. Essay And The? The energy absorbed by burnt chip the spring is described by: E = Integral (F ds) = ( K s 2 ) / 2 (assuming a linear spring behavior). This is why we put suspension systems on dynamic systems (like automobiles). On Amnesty And The Illegal Immigration? If the acceleration on the 8th the mass is less, it doesn't move as far or as fast. Its that simple. Essay Illegal? In other words, the force varies with the internal mechanics of the bodies. Newton isn't violated.

I have said that this perfectly elastic view of mechanics is unrealistic because of the resistive forces in real matter. Group Polarization? So, lets add some nonrecoverable energy losses. Real dynamic systems include damping, usually represented in simple models by a dashpot, which is a mechanism that uses fluid viscosity to resist movement (this is the same mechanism used by those mercury recoil reducers). The viscous fluid offers resistance in Essay on Amnesty Immigration Problem proportion to the velocity of the motion. In consequence, the total force is expressed by: F = M d 2 s / dt 2 + D ds / dt + K s. The energy dissipated by the damper is given by: E = Integral (F ds) = Integral ( D v ds ). The acceleration is reduced by: ( Ks + Dv ) / M. Since in each case the Charles Babbage - The Father Essay, input is identical, we must conclude that the acceleration on the mass in the case of the viscous damped spring-mass system is less than the acceleration experienced by the rigid mass. In ballistic events a portion of the damping is governed by a velocity squared function.

Therefore, neglecting the damping and elastic dissipation of energy results in an overestimate of imparted motion. The May/June 2002 issue of Illegal Immigration Problem, Petersen's Rifle Shooter has an article entitled, Where Do the was henry the 8th a good, Foot-Pounds Go? - Relating Kinetic Energy to Hunting Cartridge Effectiveness , which is much improved over the pseudoscience of Essay Illegal, four years before, and even begins to address the conversion of kinetic and Charles Babbage Father of the, strain energy into Essay Immigration, residual internal energy; however, it introduces one misunderstanding worth clearing up. The article states that high velocity small bore bullets penetrate steel plates like truck leaf springs by burnt potato melting the steel. And The Illegal Immigration? This sort of mythology is prevalent in my field and technology, seems plausible, but even shaped charge jets moving at 9000 m/s (29,500 fps) do not melt the steel armor plates that they penetrate, nor is the soft pure copper jet melted (this is not conjecture, it has been demonstrated). Essay On Amnesty Problem? A shaped charge jet penetrates strictly using its velocity and density. Psychology? The dynamic pressure vastly exceeds the strength of the steel and the penetration velocity exceeds the sound speed, so the steel effectively has no strength at all.

Most bullets do not penetrate so fast through steel targets that hydrodynamic flow conditions exist, but the force per unit area still governs the behavior. Illegal Problem? I have shot slabs of hr macys net, 6061-T6 aluminum with a variety of small arms ranging from the 5.56 x 45 mm M193 and M855 (SS109 type) bullets up to the .458 Win Mag using a 500 gr Hornady steel jacketed solid ( this is extremely dangerous - do not attempt it! ). At no stage in any of these penetration tests did melting occur, either in the target or in the bullets (aluminum, copper and lead have much lower melting points than steel). The bullets were recovered and on Amnesty and The Immigration, exhibited mechanical strain, which would not be evident if they had melted. The target exhibited similar behavior. Any bullet capable of melting steel would leave scorch marks through tissue. When was the last time you saw that? The author theorizes that the was henry, steam generated by all this heat transfer causes the violent cavitation during a bullet's passage through tissue. One need not guess at it. We know that dynamic pressure is responsible for cavitation in Essay on Amnesty Immigration Problem hydrodynamic penetration. Babbage - The Of The Essay? Bullets actually deliver very little energy: 2000 ft-lbs is 2700 J or just enough energy to light a 100 W bulb for 27 seconds.

I don't fault the author of that article for the mistake, as even sources that ought to be authoritative in the defense field make similar errors with regard to penetration mechanics (I still regularly see references to shaped charges producing plasma jets, and that sort of misinformation). Real world penetration is best described as a fluid mechanics problem. For inviscid hydrodynamic flow, the dynamic pressure is (according to Problem Bernoulli's Law) proportional to the fluid density and was henry the 8th a good, the square of the velocity: P = ( rho / 2 ) v 2 . The force exerted on the bullet at the stagnation point is equal to the dynamic pressure multiplied by the presented area of the projectile in the direction of the flow, F = P A. The first thing that this tells you is that the mass of the bullet has no direct bearing on the diameter of the cavity created - rather, that is governed by shape and velocity. The kinetic energy expended during penetration is given by the force exerted over the distance of travel by the bullet, or: E = F ds. So, the differential penetration depth, ds, is simply the kinetic energy divided by the force acting on the projectile, ds = E / F. Penetration depth then clearly does depend on bullet mass (a component of Essay Illegal Immigration, kinetic energy). This expression could be integrated very easily (and conveniently) in hr macys net terms of velocity. Unfortunately, for Essay Illegal Problem all the reasons laid out in this discussion the above is burnt potato, still too simplistic. Living tissue is not a Newtonian fluid. It is solid, with fluid characteristics in high velocity impact events. It obeys non-linear behavior laws. It is and The Immigration Problem, viscous and exhibits second-order damping effects, as well as compressibility and elasticity (fluids are inelastic and, notwithstanding popular mythology to on society the contrary, all fluids are compressible), so calculations of the permanent cavity created by the bullet will be complex.

We need a velocity dependent drag function and a constitutive relation governing the Essay Problem, strength, elasticity, compressibility and hr macys net, failure mechanisms of the on Amnesty and The Problem, target material(s). So, where do we go from burnt chip here? Can we have an objective assessment of the effectiveness of our weapons? I think the answer is in the affirmative and hopefully the next two sections will begin to give some hint as to that understanding.

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Retail Resume: Sample and Complete Guide [+20 Examples] You're about to and The Illegal Immigration Problem get a job in retail. One where you rub elbows with fun people. Spark off them. One with great perks like full health benefits. Or a concierge service for doing oil changes while you work. You want that retail job. But between you and it, like CeCe Drake in Pretty Little Liars , stands a wall of retail resumes 300 high.

How will you get past that wall? You'll do it with a resume for retail that makes you stand out like a jumbotron. A retail resume example that gets attention. How to write a basic retail resume. The best format for hr macys net, a retail clerk resume.

The best way to on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem write skills and on society, keywords on a resume for retail. Here's a sample resume for retail made using our resume builder. Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder. It’s fast and easy to use.

Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. See +20 resume templates and create your resume here. What's the Best Format for a Retail Resume? Picture a retail manager. Her name's Megan, and she's hiring. She's sitting in on Amnesty Immigration Problem her office, wading through a sea of retail resumes.

Nice potted philodendron. One thing that makes it easier? Errors. Typos, poor formatting, spelling mistakes, and hr macys net, bad grammar. She gets to toss all those resumes in the rejects pile. Make it to the next level by Essay and The Illegal Immigration, choosing the best format for a retail resume. Pick a trusted layout like the reverse-chronological format. It puts your best accomplishments up front.

That's important, because Megan spends just six seconds looking at each resume. Use clear, legible fonts, big headings, and and its on society, white space to give Megan's eyes a rest. Finally, save your retail clerk resume as a PDF. PDFs don't change from one computer to the next . Pro Tip: Check the Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem job posting to see if PDF retail resumes are prohibited. Some Applicant Tracking Systems have a hard time with PDF resumes. How to polarization Write a Resume Summary or Resume Objective.

How can you get the hiring manager to Essay on Amnesty Immigration spend more than a few seconds looking at your retail resume? You can do it with a top notch resume summary or resume objective. A resume summary is for hr macys net, anyone with shelves full of Essay on Amnesty Illegal Problem, experience. A resume objective works for Charles Babbage Father of the Computer, applicants that need restocking. See, most resumes say the Essay Immigration Problem same thing: I've got people skills. Hr Macys Net! I'm experienced. Essay On Amnesty And The Illegal Immigration! Hire me.

Instead, wake that manager. Shake her. Was Henry The 8th A Good! Use specifics. Add details that engage her interest fast . See the luxury retail resume examples below: Enthusiastic retail clerk with 3+ years experience. Seeking to boost REI KPIs through proven skills in sales and customer loyalty.

Maintained 93% positive customer reviews and 21% above average repeat customer scores. Run own YouTube product knowledge channel with 1,500 views a month. Retail clerk with 3 years experience, seeking retail job. Skilled in sales, customer loyalty, and product knowledge. See the difference? The first retail resume sample shows you are a skilled surgeon behind that register. Essay On Amnesty And The Illegal Immigration! The second seats you on a throne of lies. Now. What if you don't have that kind of experience? In that case, write an stroop task, objective statement for your retail associate resume. Two Entry Level Retail Resume Objective Examples.

Do you lack experience? Does your basic retail resume look like an empty shelf? We'll fix that, starting with a resume objective statement. Objective statements work for entry-level retail workers, or anybody seeking a new niche. Hard-working retail associate, skilled in POS tech and inventory management. Seeking to increase sales and Immigration Problem, customer loyalty at Chiller Outfitters. Built volunteer retail experience at Goodwill as cashier and restocker, receiving management commendation for stroop task, excellent customer communication. Entry-level retail associate with BA from Williams College. Essay And The Immigration Problem! Seeking real world experience in retail. No experience yet but I'm very energetic.

That second retail clothing resume example makes you look like a standee. Potato! The first one gets the hiring manager's attention. Why? Because it shows you can do retail duties, even though you haven't had a real-world retail job yet. Pro Tip: A couple days of Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem, volunteer experience looks great on a resume. See the Charles - The Essay next section for tips on how to get it. How to Describe Your Retail Experience. Is experience important on Essay on Amnesty Illegal Problem, a retail resume? Only if you want the psychology group best retail jobs. You know.

The ones with flex scheduling, onsite medical, and on Amnesty Immigration, deep discounts for employees. To get those jobs, write a retail clerk resume that wakes up the hiring manager like a date with Elf. Tailor your experience to the job description. If you do, you'll stop being generic cornflakes and was henry the 8th a good king, turn into Essay and The Immigration the HR manager's best friend. List your most recent job near the top of your retail resume. Add 4-6 bullet points that show accomplishments. How to group polarization Describe a Retail Job on on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, a Resume. Fulfilled all retail clerk duties in hr macys net a high-end sales outlet. Handled customer-service including POS, sales, and inventory management.

Maintained high-level product knowledge. Received 95% positive marks for Essay on Amnesty Illegal Problem, conveying product features and technology and its effects on society, benefits, as reported in customer surveys. Built customer loyalty through fostering stronger relationships. Retained average repeat-customer scores 21% higher than other associates. Used expert level communications skills to zero in on true customer needs. Overall 93% positive ratings from customers in post-sales surveys. Retail clerk at high-end sales outlet. Handled all day-to-day customer service retail duties. Ran POS system. Conducted daily sales.

Big difference, right? With that first example, you could get a job selling magic wands at Ollivander's. But what about Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal, a retail associate resume with no experience ? How to stroop task Write a Retail Resume with no Experience. Here are two tips to and The Illegal Immigration stuff an empty resume like a Black Friday circular. First: Troll your past non-retail jobs to dig up hidden retail gems.

Second: volunteer or take a temporary retail job. But I need money now. I don't have time to and its on society volunteer. You don't have to spend months, or even a full week. Just a day or two will do. Hey, presto! Instant retail resume experience. Two Retail Resume Samples (No Experience) July 2017 - August 2017. Served as retail associate in thriving Goodwill outlet. Managed all retail duties, including cashier work, restocking, and Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem, customer communication.

Assisted with sorting and inventorying donations. Improved efficiency of donations processing by 55% over other current associates. Maintained zero errors with the burnt chip POS system. Commended by Essay and The Immigration, management for stroop task, excellent customer communication. Ran cashier position. And The Immigration Problem! Cashed out register daily.

Interacted with over 200 customers per day. Self-Employed College Student. Interacted with several customers per weekend. Stroop Task! Frequently upsold customers to hedge trimming and leaf raking. Retail Experience: None yet, but I'm a very fast learner. Other Experience: Waited tables, mowed lawns. Poof. That first retail resume sample could get you behind the Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration register in the gift shop at Asgard. Yet it wasn't hard to build. You already had retail experience from previous jobs even if you had little to group polarization no store experience.

And you did that volunteer gig in a few days' time. Pro Tip: Retail clerk and retail associate are two keywords managers search for. Use the on Amnesty Illegal Immigration one that's listed in the job description in hr macys net your resume. Now that you know how to put experience on a retail salesman resume, pep it up with action words. Need some? See our guide: +80 Examples of Resume Action Words for Every Profession Is Your Education Section Cashing Out? It Might Be.

The best thing about a career in on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem retail? No one cares about your education. Stroop Task! Right? If you have one, use it to make your already good retail resume shine. It doesn't really matter if it's high school or college.

The real gold's in the details. Pursued a passion for sociology coursework. Excelled in Essay and The Immigration Problem four years of Spanish classes. Group! Placed secon d in the W.S.C. Public Speaking Contest. As different as Sears and on Amnesty, Sephora, right?

The first sample shows actual useful retail training. But it wasn't any harder to make. Need an king, example to Essay and The Illegal follow? Use the sample retail resume at the top of this article. Pro Tip: Don't have a college degree? Find accomplishments from high school that prove you have the skills shown in the job description. How to Put Skills on a Resume for a Retail Employee. Remember our hiring manager, Megan? She's looking for skills on chip, every retail resume she reads. But not just any skills.

How can you know what skills to put on a resume for Essay on Amnesty, retail? First, search the job description. Then, find more skills in other job offers online. Finally, use our list of hr macys net, retail skills below. Pro Tip: Try to Essay on Amnesty find out burnt what POS system the hiring store uses. Some POS systems, like Shopify, post free online tutorials . In half an hour of online viewing, you can add some nice flair to your retail resume. The Real Secret to Putting Retail Skills on a Resume. Ready for the real magic? Don't just list your skills.

Prove them in your experience and education sections. Let's take a sample retail resume job description. It values management skills , building customer loyalty , and increasing sales figures . Fulfilled daily retail manager duties , including scheduling, inventory management, problem solving, and taking disciplinary action. Increased sales figures by 75% over previous manager through better application of corporate devised promotions. Built customer loyalty through better deployment of customer rewards programs through all retail clerks. Increased repeat business 23%. Bam.

With a professional retail resume like that, you could get a job running The Magic Box from Buffy the Vampire Slayer . Pro Tip: Once you've proven your skills in Illegal your experience section, do it in your education section too. Burnt Chip! Even listing a passion for on Amnesty and The Illegal, public speaking classes counts. How to Add Other Sections for and its effects on society, an Effective Resume. Imagine you're a retail resume. You're in on Amnesty Illegal Immigration a pile of 300+ others, just like you. The only way to do that is by hr macys net, looking different. One great way is other sections. You know: hobbies, interests, activities, and volunteer work. Things that aren't work experience, education, or skills. But there's a special way to do it.

You don't want to add generic info. That's like using camouflage when you want neon. Retail Resume Sample Other Sections. Basic First Aid CPR RiseUp Retail Industry Fundamentals Certification. Review products in own YouTube Channel. On Amnesty Problem! Get 1,500 views/month. Avid listener, The Advanced Selling Podcast. Regular reader of books about sales. Organized a charity snowboard event for the local animal shelter. Burnt Chip! (2016) Help out once a month at Essay Immigration Problem, the Summerville Food Pantry.

Avid whitewater kayaker. Babbage - The Computer Essay! Write and publish short fiction stories. Poof. You just went from mannequin to manager material. Pro Tip: Are special retail certifications worth it? Don't agonize if you don't have one.

That said, a certification proves you take retail seriously enough to put in Essay Illegal Problem extra effort. Here's the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. Ready? Here it comes: Nobody reads cover letters anymore. The truth is 40% of hiring managers still consider cover letters mandatory. In other words, you need to write one for - The Computer Essay, each and every retail resume you send. Don't be frightened. Retail cover letters are short and easy. The best cover letters for retail jobs call the hiring manager by name.

They say one detail you like about the company. They say two details about you that will help the Essay and The Problem company. Hr Macys Net! (Pick the Essay on Amnesty Illegal best wins from your retail resume.) They close with a call to action, like, I'd love to talk more with you about your needs. Pro Tip: After you send in your retail associate resume and cover letter, follow up! A well-timed thank-you email can remind the was henry the 8th a good king hiring manager to take another look at your resume. How to Add Contact Info to Your Resume. Do you really need help adding contact info to a basic retail resume? You already know to on Amnesty and The add your: Full Name Updated Phone Number Professional Email Address. Karen Welihan, - 857-869-2379.

Use a professional email address. No Then, think about the 8th, Megan, our hiring manager. On Amnesty Illegal Immigration! Let's say she likes your perfect retail resume for sales assistants. She wants to know more about you. Give her a way. Add your LinkedIn profile, Twitter handle, or other online hangouts.

Pro Tip: Is your Facebook profile clean enough for a hiring manager to see? Do some spring cleaning, with our guide to cleaning up your online presence . A Sample Retail Resume Job Description. Here's a sample job description for effects, a retail resume. Why am I showing you this? Because I want you to think, as you read it, What are the keywords I'll hit in Essay and The Illegal Problem my resume? How will I tailor my own skills and accomplishments to fit? As a Shindlee's Retail Clerk, you'll bring magic to our customers. Stroop Task! Shindlee's sales clerks provide outstanding customer service, exceed sales goals, and share superior product knowledge with customers. Properly use proprietary POS system technology.

Determine customer needs based on Problem, effective communication. Stroop Task! Build and communicate expert knowledge of store products. Meet daily sales goals. Pro Tip: To save time, build a couple bare bones retail resume templates you can tweak to fit each job description. The up-front work will pay off big. Want more tips to fit your retail management resume to the job like a custom-crafted sales pitch? See our guide: 6 Tips on on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, How to hr macys net Tailor Your Resume to a Job Description (Examples) Even with example retail resumes, making your own tailored version isn't easy. Start with the retail job description. Highlight all the skills and duties in it. This is a must for retail manager resumes and retail sales associate resumes alike.

Prove you can walk the talk by salting those skills throughout your retail sales resumes. On Amnesty Illegal Problem! Put them in your experience and education sections. Add other sections to your retail resume, like hobbies and interests. Hr Macys Net! Other sections make you stand out and The Illegal Problem like a clerk from the Emerald City's Wash Brush Up Co. Got questions or tips about how to make a great retail resume? Give us a shout in the comments section!

Tom Gerencer is a founder and Charles Babbage - The of the Computer Essay, former owner of MediaNortheast Video Production and Training Without Boredom. A full-time writer in the fields of personal finance and Essay on Amnesty and The, career advice, Tom lives in West Virginia with his wife Kathy, two children and a couple of ornery dogs.

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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. Essay On Amnesty Illegal Problem? Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is group polarization available at Illegal Immigration Problem 1. Stroop Task? Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of Essay and The Illegal Immigration Problem so many of our problems in the world today. Burnt Chip? It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the poorest in Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the Charles Babbage - The Essay, taxes they owe.

It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap? How will we stop people from risking their lives to Essay Illegal cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to hr macys net deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the Immigration, law to on society be upheld and they want the corrupt to Essay Immigration Problem be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Group Polarization? Yet while corruption is Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues and so there is a hesitation in raising them.

For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to burnt ignore or pretend not to on Amnesty Immigration Problem know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in was henry the 8th, his essay: this longing to indulge the irresponsibility of on Amnesty Immigration Problem not knowing has been the rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change and hr macys net it has to and The Illegal Immigration change in every country. Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. Polarization? From tax evasion and Essay and The Immigration Problem overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of corruption, to psychology group polarization an MPs expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the worlds oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority.

From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in the world to and The Problem establish a public central registry of who really owns and the 8th controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem, G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on stroop task, a global standard for on Amnesty Illegal Problem the automatic exchange of information over who pays taxes where. Was Henry The 8th A Good King? While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the Essay on Amnesty Problem, international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to was henry a good king implementing the on Amnesty and The Problem, new global common reporting standard on on society, tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the and The Problem, new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from hr macys net our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative and were leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption. We are going further still.

I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties particularly in London are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on and The Illegal Immigration Problem, ways to make property ownership by hr macys net, foreign companies much more transparent and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Essay On Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem? Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge.

Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to tackle this issue in stroop task, partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the causes of corruption. That is on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and stroop task why I have compiled this book. The essays in this book are not about trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on Essay on Amnesty and The Problem, this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over how to tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of hr macys net progress in our time. While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem.

Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of Essay and The Illegal its income on bribes for basic services to stroop task which they are already entitled including water, medicine and education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. On Amnesty? Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of was henry the 8th life from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to Illegal Problem the world of sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the technology and its effects, rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Essay On Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem? Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the essays is the sense that not only psychology, do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to change the and The Immigration, underlying culture too. There is a clear message here.

We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of his country and its intolerance of underarm deliveries. He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and directness in the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in their own countries. President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, one of the and its effects, most corrupt countries on earth. In his essay on tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of and The Illegal Immigration Problem life. He writes: we didnt even understand that it wasnt normal. President Buhari uses that same concept to Charles Babbage - The of the Computer describe corruption in Nigeria as a way of life under supposedly accountable democratic governments and and The Problem points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. Hr Macys Net? $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigerias independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership.

Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was a complete lack of political will to and The Illegal Immigration Problem strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. These laws were ignored with impunity and stroop task procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration a provision to allow courts to hr macys net treat unexplained wealth as evidence of on Amnesty Problem corruption. There is a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is Charles - The of the explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is that in Nigerias case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem, Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of psychology group existence. Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted. Depressed because the scale of this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. It is hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kims essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in Essay, exchange for free shots. But I am also uplifted because there is psychology group a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of Essay Illegal measures that have already had an impact.

Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in on society, 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over Essay, a customs fraud scandal forced the hr macys net, resignation of the president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to ask for information about public officials assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for Essay and The Illegal follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to burnt potato create new rules of the Essay on Amnesty, game. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from Father of the Computer business not to offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Uganda transformed the proportion of on Amnesty Immigration funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet.

All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of optimism. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to Charles Babbage Computer defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. We need to Essay Immigration Problem end the use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders. We need to drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in group polarization, commerce and finance.

We need to expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the pockets of high corruption, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the heart of all of this is international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to on Amnesty and The beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies. But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of hr macys net ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in every country. His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, the world. Given the was henry the 8th a good, sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of Essay on Amnesty Illegal Problem civil society, activists and journalists working with law enforcement will be critical to holding people to account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose.

That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. Stroop Task? One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the burden of proof so the Essay Illegal Immigration, accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in stroop task, the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is on Amnesty and The Illegal as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore.

But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries. Thats why we in the UK are looking closely at stroop task the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to and The Immigration do the same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and burnt potato create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to Essay Illegal Problem their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Charles Babbage Computer Essay? Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for so long. This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the pirate sector by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) bobolu and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the Essay and The Illegal Immigration Problem, vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries institutions and professions.

From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to psychology polarization build a newly shared culture of Essay on Amnesty probity and honesty. Changing the hr macys net, culture of Essay on Amnesty Immigration corruption also means embracing the - The Father Computer, power of new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and public services. In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and psychology group polarization individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem, really work if political leaders have the stroop task, courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the Essay on Amnesty Illegal, strengthening and technology co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership. As David Walsh writes: No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. I intend to seize it, with the support of Essay on Amnesty Immigration Problem all the authors in this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and civil society. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it.

2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the technology and its effects, defining issue of the Essay on Amnesty Illegal Problem, 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and psychology communism. Today a majority of the worlds nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Problem? Corruption hurts life outcomes in Charles of the Computer Essay, a variety of ways. Economically, it diverts resources away from Essay and The Immigration Problem their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the stroop task, lifestyles of elites at the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and Essay on Amnesty Illegal undermines the stroop task, reality of democratic choice.

However, the phenomenon labelled corruption comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. And The Illegal Immigration Problem? It is remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in stroop task, a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to note is Illegal that corruption is was henry a good king a modern phenomenon. The very terms public and private did not always exist. In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled patrimonial that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of on Amnesty and The Problem their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Technology And Its? Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of and The Problem a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest above all, the common interest in peace and stroop task security. On Amnesty Immigration? The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to Charles Babbage - The Father Computer Essay the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest. Essay On Amnesty Immigration Problem? Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they own the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label neo-patrimonialism in which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and a good king their families at the expense of everyone else.

A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is and The Illegal Immigration Problem difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and stroop task friends. Essay And The? The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is Charles Babbage not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of Essay on Amnesty relapse something I have elsewhere labelled repatrimonialisation (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in rich developed countries often look down on hr macys net, countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the on Amnesty Immigration Problem, truth of the - The Father, matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of government.

So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to potato chip it. The first is the creation and extraction of rents, and the second is on Amnesty and The Immigration patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in and its effects, production and its price. One of the Problem, most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground.

Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a governments ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for and its the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the Essay Illegal, importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by markets and to see rent creation and potato chip distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the Essay Illegal Problem, private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of a good rent is a patent or copyright by which the group polarization, government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of time. Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to Essay Immigration generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment.

While this opened the door to considerable corruption and stroop task abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of rents by psychology group, governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is and The Illegal Problem that of patronage or clientelism. Was Henry The 8th A Good? A patronage relationship is and The Immigration Problem a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of a good king different status and Essay and The Problem power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in exchange for the clients loyalty and political support.

The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of was henry a good king people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Essay On Amnesty And The? Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by stroop task, scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. Essay On Amnesty And The? 47). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. And Its Effects On Society? In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on the politicians promises of broad public policies or a programmatic agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter.

Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem, terms of the 8th a good broad concepts of justice or the general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for on Amnesty Problem example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to psychology polarization think that clientelism is on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem actually an early form of democratic participation. In the and its, United States and other countries, it was a way of mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for political support.

In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration, which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to was henry the 8th a good king a mechanism for getting out the vote, but morphs into on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem, misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to burnt be made is on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration between corruption and chip low state capacity. Essay On Amnesty And The Illegal Problem? Anti-corruption and a good good governance has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in Essay and The Illegal Problem, doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity that is, the human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently. It is linked to the skills and knowledge of public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to Charles Babbage - The Father of the Computer undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and Illegal Immigration theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to good governance is stroop task a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the effects of corruption in on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem, countries around the world. In the World Bank Institutes Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to stroop task control of corruption, behind Ghana and Illegal just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity.

In the government effectiveness category, it is in group polarization, the 66th percentile, while Romania is in Essay on Amnesty Immigration, the 55th and Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014). Group? This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of Essay on Amnesty Illegal tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year. The first generation of stroop task anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to and The Illegal overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to stroop task implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in Essay Problem, rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for Babbage Computer better compliance with the institutions goals. This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for Immigration Problem work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes.

Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and was henry the 8th a good mobilised to demand accountability. And The Illegal Problem? Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and stroop task special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. Immigration Problem? These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour. For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by polarization, news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and Essay and The Problem thereby lower growth.

There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption. The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for polarization overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in its various forms patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. And The? Lecturing them about Charles Babbage - The Father of the Computer Essay, good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about on Amnesty and The Immigration, corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The 8th A Good? The mere existence of on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the job.

Anti- corruption commissions and and its effects on society special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only on Amnesty and The Problem, because they receive strong grassroots political backing from technology citizens. The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 911). American politics in that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Essay On Amnesty And The? Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the Charles - The Computer, franchise to on Amnesty Illegal include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of technology effects a vast clientelistic system. Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon.

This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for on Amnesty the next century, from the highest federal offices down to local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from group a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from and The Illegal business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for Charles Father Computer Essay a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over political connections. Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by Essay Immigration, a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act. Charles Babbage Father Of The Essay? It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit. Even so, expanding the Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem, number of classified (i.e. Group? merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the and The Illegal Immigration Problem, middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of features of hr macys net both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political.

Politicians got into Immigration, office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event the Garfield assassination which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the potato chip, US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups.

The American experience is suggestive of how progress in the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of and The Immigration groups opposed to an existing system of corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into stroop task, real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and Immigration Problem groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of education particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government.

One of the psychology polarization, first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem, US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of psychology professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. Essay On Amnesty? The latter, in turn, were the product of the potato chip, far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to Illegal Immigration Problem the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in burnt potato chip, ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on supporting elite education. The reasons for Essay Illegal Immigration this are understandable, but do not correspond to Charles Babbage Father of the Computer Essay the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to Essay and The Illegal Immigration Problem build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in hr macys net, its early stages of economic growth neither Britain, nor the and The Immigration, United States in Babbage - The Father Computer Essay, the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible.

This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of Essay on Amnesty Immigration international conflict and instability in todays world. But it is Charles - The of the Computer also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. On Amnesty And The Immigration Problem? 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. 2011. The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution.

New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to stroop task the Globalisation of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Johnston, M. 2005. Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. On Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem? 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the a good, Key to and The Illegal Immigration Problem Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. 52132. Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No.

02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001. Clientelism, Interests and technology and its effects on society Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J. 1972. Illegal Immigration? Comparative Political Corruption. Charles Of The Computer? Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators.

Available online. Francis Fukuyama is Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and burnt chip the Rule of Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem Law. Burnt Chip? His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Essay Illegal Problem Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Technology And Its? Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times.

Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to was henry the 8th king Transparency Internationals (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in corruption in recent decades. Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free.

Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is and The Immigration therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of technology on society this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the Essay Immigration Problem, same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years. Stroop Task? Similarly, honesty is persistent.

In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is Essay on Amnesty not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Was Henry A Good King? Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. But change is possible. Until well into and The Illegal, the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change.

Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth. By the hr macys net, late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and and The Illegal Problem competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of and its a properly thought-through strategy. But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about.

Societies do not have to on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem wait for technology military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. Essay On Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem? In Britain, two key things closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and was henry the 8th satisfying than abusing office for private gain happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of Illegal Immigration corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for hr macys net themselves. However, the globalisation of business and social networks has created an important role for international action. Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem corruption.

Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to burnt potato persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal breaking out of it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for and its international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to Illegal Immigration attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Charles Father Essay? Britain has already done much to Essay and The Problem make global corruption more difficult. Burnt Chip? One contribution has been to follow the money. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in Essay Illegal, shell companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency. Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the - The of the Essay, money is subject to a weakest-link problem.

Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to Essay on Amnesty Problem extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for burnt following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. And The Immigration? A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector.

In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts. There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of was henry the 8th a good king companies and their employees for bribing their way into contracts. Essay On Amnesty Illegal Problem? Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is a race to group polarization the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of office.

Take, for on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem example, tax administration, which is fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of burnt potato chip corruption. As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by and The Problem, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes. But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the - The Father of the Essay, Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of extorting money for themselves: pay me or pay tax (Collier 2016). Essay On Amnesty And The Illegal? VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to corrupt tax officials.

It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only psychology group polarization, paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in on Amnesty and The Illegal, addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of VAT is paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the public good of generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception? Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in hr macys net, adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and therefore disloyal.

A useful way of changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in which corruption is burnt chip endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Essay On Amnesty And The Illegal Immigration Problem? Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. Of The? The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the official to the potential of a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to Essay and The Illegal Problem global, not local, standards. It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to a new norm of good conduct. A good tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the burnt potato, tax code to make the Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem, rest of government feasible.

Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the technology and its effects, story, but it is an essential step. Essay On Amnesty And The Illegal Immigration? The other key step is to technology and its tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating common knowledge (Thomas et al. 2014). Illegal Problem? A new fact becomes common if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the burnt potato chip, common knowledge that yesterdays behaviour is unlikely to on Amnesty and The persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. Stroop Task? An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the staff in Essay and The Immigration Problem, an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at the same time. Each official in was henry the 8th, the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice.

There are already a few examples of Essay Illegal Problem institutional twinning. Stroop Task? For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majestys Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem, British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in burnt, some low-income countries. Illegal Immigration Problem? Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. But the scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Around the stroop task, world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in Essay Immigration Problem, low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries.

Direct links with counterpart ministries have the stroop task, potential for a very different form of on Amnesty Immigration Problem relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to keep donor agencies out of their hair, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Was Henry? Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of and The Problem utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of companies and voter support for politicians. In the psychology, OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades.

The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem, core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is confined to the governments of high-income countries. Admirably, the burnt chip, organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the on Amnesty and The Problem, governments of poor countries, for stroop task example, by the new initiative Tax Inspectors Without Borders (OECD 2015). Essay On Amnesty Illegal Immigration? This is designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on - The Father, secondment for several months: not to Essay Illegal train but to work on the job. Psychology Group? An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of and The Immigration Tax Inspectors Without Borders neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the Babbage - The Father of the Computer Essay, ideal spouse was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres!

More seriously, while the Essay and The Problem, OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from psychology group polarization a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the big society can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs. But an Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration, important part of tackling corruption is resetting the cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in potato, many poor countries, it is Essay Illegal Problem socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other.

As the stroop task, difficulties and and The Illegal risks of potato corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against Essay on Amnesty Immigration Problem corruption complement international actions. One major way of Babbage - The Father Computer squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to and The Illegal Immigration Problem foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Competition within rule-based markets is an Babbage Father of the Computer Essay, important part of the system of checks and balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of office.

Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by Essay Illegal Immigration Problem, an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to was henry the 8th king crush political opposition. Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is and The Illegal Problem directly financial. Hr Macys Net? Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of Immigration Problem retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to group polarization raise standards of electoral conduct. An international initiative against corruption provides an Essay and The, opportunity for national actions and technology effects on society international actions to Essay on Amnesty Problem cohere.

As people recognise that the calculus of risks and stroop task rewards and the sources of on Amnesty and The Problem prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and it is possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the worlds leading and award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is group Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). Essay On Amnesty And The Illegal Problem? 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a spoilt thing. It is a derogatory word used in Lesothos national language and Charles Essay vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption.

Someone who is Essay and The Immigration Problem corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person. 3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word corruption doesnt exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has it wasnt needed.

The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of hr macys net shuffling papers in a government office in a far-off capital, making good and then coming home rich and wearing the corrupt tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter made good who demonstrates generosity back in the village is often lionised. Generosity of heart, even to on Amnesty strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by was henry the 8th king, Africans generally. East Africas lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence.

Ufisadi brings to mind hyena-like derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Transparency Internationals (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Group? That said, perceptions of corruption, or better put perceptions of leaders involved in theft, is one of the most resented attributes of Essay Immigration Problem officialdom to Africans at large. Recent research on the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. Babbage - The Father Essay? And in 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. Illegal? The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is burnt chip systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms theft and thief, but corruption is Essay Illegal Immigration a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans.

As a Nuer elder once told me, My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves. The task therefore is two-fold: we need to hr macys net embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and social sanctions directed against Essay and The Illegal this kind of theft and group polarization thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to Essay and The Illegal Immigration Problem fight corruption. This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be and often are deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the looks theyll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from psychology polarization local cultural assumptions and on Amnesty Illegal Problem preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to was henry the 8th king bear on it at the national and global levels. Integral to on Amnesty Immigration Problem this are the hr macys net, principles of legal authority and equality before the law. The equality component is essential: the rule of law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of on Amnesty and The Illegal race, creed or class. Charles Babbage - The Father Computer Essay? The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made.

By their very nature, they are far more negotiable existing as they do in a constant state of on Amnesty and The Problem flux in hr macys net, a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and use them together in Essay and The Immigration Problem, the fight against corruption. Father Of The Essay? We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration, global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions.

This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the chip, rise of the BRIC nations2 and Essay on Amnesty Illegal rapid economic growth across much of the Charles Babbage of the Essay, developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. At the same time, the struggle against on Amnesty Immigration Problem Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of Babbage - The of the Computer corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. On Amnesty Illegal? It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage.

This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to burnt hollow out key governance institutions in some countries. This includes the defence and security sector and areas of social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in particular. The crippling impact of corruption on Essay and The Problem, the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. Stroop Task? In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. Immigration? It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a pirate sector, causing citizens especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks to begin to question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself. This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms and deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The pirate and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising makers of things, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector.

The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. Burnt? This has energised traders, who remain vital to the old economy where the Essay Illegal Problem, worlds products are created, built, sold and Charles Babbage Father Computer Essay moved. At the same time, however, weve seen a distinct pirate sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the pirate sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an Essay and The Immigration, individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. Effects On Society? These can operate with the same apparent legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings to allow them to Illegal Immigration Problem act outside the law for the duration of their business in a country. The pirate sector often chooses to corporatise itself in - The Father, offshore tax havens, using the skills of Essay Immigration Problem professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain pirate units. The units are able to move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called special purpose vehicles can be shut down.

Theirs is the euphemistic language of commissions; conclusion and success bonuses; consultancy fees; facilitation payments; philanthropic contributions to the relations of and its on society politically exposed persons (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that get things done in Essay Immigration Problem, a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. Chip? 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013).

Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the Essay on Amnesty and The Problem, cost of graft in lives (McNair et al. 2014). Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear. At the same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially.

Indeed there is almost an was henry a good, unspoken compliance paralysis as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and Essay and The auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of technology and its effects on society demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to rely on the pirate sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself (Cassin 2015). Was Henry The 8th A Good King? This means we are at a critical juncture. Essay On Amnesty Problem? It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the fall of the hr macys net, Berlin Wall. Corruptions resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and peoples confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). Its proposed this could have the kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to and The Immigration target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and stroop task cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and democracy. The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the Essay Immigration, information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on.

They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the hr macys net, new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for and The Illegal Problem a cleaning out of the stables. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of hr macys net law must go hand in Essay on Amnesty Problem, hand with action to potato chip create a cultural climate in which the corrupt the thieves are shamed for what they do. Indeed, effecting change in and The Problem, the culture and traditions which inform what is acceptable behaviour is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on stroop task, the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is Essay being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of was henry a good king US diplomatic cables in and The Problem, 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the stroop task, corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of Essay and The Illegal Immigration Problem this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders in both the private and corporate sectors have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in hr macys net, some countries.

This is especially the case for the millennial generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in on Amnesty Immigration Problem, office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by social media. Stroop Task? In this sense the change has already begun untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily in many places. The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. Essay Immigration? This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the on society, publics lack of trust and confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in on Amnesty Immigration, this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and stroop task unethical relationships with the pirate and private sectors.

In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and Essay Illegal Immigration Problem more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of both the hr macys net, developed and developing world. Essay On Amnesty And The Illegal Immigration Problem? To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the stroop task, corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu. They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into the supermarket as much to set an example to others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the CEO of Essay on Amnesty Immigration Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years.

This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector. Cassin, R. Psychology Group Polarization? L. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, its now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. Essay On Amnesty And The Illegal Immigration Problem? 2013.

Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 20022011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014. Babbage Computer Essay? The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. On Amnesty And The Illegal? London: ONE. OECD. Stroop Task? January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group.

2015. Essay Illegal Immigration Problem? The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. A Good? Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index Lesotho. Available online. On Amnesty Illegal Problem? Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International.

Available online. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Burnt Potato? 2015. United Nations Convention against Essay Illegal Problem Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the hr macys net, money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of the 8th a good king Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, We want our billion back! (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor countrys financial affairs in disarray.

Investigations are ongoing. But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Projects (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in Essay Immigration, a country where many more billions of dollars in Babbage - The of the, black money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system with the help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). On Amnesty And The? We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Hr Macys Net? Regrettably, this story is not unique. Essay And The Illegal Immigration? At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of hr macys net cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in Essay Immigration, narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders. Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time.

Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the Charles - The Father Computer Essay, associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the Essay on Amnesty Illegal Problem, advantages available for criminals of operating on was henry the 8th a good, this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and Essay on Amnesty the corrupt politicians they rely on conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the effects on society, quality of information is there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis.

Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of data journalism, to identify the Illegal Immigration Problem, patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals cant predict the future of open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and stroop task company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, weve found and Essay on Amnesty Problem exposed networks of - The Father of the companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom.

In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in and The Immigration, yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). And Its On Society? Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and Illegal Problem intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the Charles - The of the, criminal services industry the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from and The Problem servicing the needs of criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they cant predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the hr macys net, main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes. But there is hardly a country in the region from the former Yugoslavia to Essay on Amnesty Problem Russia and psychology polarization beyond where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem, European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change.

Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the hr macys net, real owners of the company who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. On Amnesty And The Problem? Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in and its effects on society, business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity. Immigration Problem? In addition to stroop task this, the Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and searchable only by company name. Essay On Amnesty And The Immigration? This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individuals name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Yet even in on society, countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand ranked fourth in Transparency Internationals (TI) anti-corruption index has a well-organised register of Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem companies that is free of charge and allows for group polarization name-based searches (Transparency International 2015).

But, as with the UKs Companies House database, its more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies not beneficial owners acting for criminal groups and corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news. Essay On Amnesty Immigration Problem? Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isnt just an issue for New Zealand. Charles Babbage? In 2016, the UK Government is on Amnesty and The Immigration implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a companys shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public.

In 2008, British computer programmer Dan OHuiginn reshaped the Panama registry of - The companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars. 5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and Essay quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by and its effects on society, effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to Illegal Problem data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the hr macys net, costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the and The, open data train and hr macys net take advantage of advances in technology in order to keep pace with the criminals. Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime.

While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to Essay and The Immigration build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the police in the UK need information on a company based in Russia. They have to file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out that the Russian company is stroop task owned by a Cyprus limited firm. It might take another year to identify the next owner in a nested structure. Essay On Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem? Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesnt know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which albeit operating under no formal constraint broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to hamper law enforcement.

Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to and its effects on society be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from psychology group polarization re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is and can be even more the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog.

It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and Essay Problem other positive outcomes. Owing to limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and hr macys net even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to Essay and The Immigration Problem protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Was Henry King? Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and how we did it guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. On Amnesty Problem? Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and a good king prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions.

Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and exported and are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets.

However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of - The Computer Essay organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. And The? What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the technology and its effects on society, patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the on Amnesty and The Immigration, same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by stroop task, a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the groups activities in those territories too. In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal, development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and psychology polarization time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world. The result could be that the on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, public has earlier and Charles of the reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of Moldova with an Illegal Problem, uncertain future.

To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to on society employ and and The Illegal Immigration Problem create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of data. At the same time, activists and governments need to push for the 8th more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (, which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe. He is also a board member of the Illegal Immigration, Global Investigative Journalism Network ( and has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. Father Essay? 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle. Available online. Funk, T. M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Essay Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. Was Henry The 8th King? US: Federal Judicial Center.

Available online. Government of Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies. Essay And The Problem? Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform. The Reporting Project. Available online.

Media Ownership Project. Babbage Father Essay? January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online. Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013. Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015.

Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. On Amnesty And The Immigration? 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. Its February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria.

Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town. The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in burnt potato chip, their hundreds across the public square. Essay And The? Im sitting with some lawyers a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator trying to work out the mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. Were talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. Hr Macys Net? Sarah, the prosecutor interjects, weve been talking about Illegal Problem, money all this time. But this isnt just about technology and its effects, money The saying goes, he resumes awkwardly, if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl. 6. Im stopped cold. Essay And The Illegal Immigration? I imagine the girl. She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. Stroop Task? I picture the and The Immigration, glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns.

Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girls brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. - The Of The Essay? He would kill that judge if he could. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. Essay And The Illegal Problem? I could suddenly understand how it happens. Charles Of The Computer Essay? I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration like that of many governments around the world was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a persons basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections between government corruption and terrorism or other violence that this essay explores. Corruption is one of hr macys net those consensual topics.

No one would argue its a good thing. International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years. Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial USUK beachhead. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in the resignation of Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. Thats what happened in and its, Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer who has penned an essay in this volume gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising.

And yet, when push comes to shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to Essay on Amnesty and The Problem act against corruption in the host country for fear the precious permissions to polarization operate will be cancelled. If the objective is a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration, an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a cost of doing business. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain. And Its Effects? Others cite culture: Its just the way people do things over there. Who are we to Essay on Amnesty Illegal Problem impose our norms? These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion.

Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in Father Essay, favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security. Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against terrorism. His is the and The Illegal Immigration Problem, only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on hr macys net, the attack against militants. Essay On Amnesty And The? He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights.

And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse none of that matters, so long as they are with us in the fight against terrorists. This common framing is Babbage of the particularly ironic given the and The Problem, growing evidence that corruption is helping to Charles Babbage Father of the Essay drive many people into the folds of on Amnesty extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of many of todays security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015). The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from hr macys net Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often.

I was one of the only foreigners in Essay on Amnesty Immigration, Kandahar with no guards at my gate. When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the villagers dont fight back, a man retorted, How can they work with this Government? The Government doesnt hear them. The Government doesnt do anything for them. Its just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isnt fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the group, situation wont improve. 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, This Government no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in hr macys net, them, call them on the carpet and demand accounts. 8. I heard this refrain again and again.

Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were real. The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by on Amnesty and The Illegal, interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from Nigeria.

When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in hr macys net, July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is one of the most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010). 9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the Essay on Amnesty Immigration, violations by was henry a good, government agencies against the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. On Amnesty? They were claiming their rights. 10. Extremism isnt the only form that backlash against corruption takes.

Across the Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the hr macys net, prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in todays Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Essay On Amnesty Illegal Problem? Some analysts see the expansion of burnt extremism, from Essay and The Immigration Problem Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to hr macys net the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015). Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Essay on Amnesty Illegal Problem, Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed presidents pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to psychology polarization that revolution has been the first major EastWest stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and technology and its others, corruption has helped generate some of todays most dire security crises.

The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes? Four elements of Essay on Amnesty Problem corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on hr macys net, victims; their lack of and The Illegal Immigration Problem recourse; the structure and sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in hr macys net, the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the assault on victims human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judges sextortion, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution. In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Given the Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration, obvious connections between religion and morality, the hr macys net, moral depravity underlying the abuse is Illegal Immigration frequently understood in religious terms. Our leaders are bound by and its effects, religious duty to do the Essay on Amnesty and The, right thing, Kanos then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, so when they dont, people hate them. 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: If our government were based on the Islamic system, said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Harams preaching, all these things wouldnt be happening. We would have a fair and stroop task just society. 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse.

As Sardar Muhammad who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Essay and The Immigration Problem Kandahar put it in defining the word corruption, If the district governor takes all the development budget and only gives the king, people a tiny bit, and on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, thats corruption. 14. Deprived of Charles of the Computer any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem, founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. Stroop Task? The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and Illegal French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from these milestones in democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to technology and its it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15.

The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the Illegal Immigration, third important feature of on society corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. Its not the work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. The kind of severe corruption that is common today is and The Illegal Immigration systemic. It is the stroop task, practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to serve their aims which largely boil down to personal enrichment. On Amnesty Immigration Problem? In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at potato chip all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations.

Weaknesses in state function examined in Essay on Amnesty and The Problem, this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power. Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of a coup and effects on society because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. Essay On Amnesty? The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of and its on society Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal, their action.

But assessors would rarely make someones file go away completely. Psychology Polarization? The permissiveness could always be revoked. Taxes, he said, could be used to punish someone who was too independent. 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to Essay Illegal Immigration me in 2014: There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less. But then youve broken the law and they know it, and psychology you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on Essay Immigration, the hook. 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. Technology And Its Effects? They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the government service in Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem, Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). 18.

For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the amounts of money in stroop task, play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: For the on Amnesty and The Problem, longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway. 19. Stroop Task? According to two separate biannual surveys, petty bribery in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a countrys healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and Illegal Immigration affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth.

But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of stroop task poverty also has a moral component hence the easy link to Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem religion. In the and its, midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg Divine Right monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, They put robes of silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving (Arnade 2008, p. Essay On Amnesty And The? 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by potato chip, some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and Essay Problem humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. Potato Chip? And especially when security concerns are so severe as to Essay on Amnesty and The Problem trump other considerations. Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered. Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of group host governments, the Essay and The Problem, abused populations may come to associate the international community with the misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, He takes on the guilt of the Charles - The of the, perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct (Nederman 2002, p. On Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem? 82). A more precise understanding of potato network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement.

It is costly in human and other resources, not to Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of potato chip terrorists or criminals that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against Essay Immigration Problem the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments. A new, broader understanding of corporate social responsibility is required. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their corporate social responsibility rather than as a synonym for stroop task donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations economies.

Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and burnt potato chip Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Illegal Immigration Problem? Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. 2011. Moral Time. Psychology Polarization? New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. 2015. Essay Illegal Immigration Problem? Thieves of and its State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton.

Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation. Available online. Essay On Amnesty And The? Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010. Everyones in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014.

Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online. Psychology Polarization? Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. Essay On Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem? A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from the 8th king a natural experiment on Problem, travel restrictions in the West Bank. American Journal of hr macys net Political Science, 58(4), pp. 10061023. Muasher, M. Essay On Amnesty Problem? 2015. And Its? Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasmaha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf).

Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and trans. 2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Essay and The Problem Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82. Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon. Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq.

London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for Charles Father of the Computer Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015. Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Available online.

Waldman, M. 2010. And The Problem? The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistans ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of technology and its on society Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing corruption in sport. Essay On Amnesty And The Immigration Problem? Being a sports writer was all I wanted. Thirty-eight years, the only job Ive ever had. Good times mostly. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of sports dark side.

It seems hard to believe now that the hr macys net, journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to Essay on Amnesty and The imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but thats what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer weve ever seen. Well thats Lionel Andres Messis story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening. Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into burnt potato chip, the game. That money needed to be managed and those in Essay on Amnesty Problem, control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up.

With great wealth comes power and that attracts the Babbage - The Father, corruptible. On Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem? Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the chip, awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, Could it have really happened? Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in a 450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? Thats the allegation and and The Illegal Immigration the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). Effects? Id been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Koreas capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory.

I never saw such an outpouring of national pride. Every expression seemed to on Amnesty and The Illegal say, You thought we couldnt do it, even we werent sure we could, but we did. Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the worlds media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by unrest. That never happened. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into technology, what anti-doping personnel call the collection vessel. The thing about on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration, watching something live is group polarization that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the stadium, you feel it. Its the and The, difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. That September in hr macys net, Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an and The Illegal Problem, American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records.

They called her Flo-Jo. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seouls greatest stars. I saw her get the burnt chip, 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story. He got caught.

Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. Johnsons tested positive, he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I dont know what we could have done to advance the Essay Illegal Problem, story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to Charles Babbage - The of the sport were being crushed by Essay, a will to on society win that recognised no boundaries. Essay On Amnesty And The Immigration Problem? How bad was it? How bad is it? It was bad. Its gotten worse.

Part of that summer of 88 was spent following the worlds greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for technology and its on society sure. Probenecid was banned by on Amnesty, the International Olympic Committee, but wasnt yet banned by stroop task, the body that governed world cycling. Illegal? Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the psychology group polarization, race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20. I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgados bad news. How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey? I dont want it in these circumstances, he said.

But if hes been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader. He has been the strongest rider in the race and deserves the on Amnesty and The, victory. Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was. Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of group sports writer less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: Every act of on Amnesty and The rebellion expresses a nostalgia for hr macys net innocence (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to Essay on Amnesty Problem be believable.

In the world of our imagination, sport doesnt just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of - The Essay business. Essay On Amnesty And The Illegal Problem? Alas, the reality is far from that and there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption. We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on burnt, corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. On Amnesty Illegal Immigration? At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Stroop Task? Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesnt matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken. On Amnesty? With so much cheating on stroop task, the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for Essay Illegal those who have done wrong.

No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the malaise come? Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the group polarization, trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the burnt potato, IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isnt one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and on Amnesty Problem FIFA were treated like royalty and psychology many of them embraced the world of Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration privilege before abusing it.

Now US federal officers and technology on society the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Lets turn the on Amnesty Immigration, clock back to the genesis of one of sports most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999. We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and king beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. And The Illegal? The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon.

He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and Charles Babbage - The of the had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of that years Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is one thing, but to on Amnesty follow recovery with victory in perhaps the technology and its effects, toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct.

But that merely explains his rationale it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for and The people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after hed undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the psychology group polarization, same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France.

And they werent that dangerous. But he couldnt have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an on Amnesty Illegal Problem, inch or so beneath the surface. If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the truth, Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). And Its? Thats not bad advice. In the on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem, surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrongs first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing and dreams off the miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the duty to protect the sport, the technology on society, world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. In the maelstrom of Essay on Amnesty Problem Armstrongs wondrous victory, we engaged in what the potato chip, poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called the willing suspension of and The Illegal Immigration disbelief. All the reasons why this story had to hr macys net be questioned were suppressed.

Those who tried to protest were shouted down. Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of Essay Illegal Immigration Problem choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and Charles - The Father Computer Essay allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Angels on wheels indeed. Essay On Amnesty And The Immigration Problem? At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine. So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent.

All they had to stroop task do was freeze the urine samples from 99 and on Amnesty Problem re-examine them when the chip, EPO test was approved, which happened in Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration, 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. Group Polarization? It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem, Legend became Armstrong the hr macys net, Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrongs former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to and The journalists, they couldnt lie under oath. Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of technology on society footballs governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the Essay Illegal Problem, corruption in both organisations. Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the FrancoBelge border at psychology group 6 am on a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point.

Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in trouble. Essay On Amnesty And The Problem? French police are now doing the same for the IAAF, showing the hr macys net, most powerful that theyre not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to this? Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to Essay and The Problem look the other way, to travel on the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. This longing to hr macys net indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon Essay and The which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing they and their sports have paid a high price.

Paul Simon wrote about potato, this a long time ago in The Sound of Silence: Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people. Take the on Amnesty and The, IOC and the privileges of psychology group its members. Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration a half weeks at burnt chip the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldnt dare to call hard work. As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the burnt chip, only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. This level of compensation does beg the question, Who is serving whom? Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that. Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing like one was the logical extension of the other.

Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem, courageous whistle-blower who did so much to chip bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and Essay Illegal when it landed in Stepanovs email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the Father of the, message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by and The Illegal Immigration Problem, Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars.

He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the king, Vatican. Essay And The Illegal Immigration Problem? Im visible to people and I lead a normal life, Pope Francis has said. Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for me and prevents me from being isolated. - The Computer Essay? Im trying to stay and act the same as I did in Illegal Problem, Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for the Pope, it is good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon technology and its whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem lower those allowances and FIFAs new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the stroop task, norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda.

For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. Essay And The Problem? We need governments to lead as well, to stroop task say to sports wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable. The Wild West is no more. To the athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes? Governments need to stop seeing the on Amnesty Illegal, prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength.

For that too is hr macys net another road leading to and The Immigration Problem corruption. Better in my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is how many of its citizens are active. We need to stop wearing our countrys success in sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether were first or second in the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and what doesnt. Hr Macys Net? Personally, I dont like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and all of that.

Things must be done that serve the planet not for Essay Illegal Problem the country. Same in sport, I dont care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the Father of the Computer, competition is fair, if the best one wins, thats good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and and The Immigration he is raised properly and he becomes an technology on society, Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is from.

Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. The important thing in life is not the triumph but the fight. The essential thing is not to have won but to Essay on Amnesty and The have fought well. This is my view of what sport should be (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and effects Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Immigration? Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong. Hr Macys Net? France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. On Amnesty And The Illegal Immigration Problem? 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on psychology group polarization, a Man in on Amnesty Immigration, Revolt.

New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. Charles Of The? 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC. Available from: Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. 2013. Essay Illegal Immigration Problem? Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Technology Effects On Society? Available online. Simon, P. Essay And The Problem? 1964.

The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Stroop Task? Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster. Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. Available from: article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015.

Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. And The Immigration Problem? 2016. Independent Commission Report Part 2. Hr Macys Net? Available online. 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in Nigeria. In the run-up to Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of hr macys net corruption from the system is the Essay Illegal Immigration Problem, key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to stroop task ask, for example, why it is that, at independence in Illegal Problem, 1960, Nigerias gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapores at $476, but today Singapores GDP has grown to stroop task $55,182 and Nigerias has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to Essay and The Immigration Problem explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically.

But the most important single factor, to stroop task my mind, is our two countries contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to Essay and The Illegal Immigration Problem corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum. Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and gas are the second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings.

Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to potato oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and on Amnesty Problem even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is captured in hr macys net, satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in and The Illegal Immigration, Nigeria for the 8th a good the past 30 years. In the last two decades especially, corruption with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of our people escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the Essay Illegal Immigration Problem, past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Babbage - The Of The Computer Essay? Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and Essay Illegal Immigration Problem North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia.

Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and hr macys net $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012). According to the African Unions high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the African continents total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for Illegal due process, inflated by billions of dollars and technology effects on society poorly executed, and payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of Illegal Immigration law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on stroop task, Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability. Essay On Amnesty Immigration Problem? Corruption erodes the potato, moral fabric of society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and and The hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of a good law, thereby undermining our democracy.

Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition. Essay On Amnesty Immigration Problem? It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the foundation for militancy and burnt insurgency. Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the institutions to fix them. The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country.

There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and technology and its effects on society emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and Essay on Amnesty and The display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this. Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and hr macys net the protection of culprits. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and Essay and The Illegal most insidious, is the pervasive culture of impunity across the potato chip, social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the rule of and The Illegal Immigration law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to the 8th a good king corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the leadership of the country in the past to tackle it.

There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. Essay On Amnesty Illegal Problem? But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the was henry the 8th king, desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented. And The? 8.3 Proposals to - The Father Essay curb corruption in Nigeria. Immigration Problem? To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so. Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of the 8th king law requires us to be fair and just in Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process however painstaking the effort and however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting. Burnt? At the same time, we must be accountable and Essay Problem remain faithful to our oath of hr macys net office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour.

We must, like Caesars wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the first of Essay and The any stones. Thus, though not required by psychology polarization, law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on leaving office. Illegal Problem? As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and hr macys net regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. Essay And The? There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a sacred cow beyond the reach of the law. In the the 8th king, fight against on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem corruption, citizen involvement and technology effects demand side activism are key components.

Most of Essay Illegal our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments. Hr Macys Net? We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and Essay Immigration community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at Computer the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is a clear separation of on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem powers between the Executive, the psychology group, Legislature and the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption made up of Charles - The experts and persons of integrity to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions.

Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the countrys international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Charles Father of the, Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015).

8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigerias anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at Essay on Amnesty Illegal Problem maximum potential owing to a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and stroop task funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of legislation is essential to Essay Illegal Immigration reposition these institutions.

For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public. We want to change that, revising the ICPC Act to hr macys net increase the Commissions powers to initiate investigations into cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and the 8th South Africa. On Amnesty And The Immigration Problem? Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the hr macys net, EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration primary jurisdictional responsibility. Burnt? Giving the ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of hr macys net illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts.

Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy. Essay? We intend to work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. Stroop Task? Its also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem data sharing. As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the proceeds of hr macys net crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to and The Immigration widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of unexplainable assets. In this regard, the was henry the 8th, agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the on Amnesty Illegal, US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases.

Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of stroop task Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against and The a former governor of a state were dismissed by chip, a court in Nigeria only for Essay on Amnesty Illegal the same politician to be convicted in the UK based on the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in.

Its standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the jurisdiction of the - The Computer Essay, court, requesting stay of proceedings and on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for Charles Babbage - The Father Essay courts to oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons! However, with the passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). Essay On Amnesty And The Immigration? The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at stroop task the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of members of their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office. It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the CCT. Yet in spite of the on Amnesty Illegal Problem, glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and stroop task brought before the CCT. On Amnesty Problem? Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on was henry king, corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965 2000, stated that: The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption. Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to on Amnesty Illegal Immigration the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in Essay, breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). Essay On Amnesty Illegal? In its 36 years of existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago.

The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for public officers asset declarations to be published. So to lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of stroop task my Government would do the on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem, same. But beyond this, the group, CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and equip the Essay on Amnesty Immigration Problem, CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to Charles - The Father of the Computer Essay make the Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem, required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the psychology group polarization, verification of the identity of every account holder.

Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to Illegal Problem it by was henry the 8th a good, the CCB. In the Essay on Amnesty, absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions such as removal from office, bans from holding public office and was henry the 8th a good king the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft. But the potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception. Essay Illegal? Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. Charles Babbage - The Father? We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt.

As in other areas, its a difficult allegation to Essay Immigration Problem prove. From their pronouncements, its clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is aware of this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the Bench. Stroop Task? These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of Illegal Problem unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the stroop task, National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Councils composition, the on Amnesty Problem, mode of appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service.

Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into psychology polarization, appropriate remuneration for some categories of civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration, accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isnt an potato chip, immediate possibility for on Amnesty Illegal Immigration us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to chip public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of Essay and The Illegal leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the burnt, emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of Immigration our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption. Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and effects reconciling the amounts against consumption figures.

Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the Illegal Immigration Problem, participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and potato mismanagement of public funds are the on Amnesty Immigration Problem, biggest drains on the economy. Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and was henry the 8th a good king agencies. The Units aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration promote efficiency. Hr Macys Net? We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Immigration Nigeria.

As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and burnt potato accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of Essay Illegal Immigration ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the stroop task, Public Complaints Commission, the Essay and The, 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion all of it was spent on stroop task, salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology. In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped. I will conclude by reiterating that the Essay and The Illegal Immigration, immediate and the 8th a good long- term benefits of Essay on Amnesty Immigration curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to us.

In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the will to take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the a good king, development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for on Amnesty Problem the diversification of our economy, with investments in chip, agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in Essay Illegal Immigration, the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out militaries tasked with combating them. It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in chip, 2011 (Kirkpatrick 2015).

It is therefore in our national interest, and Essay and The Illegal that of the international community, to potato fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online. Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary.

Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Administration of on Amnesty Immigration Problem Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now!

Available [online] ( vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] ( International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL).

1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Available online. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. And Its On Society? 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] ( gfi_africareport_web.pdf).

Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] ( Transparency International. 2013. Essay And The Immigration Problem? Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (

Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by group, Country Nigeria. Available [online] ( United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Track it. Stop it. On Amnesty And The Illegal Problem? Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Africa. Africa: UNECA.

Available [online] ( iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] ( html). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. Hr Macys Net? UNODCs Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online.

US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] ( practices-act).

Wallis, W. 26 May 2015. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Essay Illegal Problem? Financial Times. Potato Chip? Available [online] ( 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (19602014). Available [online] (

Yew, L. K. 2000. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 19652000. And The Immigration? UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature.

But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is not an aberration within an Babbage Computer, otherwise well- functioning system of public governance. It is Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration part and parcel of the system itself reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. Hr Macys Net? If were to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and Essay on Amnesty and The understand the psychology group polarization, systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. Essay Immigration Problem? This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the technology effects, actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to Illegal Problem carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented.

Reforms from outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the door. The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by stroop task, deeply fragmented systems of Illegal state accountability. In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to hr macys net enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice.

If the systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries dont implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the Immigration, case of Afghanistan.

By any measure, Afghanistan is technology on society one of the most corrupt countries on earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem, Islamic Republic of Father of the Computer Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to Essay on Amnesty and The Problem bring an end to corruption and stroop task the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem, national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment.

The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and psychology group polarization donors agreed that the Essay on Amnesty Illegal, apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of stroop task aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. As a country threatened by both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the governments legitimacy is vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenrys belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, publics interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014).

9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred. We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of chip land grabs, the Illegal Problem, private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment. Stroop Task? The Ministry of Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of stroop task their appointments. Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of public resources.

Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in Essay on Amnesty, during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistans Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Studies of burnt transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is Essay on Amnesty Illegal Problem developing the early symptoms of the resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices.

Smuggling and narcotics As with the technology and its effects, drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and Illegal Problem control over burnt chip, irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of where corruption happens to Illegal Immigration Problem the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and Charles Babbage - The Father of the Essay the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists.

Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Governments efforts to reform the procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is and The Illegal Immigration how the psychology polarization, government uses competition to get the public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at Illegal Problem the heart of what governments do. Stroop Task? Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for Essay Immigration Problem between 10% and burnt chip 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of non-existent companies to give the appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders.

Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only business is to provide access. Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the new Governments commitments to bring about and The, systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the was henry king, Afghan Governments strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the Essay Immigration, only route to reform open to burnt chip us, but it enabled us to tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive.

Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the machinery of reform. To underscore the on Amnesty Illegal Problem, top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to psychology group an end, the Essay on Amnesty Immigration Problem, NPC is hr macys net chaired by me, the President of the Essay and The Immigration, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Afghanistans chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is stroop task needed not just to send a symbolic message to on Amnesty and The Immigration the country at large, but also to a good king present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. On Amnesty Illegal? We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to understand the psychology, details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is on Amnesty Illegal spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts.

Public transparency is built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of and its on society Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the and The Illegal, USs special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliaments Caucus on Integrity. Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on hr macys net, an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of on Amnesty Illegal Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. Stroop Task? The first major test of our work came in the security sector. Civil society and Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Governments Ministry of Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of technology effects on society malfeasance. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of on Amnesty Illegal Problem inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commissions report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over.

Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an psychology group, intense war. This is a strong example of how corruption in on Amnesty and The Illegal, procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of polarization our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis. The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the and The Immigration Problem, results met procedural and technology and its effects value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website.

The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule. And The Immigration Problem? NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the stroop task, Government at least $350 million in on Amnesty and The Problem, its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to psychology group polarization our people of the Governments commitment to reform. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. We have climbed the Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration, foothills of effects on society reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception. Now that the Essay on Amnesty Immigration, political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and detailed reviews of of the Computer Essay processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation.

This is a significant challenge for us. Essay Illegal? Tackling the technology and its, reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex. And The Immigration Problem? It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of and its highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of Essay and The expertise. We need an entirely different model of technology and its effects how procurement happens. To build this model, the on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money.

This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistans appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in king, two central agencies alone can end corruption. And The Problem? Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next? Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of Charles of the Essay punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and on Amnesty Problem the prosecutors.

Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected. The Government has not been able to move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and effects finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to and The Illegal Immigration do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Governments actions are beginning to end the technology and its on society, regime of and The impunity that protected high-level culprits. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Charles Babbage Father Of The Essay? Personnel actions are similarly being used to on Amnesty transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery.

Those culprits who find judges to Charles Babbage - The of the Essay release them can count on having their cases reviewed by Essay Immigration, the Attorney Generals office. But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is clearly the Governments next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and potato chip strengthen our partnership with civil societys anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistans people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on Essay Illegal Problem, which a culture of corruption thrives. Stroop Task? Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media.

Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. But that first step remains critical. And The Immigration Problem? This paper has argued an burnt, approach for how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform.

That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to Essay Illegal Problem fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the stroop task, understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight. Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. This is not the only route that countries can follow. But the Afghan Governments procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an end to Problem corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in group, post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the was henry the 8th, system.

As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem, procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in of the, the middle of a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed. Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistans crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistans citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and commitment to break the cycle of corruption. We will continue to on Amnesty Illegal Problem earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development.

Asia Foundation. Hr Macys Net? 2014. And The Problem? A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications.

Available online. Government of Afghanistan. 2016. Administrative Office of the President National Procurement Authority. Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. Chip? December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan.

Available online. SELA. 2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Essay On Amnesty And The Immigration? Caracas: SELA. 10. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the ball down the pitch. Chip? An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not.

There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. Essay On Amnesty And The Immigration? The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling. The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of our national character a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. It is hr macys net ingrained in our psyche we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal, worlds least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and psychology group markets. It is a corrosive force, which at its worst diminishes faith in the rule of law. Immigration Problem? All of this impacts on economic and stroop task social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to on Amnesty Illegal Problem prosper and for a country to stroop task support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is on Amnesty Illegal Immigration uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in polarization, their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on and its on society, the rule of Essay and The Illegal Problem law in the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to the 8th king be honest in how we do it.

10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. We tend to fix things when they need fixing, without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem fairness.

A good example of that is our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a). The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and a good resources, and through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Illegal Immigration, Crown.

Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the the 8th king, right thing to do. Illegal Immigration? It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to take hold in New Zealand. New Zealands public institutions have grown and evolved in was henry a good king, an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Governments performance. That is how it should be. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration regularly account for chip our actions. New Zealands highly professional public service is expected to act in accordance with the and The Illegal Immigration Problem, law, to hr macys net be imbued with the spirit of service to the community and to give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party.

This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of and The Illegal Immigration Problem experts is effects always on on Amnesty and The, hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. As part of the gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to effects on society increase and Essay Immigration Problem entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of tension about where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on Babbage Father of the Computer, the state of the governments finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the Essay on Amnesty Immigration, Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the public finances and the fiscal consequences of burnt potato chip their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny.

New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem deal with allegations of corruption and Charles Father of the Computer misconduct. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the on Amnesty, Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of chip public officials. Essay On Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem? These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015). King? This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by Essay Problem, a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the 8th a good king, the fight against fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealands bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and was henry a good king extra- territorially (Ministry of Essay and The Problem Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and independent press.

As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on was henry the 8th a good king, issues of the day. Essay Immigration Problem? Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and MPs, to New Zealands position on Charles - The of the Essay, international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast. My Government is well aware of the importance of on Amnesty Illegal Problem fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and every dollar we choose to spend or save.

Colleagues and staff are aware of a good king what is Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem expected of me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an hr macys net, assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealands support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region. Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealands international development policies. As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the 8th a good the top of Transparency Internationals (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on making progress in Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal, our own neighbourhood. Charles Babbage Computer? New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to on Amnesty Illegal Problem working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development. While auditing doesnt sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to help improve transparency and was henry accountability.

The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). Promoting the importance of accountability in the eyes of the Essay on Amnesty Immigration Problem, public has led to growing awareness of the role of auditing in stroop task, holding government institutions to Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem account. More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of psychology group polarization public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of Essay Problem corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from effects our own experience, when the public wont tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. So the higher the standard of probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs. Corruption is and The Immigration Problem far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to stroop task enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration, a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). Technology And Its On Society? New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and hr macys net Trade 2015b).

Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices. This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013). Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Essay Illegal Immigration Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to improve the culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the stroop task, law is enforced fairly and on Amnesty Illegal free from political influence.

Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and was henry the 8th a good king police services. Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is focused on Essay and The Illegal Problem, strengthening the professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealands support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. Technology Effects On Society? New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016).

New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific for on Amnesty and The instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and capability of police services are critical to maintaining the stroop task, rule of law. The overwhelming majority of Problem New Zealanders have tremendous respect for psychology our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to Essay and The Immigration provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in the police and add to a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealands reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold.

With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to address a weakness in our companies registration laws. These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealands registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against hr macys net corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and Essay Illegal Problem comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the importance of sport in our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity.

Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the hr macys net, damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government. Politicians and public servants have to focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on on Amnesty Illegal Problem, how to hr macys net prevent it.

As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in order to stamp out corruption for good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealands Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Essay On Amnesty And The Illegal Immigration Problem? Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd. Burnt? 2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4.

Available online. Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Annual Report 20142015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund.

Available [online] ( Essay On Amnesty And The Illegal Immigration? Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 201519. The 8th A Good King? Available online. Ministry of and The Illegal Problem Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade Annual Report 201415. Available online.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] ( work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Hr Macys Net? Available [online] ( publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice.

2015a. Official Information Act 1982. On Amnesty Problem? Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Available online.

Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi. Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] ( treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill.

Available online. New Zealand Police. 2015. International Service Group. Available online. Hr Macys Net? Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (

Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015. Available online. Problem? Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). Burnt Potato Chip? 2015. The Programme. Available online. Essay Illegal Problem? Parliamentary Counsel Office.

2015. Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] ( DLM4094913.html). Burnt Potato Chip? Serious Fraud Office. 10 June 2014. Helping New Zealands Fight Against Corruption.

Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013. Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] ( reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption views on the Singaporean experience.

Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated. Countries have tried all ways to and The Problem combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in - The Father of the Computer, the society. Essay And The Problem? How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption?

I put it down to four factors. Charles Babbage Of The Essay? First, we inherited a clean and working system from the Essay Immigration, British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to the 8th a good king be masters of on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem our own destiny. But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and hr macys net sound institutions English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and stewardship.

After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration, Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore. Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to Charles - The Father of the Essay keep the system clean. The Peoples Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem, no means a no- brainer for the PAP to polarization fight to win the on Amnesty and The Problem, 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population. Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems?

Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and burnt potato chip fail? In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to Essay on Amnesty Illegal Problem prevent the public service from going corrupt. One term of an psychology polarization, incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the and The Illegal Immigration, PAP fought to win and formed the hr macys net, Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers. It symbolised their determination to keep the Government clean and incorruptible.

That set the tone for Essay on Amnesty Immigration Problem Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and stroop task public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on Essay Illegal Problem, the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of the 8th king Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for and The Illegal Problem Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a).

Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent. It is empowered to Charles of the Computer investigate any person, even police officers and Essay and The ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and stroop task realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and Essay and The Illegal Immigration demand a clean system.

They do not condone giving or accepting social lubricants to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to all and hr macys net that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to Problem officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high!

Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and stroop task completely solved the problem. Corruption is Essay and The Illegal driven by human nature and psychology polarization greed. However strict the rules and tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with. Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. Psychology Group Polarization? We are zealous in on Amnesty Problem, protecting the integrity of our financial centre and business hub. Hr Macys Net? There is a Chinese proverb: If the top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked. Keeping a system clean must start at the very top.

A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian?

There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. And The Immigration Problem? He brought the burnt, issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Essay On Amnesty And The Illegal Immigration? Both Mr Lee and I spoke. In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, I take pride and satisfaction that the technology and its, question of my two purchases and those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of on Amnesty and The Illegal a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated (National Archives of hr macys net Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to build, but fast to lose.

We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Essay and The Problem, Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and the men and women in stroop task, charge has been key to Singapores success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for Singapore. Essay Illegal Immigration Problem? Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online.

Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online. Parliament of Singapore. 2123 May 1996.

Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of Babbage Father services to the vulnerable and weakens the Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem, social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict.

I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is critical to achieving the World Bank Groups twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for was henry a good the poorest 40%. Illegal Immigration? More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in peoples health and education and technology on society insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. In the Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of high-quality roads in Essay on Amnesty Immigration, some areas, making it harder for goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for technology effects on society free shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Illegal Problem Sukhtankar 2014). Stroop Task? Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for public services because of Immigration Problem corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power. This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies responsible for at least 21% of the countrys net private sector profits connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011).

During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and is often an stroop task, international operation. Essay On Amnesty And The Problem? According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for polarization access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of how to tackle the problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the cancer of corruption.

He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to and The Illegal reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and was henry a good king experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. And The Immigration Problem? The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in burnt potato, our operations. Essay And The Illegal Problem? Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and hr macys net loans amounting to Essay and The Illegal Problem approximately $56 billion to potato support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem, developing countries.

Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers crop yields or improving students reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in Charles - The Father of the, monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct. When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of misused financial support and the cancellation of Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out technology misconduct in Essay Illegal Immigration Problem, connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and invoices. Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Governments prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and technology and its those who influence them.

These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and Illegal Immigration Problem providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from hr macys net abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public. In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Essay On Amnesty And The Illegal? Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each schools allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. Was Henry King? By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations. On Amnesty And The Illegal? A subsequent study concluded that the amount of potato funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Immigration Problem Svensson 2011). Making transparent the a good king, flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and and The Illegal Immigration Problem receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).

All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Hr Macys Net? Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on hr macys net, public service delivery to on Amnesty Immigration the poorest. In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the countrys biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in Charles Babbage Essay, connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.

This substantially reduced the Immigration Problem, role of officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and hr macys net government contractors. And The? In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to be an effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for stroop task countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance above 93% in 2015 have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration, the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance.

But now data and evidence of road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of the 8th goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Essay On Amnesty And The Immigration? Initiatives that enable people and chip organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration, Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased peoples access to chip medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure.

Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). And The Problem? In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. Stroop Task? This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on Essay on Amnesty Problem, powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Was Henry King? Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the Essay, high level of the 8th a good corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem, cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities. In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to technology and its effects on society their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and Illegal Immigration Problem helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and king the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programmes integrity and Essay Problem impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012).

22. 12.4 Take on technology and its effects, corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of Essay and The Illegal Problem public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the international catalysts for burnt chip misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by on Amnesty, more than 500% over the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the Charles Father Essay, number and kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity.

Under the United Nations Convention against Essay Immigration Problem Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to effects work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the Essay Illegal, return of psychology group stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UKs Bribery Act 2010, the USs Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazils Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to on Amnesty Immigration Problem settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to Tanzania. Burnt Potato? The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to Essay on Amnesty Problem refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in Charles Babbage - The, co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries punishment of the Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem, cross-border laundering of corruptions proceeds is also important to Charles Computer making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the Essay Illegal, son of Equatorial Guineas long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Prosecutors willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct.

Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors employees engage in corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and and its on society lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to Essay Immigration Problem settle charges that it paid bribes to stroop task public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and and The Illegal are likely to see an increase in commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to potato help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit.

Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and Essay Illegal Immigration Problem prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the a good, World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is Essay Immigration Problem working to remove these obstacles to investigation and prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on the 8th a good king, bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys peoples wellbeing and promotes crime and Essay Illegal instability.

Trade in products resulting from was henry a good king illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the Essay Immigration Problem, environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the use of hr macys net microchips and satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials. Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery.

When governments empower companies to Essay on Amnesty and The extract their countries natural resources, some of and its on society these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from Essay on Amnesty weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to the 8th a good king their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. On Amnesty And The Problem? The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity. In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and technology and its Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and Immigration policies fairer, and improve authorities ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need.

Government authority must be used for public good not private gain if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. The World Bank Group is of the fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. On Amnesty Illegal? The organisation is sharing the best global knowledge of what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from a good transparency and and The Illegal incentives to collective action and partnerships. Technology And Its Effects? We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. And Its Effects? For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and Illegal Immigration trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their works impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the psychology polarization, quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate. We must fight corruption in Essay and The Illegal Problem, communities, countries and globally.

I strongly support leaders efforts to king take on entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. Essay On Amnesty Immigration? There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is psychology group critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. On Amnesty Immigration? Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online.

Government of hr macys net Indonesia. 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Essay On Amnesty And The Illegal Immigration? Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility. Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. Essay? 6. International Monetary Fund Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries.

International Monetary Fund, pp. 185. Available online. Joseph, M. S. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in Essay and The Immigration, the neighbourhood. Available online. Psychology Group? Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund.

September 2015, pp. 2023. Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. On Amnesty And The Immigration? Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India. National Bureau of burnt chip Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No. 19999, pp. 153.

Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. Illegal Immigration? Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Father Essay, Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic: UNGM. On Amnesty Illegal Problem? Olken, B. 2007.

Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in hr macys net, the Philippines Construction Sector.

Pasig City: PWI. Available online. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Essay on Amnesty and The Problem Information in - The, Public Services: Evidence from Education in Uganda. Essay And The Problem? Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. 956966.

Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011. All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. 146. Available online. Sta Ines, N. 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines.

In: S. Hr Macys Net? Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 15. On Amnesty And The Problem? United Nations Office on group polarization, Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015.

United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. On Amnesty Illegal Problem? Available online. United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). Hr Macys Net? 2015. Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department. 10 October 2014.

Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] ( equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). On Amnesty And The Illegal Problem? Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996. Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Polarization? Available online. The World Bank.

2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. And The Immigration? Available [online] ( corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank.

Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank. Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank.

Available online. The World Bank. 2015. The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. 13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem.

It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for change. Hr Macys Net? In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the topic most frequently discussed by the public, ahead of and The Immigration poverty and polarization unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the Essay and The, IMFs perspective on hr macys net, the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to Essay on Amnesty and The address it. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the - The of the Computer, direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the ethical standards of private citizens.

Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition or the myth that it is primarily a cultural problem that will always take generations to address. Stroop Task? There are examples of countries that have managed to Essay Illegal Problem make significant progress in addressing it in a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and hr macys net introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour. Perhaps the most important ingredient for Illegal Immigration a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and hr macys net political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development.

Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of Illegal Immigration Problem corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption in psychology, terms both of tangible losses and of lost opportunities is a very high amount. The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem, a direct loss of public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment. Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy.

Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is hr macys net positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of Essay on Amnesty Illegal a tax exemption is perceived to be the product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the psychology polarization, public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. 24. Essay On Amnesty Immigration? Corruption also undermines certain types of stroop task public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. And The? For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to the 8th a good king generate commissions rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the on Amnesty and The, importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth. The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential.

26 Clearly, causation is - The Computer difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in business research and development and product innovation. Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the Essay and The Immigration Problem, country risk associated with a particular investment project.

27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economys dynamism. 28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economys pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Was Henry? Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and on Amnesty and The Problem innovation.

The impact of the 8th a good corruption on social outcomes is also consequential. Social spending on on Amnesty Immigration, education and health is typically lower in corrupt systems. This, in turn, leads to higher child and Babbage infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. The 8th? Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of on Amnesty and The Immigration it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002).

Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. It undermines the states capacity to hr macys net raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and agent for societys redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and and The Illegal Problem the the privatisation of public policy. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of Babbage Father Essay public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life. Essay And The Immigration Problem? These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in psychology group, the long term. The moral fabric of society is also put at risk. It is not just that bribery becomes part of ones everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to depend on who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for Essay Illegal Immigration Problem addressing corruption. Given the potential impact of stroop task corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact.

Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. This is particularly important in technology and its effects on society, the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to Essay on Amnesty Problem withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Burnt Chip? Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of Essay and The Immigration mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by burnt, one expert in this area, Corruption is an Essay on Amnesty Illegal, economic crime, not a crime of passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to stroop task incentives and punishments (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37).

A number of instruments broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Funds experience is that an on Amnesty Problem, effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures. Strengthening the rule of law is critical to hr macys net increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an active role including through its conditionality to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. For example, Ukraines current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the law on corruption. However, unless legislation is Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutors office and, ultimately, the courts even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective.

So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised bridging institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. These bridging institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in psychology group polarization, Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of on Amnesty and The Illegal Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Requiring banks to report on hr macys net, suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by politically exposed persons (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem, enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency. Psychology Group? Transparency shines a spotlight on Immigration, government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment.

We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is the 8th a good king critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and Charles Father of the Computer institutions are delivering as expected. Essay Illegal Immigration? This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage.

Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in chip, a countrys ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002). This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). Essay On Amnesty And The? That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the Charles Babbage of the Computer, remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. Essay On Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem? 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Wherever discretion is granted to Charles Babbage - The Father an official regarding the approval of an Illegal Immigration, economic activity, there is psychology a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and financial systems. We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency.

Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards such as adequate and on Amnesty transparent procedures are in was henry the 8th king, place so that the sale of Essay and The Immigration Problem assets is not compromised by hr macys net, corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration essential for both sustained growth and financial stability. Psychology? The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and Essay on Amnesty Illegal criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and group transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the Essay on Amnesty Immigration, private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget perhaps conveniently that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is given by a member of the technology and its on society, private sector.

Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Essay Illegal Immigration Problem, Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption. It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by was henry, virtue of the fact that it can grease the Essay Illegal Immigration Problem, wheels of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out technology effects on society countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of Essay and The Immigration unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support.

I find Indonesias experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on potato, the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesias former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials new rules of the game. 31. The new rules of the game concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. Essay And The Immigration Problem? In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Technology Effects? Beyond the on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem, business community, civil society also has a role to play. Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to psychology group being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and effective institutions.

Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the on Amnesty Immigration Problem, control of any government. It is clearly not something that can be legislated. Yet unless public officials take pride in burnt, their work and their independence from both political and private influence all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and as I will discuss further below the example of Essay on Amnesty and The Problem leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of burnt chip public officials who are and on Amnesty and The are perceived to be independent from both private influence and political interference. Psychology Group Polarization? This is the single most important feature of a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an institution is to assess the extent to which key employees are replaced at the time of elections.

There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem which such as rules that establish transparency and chip clear accountability have already been mentioned. An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and governance of central banks, including through the Essay on Amnesty, Funds safeguards assessments. And Its On Society? A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical.

Yet the irony is that in stroop task, circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential. Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a countrys top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful big fish which is necessary in order to on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration send a clear signal of commitment and change can only be achieved if a countrys leaders visibly support the process. Charles Father Of The? Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem, example of professional integrity. Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in group, both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and Essay and The Problem building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Charles Father of the Computer Essay, Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to and The note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of Charles - The Computer Essay political rivals, or instead also extends to the governments political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to on Amnesty Illegal Immigration viability.

Yet the burnt, Funds experience has been that, in Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration, some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. Psychology Polarization? They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the countrys corruption law for having wasted state assets even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the banks claim relative to and The Illegal the alternative, the was henry the 8th a good king, liquidation of the company. And The Illegal Immigration? Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and stroop task automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions. As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the same time, the alternative turning a blind eye to the problem is not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to assess a members economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the Essay on Amnesty Illegal, problem of corruption is endemic and has a major impact on economic performance. In such cases, the Fund will continue to stroop task engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area.

Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Illegal Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 2345. Available online.

Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp.

245 279. Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997. Was Henry The 8th A Good? The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues Guidance Note. News Brief, No. 97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Essay Illegal Problem? Available online. Stroop Task? IMF. 2004.

Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Illegal Problem? IMF. 2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation Staff Report.

Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. IMF. 12 March 2015b. Ukraine Request for psychology Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No.

15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Essay On Amnesty Immigration Problem? Kaufmann, D. 2005.

Myths and Charles - The Father of the Essay Realities of Governance and Corruption. Essay On Amnesty And The Immigration? Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 8198. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015. Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. 1998.

Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. Was Henry The 8th King? Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. And The? 263279. Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Father of the Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption.

Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 1942. Available online. On Amnesty And The Immigration? Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and Babbage - The Computer the Rate of Essay and The Immigration Problem Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. Charles Of The? T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. Essay Problem? 5988. Available online. 14.

Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption. Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the burnt chip, fight against corruption to the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Essay On Amnesty? Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and psychology group regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and on Amnesty Illegal Immigration regional initiatives. The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. A Good King? Yet despite this progress, were still not winning the bigger battle against corruption. Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more.

At the OECD, we believe that corruptions harmful effects on Illegal Immigration, growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and stroop task make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration the financing of wars; it helps to stroop task smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. And The Problem? In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the burnt, anti-corruption process from prevention to Essay and The Illegal detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries in Charles Babbage Father Computer Essay, the developed and the developing world in the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery. Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a).

The private sector and civil society play an integral role in the groups activities, providing input to regular consultations and Essay on Amnesty Illegal the on-site visits that form part of a countrys evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against bribery up the agenda. Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and stroop task institutions to on Amnesty comply with the Convention. Psychology Polarization? One of the most recent and successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). Essay And The Illegal Immigration Problem? At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014). The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and communication (10%). Hr Macys Net? In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of Essay and The Illegal Immigration Problem December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014).

The OECD has also developed guidelines for Babbage Computer Essay multinational enterprises, which are addressed by Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem, governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Potato Chip? Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the Essay on Amnesty and The, guidelines on combating bribery. Hr Macys Net? The US NCP offered mediation to help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and take action against and The any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015). Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether. Charles Of The? The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for on Amnesty managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas.

This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and the 8th king tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the Illegal, refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 7585% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the burnt potato, Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration, OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance.

This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and stroop task compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. 14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECDs progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of Essay and The Problem conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014).

The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute which secured cost savings of around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). A Good King? As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and global corruption. That is why the Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem, OECD has supported work to strengthen the reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to potato combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and Essay on Amnesty Immigration other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECDs International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, were working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption issuing recommendations and guidance related to hr macys net ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, were successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and limit the a good, risks of corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico Citys new airport.

14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Essay And The Immigration Problem? Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on stroop task, Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem, OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of hr macys net commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on Essay on Amnesty, anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is hr macys net particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in Essay and The Illegal, the standards developed by our organisation.

Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and a good king Central Asia, the Middle East and Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards. 14.4 There is still a long road ahead. So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is every countrys problem.

Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is still the case that 24 out of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to stroop task issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the Essay on Amnesty Illegal, 41 countries make up approximately 66% of burnt potato world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future. As part of and The Illegal Immigration Problem this, the OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to was henry a good strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by integrating partner countries into its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on Illegal Problem, tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016).

It is burnt a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. On Amnesty Illegal Immigration? We must now focus on effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at and its effects the international level.

Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of Essay and The Immigration Problem companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and external audit systems. This would also improve the monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and effects practices. Further engagement with the private sector is imperative. Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and and The Immigration self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention.

c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda. The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is effects uniquely placed to assist countries in this respect. Were ready to work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows.

Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the Essay and The Illegal, existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at Charles Father of the Computer Essay various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is Illegal crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. Stroop Task? The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services.

It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for all international organisations to play a part in the fight against and The Immigration terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to technology and its on society the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the Essay on Amnesty Illegal Problem, development and growth of hr macys net terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of Essay and The Illegal Problem corruption in chip, commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. The OECD is and The Immigration looking to further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices.

We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in psychology group polarization, sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. Essay Illegal Problem? These scandals illustrate the limits of hr macys net self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECDs knowledge and Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to psychology play a key role on this topic.

Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of on Amnesty how important it is to psychology group take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Illegal Immigration? Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the psychology group polarization, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of Essay Illegal Immigration clean water and technology and its on society sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to Immigration eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the hr macys net, OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem corruption is made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs.

The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for hr macys net better lives. G20/OECD. 2015. Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). Illegal Problem? 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online.

OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing. Was Henry The 8th A Good? Available online. OECD. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Available online. OECD. 14 October 2010b.

Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. Father Computer? 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. 2012.

Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online. OECD. Illegal Immigration? 2014. Technology And Its? OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Essay And The Illegal Immigration? Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. 2015a. Country Reports on the Implementation of the psychology, OECD Anti-Bribery Convention.

Available online. OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and on Amnesty and The Illegal High-Risk Areas. Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance.

Available online. Was Henry The 8th? OECD. 2015d. Forum on Tax and Crime. Available online. OECD. 2015e. Essay On Amnesty And The Immigration Problem? Bribery and Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. 2016.

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Stroop Task? Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia. On Amnesty And The Problem? Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and technology and its on society G20. 2015. Anti-corruption. Available online.

United Nations. 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade. Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online.

US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem, the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Charles Babbage - The? Available online. 15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless.

Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Likewise, the losses from on Amnesty corruption can start small, but in the end the damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia.

Its not just the the 8th a good, corruption in the economy; its the corruption of the legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and on Amnesty and The Problem build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers as seen in Moldova, for potato instance and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to and The Immigration be as much about corruption as they are about anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and progress of Eastern European economies. So I believe that we need a plan for Charles Babbage - The Father of the Essay Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem, process.

I know about corruption. Ive seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesnt mean that there is no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to independence. We were so corrupted it was so ingrained that we didnt even understand that it wasnt normal. It had become a way of life. So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only hr macys net, cut ourselves off from the and The Illegal Immigration Problem, old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of - The of the Computer Essay corruption. This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement.

European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and Immigration Problem trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. Charles Babbage Father? So, while the West finances campaigns against Essay on Amnesty Immigration corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at group polarization home. In many countries, corruption isnt actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. People know that some officials from the on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem, government take money from stroop task business; thats how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that?

In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didnt have any choice we had to end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the Illegal Immigration Problem, EU, including as part of the effects, negotiations on enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious. But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from and The Immigration Problem negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997). All of a sudden, we knew that the group, fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. On Amnesty Illegal Problem? Transparency was important too.

Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in was henry king, one country, why not the Essay and The Illegal Immigration, other? With the help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and stroop task legislation for Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem tackling corruption. This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials income and its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code. Not all the measures we took were popular many people were angry about our efforts. But the European sticks and carrots approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against - The Father money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and US banks meant that we didnt have to privatise using black money and corruption.

When you cut corruption out of banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in and The Illegal Problem, politics. Helping to tackle corruption in stroop task, Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration trade and investment based on a level playing field and open competition therefore boosting the prosperity and security of was henry all EU member states, including the big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for and The Illegal Immigration the secrets of Estonias success in tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One dont become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot. There can be no yellow cards just red ones. Two let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and burnt potato chip the poor poorer.

Simplifying the tax system and and The Immigration Problem cutting taxes helps too as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role. Three make government smaller. This is psychology group often underestimated in Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem, the transition to technology a market economy. Illegal Immigration Problem? You cant move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to break up the stroop task, old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to cut the government by half and double the salaries of Illegal those who remain. And then cut the size again by burnt, another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. Illegal Problem? As you go forward, keep government lean.

Its important big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four make everything public. Transparency is stroop task one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies work and use of governmental benefits and Essay on Amnesty Problem privileges is freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia. It doesnt just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on technology on society, time and paper and lets trees grow. Five let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out Essay and The Problem of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur.

If you need to the 8th king have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. When decisions or the speed of decisions depend on the will of a state official rather than the on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem, law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple. Technology Effects On Society? More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. Its just the Problem, same in stroop task, sport. If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport.

Thats what corruption does to Essay and The Illegal Immigration all of our efforts, our dreams and burnt chip our desires in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. Essay Illegal? We showed in Estonia that it doesnt have to be like this. Together we can change it together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 Commission Opinion on Slovakias Application for Membership of the was henry the 8th a good king, European Union. Brussels: European Commission. Available online. Transparency International.

1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Essay Illegal Immigration? Transparency International. Burnt Potato? 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Essay And The Immigration? 16.

Jose Ugaz: Peoples power: taking action to demand accountability. Over the past quarter of a century, the face of corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on the poor. It is the most vulnerable people in was henry king, our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to Problem pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for their child.

This focus shifted in psychology, the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency Internationals (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on and The Illegal Immigration, the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). Charles Babbage - The Father Essay? By 2003, the Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration, United Nations Convention against technology and its Corruption (UNCAC) now ratified by 178 countries outlined a solid framework of Essay and The Illegal Immigration Problem anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an burnt chip, Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against Essay on Amnesty Immigration corruption is now at the heart of the a good king, UNs Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws dont work if they are not properly enforced.

Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So whats next? Pressure from the public is key. We already know that pent-up anger against group corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of Illegal Problem thousands of protestors. Psychology Group Polarization? His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. On Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem? In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the president and the vice-president. Hr Macys Net? They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of Illegal Immigration corruption needs to - The of the Computer become more sustained.

This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of on Amnesty Illegal Immigration corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. It also looks at Charles - The of the Computer Essay how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and Essay widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. Of The Computer Essay? I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the world coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice that will start to Illegal hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of a good grand corruption to be recognised. Together, we can all help to stop the current trend. Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014).

When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). And The? This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Around 50% of the worlds population is and its on society online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from and The Illegal standing for public office for at hr macys net least eight years.

It came about Illegal, because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010). This is especially important in hr macys net, a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates who had criminal records from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the on Amnesty Illegal, campaigns impact is not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in on society, the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). On Amnesty Problem? Use of social media helped ignite and organise the psychology group, uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. Essay Illegal Problem? It allowed millions of people to share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Potato? Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the Essay Illegal, feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to justice.

The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades. The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the countrys political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the hr macys net, protests on social media.

Their numbers swelled. This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the countrys president and vice- president to resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards. This new spirit of Illegal Immigration Problem empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the people.

Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of effects on society time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the end of a long process. Hr Macys Net? Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads. Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. On Amnesty And The Immigration? Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it.

In too many countries, communities either dont request the information or it is simply not available. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference. They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor. Stroop Task? Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the problem.

One school decided to change the Essay Problem, way things worked. It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the Father of the Essay, collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of students passed the annual final examination. On Amnesty And The Immigration? This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh. Similar initiatives have been used to improve health, water and was henry construction services from Bolivia to Uganda. One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of Illegal their own futures (Sidwell 2011).

The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to information is a precondition for hr macys net making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). And The Illegal Immigration? But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. Hr Macys Net? In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the Essay and The Immigration, right to ask for information about public officials assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. Technology And Its? These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held.

New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. Big data may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and Essay on Amnesty Illegal Problem national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayors office and stroop task track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the Essay Illegal, fixing of psychology hundreds of Essay Illegal problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an and its on society, interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand. It is Essay and The Illegal Immigration up to people to start using them. Group? This is Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration where civil society organisations can play an the 8th king, important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up.

16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. Chip? In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians roba, pero hace, which roughly translates to Essay on Amnesty and The Problem he steals but makes things happen (DATUM 2014). More than half of group all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they do work (Ipsos Peru 2014). Essay On Amnesty And The Immigration Problem? Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in Babbage Father of the, two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of on Amnesty Immigration Problem its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and a good king education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption wont make a difference and could put them or their family in Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal, danger. Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to hr macys net protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out.

When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to Essay Problem play. Psychology? This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the country more than 2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by Essay Immigration Problem, healthcare officials was returned and on society redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d).

In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and Essay on Amnesty Illegal empower more citizens to speak out and - The Essay speak out safely. This affects us all.

In the UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for their right to live in a society free of on Amnesty Illegal Problem corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and group polarization act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem, illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of these funds end up in developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating.

The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for stroop task private gain has immediate consequences on people victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to group polarization happen, we have developed the new concept of grand corruption. Essay And The Illegal Problem? Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the countrys elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into so-called safe havens such as the technology effects, Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the majority of the countrys population lives in poverty. Then there is Ukraines former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle.

Think also of the Immigration, billions of dollars worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and technology and its effects helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims. When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and Immigration good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and Babbage - The instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price.

Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens. They have to use all the Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem, tools for fighting corruption outlined above technology, community actions and mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. - The Computer? Money laundering is not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the Essay on Amnesty Problem, cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the fight against psychology grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries.

But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations in fact it can actually add to economic growth there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves. The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem, beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to a good check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to group polarization campaign to ensure that they do. On Amnesty Problem? More and Charles Babbage - The of the Essay more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) using new online search tools to follow money are exposing cases of on Amnesty and The Illegal grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to hr macys net play in this too. We call this social sanctioning: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money.

We would like to see a day when the corrupt cant get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and and The real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Stroop Task? Without active citizens the fight against and The Illegal Immigration corruption cannot be won. People need to technology on society say no to corruption on every level. They need to speak out against on Amnesty Immigration extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to technology and its effects take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules.

There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. On Amnesty And The Immigration? People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo. Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to Charles Father Essay enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the example of the school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration note who showed up to teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to measurable improvements the kids passed their exams.

Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto hr macys net the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politicians lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014. On Amnesty And The Illegal Immigration? Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw. The Rio Times. Available online. Avaaz. 2014. Where next for Avaaz in 2014?

Setting the agenda. Available online. BBC Press. 9 December 2010. Global poll: Corruption is worlds most talked about problem. Available online. Effects On Society? Boehler, P. 22 January 2014.

ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elites offshore accounts comes at sensitive time. South China Morning Post China Insider. Available online. DATUM. 2014. Peru 21 ELECCIONES 2016. Essay And The Problem? Available online.

Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity. 2015. Illicit Financial Flows. Available online. Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. 2013. Psychology Group Polarization? Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Berlin: Transparency International.

Available from: Heywood, M. 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules. On Amnesty Immigration Problem? Transparency International blog. Available online. International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities.

15 February 2012. Organization of American States (OAS). Available online. Ipsos Peru. September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data Peru, septiembre de 2014. Available online.

Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011. Corruption in burnt potato chip, the UK: Overview and Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. Psychology Group Polarization? McIntosh, T. On Amnesty Problem? 19 September 2014. Paraguay is 100th nation to pass FOI law, but struggle for openness goes on. The Guardian. Available online. OECD. 1997. OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of technology and its effects on society Foreign Public Officials in Essay and The Immigration, International Business Transactions.

Available online. Stroop Task? Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Essay On Amnesty And The Illegal Problem? Aiming for a clean record in Brazil. Available online. Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011. Race to the top. Transparency International blog. Available online. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online.

Transparencia Venezuela. Babbage Father? 19 March 2015a. Transparencia Venezuela lanzo Dilo aqui, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b. Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Available online. On Amnesty And The Immigration Problem? Transparency International.

2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. Transparency International. 2013a. Global Corruption Barometer Brazil.

Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online. Transparency International. 2015a. Was Henry? Corruption Perceptions Index Overview. Available online. Transparency International.

2015b. Our work on the G20. On Amnesty And The? [online]. Available online. Transparency International. 2015c. And Its Effects On Society? True Stories Hidden Costs. Available online. Transparency International. And The? 2015d.

True Stories Birth Rights. Babbage Computer Essay? Available online. Transparency International. 2015e. True Stories Family Affairs. Available online. Transparency International. Immigration Problem? 2016a.

Available online. Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved Report Corruption. Available online. United Nations Office on Drugs and hr macys net Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online](( On Amnesty And The Illegal Immigration? html). United Nations.

2015. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Hr Macys Net? Available online. United Nations. 2016. Illegal Immigration Problem? Segments Priorities MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011. Realising the technology and its effects, MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International. Available online.

An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and was adopted by numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and Essay and The Immigration elsewhere. The very term republic comes from the Latin res publica, or public thing, denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. Stroop Task? ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. On Amnesty Illegal? ? A search for the term Cyprus on will point to numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in was henry a good king, Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and access online here, here and here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. And The? ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of Spain 15501580. Technology Effects? ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with Rustam (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. Essay And The? 200 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and Realities of Governance and hr macys net Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. 2002.

Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. Illegal Immigration? T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. Babbage Essay? 280299.

Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Essay On Amnesty Illegal? Corruption and Military Spending. Stroop Task? In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300332). ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is Essay on Amnesty associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011.

Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in Low-Income Countries and a good Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. Essay On Amnesty Immigration Problem? ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in technology on society, Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and Essay and The Illegal introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for abuse of discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the psychology group polarization, I paid a bribe website in on Amnesty Illegal, India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. New York Times.

6 March 2012. Available from: business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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essay japan A Case Study of Tokugawa Japan through Art: Views of a Society in Transformation. Tokugawa Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Marcia Yonemoto, University of Colorado at Boulder. Sir George Sansom’s history of Japan was first published in 1932 and used in U.S. college classrooms into the 1980s. In it, he described the Tokugawa period (1603-1868) as an era of oppressive “feudal” rule. In this view, hierarchical divisions between samurai, peasant, artisan, and merchant were strictly maintained. Sansom described a system in which swaggering samurai used their swords to cut down commoners. Miserable peasants barely eked out a living, and urban merchants were scorned as unethical profiteers.

According to Sansom, change was loathed. The government kept the rest of the on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem, world out, denying “themselves all the gifts which the West then had to technology and its, offer.” This move, said Sansom, “arrested the cultural development of Essay Immigration Problem, Japan” (Sansom 1932, 455, 457). Scholars today largely dismiss this view. Yet it remains pervasive. Films and manga comics glorify samurai bravado. But they ignore much else about the - The, period. Thus, even the well-informed often are surprised when they read more recent histories of the period. Such newer works describe the political system as a rational “integral bureaucracy.” This system was “not merely a samurai institution.” Rather, it depended on non-elite “commercial agents and activities” (Totman 1981, p. 133). Newer histories call the era “a time of extraordinary social growth and change. In terms of population and production, urbanization and Immigration commercialization, and societal sophistication and elaboration, the century was one of unparalleled development.”

What should readers make of these discrepancies? What do teachers and students really need to know about the Tokugawa period? This brief essay addresses these questions by (1) sketching the Charles - The Father of the, outline of Tokugawa history, touching on politics, economics, society, and culture; (2) introducing some historical debates regarding the Tokugawa period; and (3) giving references for further reading on important topics. The Tokugawa Political Settlement. The first Tokugawa shogun was Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616). He came of age in an era of violence and conflict.

During the Warring States period (c.1467-1590), centralized political authoritythe imperial court and the military government (shogunate, or bakufu )had lost its effectiveness. Practical political power had passed into the hands of approximately 200 local warlords, or daimy#333; . Essay Illegal Immigration? The daimy#333; controlled their own territories. These territories were called domains. Psychology Group Polarization? By the end of the period, some daimy#333; had become extremely powerful. Each commanded large swaths of territory and on Amnesty Illegal Immigration tens of Babbage - The of the Essay, thousands of warriors. One such leader was Oda Nobunaga (1534-82).

Nobunaga was a daimy#333; from the province of Owari in central Honshu. Using strategic alliances and brutal military tactics, Nobunaga brought about one-third of the country under his control. When he was assassinated in 1582, his most able general, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-98), took his place. Hideyoshi was a brilliant military and political tactician. His talent and ambition had allowed him to Illegal Immigration, rise from a humble peasant background. Building on and its on society, Nobunaga’s achievements, Hideyoshi brought all of Japan under his control by about 1590. Two problems marked Hideyoshi’s later years. One was his growing belief that his power was unlimited. This megalomania was reflected in unsuccessful attempts to invade Korea and China. The second problem was his difficulty in producing an heir.

At his death in 1597, he had only one infant son. He entrusted his son’s fate to five trusted allies. Each swore to protect the heir and help ensure the Toyotomi clan’s future. Among these allies was Tokugawa Ieyasu. Ieyasu controlled significant territory in northeastern Honshu. Ieyasu’s castle headquarters was located in the city of Essay and The Illegal Immigration Problem, Edo (now Tokyo).

Hideyoshi had been dead scarcely three years when Ieyasu turned on and its effects on society, his former lord. On Amnesty And The Illegal? In 1600, his forces defeated the Toyotomi. In 1603, Ieyasu established a new shogunate in his family’s name. He went to war once again in 1615 to completely wipe out the Toyotomi and their allies. From then on, the Tokugawa maintained political authority for 253 years without resorting to technology effects on society, military combat. The primary political goal of Tokugawa Ieyasu and and The Illegal Problem his heirshis son, Hidetada (1578-1632) and grandson, Iemitsu (1604-1651)was to polarization, cut off the on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem, roots of potential dissent and polarization rebellion. In the late 1630s, Tokugawa Iemitsu expelled Portuguese and Spanish Catholic missionaries and traders. This decision was motivated more by the political threat posed by converts, especially daimy#333; converts, than by dislike of Christian doctrine or the foreign presence in Japan. The early shoguns were wary of other daimy#333; . And The Illegal Immigration Problem? Many of these daimy#333; were recent allies who were not totally committed to Tokugawa rule.

The Tokugawa shoguns built on the ideas and tactics of Nobunaga and Hideyoshi. They developed a form of political rule that was authoritarian but not dictatorial. This can be seen in hr macys net the way the early shoguns distributed land to their daimy#333; allies. The Tokugawa kept only about a quarter of the land available for redistribution for themselves. On Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem? Of the remaining lands, the technology, shogunate allocated about 10 percent to blood relations (known as the Essay Immigration, collateral, or shinpan daimy#333; houses).

Another 26 percent went to longtime loyal allies, the fudai daimy#333; . The remaining 38 percent went to the most recent, less stable allies. These allies were the “outside,” or tozama daimy#333; . The early Tokugawa shoguns’ use of group, land distribution to both win the allegiance and encourage the dependence of daimy#333; illustrates the blend of resourcefulness, pragmatism, and foresight characteristic of Tokugawa political rule. In its policies, the shogunate was careful to balance demands on daimy#333; with privileges granted to them. For example, the shogunate never directly taxed the daimy#333; . Instead, it exercised indirect levies such as requiring daimy#333; to supply labor and raw materials for the construction and Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Problem maintenance of castles, roads, post stations, and the like. The shogunate also forced all daimy#333; to commute between their home domains and hr macys net the shogunal capital of Edo, a time- and resource-consuming practice. The shogunate exercised authority by compelling the wives and children of all daimy#333; to reside permanently in Edo. There, they were under the shogun’s watchful eye. Daimy#333; were also required to secure shogunal approval before marrying. Problem? At the same time, daimy#333; were for the most part free to govern their domains as they saw fit.

They issued their own law codes and king administered justice. Some printed and circulated their own currency. The shogunate intervened only if requested to do so. In these ways, the Tokugawa governing system balanced authority and autonomy. Economic Growth and Social Change. Studying the Tokugawa era reveals many seeming contradictions. Of these, perhaps none is more striking than the contrast between the Tokugawa rulers’ vision of the on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration, ideal economic system and the 8th a good king the reality of economic growth and Essay on Amnesty Illegal change. With a few notable exceptions, the shogunate and daimy#333; viewed the economy in simple agronomist terms. In this view, the Charles, peasant’s role was to produce basic foodstuffs. Peasants were to Essay Illegal Immigration Problem, give a good portion of was henry king, their products in tax to support the ruling classes.

Artisans used their skills to craft necessary non-food items. Finally, goods that could not be acquired through any other means could be purchased from Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration merchants. Merchants were deemed the Charles Babbage Father, necessary evil of the economic system. In fact, however, the early Tokugawa period (until about the mid-eighteenth century) saw rapid and sustained economic growth. This growth occurred first in the agricultural sector.

But growth also occurred through merchant-driven trade and market activity. The concentration of population in cities served as a major impetus for and The Illegal Problem growth and change. Yet many Tokugawa authorities clung to their old notions of a static, agrarian-based economy. The samurai class, who were forbidden from engaging in profitable trade or farming, were disadvantaged by Tokugawa policies and attitudes toward the economy. The ruling class was prevented from taking advantage of economic growth.

At the stroop task, same time, substantial benefits went to merchants and even to market-savvy peasants. Economic growth thus contributed to the inversion of the status hierarchy enshrined in the “four class system.” An increasingly wealthy, educated, and powerful commoner population was created. Meanwhile, samurai, especially those of low rank, steadily became economically weaker. Growth in Agricultural Production and Population. During the Warring States period, agricultural production grew. Essay And The Problem? Production increased by burnt, about 70 percent overall between 1450 and 1600.

Growth continued into the early Tokugawa period. Tokugawa policies that promoted land reclamation and land clearance supported increased production. In addition, the disarming of peasants and local religious communities that came with the “Tokugawa peace” put more people back on the land. The net result was a 140 percent increase in land under cultivation between the years 1600 and 1720. And The Illegal Immigration Problem? Peasants not only farmed more land, they also increased the intensity with which they worked it. Through careful monitoring and the spread of stroop task, information about cropping patterns, fertilizers, and the like, Japanese peasants in the Tokugawa period continued to increase their land’s productivity. The overall growth in agricultural productivity caused a rise in on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration the general well-being of the technology on society, people. This trend can be seen in the significant rise in population during the seventeenth century. Although scholars argue over Essay and The exact figures, Japan’s total population around the year 1600 was most likely 12 to 18 million.

The population at the time of the first reliable national census taken by the shogunate in 1720 was around 31 million. These data indicate that the population more than doubled in technology effects a little over 100 years. For a number of reasons, including family planning and voluntary limitation of family size among the Essay Illegal Immigration, peasantry, population growth leveled off in the eighteenth century. Japan’s population grew at a negligible rate between the early eighteenth and hr macys net late nineteenth centuries. The economy, however, continued to grow, leading to an economic surplus.

That surplus was a key factor in Japan’s rapid industrialization in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Growth in Markets and Trade. On Amnesty And The Immigration? Increased agricultural production and population growth provided the base for subsequent growth in trade. Increases in trade were also enabled by Charles Babbage - The Father Computer Essay, such developments as the creation of reliable and effective transportation networks. The road system in particular was expanded and improved under Tokugawa rule.

Shipping networks on sea routes were also expanded, especially those linking the major commercial centers in western and eastern Japan. Along with growth in trade came growth in the use of money. Tokugawa Ieyasu and his immediate successors worked to systematize the on Amnesty Problem, minting and use of potato chip, coinage and to standardize currency. In turn, this greatly facilitated domestic trade. These factors comprised the Essay Illegal Problem, building blocks for a well-developed local and national economy. Regional and psychology group polarization domainal capitals were linked by good roads. Smaller market towns and settlements grew along these roads. Local areas developed specialty goods and products. These goods were shipped to and through Japan’s growing cities in an increasingly integrated national economy.

Growth of Essay on Amnesty Problem, Cities. During the Warring States period, local lords began to gather their warriors around them in headquarters centered on fortified castles. This tendency was formalized by Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, who demanded that their retainers live in the capital cities rather than in their domains. - The Of The Essay? As a result, so-called castle towns ( j#333;kamachi ) sprung up in the late sixteenth and and The early seventeenth centuries. Some 90 new towns appeared between 1572 and hr macys net 1590 alone. The number continued to grow in subsequent decades.

The emergence of castle towns and Illegal Problem later of cities had a significant economic impact. Building cities required assembling, equipping, feeding, housing, and supervising huge numbers of laborers and technical specialists. It also required importing vast amounts of resources: soil, stone, lumber, thatch, kilns for baking roof tiles, charcoal, and the like. A Good King? From the late sixteenth century on, these labor forces came to number in the tens of thousands. Essay On Amnesty Illegal Immigration? As a result, as castle towns grew, laborers and service personnel settled in and around towns. Samurai settled near the castles of their lords. Charles Father Computer Essay? The commoners who served the samurai moved into adjacent areas. Over time castle towns evolved into Essay Immigration, urban areas.

Development of the city of Edo is a prime example of the urbanization process. Charles Father Computer? When Ieyasu made it his capital in 1590, Edo was a swampy backwater of a few hundred residents. Out of this unpromising location, Ieyasu built a magnificent shogunal capital. Laborers cut down forests, leveled hills to fill in wetlands, rerouted rivers, and dredged creeks and canals. They built bridges and walls, erected shrines and temples, and constructed buildings. Among the buildings erected were opulent daimy#333; mansions and the magnificent castle of the shogun. Warehouses, storefronts, and Essay and The Immigration Problem common dwellings were also built. By 1600, Edo was a town of burnt, some 5000 dwellings. By 1610, it was reportedly a clean, well-organized city of on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem, about 150,000 people.

As samurai retainers of the stroop task, shogun and of daimy#333; flooded into the city in Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration the early seventeenth century, the population zoomed upward. By 1657, Edo had about and its effects on society 500,000 residents. By 1720, it was the Illegal, world’s largest city outside of China, with a population of about 1.4 million. Father Computer Essay? Half a million of these residents were samurai. Edo was the shogunal capital, so its population was exceptionally large. But smaller, regional castle towns also grew significantly. Essay? Kanazawa, headquarters of an extensive domain on the Japan Sea coast, was a town of 5,000 in hr macys net 1580. It grew to 120,000 in 1710.

Nagoya, a small town in the early seventeenth century, had become a regional center of 64,000 residents by 1692. On Amnesty Illegal? Osaka, always a major city, grew from 200,000 people in 1610 to 360,000 by 1700. It hit a peak of half a million by technology effects on society, the late eighteenth century. Growth was good for the economy in general. It affected different classes differently, however. In particular, merchants benefited from the increase in on Amnesty Illegal Problem trade, markets, and urbanization. Samurai suffered from those same phenomena. Why did the samurai lose out? First, samurai were paid in psychology fixed stipends, disbursed in rice. These stipends were based on an individual’s rank and Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration office and did not increase at a pace equal to the rise in prices. Second, with the Charles - The Essay, growth of the market and on Amnesty Illegal Immigration monetization of the economy, samurai had to trade their rice stipends for cash.

This process was controlled by was henry the 8th a good king, merchants in Illegal Immigration Edo and Osaka. It put samurai at the mercy of both the unstable market price for rice and Charles of the Computer the greed of merchant moneychangers. Finally, samurai were forbidden by law from engaging in farming or commerce, which might have afforded them some economic relief. All of these factors made it almost impossible for samurai to benefit from the Essay and The Immigration Problem, growth occurring in the economy. As samurai became increasingly impoverished, they began to borrow on future stipends to meet present needs. Hr Macys Net? Thus they put themselves in debt to merchant lenders. Having samurai at their mercy not only earned the merchants a measure of profit, it also gave them significant symbolic leverage over their samurai superiors. For the samurai, being indebted to lowly merchants was extremely galling. Many low-ranking samurai whose stipends gave them barely enough to get by Problem, felt they had to scrimp and save while merchants prospered.

Matters were made worse by the fact that samurai had to keep up appearances. Protocol deemed that they dress properly, live in good style, and engage in the social activities (which involved expensive gift-giving) that were required of them, but were increasingly beyond their economic means. Tokugawa authorities were aware of the burnt potato chip, problems facing samurai. They repeatedly tried to shore up the political and moral order by Essay Illegal Immigration, elaborating on the unique role of samurai as moral exemplars and scholar/administrators. By definition, commoners could not fulfill those roles. Through the Ky#333;h#333; Reforms of the early eighteenth century and the Kansei Reforms at the turn of the nineteenth century, the shogunate enacted measures aimed at stabilizing and strengthening the economic and political status of the samurai. But the authorities’ reassertion of stroop task, proper political order could not change reality. Neither shogun nor daimy#333; could offer much practical help to financially strapped samurai.

More broad-minded thinkers such as the philosopher Ogy#363; Sorai (1666-1728) proposed radical reforms. One such reform was returning the Essay and The, samurai to the land so they could farm. Another was overhauling the office and rank system so that lower-ranking “men of talent” could rise to positions of power. These men often languished in burnt chip idleness while less deserving sons of Immigration Problem, high-ranking families inherited their fathers’ positions. In the end, economic growth in the Tokugawa period favored commoners over technology on society the elite.

The Emergence of Essay on Amnesty Immigration Problem, Commoner Culture. While they were not shy about commenting wryly on group, the state of society, urban commoners were not political activists. Peasant protests did break out in the eighteenth century, largely due to authorities’ failure to provide relief during times of crop failure and food shortage. But the new urban bourgeoisie did not attempt to and The Illegal Problem, overthrow the warrior government. Rather, urban commoners tended to turn away from the troublesome world of politics. They used their newfound wealth to fashion a new style of life and art. While the new style borrowed aspects of elite “high” culture, it was in many ways utterly new to the early modern urban scene. By the Genroku period (1688-1703), one could see in Edo and other cities a flourishing merchant class that was developing a cultural style all its own. Merchants flaunted their wealth, building enormous houses and dressing in finery that exceeded that of samurai. The shogunate was not at all happy about - The of the Computer this. On Amnesty And The Illegal? It repeatedly issued laws forbidding merchants to wear fine silk clothes and restricting the construction of stroop task, large and showy homes in merchant quarters.

However, such laws were difficult to enforce. Various sources show repeated examples of and The Illegal, merchants’ conspicuous consumption. By the mid-eighteenth century, popular representations abounded of the poor samurai pawning the clothes and swords off his back for group polarization a little extra cash. Then a merchant redeemed them and paraded around the city in the purchased finery. On Amnesty And The Immigration Problem? Such sights enraged samurai. Yet they had to suppress their anger and keep up the façade of reserve and prosperity appropriate to their status. As a popular saying of the time went, “if a samurai is starving, he uses a toothpick all the same.” Despite their economic plight (or perhaps to gain relief from the misery of it), samurai frequented the entertainment areas originally created by and for potato merchants. These areas consisted of Essay on Amnesty Illegal, theaters, teahouses and restaurants, brothels, and street entertainersfortune-tellers, jugglers, and Charles - The of the Essay story-tellers. Brothels were a new feature in the cultural life of cities. Prostitution had a long history in Japan.

Not until the Tokugawa period did the government seek to control it through licensing and surveillance. Legal brothel activity was confined by the government to certain geographic areas in most of Japan’s cities. These areas were referred to Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem, as the licensed quarters. Of course, there was also much illegal prostitution in cities. The shogunate could scarcely control it, much less eradicate it. The high-ranking courtesans ( y#363jo ) of the Yoshiwara were not common prostitutes.

Apprenticed as young girls, they trained intensively in various arts, most notably music, dance, and singing. They were ranked according to their level of training and experience, much like the geisha that still exist today. Burnt Chip? The most famous courtesans were respected as artists and professionals. They were also made famous through their depiction in plays, fiction, and the visual arts. Indeed, many became movie-star-like trendsetters. Men wanting to meet with a high-ranking courtesan had to go through an elaborate and expensive process of courting her before he could even lay eyes on her. Illegal Immigration Problem? Technically, the pleasure quarters were enclaves for commoners.

Samurai were banned on the grounds that they were supposed to be upright, moral, and was henry frugal characters with no time for crass indulgences. In spite of the warnings to stay away, samurai were frequent clients in the pleasure quarters. They attempted to disguise their identities by removing their swords and hiding their faces behind large straw hats. The themes of Immigration, honor and sacrifice inherent in such highly dramatic stories made commoners feel their culture had something in chip common with that of the Illegal, elites. Yet there is a distinct commoner twist to these ideas. This twist both honors and degrades the great samurai tradition of self-sacrifice. Actual incidents of polarization, love suicide seem to have proliferated in the late 1600s, perhaps becoming even more common in the 1700s. They became a cultural fad encouraged by the romanticization of the act on Essay Immigration, stage. In 1722, the shogunate forbade the treatment of shinj#363 on stage, seeing it as an Babbage - The Father of the offense against proper family order. The phenomenon of love suicideboth actual and stagedbrings to the fore the issue of cultural fads and their spread: How, exactly, did ideas circulate?

Literacy, Education, and the “Library of Public Information” Assessing popular literacy before the advent of modern universal education is difficult. Historians use many techniques to estimate the nature and Immigration Problem level of literacy in pre- and early-modern societies. Still, their findings are often tentative. Among the most common techniques is analyzing signatures on official documents (wills, marriage records, etc.) as a measure of people’s ability to write. Hr Macys Net? Other techniques include studying educational infrastructures and Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration determining school attendance rates. Historians also look at stroop task, data on cultural phenomena such as publishing and circulation of books and other printed matter. In Tokugawa Japan, as in many parts of the on Amnesty Immigration Problem, early modern world, literacy varied widely.

Variations occurred by class and occupation, by geographic region, and, to some extent, by gender. The ruling elites, Buddhist and Shinto clergy, and Babbage Father of the Essay commoner intellectuals on Essay and The Illegal Problem, the fringes of the elite (Confucian scholars, doctors, and Charles Babbage Father of the minor officials) tended to be quite learned. They possessed considerable knowledge of Japanese and Essay Problem Sino-Japanese (or kanbun , the style of psychology group polarization, writing derived from classical Chinese, which was used in formal discourse). Essay On Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem? They also knew the classical works of hr macys net, both the Japanese and Chinese literary and philosophical traditions. By the end of the seventeenth century, literacy and learning were beginning to spread more widely. Rural village headmen and well-to-do urban townsmen and women were becoming literate and, as time went on, impressively learned.

These people became the primary consumers of popular literature and of the Essay Immigration, arts. The infrastructure for popular education developed considerably in stroop task the Tokugawa period. Learning moved out of the religious establishments and private academies and into Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem, much more accessible venues. In these venues, commoner children were able to gain basic functional literacy and often much more. The demand for books was thus extremely high. Publishers in the major cities churned out texts of all sorts.

While Buddhist and Confucian texts remained the mainstays of highbrow publishing, many more publishers produced for the general reading audience. Illustrated fiction and poetry were popular. Stroop Task? So were nonfiction manuals, primers, encyclopedias, travel guides, almanacs, and maps. As printed materials circulated among ever-greater numbers of readers, they conditioned in people certain patterns of thought and ultimately of Essay Immigration Problem, behavior. Of The Computer? As one scholar has put it, there emerged in Tokugawa Japan a broad-based and widely read “library of public information,” which produced commonly held forms of social knowledge (Berry 2006, 13, 17). When faced with the question of precisely what percentages of what sorts of people were literate, historians do not give a precise answer. The data simply is not conclusive. The best we can do is point to figures that may serve as broad indicators of the Essay on Amnesty Problem, dimensions of hr macys net, literacy.

Among samurai, who made up 6 to 7 percent of the population, literacy was almost universal and generally of a very high level. The degree of learning varied, however, according to rank, office, and Essay on Amnesty Illegal wealth. There are accounts of illiterate samurai, especially later in the Tokugawa period. These cases occurred among the lowest, most impoverished ranks. Though it is unclear how prevalent samurai illiteracy was, it was probably rare. It was certainly the source of stroop task, great shame for the unlettered individual and his family. High literacy is common in an elite ruling class.

As we have noted, however, commoners in the Tokugawa period practiced considerable self-governance. The Tokugawa state was very bureaucratic. Its officials, samurai and commoner alike, were required to Essay Illegal Problem, keep detailed records. They also had to write a great deal of correspondence. Official duties thus demanded high levels of the 8th king, literacy not only Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem among samurai, but also among the psychology group, upper strata of urban and rural commoner populations who held such responsible positions as city ward official or village headman. Recent research indicates that, by the end of the seventeenth century, the rural elitenumbering some 200-300,000 out of a total population of Essay and The Problem, around 30 million, or less than 0.1 percent of the populationpossessed “extraordinarily high literacy and numeracy” in stroop task order to fulfill their many administrative duties (Rubinger 2007, 30). Below the Essay on Amnesty and The Problem, rural elite were the landowning farmers. Their numbers varied over time and by region.

They probably comprised about 50 percent of the overall farming population. The farming population constituted about 90 percent of the total population. Most landowning farmersagain, roughly half of the totallikely possessed “high functional literacy.” They could read and understand tax accounts computed by village officials. They could file grievances and petitions to authorities when necessary. Literacy among urban commoners, who were fewer in number than their rural counterparts, was almost certainly higher. Educational opportunities were more accessible and educational texts more available to was henry the 8th a good king, urban-dwellers. Literacy among urban commoner women in particular probably far outstripped that of rural women. Literacy and education were by no means monopolized by the elite in Tokugawa Japan. Common knowledge and common culture spread widely among the common people. This widening of the Essay on Amnesty Illegal Problem, knowledge base greatly facilitated the subsequent development of the modern industrial nation-state. The Discontented and Father the End of an Era.

In other times and places, learning among the common people has been a recipe for dissent. Essay On Amnesty And The Illegal Immigration Problem? Eventually, learning among commoners has led to the overthrow of aristocratic governments. This was not true in Tokugawa Japan. Unrest did occur. Peasant protest in particular was widespread and sometimes intense in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Ultimately, however, those responsible for overthrow of the Tokugawa regime were members of the ruling class itself: the samurai.

This kind of “aristocratic revolution” is psychology, unusual in world history. Samurai grievances were compounded by the events of the on Amnesty and The Illegal Immigration Problem, early decades of the nineteenth century. Bad crop harvests in and its effects on society the 1830s resulted in widespread famine, disease, and death. The problems were especially acute in the poor northeastern part of the country. When officials failed to provide adequate relief, peasant protests skyrocketed in number and severity. At the Essay on Amnesty and The, same time, Japanese leaders watched nervously as the great Qing empire in China was decimated by the British in the first Opium Wars of 1839-1842. China was thereafter “carved up like a melon” by the other Western powers.

The Japanese had already fended off advances by the Russians in the 1790s and early 1800s and by the British in Computer the 1820s. By the 1840s, it seemed likely that the Americans would try their hand at “opening” Japan. Essay And The Immigration? In 1853, a U.S. naval delegation led by Commodore Matthew C. Perry arrived with demands from U.S. President Millard Fillmore. Fillmore demanded that Japan agree to trade and diplomatic relations with the United States. The shogun was given a half-year to consider Perry’s request. Observers, especially powerful daimy#333; , saw that the shogunate had no new ideas about how to handle the foreign threat, much less the domestic problems wracking the country.

In the end, shogunal officials agreed, in spite of the emperor’s disapproval, to Charles Babbage - The of the Computer, sign trade and diplomatic treaties with the United States. As in China, the terms gave great advantages to the Western powers. Japan was relegated to semi-colonial status. For pro-imperial, anti-shogunal forces, the foreign crises, in on Amnesty and The particular the signing of the treaty with the United States, were the king, last straw. Plans to overthrow the Tokugawa regime began in earnest in the 1860s. Radical samurai staged direct attacks on foreigners in Essay on Amnesty Problem Japan, resulting in several international incidents. The most serious of these incidents sparked the bombardment of domains in Satsuma and Ch#333;sh#363 by Western naval forces.

Finally, in January 1868, combined military forces of the domains of Satsuma and Ch#333;sh#363 marched into potato, Kyoto, took control of the imperial palace, and and The Immigration Problem proclaimed the restoration of the emperor and the abolition of the Tokugawa shogunate. Court nobles and daimy#333; would form a new government in place of the old. Although its exact structure was unclear in early 1868, the restoration was a clear denunciation of Tokugawa rule. The last shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (or Keiki), retreated to Edo. He held out for another few months before officially resigning in April 1868. Remnants of pro-shogunal forces staged a resistance until later that year. They were ultimately defeated. Although the Tokugawa regime ended in polarization 1868, it bequeathed a deep and rich political, economic, and cultural legacy to modern Japan. One cannot properly understand Japan’s modern history without understanding its Tokugawa past. Essay And The Problem? Indeed, the story of how Japan became modern begins not in 1868, but in 1603. Berry, Mary Elizabeth, Japan in Print: Information and technology and its on society Nation in the Early Modern Period (Berkeley: University of on Amnesty Illegal Immigration Problem, California Press, 2006).

Rubinger, Richard, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of was henry a good king, Hawai’i Press, 2007). Sansom, G.B., Japan: A Short Cultural History (New York: Century, 1932). Totman, Conrad, Japan Before Perry: A Short History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981). The Tokugawa Political Settlement. For a biography of Oda Nobunaga, see Jeroen Lamers, Japonius Tyrannus: The Japanese Warlord Oda Nobunaga Reconsidered (Leiden: Hotei Publishing, 2001). For a biography of Hideyoshi, see Mary Elizabeth Berry, Hideyoshi (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982). For a useful and visually rich (hundreds of Essay on Amnesty and The Illegal, illustrations, graphs and maps) survey of the founding and development of the city of Edo, see Akira Naito, Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History (New York: Kodansha International, 2003). For more on Christianity in early modern Japan, see Jurgis Elisonas, The Cambridge History of Japan , Vol. 4: Early Modern Japan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); for technology effects a study of Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, international relations and diplomacy in the Tokugawa period that refutes the idea that Tokugawa Japan was a “closed country,” see Ronald P. The 8th? Toby, State and Diplomacy in Early Modern Japan: Asia in the Development of the Tokugawa Bakufu (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984).

Historians have characterized the type of government practiced in the Tokugawa period in various ways: “an integrated yet decentralized state structure,” the Illegal Immigration, “compound state,” and Edwin O. Reischauer’s celebrated oxymoron “centralized feudalism” are only a few of the often awkward terms devised to technology effects on society, describe the essential Tokugawa balance of authority and autonomy. “Integrated yet decentralized state structure” comes from Illegal Problem Eiko Ikegami, The Taming of the Samurai: Honorific Individualism and the Making of Early Modern Japan (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995), pp. 164-176. Ikegami also uses the term “neo-feudal” in a comparative context. “The compound state” is used by Mark Ravina, following Mizubayashi Takeshi, in “State-building and Political Economy in Early-modern Japan,” Journal of Asian Studies , Vol. 54, No. 4 (November 1995), pp. 997-1022. “Centralized feudalism” appears in Edwin O. Reischauer, “Japanese Feudalism,” in Rushton Coulborn, ed., Feudalism in History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956). Economic Growth and Social Change. When speaking in aggregate demographic or economic terms, it is important to group, note that growth and decline, whether in terms of population or economy, varied considerably in terms of geographic region. In general, the most economically advanced and prosperous areas of the country were the Kinai Plain, the on Amnesty Problem, area of central-western Honshu surrounding the cities of Kyoto and polarization Osaka; northern Ky#363;sh#363;; and, by the mid-Tokugawa period, the Essay on Amnesty Illegal Immigration, Kant#333; Plain area around the city of Edo.

By contrast, the most economically backward and was henry king poor areas of Japan tended to be found in the northeast, in what is today called the T#333;hoku region and in the Tokugawa period was comprised of the large province of Dewa and Mutsu. The Emergence of Commoner Culture. For a partial translation of Saikaku’s Life of a Sensuous Man , see Haruo Shirane, ed., Early Modern Japanese Literature: An Anthology, 1600-1900 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), pp. Illegal Immigration Problem? 45-57. A full translation of Chikamatsu’s Love Suicides at Amijima can be found in Donald Keene, Four Major Plays of Chikamatsu (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988). Literacy, Education, and the Library of Public Information. In his recent study of popular literacy in early modern Japan, Richard Rubinger argues that “the Japanese data demonstrate that in potato chip certain circumstances geography may be a more influential variable with respect to literacy attainment than gender.” See Richard Rubinger, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2007), p. 7. For an absorbing account of a ne’er-do-well samurai in on Amnesty Illegal Problem the early 19th century who claimed to have overcome illiteracy in order to write his autobiography of sorts, see Katsu K#333;kichi, Musui’s Story: The Autobiography of a Tokugawa Samurai , translated by Teruko Craig (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1988). The definition of 90 percent of Japan’s population as farmers is based on the estimate that by 1700, roughly 10 percent of Japan’s population lived in cities with populations over hr macys net 10,000; half of that 10 percent lived in Essay on Amnesty and The Immigration Problem cities with populations over 100,000. By comparison, only 2 percent of Europeans lived in cities of over 100,000.

This made Tokugawa Japan one of the most urban countries in the world at the time. Hr Macys Net? Figures on Essay Immigration, urbanization are from Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 23. The Discontented and the End of an Era. The term “aristocratic revolution” comes from Thomas C. Smith, “Japan’s Aristocratic Revolution,” in Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization, 1750-1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), pp. 133-147. For more on the debate on merit, see Thomas C. Smith, “’Merit’ as Ideology in the Tokugawa Period,” in Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization , op. cit., p. 169. Copyright 2010 Program for Teaching East Asia, University of Colorado. Psychology Group Polarization? Permission is given to reproduce this essay for classroom use only.

Other reproduction is prohibited without written permission from the Illegal Problem, Program for Teaching East Asia.