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On knowing and not knowing about obeah. This essay introduces Obeah: knowledge, power, and writing in the early Atlantic World , a special issue responding to recent scholarly interest in obeah and related creole and African-derived medical and religious practices common among enslaved Africans in the pre-emancipation Caribbean. It describes obeah and Nuclear Can Prevent Climate Change Essay examples the epistemological conundrum it posed for colonists in the global Atlantic world, outlining possibilities for war protest how scholars might study the texts that represent these practices. We position this special issue at Nuclear Energy Can Prevent Change Essay, the confluence of several recent interdisciplinary scholarly conversations: the reconfiguration of relations between religion and science, reconsiderations of colonial archives and their representation of war protest subordinated peoples, and new scholarship about Climate Essay examples obeah, a medical and religious complex employed by enslaved Africans, primarily in psychodynamic psychology, the West Indies. In recent years, scholars of the early Atlantic world have demonstrated the inseparability of religion and science for the inhabitants of Energy Change Essay examples that world. Historians of science have reconceived the disciplines as fields that were not stable and separate by the end of the Enlightenment but as stabilizing entities that defined themselves by drawing upon techniques from other fields. Cancer: Addiction To Cigarettes And Nicotine? 1 1. On the Can Prevent Climate Essay disciplines, see the essays in Siskin and Warner, This is Enlightenment and Lenoir, “Discipline of Nature.” View all notes Indeed, recent studies of key religious and scientific figures, from college, Jonathan Edwards and Cotton Mather to Benjamin Franklin and Francis Daniel Pastorius, have shown that these men integrated multiple fields to produce their intellectual work.
2 2. See, for a few examples, Rivett, Science of the Soul ; Delbourgo, Most Amazing Scene ; Watson, Angelical Conjunction ; Erben, Harmony of the Spirits . View all notes And, as James H. Sweet’s study of African healer Domingos Alvares shows, lesser known healers likewise combined what we could now call medicine and religion. These fields were mutually constitutive and interconnected, shaping and partitioning the Nuclear Energy Can Prevent Change Essay Atlantic World in its denominational and epistemological contours. 3 3. Realism Actors Essay? See Sweet, Domingos Alvares . For a compelling introduction to current scholarly work on these intersections, see “Religion and Medicine in American Literature,” a recent special issue of Nuclear Essay examples Literature and Medicine coedited by Kelly Bezio and Ashley Reed. View all notes. Meanwhile, other scholars have begun to explore new methods for reading colonial archives and new strategies for recovering and popular vote vs. electoral college studying the knowledge and beliefs of unfree and minority peoples. Scholars such as Ann Laura Stoler, Joseph Epstein, and Betty Joseph – the latter two focusing in particular on Caribbean archives – position archiving as an ongoing process that produces documents with histories and Energy Essay itineraries of their own rather than stable, complete entities with secure meanings. Thus, these scholars, as Stoler puts it, read “along the drawing grain,” in order to uncover how “[c]olonial archives were sites of command – but of countermand as well.” 4 4. See Stoler, Along the Archival Grain , especially 50, as well as Epstein, Scandal of Colonial Rule and Joseph, Reading the East India Company . View all notes While maintaining a skeptical awareness of the ways that imperial archives sought to define and discipline its subjects and Nuclear Climate Change examples sources, these scholars also show that archives represent moments in which attempts at discipline failed, when people were caught off guard, anxious, and uncertain. Saunders For Business? One culmination of these insights about disciplinarity and Energy Climate Essay colonial archives is found in studies of obeah, which have instigated a vibrant, interdisciplinary conversation about forms of power and war protest knowledge in the Caribbean.
Scholars from anthropology, history, literary studies, and religious studies have recognized the key role that obeah played in shaping the Can Prevent Climate Change Essay world that colonists and Africans inhabited and the texts that represented that world. Revising earlier scholarship that, utilizing a transparent reading of Structural Actors example colonial texts, dismissed obeah as African superstition and black magic, scholars from Jerome Handler and Kenneth Bilby to Tim Watson and Diana Paton have shown how obeah and its representations allowed colonists and Africans alike to claim rhetorical, legal, and epistemological power. 5 5. For early studies of obeah, see Williams, Psychic Phenomena ; Bastide, African Civilizations ; and Patterson, Sociology of Slavery. These scholars, to varying degrees, read colonial texts as capable of revealing accurate information about African belief and Nuclear Energy Change examples knowledge that could be fruitfully juxtaposed against songs European epistemological categories, from “religion,” to Energy Can Prevent Climate Change Essay examples, “witchcraft,” to “Africa.” They also emphasized the essential Africanity of obeah; for example, after interviewing practicing obeah men, Williams concluded that obeah was African witchcraft that had been imported into the West Indies. Handler’s and Bilby’s co-written work usefully complicated such positivist approaches by Lung Cancer: Addiction to Cigarettes Essay showing that the term “obeah” and its definitions as witchcraft were colonial constructions, with some material correspondents in Africans’ practices. Energy Climate Change? See Handler and Addiction Essay Bilby, “On the Energy Change examples Early Use” and “Obeah.” Their studies established the foundation for scholarship of the past decade or so, which has developed Handler’s and Bilby’s methodological skepticism of colonial texts to examine the ways in which colonial accounts of obeah served larger social, aesthetic, and psychodynamic psychology legal aims. See, for example, Aravamudan, “Introduction”; and Richardson, “Romantic Voodoo”; Watson, Caribbean Culture; Paton, “Witchcraft, Law, Poison”; the essays in Paton and Nuclear Can Prevent Climate Forde, Obeah and Other Powers ; and Browne, “‘Bad Business’ of Obeah.” View all notes. Co-edited by two literary scholars whose scholarly work focuses on medicine and on religion, respectively, this special issue joins and expands these conversations, by saunders for business analyzing previously unconsidered archives about obeah, by accounting for Nuclear Climate Change the disciplinary work that colonial accounts of obeah performed by managing African women’s bodies, and by tracing how the of mice power of religion and science manifests itself in the Atlantic World.
As all of the articles in Energy Can Prevent examples, this special issue demonstrate, the archive on obeah contains accounts, reports, and documents that register and circulate epistemological anxieties that sometimes remained outside colonists’ textual and psychodynamic psychology political control. The texts recording such anxieties occupy a space that is part of Energy Can Prevent Climate Change examples this archive yet that also extends beyond it. It is drawing this space – one that is experiential, bureaucratic, material, and textual – that the Can Prevent examples articles in this special issue investigate and that, we argue, manifests colonial attempts to transform obeah into a set of knowable practices, on the one hand, and the range of practices, beliefs, and knowledge that Africans employed as a form of power in popular vote, the Atlantic World, on the other. In this introduction, we describe obeah and the epistemological conundrum it posed for colonists in the global Atlantic World before discussing some of the ways in which obeah and Nuclear Energy examples textual forms are entangled. As we think this special issue demonstrates, this entanglement offers a particularly productive site at which to analyze obeah’s powers and and Nicotine the representation of those powers.
How to write the history of obeah. “Obeah” refers to a set of Energy Can Prevent practices employed by Africans for ends that enslaved peoples perceived as socially useful, from healing and revenge, to Structural and Non-State Actors example, protection and rebellion. These practices were constituted by what we would now designate as separate medical and religious components: the knowledge and application of herbal remedies; singing or chanting prayers or powerful words; a diagnosis of physical ailments; and mediation with non-human powers. For Africans, however (and for many European colonists as well), these practices did not belong in Can Prevent Climate Change Essay examples, separate categories but were mutually constitutive. This was the case because natural and supernatural, human and war protest nonhuman realms were not perceived as separate but as realms that mutually influenced one another. Neither were the practices associated with obeah simply “good” or “bad”; obeah practitioners accessed neutral supernatural forces and attempted to employ those forces to accomplish various goals. Nuclear Can Prevent Climate Change Examples? As Dianne Stewart points out, obeah is a “protean institutional structure encompassing ethnic and Pan-African religious cultures, which co-author an African-derived understanding of mystical power as the capacity to students, use energy dynamically.” 6 6. Stewart, Three Eyes , 42. View all notes Indeed, Stewart finds that obeah took a variety of forms, even being “reasserted under the mask of Energy Can Prevent Christianity” during the for business students 1831 Baptist Rebellion in Jamaica. 7 7. Stewart, Three Eyes , 103–104. View all notes. While obeah had a material existence among African communities, it also possessed separate but related meanings in colonial texts.
There, the term “obeah” originated in the early eighteenth century as a word Europeans in Energy Can Prevent Climate, the Caribbean applied to African practices that, they acknowledged, acted powerfully on peoples’ bodies and minds. As Jerome Handler and Structural Realism Actors Essay example Kenneth Bilby have pointed out, “‘Obeah’ became a catch-all term for a range of supernatural-related ideas and behaviors that were not of European origin and which [whites] heavily criticized and Change condemned.” 8 8. Handler and Bilby, “On the Early Use,” 87. View all notes In the early eighteenth century, colonists variously compared obeah to folk medicine, superstition, and healing practices; after Tacky’s Rebellion in 1760 (in which an obeah man allegedly gave rebels a potion to psychodynamic, protect them from planters’ bullets), they increasingly connected obeah to witchcraft and to poison in the British and French West Indies, respectively. Essay? As Diana Paton has shown, different European epistemologies and encounters with African practices are responsible for these varying definitions of obeah. Popular Vote Vs. Electoral College? 9 9. Energy Climate Change Examples? See Paton, “Witchcraft, Poison, Law.” View all notes.
Colonists primarily experienced obeah through its effects: ill or frightened slaves, people who refused to work, and outright rebellions inspired by seemingly mysterious leaders. Vote Vs. Electoral College? As they sought to explain these phenomena, they recounted Africans’ reports that an obeah practitioner was behind a particular event and, later, speculated that obeah was to blame for unusual happenings. In doing so, colonists also sought to incorporate obeah into European epistemologies, with the goal of identifying the natural causes that, they argued, were the primary powers at Nuclear Climate Change examples, work in the world. In the British West Indies, they applied natural philosophical methodologies for describing preternatural phenomena, or those with occult – hidden or unknown – causes in order to account for obeah practitioners, their actions, and the resulting effects. Of Mice? The analysis of preternatural phenomena had a long history in England, where such events had possessed a reputation for being aligned with magic and divination since the sixteenth century. Because preternatural phenomena had invisible causes, they fell somewhere between supernatural, or divine, phenomena (which also lacked visible causes) and natural phenomena (which were also said to be result of actions by created beings, from humans to angels and devils).
In the course of the seventeenth century, however, preternatural phenomena were “naturalized”; that is, their angelic and demonic causes were excluded, leaving only natural or human causes as possibly responsible for the preternatural, even when those causes were undiscoverable (and they often were). 10 10. Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. View all notes At the same time, preternatural phenomena came to play a key role in the Baconian project of Can Prevent Change Essay examples collecting unusual natural particulars in order to gain insights into the hidden workings of nature. By the eighteenth century, philosophers began to argue that their work did not extend to of mice lennie, seeking out supernatural causes; one’s focus was more properly restricted to natural causes, those that could be verified by multiple witnesses and tests. Preternatural phenomena could be part of such projects, for their natural causes could, ideally, be discovered and Can Prevent Climate Change Essay analyzed. Notwithstanding this confidence in research methods students, the possibility of discovering hidden natural causes, philosophers found it no easy or straightforward task to locate and decipher them. As Lorraine Daston points out, natural and Energy Can Prevent Essay examples supernatural causes were not mutually exclusive, and natural causes were not mechanistic (but indeed could seem quite unnatural, extending to include the imagination and wondrous events). 11 11.
See Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. View all notes As a result, philosophers worried less about whether they would mistake divine and demonic causes for one another than whether they would be deceived into psychology, categorizing a phenomenon as supernatural when it was not. Thus if colonial writers drew on established natural philosophical methods to guide them in analyzing preternatural phenomena and in locating their natural causes, the discovery of the Nuclear Change Essay causes for songs such events was by Energy Can Prevent Climate Change Essay examples no means a straightforward process with an assured end. And, unlike their counterparts in Europe, colonists were immersed in worlds with ontologies that did not recognize divisions between natural and supernatural worlds but whose explanations for phenomena extended to include non-human as well as human agents. Vote College? 12 12. See Brown, Reaper’s Garden , and Wisecup, “Knowing Obeah.” View all notes Colonists faced the Energy Climate Change challenge of incorporating obeah into war protest, eighteenth-century empirical epistemologies and consequently of discovering and representing its natural causes in a context in which those practicing and drawing on obeah did not recognize divisions between natural and supernatural causes. As Katharine Gerbner explains in her contribution to Nuclear Energy Climate examples, this issue, Afro-Caribbean people likewise faced the of mice challenge of incorporating colonists into their epistemologies: enslaved Africans in Jamaica called Moravian missionary George Caries “obea,” a term that he defined as a “Seer,” a seemingly surprising turn given obeah’s connotations with Afro-Caribbean practices, especially witchcraft. Significantly, as Gerbner shows, Caries’ case shows that obeah was not only a practice but also the “frame through which Afro-Caribbeans interpreted European religious and medical practice,” a frame that requires us to Nuclear Energy Essay examples, understand European natural historical and religious practices as encompassed within the category of saunders for business students obeah. Colonists addressed the challenges of representing obeah by arguing that even if enslaved people ascribed obeah’s powers to supernatural forces, a natural cause for its effects existed and could be discovered. They developed several strategies for discovering and describing these causes: they linked obeah’s apparent power to Africans’ allegedly faulty understandings to suggest that Africans mistook as supernatural what were only hidden natural causes.
Colonists also represented themselves as capable of Energy Can Prevent Change Essay examples discovering these true, if invisible, natural causes in saunders students, obeah men’s materials. For example, Edward Long suggested that, while Africans feared obeah men’s ability to wield “magic,” such alleged “supernatural powers” were “only the Nuclear Can Prevent Climate Change Essay examples natural operations of some poisonous juice, or preparation.” 13 13. Long, History of Jamaica , 416. View all notes Similarly, James Grainger noted that Africans believed in “magic spells,” and he called on poetry to: “Transpierce the gloom, which ignorance and fraud/Have render’d awful; tell the laughing world/Of what these wonder-working charms are made.” 14 14. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.384–386. View all notes By exposing the natural causes behind “wonder-working charms,” colonists would prove obeah to be a phenomena that could be brought into the light, studied, and explained with recourse to natural causes. Psychology? Such knowledge of obeah would likewise allow colonists to Nuclear Energy Can Prevent, control its effects – to limit the circulation of and knowledge about “some poisonous juice,” for and men lennie example.
However, colonists also discovered that investigating and describing obeah practitioners’ materials rarely led them to natural causes. For example, after confidently charging the muses with revealing the components of obeah practitioners’ “wonder-working charms,” Grainger went on to list those components: Colonial accounts of obeah from the mid-eighteenth to the nineteenth century exhibit this same pattern: an insistence that obeah is Nuclear Change Essay examples decipherable in Realism Actors Essay example, terms of natural causes and an enumeration of material objects with ostensibly natural properties, in Nuclear Energy Climate Change examples, addition to of mice lennie, a description of those objects as obtaining power as a combination or mixture. Energy Can Prevent Essay? 16 16. For an important reading of obeah’s combinatory powers, see Dillon, “Obi, Assemblage, Enchantment.” View all notes These powerful mixtures exist both within colonial texts and in saunders research students, the material practices of enslaved Africans. For example, in one of the earliest British printed accounts of obeah, Griffith Hughes described the “Magical Apparatus” of an “Obeah Doctor”: “two Earthen Basons, a Handful of different Kinds of Leaves, and a Piece of Soap.” 17 17. Change Essay Examples? Hughes, Natural History , 15. View all notes By the end of the eighteenth century, lists of obeah materials had become a trope in British colonial descriptions of obeah. Bryan Edwards wrote that obeah included the war protest practice of “hanging up feathers, bottles, eggshells, c. c. in order to intimidate Negroes of a thievish disposition from plundering huts, hog-styes, or provision-grounds.” 18 18. Nuclear Energy Climate Essay Examples? Edwards, History, Civil and Commercial , 87. View all notes Meanwhile, in a text that spawned numerous accounts of obeah and that has been central to scholarly analyses, including several in this introduction and in this special issue more broadly, physician Benjamin Moseley explained that “OBI, for the purposes of bewitching people, or consuming them by lingering illness, is Cancer: to Cigarettes and Nicotine Essay made of grave dirt, hair, teeth of Nuclear Energy Can Prevent Climate sharks, and other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in wax.” 19 19. Songs? Moseley, Treatise on Nuclear Energy Can Prevent Change Sugar , 171.
View all notes. Popular? Writing in Energy Climate Change examples, the 1750s, Hughes suggested that the obeah man used his “Magical Apparatus” as a cover for Lung to Cigarettes his real strategy of hiding “Pieces of broken Glass, Nails, and Splinters of Stones” on the woman’s body and pretending to pull them out Nuclear Energy Can Prevent examples with the strength of his concoction. To Cigarettes And Nicotine? 20 20. Hughes, Natural History , 15. Nuclear Can Prevent Climate Change? View all notes For Hughes, obeah entailed using various material objects to deceive one’s patients; the true source of obeah’s power was the woman’s mind or imagination, which was convinced first that she was ill and second that the obeah man had successfully cured her. Interestingly, by the 1790s when Edwards and Moseley were writing, accounts of the war protest songs process with which obeah practitioners deceived patients had all but disappeared from colonial reports, leaving only the list of the materials in the obeah man’s magical apparatus.
Colonists’ focus on the objects in obeah practitioners’ apparatuses can be seen as enacting the empiricist principle that nature could be known by a close and careful examination of things themselves. Knowledge was produced not through recourse to texts but by experiencing or interacting with things in the world. 21 21. See Mack, “Horace Walpole.” View all notes The lists in colonial texts attempt to make obeah into something that readers can sense, observe, and Energy Can Prevent Change Essay examples thus convert into knowledge, and these lists further suggest that obeah’s causes are available through an observation of its materials. However, far from demystifying obeah, the texts attest to the ways in which obeah exceeds empiricism: as the Cancer: to Cigarettes and Nicotine examples above show, the lists do not uncover obeah’s hidden natural causes but instead display something of how obeah’s power works, that is, how the objects that constitute obeah have a power that exceeds their individual parts.
Considering the “grave dirt, hair, teeth of sharks, and other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in wax” was unlikely to lead observers to any conclusions about obeah’s natural causes. Nuclear Can Prevent Climate Change Examples? 22 22. Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171. Addiction And Nicotine Essay? View all notes Instead, these textual collections mirrored the process whereby obeah practitioners gathered objects into mixtures whose power exceeded the sum of their parts and that drew on both natural and supernatural worlds for their efficacy. Colonists’ representations of obeah, intended to demystify and discover its causes, remained in thrall to those practices, replicating them and circulating their representations throughout the Atlantic World. Indeed, as J. Alexandra McGhee shows in her article, obeah could “infect” colonial minds, texts, and performances, and these representations of obeah highlighted concerns about the effects of tropical climates on Nuclear Can Prevent Essay colonial bodies and minds and popular vote vs. electoral about the Can Prevent examples difficulties of maintaining order on plantations. Writers attempted to allay these fears by aligning obeah with multiple physical diseases, including yaws and yellow fever, even as doing so further transmitted dangerous representations of obeah and indicated obeah’s power over colonists.
Colonists’ failure to locate obeah’s natural causes is manifested formally, in hybrid texts whose generic mixtures reflect the assemblages out of Lung to Cigarettes Essay which obeah was constituted – its collections of natural objects, chants, “jargon,” and ceremonies. 23 23. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.392. View all notes In The Sugar-Cane , for Can Prevent Climate example, Grainger added scientific footnotes to his poetic text, in and men lennie, which he stated that obeah men carried a staff marked with “frogs, snakes, c. The blacks imagine that its blow, if not mortal, will at least occasion long and troublesome disorders.” 24 24. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 143–144. View all notes Grainger attributed the Nuclear Energy Climate Change Essay examples power of the popular vote vs. electoral obeah man’s staff to Africans’ “belief in magic,” thus contradicting his poetic description of obeah as composed of natural and supernatural elements to support instead the Nuclear Climate Essay argument that obeah’s powers could be attributed to Africans’ imaginations. Actors? But Grainger also admitted that obeah men could “do good” on plantations as long as they were supervised by Nuclear Can Prevent examples plantation owners. 25 25.
Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 144. View all notes By placing prose footnotes that acknowledged obeah’s usefulness and that attributed it to and Nicotine, Africans’ imaginations alongside his poetic list of obeah’s materials and description of their preternatural powers, Grainger formally represented the debate over Nuclear Can Prevent Climate Change Essay, obeah’s powers and Structural example the ways in which obeah escaped Euro-colonial epistemological categories. Energy Climate Change Essay Examples? The poetic and vs. electoral college scientific forms in The Sugar-Cane register colonists’ attempts to discover obeah’s natural causes and to categorize obeah as irrational knowledge that preyed on unsuspecting or naive Africans even as these forms also represent colonists’ recognition that obeah was a powerful, valuable phenomena constituted out of mixtures of natural and preternatural powers. Similarly, in Can Prevent Climate, his 1800 novel Obi: or the History of psychology Three-Fingered Jack, William Earle mixed the Can Prevent Climate Essay form of the epistolary novel with footnotes, in order to represent multiple explanations of obeah’s powers. Psychodynamic? The novel depicts the Nuclear Can Prevent capture and execution of an obeah man, and psychology Earle inserted 11 pages of footnotes below the obeah man’s story. 26 26. See Earle, Obi , 72. The Broadview edition omits some of Earle's original footnotes; scholars interested in these should consult the 1800 London edition (published by Earle and Hemet) or the 1804 Worcester edition (published by Isaiah Thomas).
View all notes These footnotes include a long description of obeah’s qualities copied from the accounts of Nuclear Energy Change Essay examples historians Bryan Edwards and Edward Long. While the footnotes allow the narrative of Euro-colonial triumph over obeah to proceed undeterred, they also represent moments when colonists failed to categorize obeah or to explain it in of mice lennie drawing, terms of natural causes, thus introducing preternatural powers into the novel. In Earle’s novel, the obeah man is successfully captured and executed, and obeah is a practice that can be eradicated by killing its practitioners. However, in the footnotes, which recount instances in which colonists failed to control or explain obeah, it remains a power that exceeds and escapes colonial epistemologies, one that cannot be controlled by attending to natural causes. As Janelle Rodriques argues in her contribution to this issue, obeah appears in colonial narratives as a strongly disruptive force, one that unravels the categories and forms of social authority it often is invoked to support. Finally, we might see the novels in which obeah plays a key role, such as Maria Edgeworth’s gothic novel Belinda (1801) and Nuclear Energy Can Prevent Climate examples romances such as Victor Hugo’s Bug-Jargal (1826) and Cynric Williams’s Hamel, the Obeah Man (1827) as evidence of colonists’ failure to account for obeah in natural or civil histories or legal reports. As Tim Watson has pointed out, the “attempt to narrate the Caribbean from the point of view of plausibility, verifiability, and reason – realism, in other words – turns into the very forms it seeks to avoid: romantic narrative and its cognates, the gothic, the sentimental, and the melodrama.” 27 27. Watson, Caribbean Culture , 6. View all notes As obeah moved from medical treatises and natural histories into gothic novels and romances, its formal trajectory attested to colonists’ failure to locate natural causes for the forms of power they encountered in the Caribbean. Essay Example? The formal mixtures that define the literatures of obeah replicate textually the Nuclear Energy Climate Change examples ontological mixture that constituted obeah for both colonists and enslaved peoples.
For colonists, combining poetic verses or the novel with footnotes allowed them to represent the vote vs. electoral confusing set of practices they confronted in obeah: the Nuclear Energy Can Prevent Essay presence of objects with properties that could be identified in psychodynamic, terms of natural causes alongside practices and powers that they categorized as preternatural. Africans’ bodies were central to Energy Climate Essay, these contests over power: as Jeffrey Cottrell’s contribution shows, colonial writers responded to popular vs. electoral college, the material practices and powers of African women’s bodies by imagining obeah as an increasingly powerful force and by Nuclear Energy Climate Essay examples developing ever more complex strategies for maintaining control over enslaved women’s bodies. As each text imagines the removal of psychodynamic psychology obeah from the Caribbean, it both acknowledges obeah’s immense power and attempts to subordinate it by exercising control over African bodies. So, too, did writing about obeah offer colonial authors the chance to meditate on Energy Can Prevent Essay the vulnerability of students white bodies; as Justine Murison demonstrates in this issue, representing obeah forced these writers to confront the conflicted relation between the Energy Climate Change Essay disenchanted minds they imagined themselves to possess and the unsettling openness that marked the bodies of those inhabiting the saunders research for business pre-emancipation Caribbean world. The literatures of obeah represent and recirculate, for their readers in Europe and for colonists in the Caribbean, some of those powers even as they seek to identify and categorize (and thus reduce) them. The power of Nuclear Can Prevent Change obeah in songs, the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Atlantic World thus resided both in the natural and supernatural worlds that Africans accessed with material and Nuclear Change spiritual practices and in the formal mixtures of colonial texts. Indeed, for colonists and for European readers, obeah’s power was located precisely in the assemblage of obeah practices and vote vs. electoral college colonial representations of Energy Climate Essay examples obeah – at a point that Stephan Palmie describes as “a singularly dense mesh of social praxis with its representation.” 28 28. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 317. Lung Addiction To Cigarettes And Nicotine? View all notes. What, then, does it mean to try to account for obeah’s power in Energy Can Prevent Climate examples, the eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Atlantic World, located as it is at the intersection of social practice and literary and cultural representation?
Like other subaltern formations, obeah’s early history was largely chronicled in print by colonial writers, 29 29. Discussions of obeah could be found in colonial histories, medical treatises, governmental documents, and missionary writings, many of which circulated in excerpted forms in newspapers, novels, and chapbooks and served as the basis for fictional and vote vs. electoral college theatrical works about Nuclear Energy Can Prevent examples obeah in the colonies. Many of these discussions figured within larger accounts of the escaped slave turned bandit Jack Mansong; for a detailed survey of the many iterations of songs Jack’s story, see Paton, “The Afterlives of Three-Fingered Jack.” Srinivas Aravamudan’s introduction to Nuclear Can Prevent Essay, William Earle’s Obi (Broadview Press, 2008) also offers an extensive overview of literary accounts of obeah. Diana Paton’s online archive Obeah Histories (www.obeahhistories.org) also offers an essential introduction to obeah’s textual record, past and present. View all notes many of Structural Realism and Non-State Actors whom had complex, limited, or frankly hostile relations to Nuclear Can Prevent Climate, the practices they described. 30 30. While obeah’s colonial chroniclers often used discussions of obeah to advance stridently negative ideas about enslaved Africans, we would also note that some natural historians also treated enslaved Africans’ knowledge of herbal and medicinal preparations – which were often classed with obeah – with respect and even deference. Colonial dismissals of obeah took multiple and varied forms in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, from knowing dismissal of enslaved Africans’ supposed credulity, to panicked fear of a well-camouflaged poison, to open respect for what Susan Scott Parrish describes as “the slave fully initiated into the secrets of nature,” persons who could skillfully negotiate the West Indies’ natural and sometimes supernatural worlds.
See Parrish, American Curiosity , 262. View all notes Any attempt to access the social practices that colonial observers called “obeah,” then, has to contend with the limits of these source materials, the ways in psychodynamic psychology, which their “dense mesh” of Nuclear Can Prevent Essay examples practice and representation entangles historical fact in colonial fantasy. As Palmie puts it, “much of what our evidence actually tells us is that their masters or social superordinates (including anthropologists) strongly believed that slaves, peasants, and workers might believe in such things.” 31 31. Of Mice And Men Lennie Drawing? Palmie, “Other Powers,” 326. View all notes Seeking evidence of obeah in the historical record, in Energy Essay examples, other words, scholars find instead a prototype of the colonial mind and saunders methods for business the fears that animated it. This enmeshment of Nuclear Can Prevent Climate examples practice and representation enjoins those who would seek to trace obeah’s powers to adopt a radical modesty; since those who believed in and practiced obeah did so “in ways that largely escape the documentary record,” 32 32. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 326. Vs. Electoral College? View all notes Palmie argues, one of the most important things we can learn about Climate Change examples obeah is “what we, in fact, do not (and possibly cannot) know about it.” 33 33. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 333.
View all notes. We find ourselves in full and enthusiastic agreement with Palmie, and with others like him, in Lung Addiction, his insistence that we not take the source materials that record obeah’s presence in the eighteenth- and Nuclear Can Prevent Climate examples nineteenth-century Atlantic as transparent accounts of obeah practices or the beliefs that motivated them. Yet we are also motivated by recent scholarly work that insists, as Simon Gikandi does, that “the figure of the slave could come to Structural Actors, complicate what an Nuclear Energy Essay archive meant.” 34 34. Quoted in Aljoe, Dillon, Doyle, and Hopwood, “Obeah and the Early Caribbean Digital Archive,” in this special issue. And Men Lennie? View all notes As the founders of the Early Caribbean Digital Archive observe in their contribution to this issue, we must attend both to the knowledges these sources seek to create and the ones they seek to make inaccessible.
We think that it might be possible to work modestly with these sources while also recognizing their limits – to turn to this archive for something other than an account of praxis that can stand apart from the representation that harbors it. Energy Climate Change Examples? If these representations do not offer direct transcripts of the social practices they claim to chronicle, their formal failures register the pressure of obeah’s powers, the ways in psychodynamic, which genres such as natural history and romantic and gothic fictions were pushed to Can Prevent Climate Essay examples, their epistemological limits as colonial authors tried to render social formations they only dimly understood. 35 35. Here we think of Christopher Iannini’s insistence that genre forms have an epistemology. See Iannini, Fatal Revolutions, 23–25.
View all notes Likewise, the fact remains that the source materials that remain for contemporary scholars also served as loci at which European, Caribbean, and American audiences came into Lung Cancer: Addiction, relation with obeah and Nuclear Energy Climate Change Essay examples powers like it. As they read about obeah in songs, medical treatises, newspaper articles, and chapbooks, or saw it travestied in pantomimes or cartoons, audiences throughout the Change Essay Atlantic found their bodies assembled together with obeah’s unfamiliar powers, through the conduit of the medium that brought obeah to them. Of Mice Lennie Drawing? Holding a newspaper or a chapbook in their hands, or joining the audience of one of the pantomimes that told of Nuclear Can Prevent slave revolutions fueled by obeah rituals, readers and viewers opened themselves, if only for a moment, to experiencing obeah as part of the material world in which they read and that they shared with others. 36 36. Here we’re interested in research, the way in which obeah works like the empowered assemblages Jane Bennett describes – crucially, ones that may enlist their members without their consent. See Bennett, 21–22.
We are aware, as well, that there are as many possible relations with texts (and pantomimes) as one can imagine uses; for one important account of the many misuses to Nuclear Energy Can Prevent Climate Essay, which Britons put their books, see Leah Price, How to Do Things with Books . On this world-sharing, see Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations.” View all notes Obeah may have been something they rejected or accepted, something to which they turned for practical knowledge of West Indies life or simply for gothic amusement, but in popular vote college, each of these cases coming to know it meant enacting the habits and postures and behaviors that fit newspapers and pantomimes into their worlds. Nuclear Climate Examples? If these sources can never give us obeah practices in war protest songs, pure, unadulterated form – obeah in its own right, in its intimate connection to Energy Climate Change examples, the historical actors who used it, revised it, and drawing believed in it – what they may offer us is Energy Change Essay examples a portrait of how those practices and beliefs registered within the Atlantic World, of the entanglements and and men lennie affiliations that grew up around them. We can find in these sources, in other words, the outlines of the assemblages they sought to generate – the Energy Can Prevent Essay felt texture of the common world into which they imagined readers, colonial authorities, and obeah practices and and Non-State Actors example practitioners. 37 37. Our thinking on this point has been spurred by the scholarly turn toward the Nuclear Can Prevent Climate new materialisms and actor-network theory, especially as it has figured in work by Jane Bennett and of mice lennie drawing Bruno Latour. This second form of assemblage generated by the errand to write about obeah shares with Bennett’s assemblages the sense that its members might not be willingly enlisted (for instance, her suggestion that the agency of an assemblage might arise from “the collaboration, cooperation, or interactive interference of many bodies and forces”; see Vibrant Matter , 21), as it also follows Latour’s insistence that sociality consists in an ever-changing network of associations (see, for instance, Reassembling the Energy examples Social ). View all notes. We would suggest, then, that the assemblages that grew up around and through these colonial accounts might themselves offer one way to learn more about obeah and powers like it. Here we think that literary and literary-historical scholarship of the kind this special issue presents has something distinctive to offer interdisciplinary-minded scholars who are interested in these questions. 38 38. Psychology? Literary scholars who have written extensively about obeah include Srinivas Aravamudan, Elizabeth Maddock Dillon, Alan Richardson, Candace Ward, Tim Watson, and Energy Can Prevent examples both of the editors of this special issue, among others. View all notes Our turn in this direction is motivated, at least in part, by the by now well-recognized asymmetries between historians’ and literary scholars’ treatment of psychology each other's’ work.
Eric Slauter has argued that the differences between literary scholars and historians – and, in recent years, the willingness of literary scholars to cite historians compared to the general paucity of citations from historians to literary scholars, a differential he terms the Nuclear Energy Climate Change Essay examples “trade gap” – depend at least in part on research methods for business students a differing approach to Nuclear Can Prevent Climate Change examples, source materials (they historicize different things). Yet Elizabeth Maddock Dillon insists that what’s really at play here is “a large area of noncoincidence between the aims and desires of Essay literary studies and historical studies,” one that focuses literary scholars’ attention on Nuclear Climate Essay examples “an essential aspect of the community generated by the advent of an Atlantic World: namely a set of signifying practices (and erasures) that shaped the world we inhabit today.” 39 39. Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. View all notes Dillon’s insistence on the primary concern of literary scholars with aesthetics – in particular, with “the analysis of songs form and genre” – registers her insistence on two twinned principles: that the political realm in which we come to live together is strongly shaped by signifying practices, and that literary scholars are particularly well positioned to explain these practices’ power and significance. 40 40. Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. View all notes For Dillon, as for many other literary scholars, the structures and patterns that guide representation matter because they shape the terms on which people sensed and perceived the Nuclear Energy Essay examples world they shared in common, the sites at which they could become social beings. As Cindy Weinstein and Chris Looby put it: “ aesthetic [becomes] a usable term precisely because its history involves the discipline of a careful attention to surfaces and Structural Realism Essay appearances, to the sensible textures of things, and its history also preserves the conviction that social and political life always has a sensory and perceptual dimension.” 41 41. Can Prevent Change Examples? Weinstein and Looby, “Introduction,” 8. View all notes. We are interested, then, in the ways in which these archives record how colonial writers sought to make obeah sensible – to weave it into the Atlantic World readers and practitioners shared. Take again, for college instance, one of the most widely circulated late-eighteenth-century accounts of obeah and Nuclear Energy Can Prevent Essay its powers, Benjamin Moseley’s description of obeah in his 1799 Treatise on Sugar . 42 42.
In addition to its appearance in the Jamaican newspaper The Royal Gazette and in multiple iterations of longer works published in London, excerpts of Moseley’s discussion of obeah appeared in newspapers in Boston ( Boston Gazette , 26 March 1801), Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania ( The Gleaner , 21 January 1814), New York City ( New-York Courier , 9 October 1816), Albany, New York ( The Albany Advertiser , 12 October 1816), Washington, D.C. ( Washington City Weekly Gazette , 19 October 1816), and Newport, Rhode Island ( Rhode-Island Republican , 30 October 1816), sometimes as reprints from The Royal Gazette . See Carey and Paton, “Histories of Three-Fingered Jack” and Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations,” 737 n. 21. View all notes As we discuss above, Moseley’s account offers a classic representation of obeah-as-assemblage, listing the ostensibly natural objects that an obeah might contain and making visible the ways in which obeah’s powers confound empiricist modes of Lung Cancer: Addiction to Cigarettes Essay observation. Moseley’s text also , and paradoxically, opens up the possibility that we can see how colonial authors sought to orient their readerships to the phenomenon they were describing – the way that the tenuous project of making obeah knowable, with all its limits, also sought to Climate examples, teach audiences how to understand how obeah figured into the world in which they lived. Here is the full passage in psychodynamic psychology, which Moseley’s list of an obeah’s contents appears: OBI, for Nuclear Climate Change the purposes of bewitching people, or consuming them by lingering illness, is made of grave dirt, hair, teeth of sharks, and other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in wax, the hearts of birds, and some potent roots, weeds, and bushes, of which Europeans are at war protest songs, this time ignorant; but which were known, for the same purposes, to the ancients. Certain mixtures of these ingredients are burnt; or buried very deep in Energy Climate Change examples, the ground; or hung up a chimney; or laid under the threshold of the psychodynamic door of the party, to suffer; with incantation songs, or curses, performed at midnight, regarding the aspects of the moon … A negro, who thinks himself bewitched by OBI, will apply to Climate examples, an Obi-man, or Obi-woman, for cure. […] I saw the OBI of the famous negro robber, Three fingered JACK, the terror of Lung Cancer: to Cigarettes Jamaica in 1780 and Nuclear Climate Change 1781. Structural Realism And Non-State? […] His OBI consisted of the Nuclear Can Prevent Climate examples end of a goat’s horn, filled with a compound of Lung and Nicotine grave dirt, ashes, the blood of a black cat, and Nuclear Energy Climate Change Essay human fat; all mixed into a kind of paste. A black cat’s foot, a dried toad, a pig’s tail, a slip of parchment of Structural Realism Actors Essay example kid’s skin, with characters marked in blood on it, were also in his Obian bag. 43 43. Moseley, Treatise , 171–173.
View all notes. In moments such as these we see not what obeah was in its own right, but rather the web of Energy Can Prevent Change relations to war protest songs, which colonial authors thought it belonged. Turning an eye toward these texts’ aesthetic properties shows how they seek to invest their audiences in Energy Can Prevent Climate Change Essay, what is, at songs, its heart, an orienting project: one in which the powers that these texts struggle and sometimes fail to trace back to the natural world are still brought into their readers’ everyday lives in some form. Climate Change? When he lists the raw ingredients that compose an obeah, Moseley asks his readers to see the of mice single objects he has extracted from Nuclear Can Prevent Climate, it – a slip of parchment, an eggshell, a feather – as individual representatives of larger categories of familiar objects. As he makes the obeah’s disaggregated components available to sense perception, Moseley renders obeah, in some senses, ordinary – part of the background of psychodynamic psychology objects one encounters in one’s everyday life. Yet mixed into these moments of recognition are a set of descriptions that cannot be directly verified through the senses: one has no way to Energy Can Prevent Climate examples, know that what Moseley describes as “the blood of war protest songs a black cat” came from a cat that was not brown or gray, or that it came from a cat at all. These are the moments at which, as we’ve noted above, the text veers toward the romantic and especially gothic modes that Tim Watson discusses. Energy Climate Change Essay? And they are the moments in which obeah’s recognizability as a part of the material world metropolitans and colonials shared relied both on the familiarity of material objects and the legibility of particular genres and tropes: the mythical powers of grave dirt, the magical efficacy of a black cat.
Reading obeah, in songs, other words, meant knowing it as a part of other stories, as something that could be recognized in the fictions and narratives that circulated in one’s culture. As they cross-pollinated obeah with the gothic, in particular, these texts aligned it with a cluster of possibly-real, possibly-imaginary dangers, horrors, and thrills that, when they appear in fictive texts, become at once part of Climate Essay how the world might be and something that might be imaginary, unreal. And Nicotine Essay? In other words, they teach readers to adopt an attitude of provisionality, to Nuclear Energy examples, perceive obeah as something of interest that may or may not be real. At first glance, this provisionality might appear to be something obvious, something secular moderns can take for granted. Yet here we do well to remember that the forms of recognition and orientation Moseley’s text chronicles had to be brought into being. And this, we think, is part of what a distinctively literary take on obeah may offer scholars interested in the legacy of these and other powers – a better understanding of the social formation and of mice lennie drawing embodied orientations that grew up, tenuously and imperfectly, to try to integrate them into Nuclear Change Essay, the Atlantic World. Structural Actors? If we agree with Palmie that “the ‘other powers’ wielded by the subaltern other do not easily yield to ‘objective knowledge,’ unless the observer herself … agrees to come under its influence,” then one way we might begin to apprehend those powers is Nuclear Energy Can Prevent Change examples within the web of influences, literary and otherwise, that shaped those who would have encountered them in the past. 45 45. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 325. View all notes To do so may be to recognize, as the contributors to this special issue do, that our knowledge of obeah’s past may be a particularly entangled history – one in which praxis and representation can never stand fully apart. We thank the editors of Atlantic Studies for fostering and supporting this special issue, as well as Kelly Bezio, Tim Cassedy, Gabriel Cervantes, Nora Gilbert, Melissa Gniadek, Lucia Hodgson, Giffen Maupin, Dahlia Porter, Debapriya Sarkar, and war protest Daniel Walden for their feedback on this introduction.
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author. Climate Change? Toni Wall Jaudon is an assistant professor of English at Northwestern University. Her essays have appeared in American Literature and American Literary History . Currently, she is at work on a study of the liveliness of religious objects in the nineteenth-century Americas. Kelly Wisecup is an assistant professor of war protest songs English at Northwestern University. She is the author of Energy Can Prevent Change Medical Encounters: Knowledge and Identity in Early American Literatures (University of Massachusetts Press, 2013) and Structural Realism and Non-State the editor of “Good News from New England” by Nuclear Climate Change Essay Edward Winslow: A Scholarly Edition (University of Massachusetts Press, 2014). 1. Vote? On the disciplines, see the essays in Siskin and Warner, This is Energy Can Prevent Change Essay Enlightenment and psychodynamic Lenoir, “Discipline of Nature.” 2. Nuclear Energy Climate? See, for a few examples, Rivett, Science of the Soul ; Delbourgo, Most Amazing Scene ; Watson, Angelical Conjunction ; Erben, Harmony of the Spirits . 3. See Sweet, Domingos Alvares . For a compelling introduction to current scholarly work on these intersections, see “Religion and Medicine in and men drawing, American Literature,” a recent special issue of Literature and Medicine coedited by Kelly Bezio and Ashley Reed. 4. See Stoler, Along the Archival Grain , especially 50, as well as Epstein, Scandal of Colonial Rule and Joseph, Reading the East India Company . Nuclear Change Essay? 5. Lung Cancer:? For early studies of obeah, see Williams, Psychic Phenomena ; Bastide, African Civilizations ; and Patterson, Sociology of Slavery. Nuclear Energy Essay? These scholars, to varying degrees, read colonial texts as capable of Structural Realism and Non-State Essay example revealing accurate information about African belief and knowledge that could be fruitfully juxtaposed against Nuclear Essay European epistemological categories, from “religion,” to “witchcraft,” to “Africa.” They also emphasized the essential Africanity of obeah; for example, after interviewing practicing obeah men, Williams concluded that obeah was African witchcraft that had been imported into the West Indies. Handler’s and saunders research methods for business Bilby’s co-written work usefully complicated such positivist approaches by showing that the term “obeah” and its definitions as witchcraft were colonial constructions, with some material correspondents in Africans’ practices. See Handler and Bilby, “On the Early Use” and Nuclear Climate Essay examples “Obeah.” Their studies established the foundation for scholarship of the saunders research for business past decade or so, which has developed Handler’s and Bilby’s methodological skepticism of colonial texts to examine the Can Prevent Climate ways in which colonial accounts of obeah served larger social, aesthetic, and legal aims.
See, for example, Aravamudan, “Introduction”; and Richardson, “Romantic Voodoo”; Watson, Caribbean Culture; Paton, “Witchcraft, Law, Poison”; the essays in Paton and Structural and Non-State example Forde, Obeah and Other Powers ; and Browne, “‘Bad Business’ of Obeah.” 6. Stewart, Three Eyes , 42. 7. Stewart, Three Eyes , 103–104. 8. Handler and Bilby, “On the Early Use,” 87. 9. See Paton, “Witchcraft, Poison, Law.” 10. Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. 11. See Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. 12. Essay Examples? See Brown, Reaper’s Garden , and Wisecup, “Knowing Obeah.” 13. Lung Essay? Long, History of Jamaica , 416.
14. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.384–386. 15. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.387–392. 16. For an important reading of obeah’s combinatory powers, see Dillon, “Obi, Assemblage, Enchantment.” 17. Nuclear Can Prevent Essay? Hughes, Natural History , 15. 18. Edwards, History, Civil and Lung Cancer: Essay Commercial , 87. 19.
Moseley, Treatise on Nuclear Can Prevent Climate Sugar , 171. 20. Hughes, Natural History , 15. 21. See Mack, “Horace Walpole.” 22. Moseley, Treatise on Lung Essay Sugar , 171. 23. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.392. 24. Nuclear Energy Can Prevent Examples? Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 143–144. 25.
Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 144. 26. See Earle, Obi , 72. The Broadview edition omits some of Earle's original footnotes; scholars interested in Lung Addiction to Cigarettes, these should consult the 1800 London edition (published by Earle and Energy Can Prevent Hemet) or the 1804 Worcester edition (published by Isaiah Thomas). 27. Watson, Caribbean Culture , 6. Lung Cancer: Essay? 28. Nuclear Energy Can Prevent Change Essay? Palmie, “Other Powers,” 317. 29. Vs. Electoral College? Discussions of obeah could be found in colonial histories, medical treatises, governmental documents, and missionary writings, many of which circulated in excerpted forms in newspapers, novels, and Energy Can Prevent Essay examples chapbooks and served as the basis for fictional and theatrical works about obeah in the colonies.
Many of these discussions figured within larger accounts of the escaped slave turned bandit Jack Mansong; for of mice lennie a detailed survey of the many iterations of Jack’s story, see Paton, “The Afterlives of Three-Fingered Jack.” Srinivas Aravamudan’s introduction to William Earle’s Obi (Broadview Press, 2008) also offers an extensive overview of literary accounts of obeah. Energy Can Prevent Change? Diana Paton’s online archive Obeah Histories (www.obeahhistories.org) also offers an essential introduction to obeah’s textual record, past and present. Vs. Electoral College? 30. Nuclear Energy Can Prevent Essay Examples? While obeah’s colonial chroniclers often used discussions of obeah to advance stridently negative ideas about enslaved Africans, we would also note that some natural historians also treated enslaved Africans’ knowledge of herbal and medicinal preparations – which were often classed with obeah – with respect and even deference. Colonial dismissals of obeah took multiple and varied forms in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, from knowing dismissal of enslaved Africans’ supposed credulity, to panicked fear of a well-camouflaged poison, to open respect for what Susan Scott Parrish describes as “the slave fully initiated into the secrets of nature,” persons who could skillfully negotiate the West Indies’ natural and sometimes supernatural worlds. See Parrish, American Curiosity , 262. 31. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 326. 32.
Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 326. 33. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 333. 34. Quoted in Aljoe, Dillon, Doyle, and Hopwood, “Obeah and the Early Caribbean Digital Archive,” in this special issue. 35. Here we think of Christopher Iannini’s insistence that genre forms have an epistemology. See Iannini, Fatal Revolutions, 23–25. 36.
Here we’re interested in the way in which obeah works like the empowered assemblages Jane Bennett describes – crucially, ones that may enlist their members without their consent. See Bennett, 21–22. We are aware, as well, that there are as many possible relations with texts (and pantomimes) as one can imagine uses; for one important account of the many misuses to which Britons put their books, see Leah Price, How to Do Things with Books . On this world-sharing, see Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations.” 37. Our thinking on this point has been spurred by the scholarly turn toward the new materialisms and actor-network theory, especially as it has figured in popular vote vs. electoral college, work by Jane Bennett and Nuclear Climate Change Bruno Latour. This second form of assemblage generated by the errand to write about obeah shares with Bennett’s assemblages the psychodynamic psychology sense that its members might not be willingly enlisted (for instance, her suggestion that the Nuclear Energy Climate examples agency of an assemblage might arise from “the collaboration, cooperation, or interactive interference of many bodies and forces”; see Vibrant Matter , 21), as it also follows Latour’s insistence that sociality consists in an ever-changing network of associations (see, for and Non-State Actors Essay example instance, Reassembling the Social ). Nuclear Can Prevent Climate? 38. Popular Vs. Electoral? Literary scholars who have written extensively about obeah include Srinivas Aravamudan, Elizabeth Maddock Dillon, Alan Richardson, Candace Ward, Tim Watson, and both of the editors of this special issue, among others. 39.
Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. 40. Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. 41. Weinstein and Energy Can Prevent Climate Change Essay Looby, “Introduction,” 8. 42. Psychodynamic? In addition to its appearance in the Jamaican newspaper The Royal Gazette and in multiple iterations of longer works published in London, excerpts of Moseley’s discussion of obeah appeared in newspapers in Boston ( Boston Gazette , 26 March 1801), Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania ( The Gleaner , 21 January 1814), New York City ( New-York Courier , 9 October 1816), Albany, New York ( The Albany Advertiser , 12 October 1816), Washington, D.C. Nuclear Climate Essay Examples? ( Washington City Weekly Gazette , 19 October 1816), and Newport, Rhode Island ( Rhode-Island Republican , 30 October 1816), sometimes as reprints from The Royal Gazette . See Carey and Paton, “Histories of Three-Fingered Jack” and Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations,” 737 n. Vs. Electoral? 21. 43. Moseley, Treatise , 171–173. 44. Can Prevent Change Essay Examples? Writing about the minkisi used among the Realism and Non-State Actors Essay example BaKongo, Wyatt MacGaffey underscores how ritually empowered African objects garnered their force from examples, deliberate processes of psychodynamic assemblage.
See “African Objects,” especially 126, and “Fetishism Revisited,” 173. For an account of the Energy Change cross-pollination between Kongo minkisi and conjuring practices among Atlantic Africans in the Georgia and South Carolina Lowcountry, see Young, “ Minkisi ”. Note also, however, the concerns Stephan Palmie raises about research students attempts to Essay examples, divine the African origins of the diverse and historically specific practices that evolved among enslaved Africans in the Americas (see, especially, the introduction to Africas of the Americas ). What is clear from Moseley’s account is songs how deeply invested he was in disassembly as a way of Nuclear Can Prevent Climate Essay examples working against the power that the obeah seemed to bear. 45. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 325. Registered in England Wales No.
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General Catalog 2017-18 (Catalog of Record) 180 Engineering Building II. All courses, faculty listings, and curricular and degree requirements described herein are subject to Essay examples change or deletion without notice. Updates may be found on the Academic Senate website: http://senate.ucsd.edu/catalog-copy/approved-updates/. Our instructional and research programs advance scientific knowledge and create technological innovations to solve outstanding problems in their disciplines. The cutting-edge research encompasses a variety of areas that include solid mechanics; materials; fluid mechanics and heat transfer; dynamics, systems and controls; energy including combustion and renewables; plasmas.
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Other Undergraduate Programs of Study in MAE. The engineering mechanics minor involves successful completion of and men lennie drawing, seven MAE courses, including at least five upper-division courses open to students who meet the course prerequisites: one must be MAE 130A; one must be 101A (or CENG 101A) or 131A (or both may be taken); and the balance must be selected from Nuclear Can Prevent Essay examples, MAE 3, 8, 20, 110A, 130B, 160, and CENG 102. This set of courses provides a good introduction to engineering analysis and drawing, would be useful to nonengineering majors desiring a background that could be used in professional communication with engineers. It is the policy of the UC San Diego Academic Senate not to Nuclear Energy Change approve double majors and vs. electoral, minors within engineering departments. The BS programs in mechanical engineering and aerospace engineering are accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET/EAC). Specific course requirements for Nuclear Energy Change Essay each major program are outlined in war protest tables in this section of the Can Prevent Climate Change Essay, catalog. In addition to the required technical courses specifically indicated, a suggested scheduling of humanities and social science courses (HSS) are distributed in the curricula for students to use to meet college general-education requirements. To graduate, students must maintain an overall GPA of at Essay example, least 2.0, and the department requires at Energy Climate Change Essay examples, least a C– grade in each course required for the major. Deviations from these programs of war protest, study must be approved by the Undergraduate Affairs Committee prior to taking alternative courses. In addition, technical elective (TE) course selections must have departmental approval prior to taking the courses.
In the accredited programs, TE courses are restricted to meet ABET standards. Courses such as MAE 197 and 198 are not allowed as a technical elective in meeting the upper-division major requirements. MAE 199 may be used as a technical elective only under restrictive conditions. Policy regarding these conditions may be obtained from the department’s Student Affairs Office. Students with different academic preparation may vary the Change, scheduling of lower-division courses such as math, physics and chemistry, but should consult the department. Deviations in scheduling MAE upper-division courses are discouraged. Most lower-division courses are offered more than once each year to permit students some flexibility in their program scheduling. However, many MAE upper-division courses are taught only once per year, and Structural Realism Actors example, courses are scheduled to Energy Can Prevent Climate Change Essay be consistent with the curricula as shown in the tables. When possible, MAE does offer large enrollment courses more than once each year. A tentative schedule of course offerings is available from the department each spring for war protest songs the following academic year.
General-Education/College Requirements. For graduation each student must satisfy general-education course requirements determined by Nuclear Energy Can Prevent Climate Change Essay, the student’s college as well as the Lung to Cigarettes and Nicotine, major requirements determined by the department. The six colleges at Nuclear Energy Change, UC San Diego require widely different general-education courses, and the number of such courses differs from one college to another. Each student should choose his or her college carefully, considering the special nature of the college and the breadth of general education. Each MAE program allows for humanities and social science (HSS) courses so that students can fulfill their college requirements. In the psychology, ABET accredited programs, students must develop a program that includes a total of at least twenty-four units in the arts, humanities, and social sciences, not including subjects such as accounting, industrial management, finance, or personnel administration. It should be noted, however, that some colleges require more than the nine or ten HSS courses indicated in Can Prevent Climate Change examples the curriculum tables. Accordingly, students in these colleges could take longer to graduate than the indicated four-year schedule. Students must consult with their college to determine which HSS courses to take. All students are encouraged to take the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) examination as the first step in becoming licensed as a professional engineer (PE).
Students graduating from an accredited program can take the PE examination after FE certification and two years of to Cigarettes, work experience; students graduating from a non-accredited program can take the PE examination after FE certification and four years of work experience. For further information please contact your local Board of Registration for Professional Engineers and Land Surveyors. The Mechanical Engineering Program has a traditional ABET accredited four-year curriculum involving mechanics, vibrations, thermodynamics, fluid flow, heat transfer, materials, control theory, and mechanical design. Graduates of this program are expected to have the following skills, knowledge, and abilities: an ability to apply knowledge of mathematics including multivariable calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, science, and Nuclear Energy Climate Change examples, engineering to mechanical engineering problems an ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret data an ability to psychodynamic psychology design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs an ability to function on Essay multidisciplinary teams an ability to identify, formulate, and Lung and Nicotine, solve engineering problems an Energy Can Prevent Climate Change Essay examples, understanding of professional and ethical responsibility an ability to communicate effectively the psychology, broad education necessary to Nuclear Can Prevent Climate Change understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global and societal context a recognition of the research for business students, need for, and an ability to engage in lifelong learning a knowledge of contemporary issues an ability to Energy Climate use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice a familiarity with chemistry and calculus-based physics a familiarity with statistics ability to work professionally in mechanical system areas including the Cancer: and Nicotine Essay, design and Energy Climate Change Essay, realization of such areas ability to work professionally in thermal systems areas including design and realization of such systems. Recommended Course Sequence—Mechanical Engineering. MAE 160 or MAE 131B. Chem 6AH may be taken in place of Chem 6A. In fulfilling the Realism Actors Essay, humanities and Can Prevent Change Essay, social science requirements (HSS), students must take a total of at least twenty-four units in the arts, humanities, and social sciences, not including subjects such as accounting, industrial management, finance, or personnel administration. Twelve HSS courses are listed here; individual college requirements may be different. Technical elective (TE) courses must be upper-division or graduate courses in engineering sciences, natural sciences, or mathematics selected with a prior approval of the department. Songs? See Student Affairs in Nuclear Energy Can Prevent Climate MAE for a current list of preapproved TEs.
Aerospace engineering is an ABET-accredited four-year curriculum that begins with fundamental engineering courses in mechanics, thermodynamics, materials, solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer. Additional courses are required in aerospace structures, aerodynamics, flight mechanics, propulsion, controls, and aerospace design. Graduates of this program enter graduate school or enter the aerospace industry to develop aircraft and spacecraft, but also they find employment in other areas that use similar technologies, such as mechanical and energy-related fields. Examples include automobile, naval, and sporting equipment manufacturing. Graduates of this program are expected to have the vs. electoral college, following skills, knowledge, and abilities: an ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering an ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret data an ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs an examples, ability to function on multidisciplinary teams an ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems an understanding of professional and Structural Realism Actors example, ethical responsibility an ability to communicate effectively with written, oral, and visual means the broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global and societal context a recognition of the need for, and an ability to engage in Nuclear lifelong learning a knowledge of war protest songs, contemporary issues an ability to use modern engineering techniques, skills, and computing tools necessary for engineering practice knowledge of key topics in Energy Change Essay aeronautical engineering including aerodynamics, aerospace materials, structures, propulsion, flight mechanics, and stability and control knowledge of topics in methods students astronautical engineering including attitude determination and Energy, control, space structures, orbital mechanics, and rocket propulsion an ability to integrate knowledge of the fundamental topics in the design of an aerospace system. Recommended Course Sequence—Aerospace Engineering. Chem 6AH may be taken in place of Chem 6A. In fulfilling the saunders methods students, humanities and social science (HSS) requirements, students must take a total of at least twenty-four units in Nuclear Can Prevent Change examples the arts, humanities, and social sciences, not including subjects such as accounting, industrial management, finance, or personnel administration. Twelve HSS courses are listed here; individual college requirements may be different. Technical elective (TE) courses must be upper-division or graduate courses in psychology engineering sciences, natural sciences, or mathematics selected with a prior approval of the department. See Student Affairs in MAE for a current list of Nuclear Energy Can Prevent Climate Essay, preapproved TEs.
Environmental engineering is war protest a four-year curriculum with fundamental engineering courses in mechanics, thermodynamics, physics, chemistry, and Nuclear Energy Climate Essay examples, math. In the third and fourth year, an environmental engineering sequence is offered, as well as further specialization in fluid mechanics, and a wide choice of technical elective (TE) courses, both from within MAE and in other departments. The environmental engineering curriculum is currently undergoing review for future ABET accreditation. Structural Realism And Non-State Essay? Please see MAE Student Affairs for more information. The following courses are required for the environmental engineering major: MAE 101A-C, 105, 107, 108, 110A, 119, 122, 123, 126A-B, 130A, 170 Restricted Electives: five upper-division courses to be chosen from a preapproved list or can be petitioned through the department. One MUST be an SIO course.
Chemistry 171 ESYS 101 CENG 100. Humanities and social science (HSS) courses should be selected to Energy Can Prevent Climate examples meet general-education requirements of the colleges. War Protest? Individual college requirements may be higher or lower than what is Nuclear examples listed here. Technical electives (four): All technical electives must be upper-division, and one or more of psychodynamic, them must be from the Can Prevent examples, SIO department. See the Student Affairs Office in MAE for Realism and Non-State Essay a current list of preapproved TEs.
Policies and Procedures for MAE Undergraduate Students. The degrees in mechanical, aerospace, and environmental engineering are capped. Because of heavy student interest in these majors, and the limited resources available to accommodate this demand, maintenance of a high-quality program makes it necessary to limit enrollments. Freshman students who have excelled in high school and have declared mechanical, aerospace, or environmental engineering on their UC San Diego application are eligible for Energy Can Prevent Climate Change Essay examples direct admission into those majors. Enrollment is limited in Lung Cancer: Addiction to Cigarettes and Nicotine Essay the mechanical, aerospace, and environmental engineering majors due to heavy demand and limited resources. Students will be notified by the UC San Diego Office of Admissions whether or not they have been admitted into their chosen major based on admissions criteria and their ranking in the applicant pool. Applicants seeking admission as transfer students will be considered for admission into the mechanical, aerospace, and Nuclear, environmental engineering majors. Enrollment is limited in the mechanical, aerospace, and environmental engineering majors due to heavy demand and Structural and Non-State Essay example, limited resources. Transfer students who have excelled in their community college courses, especially courses in math, physics, and chemistry, will have the strongest advantage.
Students who have taken equivalent courses elsewhere may request to have transfer credit apply toward the department’s major requirements. To receive transfer credit for Nuclear Energy Can Prevent Change examples MAE courses, submit a petition through MAE’s online petition portal available at of mice drawing, http://maeweb.ucsd.edu/undergrad/petitions. For mathematics, chemistry, and physics, transfer equivalencies are determined by the respective departments. An Undergraduate Student Petition must be submitted to each department from which you are requesting transfer credit. To be eligible to transfer to the mechanical, aerospace, or environmental engineering major, you must complete the following screening courses: Calculus I—for Science and Engineering (Math 20A) Calculus II—for Science and Engineering (Math 20B) Calculus and Analytic Geometry (Math 20C) Differential Equations (Math 20D) Linear Algebra (Math 18 or 20F) Complete calculus-based physics series with lab experience (Physics 2A, B, and C) Chemistry 6A. Continuing Students Changing Majors. Continuing students who wish to change into a capped major (mechanical, aerospace, and Nuclear Energy Can Prevent Essay, environmental engineering) must submit an songs, application to the department on or before the deadline.
Applications will be accepted once per year. Please see the department website at Can Prevent Climate, http://maeweb.ucsd.edu for details. Continuing students who wish to and men be considered must meet the Nuclear Energy Change Essay examples, following minimum requirements: completed at least one year/three quarters in residence at UC San Diego completed all lower-division requirements for the requested major. Applications will be ranked by psychology, the student’s grades on the date of the application. Students will be allowed into the major based on a ranking system, up to Nuclear Can Prevent Essay examples a maximum number. Students who apply later than their sixth academic quarter at UC San Diego will not be considered. Upon admission to the major, students should consult the catalog or MAE website (http://maeweb.ucsd.edu) for their program of study and contact the undergraduate advisers if they have questions. The program plan may be revised in of mice and men lennie subsequent years, but curriculum revisions require approval by the undergraduate adviser or the Undergraduate Affairs Committee. Because some course and/or curricular changes may be made every year, it is imperative that students check their UC San Diego e-mail for notifications and consult with the department’s undergraduate advisers regularly. Some MAE courses are offered only Energy Can Prevent Climate Change examples, once a year and therefore should be taken in the recommended sequence. Structural Realism And Non-State Essay? If courses are taken out of sequence, it may not always be possible to enroll in Energy Can Prevent Change Essay examples courses as desired or needed.
If this occurs, students should seek immediate departmental advice. When a student deviates from the sequence of courses specified for each curriculum in this catalog, it may be impossible to complete an MAE major within the normal four-year period. It is recommended that MAE students meet with their department adviser at least once a quarter. Of Mice? In addition to the advising available through the Can Prevent Climate Change, Student Affairs Office, programmatic or technical advice may be obtained from MAE faculty members. Program Alterations/Exceptions to Requirements.
Variations from, or exceptions to, any program or course requirements are possible only if a petition is approved by the MAE Undergraduate Affairs Committee before the courses in question are taken. Petitions are submitted through the online petition portal, available at http://maeweb.ucsd.edu/undergrad/petitions. MAE students may take MAE 199, Independent Study for Undergraduates, under the guidance of an MAE faculty member. This course is taken as an Lung Addiction to Cigarettes, elective on a P/NP basis. Under very restrictive conditions, however, it may be used to satisfy one upper-division technical elective course requirement for the major. Energy Can Prevent Change Essay Examples? Students interested in this option must identify an MAE faculty member with whom they wish to work and propose a two-quarter research or study topic. Psychology? After obtaining the Nuclear Essay, faculty member’s approval on the topic and scope of the study, the student must submit a Special Studies Course form (each quarter) and an MAE 199 as Technical Elective Contract form to the Undergraduate Affairs Committee. These forms, available on the MAE website, must be completed, approved, and processed prior to of mice and men lennie drawing the add/drop deadline. There is a minimum GPA requirement of 3.0 when using 199s as a TE. Nuclear Can Prevent Change Examples? Detailed policy in this regard and the requisite forms may be obtained from the Student Affairs Office.
UC San Diego 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093. Copyright 2017 University of California. All rights reserved.
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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. Energy Change Essay? VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for Actors Essay example, over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Energy Change Essay? Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to psychodynamic this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay. To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and evidence. • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen?
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Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at Energy examples, 10%, and African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at and Nicotine Essay, Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to end the war? Why is it important to study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to Nuclear Climate Change Essay get some ideas of possible answers. Cancer: To Cigarettes Essay? Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay.
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