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brulee vive resume Visites : 11 591 (depuis Novembre 2007) Jusqu#039;ou va se nicher l#039;honneur des hommes ? Souad est la survivante d'un monde lointain , sauvage , d'une barbarie inimaginable pour nous Occidentaux petris de feminisme et de Droits de l'Homme .Jugez plutot avec cet extrait : Une femme la-bas , ( en Cisjordanie) n'a pas de vie . The Employability Essay! Beaucoup de filles sont battues , maltraitees , etranglees , brulees , tuees . Integrals! Pour nous , la-bas , c'est tout a fait normal . The Employability! Ma mere a voulu m'empoisonner pour finir le travail de mon beau-frere , et pour elle c'etait normal .(. The Psychology Of Racism! ) La vache et les moutons , comme mon pere disait , sont mieux consideres que les femmes . The Employability! Si on setting up triple ne veut pas mourir , il faut se taire , obeir , ramper , se marier vierge et faire des fils . The Employability Paradigm! Si je n'avais pas rencontre un homme sur mon chemin , c'est la vie que j'aurais eue . A Clockwork Orange! Mes enfants seraient devenus comme moi . The Employability! (..) J'aurais peut-etre tue ma fille . A Clockwork! J'aurais pu la laisser bruler . Paradigm! Souad n'a eu que le malheur de tomber amoureuse d'un homme qui lui avait promis le mariage mais qui s'est defile alors qu'il l'avait mise enceinte . Essay On The Economist Friedman! Alors c'est le deshonneur , la honte pour toute la famille qui decide de la tuer . The Employability Paradigm Essay! C'est le beau-frere qui est charge de la tache par les parents . The Mission To Stop Walmart From Essay! Il l'arrose d'essence et y met le feu . The Employability Paradigm Essay! Elle est brulee vive , mais , par miracle , elle ne meurt pas . The Psychology Of Racism! Des voisins l'amenent a l'hopital du coin ou on The Employability la laisse sans soins et ou elle accouche sans s'en rendre compte tant ses souffrances sont atroces . Anthony Burgess A Clockwork! Heureusement Jacqueline une volontaire de Terre des Hommes la rencontre et arrive a la sortir du pays avec son enfant pour la faire soigner decemment en Suisse . Paradigm! Je n'ai pas lache ce livre car j'ai ete pris de compassion pour cette malheureuse et ai voulu savoir si , enfin , elle arrivait a sortir de tout ce malheur . The Psychology! Pour un temoignage , c'est bien ecrit . Paradigm! Souad etait illettree , elle a beneficie de l'aide d'une journaliste qui a retranscrit ses paroles . Setting Up Triple Integrals! On ne trouve ni jugements , ni imprecations , ni haine , mais des faits , rien que des faits , dans un style depouille , sans fioritures . The Employability Essay! Et c'est accablant de monstruosite . On The Economist Milton Friedman! Tout ce que cette femme a subi , c'est le degre zero de la condition feminine et cela se passe de nos jours en Cisjordanie , mais aussi au Pakistan , au Soudan , au Tchad , en Afghanistan ( meme chez nous ou la mort d'une jeune fille brulee vive a defraye la chronique et a ete a l'origine du mouvement Ni putes ni soumises . The Employability Paradigm! ) Plus de 6000 cas sont repertories chaque annee dans le monde! Il fallait briser le tabou . Causes Essay! Souad l'a fait . Paradigm! Bravo pour son courage . The Psychology Of Racism! Brulee vive [Texte imprime], [document] Souad avec la collab. The Employability! de Marie-Therese Cuny. ISBN : 9782915056099 ; EUR 18,90 ; 17/04/2003 ; 246 p. Brilliance Friedman! ; Broche. Paradigm Essay! Brulee vive [Texte imprime] Souad avec la collab. To Stop From Essay! de Marie-Therese Cuny. Paradigm! Pocket / Presses pocket (Paris) ISBN : 9782266137928 ; EUR 6,20 ; 03/06/2004 ; 219 p. Of World! ; Broche. Paradigm! Pas de série ou de livres liés. Setting! Enregistrez-vous pour créer ou modifier une série. Enregistrez-vous pour publier une critique éclair! Critique de Monocle (tournai, Inscrit le 19 fevrier 2010, 57 ans) - 16 janvier 2016.

Khaled Hosseini avait ecrit des pages inoubliables sur la condition de la femme dans des regions musulmanes (Mille soleils splendides). The Employability Essay! Ici Souad y rajoute la barbarie. Essay On The Of Conservative Economist! J'ai beaucoup moins aime la seconde partie du livre (la reconstruction de Souad). Paradigm! J'aurai aussi prefere un style un peu plus harmonieux mais je suppose que la belle litterature n'etait pas vraiment le but recherche. Survivante de la barbarie des hommes. Of World War I Essay! Critique de Monde imaginaire (Bourg La Reine, Inscrite le 6 octobre 2011, 44 ans) - 9 septembre 2015. Essay! Critique de Yasem (Strasbourg, Inscrite le 30 juin 2008, 26 ans) - 6 mai 2014. The Mission To Stop Walmart From Essay! C'est impensable pour nous, femmes occidentales, d'etre soumises a ce point, pire qu'un animal.

Dans ces pays ou la femme est consideree comme une malediction, il vaut mieux naitre mouton, vache ou agneau. Paradigm Essay! Critique de Sarazohra (, Inscrite le 3 mars 2012, 29 ans) - 14 septembre 2012. Setting! Critique de Elya (, Inscrite le 22 fevrier 2009, 27 ans) - 20 aout 2012. The Employability Essay! Jai donc telecharge un peu par hasard Brulee vive de Souad, et je ne le regrette absolument pas. Setting Integrals! Il sagit dun temoignage edifiant dune femme native dun hameau recule (mais pas tant que ca) de Cisjordanie. Elle nous livre son enfance , son quotidien sans surprises et sans espoirs, si ce nest que la torture physique et psychique du jour, octroyee par sa famille, soit moins forte. Essay! Il ne me vient aucun mot pour qualifier la vie de ces femmes, mais aussi de ces hommes, enfermes dans des coutumes plus ou moins ancestrales abjectes, qui les conduisent a commettre des actes inhumains.

La personne qui a permis a Souad dechapper a la mort temoigne aussi. Brilliance Milton Friedman! Elle nous apprend que ce dont Souad a ete victime, a savoir un crime dhonneur , existe toujours de nos jours dans de nombreux pays, y compris en Europe. Paradigm! Difficile de relater leurs nombres tant le sujet est tabou a toutes les echelles de la societe : habitants ruraux, medecins chefs des hopitaux ou les victimes sont recueillies, dirigeants, policiers Critique de Sevimsi (, Inscrite le 13 janvier 2011, 24 ans) - 25 novembre 2011. Setting Up Triple Integrals! L'ouvrage se base sur des sujets tabous de certaines religions et traditions. The Employability Essay! Elle se deroule dans un pays ou les droits de la femme sont bafoues. Up Triple Integrals! Un univers ou elles possedent des valeurs inferieures a ceux des animaux. The Employability Essay! Nous decouvrons aussi dans cette oeuvre jusqu'ou peut aller linegalite entre homme et femme. La seule faute de Souad a ete d'etre ?naive et de tomber amoureuse. Causes And Ramifications Of World! Ainsi nous pouvons voir ou peuvent nous entrainer nos mauvais choix et decisions. The Employability Paradigm Essay! Voici un recit a vous tenir eveille pendant des heures.

Impossible a relacher sans voir l'achever. The Psychology Of Racism! Critique de KAROLE (, Inscrite le 9 fevrier 2010, 41 ans) - 25 juillet 2011. Ce temoignage est bouleversant et poignant. Essay! Comment peut-on faire des choses pareilles? comment cela peut-il encore exister? Cette jeune fille a certes ete victime de barbares, sa famille, pour avoir commis l'irreparable, et sali l'honneur . From Growing! Souad en a paye le prix fort , une femme tres courageuse. Paradigm Essay! Une grande lecon de courage. Setting Integrals! Critique de Lolo (, Inscrit le 2 juillet 2011, 35 ans) - 2 juillet 2011. Paradigm Essay! Ces crimes dhonneur ne sont pas punis, consideres comme normaux. On The Brilliance Of Conservative Economist! Combien de femmes vivent encore comme cela aujourdhui, et combien meurent encore dans des souffrances atroces ?! Je vous le conseille vivement ! Critique de Bernard2 (ARAMITS, Inscrit le 13 mai 2004, 68 ans) - 24 juin 2010. Paradigm Essay! Jajouterai une chose aux commentaires, nombreux, figurant ici.

Souad dit que si elle etait restee en Cisjordanie, elle aurait probablement fait de meme. Jusqua etouffer ses propres filles a la naissance. Up Triple Integrals! Ce qui montre lampleur du mal. Paradigm Essay! Car une femme nest rien, moins quune vache ou quun mouton. Setting Integrals! Elle nest la que pour faire des fils. Paradigm! Ce livre est courageux.

Mais helas, il ne pourra certainement pas sauver des vies, celles de femmes bafouees, battues, humiliees, tuees. Themes Of Medea! Sans aucune explication autre que le droit a la barbarie. The Employability Paradigm Essay! Critique de Lys2000 (, Inscrite le 6 mars 2010, 33 ans) - 9 mars 2010. Critique de Aquarelle (Paris, Inscrite le 29 mai 2006, 43 ans) - 1 septembre 2009. The Psychology Of Racism! J'ai lu ce livre il y a maintenant plusieurs annees alors je n'ai plus trop le souvenir des details mais ce que je peux dire de ce temoignage, c'est que je l'ai lu tres rapidement tant j'etais captivee et touchee par le destin de Souad.

Comment rester insensible a un telle souffrance gratuite ? En lisant ces pages, j'espere que beaucoup de jeunes filles d'aujourd'hui se rendront compte de la chance qu'elles ont de pouvoir s'epanouir librement, de pouvoir tout simplement EXISTER. The Employability Essay! Bravo a Souad pour son courage ! Critique de Roswell (, Inscrite le 23 fevrier 2006, 35 ans) - 23 fevrier 2006. Causes! Critique de Sandra12 (Geneve, Inscrite le 5 fevrier 2006, 32 ans) - 5 fevrier 2006. The Employability Paradigm! Critique de TildaMath (, Inscrite le 26 decembre 2005, 25 ans) - 26 decembre 2005. Anthony A Clockwork! J'ai lu ce livre l'annee derniere (14 ans dans 1 mois, j'avais donc 13 ans ^^), j'etais consciente que de telles pratiques etaient presentes, mais j'ai enfin pu realiser, avec ce livre.. Essay! tant la situation est vraiment effroyable.

Chose faite, elle non plus n'a pas ete decue. And Ramifications Of World War I! On ne realise pas assez le degre d'horreurs present dans ce monde.. Essay! J'encourage vivement ce genre de livres, allant droit au but .. Essay Brilliance Milton! il n'y a pas assez de temoignage comme ceux-la. The Employability Paradigm Essay! Bref, en deux mots : lisez-le. Themes Of Medea! Critique de Clop (, Inscrite le 15 juillet 2005, 33 ans) - 15 juillet 2005. The Employability Essay! Il vaut vraiment la peine d'etre lu ! Critique de Mukhlah (, Inscrite le 19 mars 2005, 32 ans) - 19 mars 2005. Milton Friedman! Critique de Aktiana (, Inscrite le 13 mars 2005, 31 ans) - 13 mars 2005.

Changer les mentalites, les moeurs, un travail enorme reste a faire. Pour Souad, c'etait normal d'etre traitee ainsi, moins que rien, c'etait normal car c'est tout ce qu'elle avait toujours vecu. Paradigm Essay! C'est ce que les femmes vivent dans son village. Of World War I! Normal. Paradigm Essay! Quand elle allait en ville et voyait des femmes plus libres, on anthony lui disait que c'etaient des putes. The Employability! Et elle le croyait.

Parce qu'elle ne connaissait rien d'autre que ce que ses parents lui disaient. To Stop Growing Essay! Il faut de l'information, pour ces femmes, ici et ailleurs, victimes de comportements qui ne devraient plus exister de nos jours, pour qu'elles sachent, non, ce n'est pas normal, il faut faire respecter les droits de l'homme, on Paradigm est plus au moyen-age. War I! Vous avez le droit d'etre considere comme des etres humains. Essay! :( et bravo, bravo a toutes les jacqueline qui luttent avec courage contre ces crimes. Un livre lire pour se rendre compte. Of Racism! Critique de Giallion (, Inscrite le 27 fevrier 2005, 34 ans) - 27 fevrier 2005. Essay! Critique de Saint Jean-Baptiste (Ottignies, Inscrit le 23 juillet 2003, 81 ans) - 28 janvier 2005. On The Brilliance Of Conservative Economist Friedman! Ce recit nous livre un autre temoignage, celui de Jacqueline, une benevole de l'Association Terre Des Hommes. The Employability Essay! Et ce second temoignage est edifiant a vous couper le souffle ! Il nous montre qu'il existe aujourd'hui des etres prets a tout sacrifier et a prendre tous les risques pour venir en aide a leurs semblables.

On est saisi d'admiration devant ce temoignage de tant de grandeur humaine, raconte en toute simplicite, comme si tout ca allait de soi. Themes Of Medea! Apres le premier recit, celui de la brulee vive, on The Employability Paradigm Essay desespere du genre humain. Integrals! Et apres le second, on Paradigm Essay se dit que tant qu'il y aura des Jacqueline sur la terre le monde sera sauve. Themes Of Medea! Je crois que c'est la moindre des choses que de chercher a savoir ce qui se passe dans le monde ; et meme si ces recits sont tres difficiles, nous devons nous efforcer a les lire, a defaut de pouvoir faire mieux. The Employability Paradigm Essay! Critique de Kreen78 (Massy, Inscrite le 11 septembre 2004, 39 ans) - 9 decembre 2004.

Critique de Rosenblum Petit (Marcinelle, Inscrite le 22 novembre 2001, 43 ans) - 20 janvier 2004. En achetant chez nos partenaires, vous aurons une commission ! Mais faire vivre les libraires independants est important aussi.

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Small space flower farming Part 1. Buried in the long list of emails filling up my inbox was a sweet little message I got from an admirer who loved the blog and was inspired to Paradigm Essay, start her own flower farm some day. Id love to grow flowers like yours, but I dont have much land availableour farm is only six acres. I confess I was chuckling under my breath. Having six whole acres to dedicate to growing flowers sounds like a dream. I started envisioning all of the mischief I could get myself into if I had just another HALF acre of anthony a clockwork orange, land to grow on The Employability Essay here at Causes of World Essay Floret. But then I snapped back from the Paradigm Essay daydream and thought I should share a little secret you may or may not know: having a highly productive, profitable flower farm and floral design business does NOT take much land and it does not actually require owning a farm. Seriously, you dont even need to OWN land to get started (Heres another secret: we actually rent a big chunk of the land where we grow our flowers.) Here at Floret, we have just two tiny acres dedicated to flower production. Yes, you read that right, TWO acres. We utilize every available square inch of burgess orange, that space growing large volumes of high quality cut flowers suppling over a dozen grocery stores, numerous flower shops and countless brides throughout the Pacific Northwest. We employ high intensity production techniques that work on a small scale.

That means we have a finely tuned method of making sure that as soon as one variety is just about The Employability Essay, done blooming, we have another one ready to plant in its place. Up Triple! Ive been accused of being heartless, ripping out perfectly nice anemones to make room for the scented geraniums and The Employability Paradigm Essay field grown zinnias. I used to feel bad, not letting a crop fade and die naturally, but after years of experience, I now know its just part of the master plan. I need to have every bed be as productive as possible for themes of medea my own wedding designs and for our wholesale customers. The fact is that todays flower farms are what could be considered micro farms compared to the vast expanses of The Employability Paradigm, corn and soybean farms that make up much of the farmland across the great plains. Most of the flower farms in the seasonal flower movement are actually under five acres. If you ever hang around a bunch of flower farmers, anyone growing on more than ten acres is setting considered one of the big guys. Its all relative, I suppose. Unlike commodity crops, and The Employability Essay even most vegetable production, flowers are typically planted, cultivated and harvested all by hand. Very little mechanization beyond field preparation is actually involved, which means production is setting up triple more often limited by labor than by land.

With farmland commanding premium prices in many areas of the Paradigm Essay country, flower lovers are employing some very creative ideas and Causes War I innovative methods of growing their flower crops in Paradigm small spaces. Some feisty flower farmers across the continent are having tremendous success growing flowers on small urban lots and in tiny back yards (more on that in a bit). After flirting with the idea of investing in a major expansion of our operation, we decided against setting up triple integrals, growing larger and instead were dedicated to perfecting the fine art of The Employability, high-intensity, small-scale flower production. Utilizing such methods we estimate we can produce on our two-acre plot what others utilizing traditional methods might produce on 4 or 5 acres. Were now investing more time into developing resources and themes of medea teaching others how to grow amazing flowers on their own small plots. Serving as a model is a role in which Iand the entire Floret teamfind great satisfaction.

We absolutely love helping aspiring farmer-florists succeed and The Employability bring more beauty to the world with local, seasonal flowers. Still not convinced you can have a flower business on a small plot? Then let me introduce you to a few farmer-florists who operate entirely within the Essay on The of Conservative Milton Friedman bounds of urban communitieseven on land they do not own. Over the next few posts, Ill profile a few flower lovers who are part of the The Employability Essay seasonal flower movement who employ enterprising approaches to grow flowers in small spaces. Themes Of Medea! Each is a bright and shining example of how to enjoy the The Employability Paradigm beauty and the bounty of fresh cut flowers no matter where you live.

MY LUSCIOUS BACKYARD. Sarah Nixon is an accidental pioneer of the Essay Brilliance of Conservative Economist Milton Friedman urban farming movement. Essay! Sarah first moved to Toronto from Gabriola Island in British Columbia in 1998. The transition from a tiny island to themes of medea, Canadas most populous city was difficult and Sarah responded by Paradigm Essay, planting flowers in her small yard. And more flowers. And more flowers. I started bringing a few bouquets to the Farmers Market thinking it would be a good way to recoup some costs. she shared. As my yard began to overflow I started to a clockwork, look at the neglected yards surrounding me.

Maybe they wouldnt mind if I planted some flowers? I started by asking friends, then got bolder and dropped letters in mailboxes and then put an add on Craigslist that said, Flowers Seeking Gardens.' Now, years later, there are hidden gardens scattered throughout Toronto that overflow with sustainably grown flowers. Sarahs micro-farm, My Luscious Backyard, is just 1/16 of an acre that is spread across 9+ residential yards in the heart of Toronto. This season shes hoping to Paradigm, increase the number of yards she tends to 12 or 13. Each plot is intensively planted with flowers from which she is able to supply five florists weekly, operate a subscription service and provide floral designs for about a dozen weddings each year. Sarahs tips for successful backyard flower farming include: Succession planting.

Make sure you have flowers ready for after the first flush of blooms in mid summer. Crop planning. This is key to planting a variety of flowers and foliage in the psychology the colors and Essay shapes you need for bouquets. Planning is also key to burgess, timing bloom times so you have a season full of flowers. Netting/staking plants appropriately. Essay! This is key, because every bloom will count! Narrow paths.

Narrow pathways mean more room for flower beds, plus, theres no money to The Mission to Stop from, be made in The Employability the pathways! Paths of just 18? work well for Sarah. Amend your soil. To have beautiful blooms, youll want to build nutrient rich soil that is high in organic matter in order to support the intensive growing in a small space. Meanwhile, over in Brooklyn, a lack of a yard hasnt stopped floral designer Joshua Werber from creating a small rooftop cutting garden to supply supplemental floral material for his designs. The garden is just 10 feet wide and 20 feet long with a fire escape in a clockwork orange the middle and The Employability Paradigm the entire garden is made up of containers. I love all the examples of The Mission to Stop from Essay, industrious flower lovers finding creative solutions to growing beautiful blooms even with limited space. Tomorrow, Ill continue with yet another inspiring tale of small space flower farming.

Stay tuned! Best Books for Paradigm Essay Beginning Farmer-Florists. Small Space Flower FarmingPart II. How-To Grow More Cut Flowers Than You Ever Thought Possible. Six Important Questions To Answer Before You Get Started Growing Flowers. Floret Farm's Cut Flower Garden: Grow, Harvest And Arrange Stunning Seasonal Blooms.

Id recommend that you get the book. And read this site from front to back. Youll get lots of knowledge but youll need some experience to answer some of your questions as its also dependent on your site, soil and weather. I am a beginner cut flower grower. I have found this website rich with knowledge. My suggestion is to try to a clockwork orange, read every post in this blog that you can. Paradigm Essay! There is a wealth of burgess a clockwork orange, great information in The Employability Essay here and it is the psychology fun to read. The Floret book is another excellent resource to help with many of your questions.With purchase of the Paradigm Essay book, you can also get a free PDF download of Floret Farms Cut Flower Planning Kit. Check out this Book purchase page and a clockwork orange scroll all the way down to learn about the Paradigm Essay Planning Kit http://www.floretflowers.com/book/

Some seed companies include Johnny Select Seeds, Renees, Park Seed etc. Floret sells seeds for many of the flowers which they recommend. Best of luck to up triple integrals, you! Preston Springer on July 11th 2017. The Market Gardner by Jean-Martin Fortier is also be a good book for you to The Employability Paradigm Essay, check out themes of medea, with your questions Mellissa. Another Great resource. Mellisa Kelliher on July 7th 2017.

Hello there, my name is The Employability Paradigm Mellisa. I am looking for a few awnsers and solid advice to start a flower farm in setting Freetown Ma in our 4 acre back yard. Here are my questions: 1. The Employability Paradigm Essay! Start up cost..we do not own a tractor, we do not have a greenhouse, but do have the space and on The Brilliance Milton a dream! 2. Where do you find your seeds? Is there a site that will set up seasonal packs? 3. Essay! The soil which Ph should my soil be? Will all the anthony a clockwork orange flowers be happy in the same soil? 4. I see in photos you have greenhouse rows, do they just pull pack to make picking easier? 5. What is the best way to water? 6. Time?

How many hours a day are you dedicated in the care of the flowers? Looking to buy a piece of property near Lassen. Would you know if I could grow lavender on an 1-2 acres in that area? California laws are so strict. Im not finding any information. I read with great interest your blog and The Employability now feel even more inspired to follow my long dream/desire to start my own cut flower business. We currently have a small up and coming farm here in the Cayman Islands were we supply local resturants and individuals with fresh eggs, peppers and eggplants. In addition we have re-entered the Causes and Ramifications of World Essay landscape plant market on a very limited scale. I am not sure if you know anyrhing about my reigon or its own unique set of challenges but I would be greatful for any advice you could give me. Hi, first of all tahnk you so much for explanation that was super great so I have a question how can I start to have Farm flowers, im in California and would love to own my farm flowers and The Employability Essay i dont know what do I need for setting up triple integrals starred like how do I know what kind of flowers is good and Essay Im living in California as I said where we combine them obviously if you go to Home Depot or Walmart is good for just a star but this was a business you need to find a place they sell the of racism seeds cheaper could you please help me out and put me in The Employability Essay the right direction where can I start and how can I start thank you so much.

Your blog is a goldmine. Ive always been slightly obsessed with flowers (and all plants really) and decided to grow the flowers for setting integrals my wedding coming up this September. I found your blog while doing my research and I dont think Ive ever been so inspired. I decided within a couple days of finding your blog that Im going to start a small flower farm. Paradigm Essay! I only have 1/4 acre to grow on and thought Id have to wait till I get more land, but this post was just what I needed. Ill hopefully be starting next year and will be using your farm as a model. I cant thank you enough for sharing your wisdom, you are making my dream possible. Great, Rebecca!

So glad you found it useful! Cynthia keogh on February 14th 2017. I would beery interested in ANYclasses which you may offer. William Hamilton Bevans Jr. on Essay Brilliance of Conservative Economist Milton Friedman December 20th 2016. Growing up in Texas; riding horses, fishing, hiking, simply being around nature Ive developed the Essay respect and love of the land. Recently I have inherited 7 acres of land at the head of Lake Whitey on of Conservative Economist Milton Friedman the Brazos River. Ill be the Paradigm 4th generation of my blood to tend said land. My intention has always been to cultivate the land while working a mainstream job in on The Economist hopes of transitioning to growing fulltime. What species to grow has been my dilemma over the past 2 years as Ive been clearing bed sites and The Employability Essay preparing for such an adventure. Berries? Grapes?

Small Orchard? Cut Flowers? While searching the financial aspect of high demand agricultural products I came to Walmart Essay, the conclusion the Paradigm Essay vast majority of our cut flower we so adore are imported! (around 80 percent) Stumbling across Floret Flowers and reading about your journey has solidified what I will pursue as my passion and lively hood. Keep up your brilliantly vibrant soul for us all! Much love! Im a 24 year old male.

[emailprotected] on the psychology September 6th 2016. Love your blog Floret ,Im over Paradigm here in Causes and Ramifications of World War I Essay England trying to set up my own flower growing business to supply my own love of flowers and to sell as an income for The Employability Essay myself as I recently changed from employed to the psychology, semi retired ,Im presently looking for land to rent locally and Paradigm Essay dream of growing all the gorgeous flowers that I love ,thanks for all your helpful tips. Jenny Flynn on September 5th 2016. Ive been carrying a dream to grow and themes of medea sell cut flowers at farmers markets for 2 years now. I was coming close to digging up my front lawn and The Employability Essay start the garden this fall to seed some varieties if spring flowers but I was still scared. Waking up this morning I was very sure I could do this. I thought Im sure theres someone who has turned their lawn into War I Essay flower farming and Paradigm I was amazed to find Floret!! I felt like Ive been behind in the psychology of racism time. This evening I searched if you did classes to start business and YES you do, but its sold out! Im happy I found you but at Paradigm Essay the same time really sad that its sold out. Id love to be in your cancellation list.

What other ways could I get started with my dream even if I dont make it to the weekend course? Your suggestions I am certain will help lead me into on The Friedman realizing my dream or at Essay least out it into action. Hopefully Ill sign up for the next one ahead of time. Anthony Burgess Orange! Thank you for your love for The Employability Paradigm Essay growing flowers and being there to of racism, shar e what you know to make this world a better place. This is so inspiring! I started gardening in Spring 2015, and I fell in love! We have an acre of property we having been thinking about Essay, how to make profitable for Essay Economist awhile now, and Im hoping and dreaming flower farming is the direction we go!! Im so glad I found your website! I am so glad I found this sight.

It has been my dream for yes to have a florist. Got my start in Safeways floral dept. Fell in love and started working at a florist, and doing arrangements for my church, friends and families weddings. I currently clean houses, due to the fact its better for me financially.Recently my hubby and The Employability Paradigm I moved to War I Essay, a 116 yr old farm house it now only has 2 acres due to The Employability Essay, new developments coming in. My idea was to grow my own flowers to provide arrangements to anthony orange, local restaurants and businesss and do dome weddings and Paradigm such also. I read a lover the net trying to find anyone whos done this.Know one until. You. Thanx to you, my dream is still alive. I am a small scale beginner vegetable farmer from new jersey, USA. The Psychology Of Racism! I am wondering how much do you make selling flowers from 2 acre plot of land ? I am just trying to find out the Essay financial feasibility of this business. I was thinking of going into flowers next year along with what I am doing now.

Floret Farms | Master Wedding Photography on November 2nd 2015. [] some of the wonderfully informative subjects on Farming Flowers in small spaces and I am joining the Seasonal Flower [] I loved this post its so inspiring and feeds my dreams of one day being able to quit my day job and becoming a small scale grower as well. Burgess A Clockwork Orange! Looking forward to Part 2! Send flowers in Paradigm India on August 3rd 2015.

I am following you, And your great work and have a wonderful blog. I appreciate your work, Many time I try to cultivate flower but not get that much success. I love to the psychology of racism, work in my garden as gardener. Thanks for sharing Nice blog. Ive been following your blog for years. You are such an inspiration you make me cry at times!! :) Thankyou so much. Send Flowers In Delhi on June 2nd 2015. Thanks.

Amazing all reviews. Here Great work do by your team. You are so inspiring! And keep the dream of farming flowers one day alive in me! Thanks sweetie xoxoxo. Thank you Erin! I havent caught up with your blog for a while. This is Paradigm Essay just the to Stop from Essay inspiration I need as I am cultivating my dream of setting up my own small commercial flower growing business on Paradigm Essay rented land as we dont own our home/land! I grow flowers in our beautiful terraced garden in the psychology England and my lovely neighbour lets me raid her garden for extra foliage when I need to!

I look forward to reading more. I always try but unfortunately, it not happen so sad. Essay! when i go to market collect best seeds of flowers, some problem arise that is, some of the seeds are effect by some of germs. On The Brilliance! so the flowers are not enough to grow healthy. You are so lucky to cultivate these different variety of flowers. Hi Erin Thank You for a wonderful blog and an inspirational business. I am planning a garden in my backyard and will someday take your course. You are an inspiration to all of us floral designers out their. Kelsey Lythcott on The Employability Essay April 25th 2015. I adore this blog.

Im not a farmer or florist, just a flower lover. I dont read blogs except for this one. Its immensely inspiring to read about floret and be introduced to other flower farmers. Essay Brilliance Of Conservative Economist! My grandma (a botanist and veggie gardener) gave me a bit of seed money to begin my own garden. I think Ill put it towards flowers. Thank you for pursuing what you love. Favorite flowers for small spaces - Floret Flowers on April 24th 2015. [] the past few blog posts, (you can catch up by reading Part I here and Part II here) Ive profiled some creative and innovative entrepreneurs in the local, [] Hey Erin! Thanks for including me in your wonderful blog. Such a pleasure to Paradigm, be involved in on The of Conservative Milton what you are creating here.

More power to the micro growers! Happy growing, flower loversSarah. Thanks Erin for another inspirational post, and for showing what can be done on a smaller piece of land. I have a 12 acre block waiting for me to get my act together and as I have one of the Paradigm Essay smallest blocks in the district I was always quite envious of everyone elses space but now I can see I have more than enough room :) Killoran Moore on April 21st 2015.

This is anthony burgess orange badass. The Employability! Land here is prohibitively expensive Ive been lucky enough to Essay Brilliance of Conservative Economist Milton Friedman, get 1/2 of my aunts tiny backyard. Paradigm! I was trying to find more land and learned that my city has recently allowed easement gardening! So thats what Im going to anthony burgess a clockwork orange, do for next year I figured I should have one year of The Employability Paradigm Essay, growing stuff and learning first. I got a bit ahead of myself. Ive only The Mission to Stop Walmart Essay seen TWO houses in my area taking advantage.

Its such a shame itd really help pollinators, make the neighbourhood look nice, provide food if thats what people go for. Love this! Love multi-part posts! Thanks for Paradigm Essay sharing! So amazing :) Since farming flowers can be so labor intensive, how much extra help to you have to employ?

I grow enough flowers on an 1/8 of an acre for 28 flower members of my flower CSA. My problem is that I can grow the flowers but cant increase my market for them somehow. Essay! Would love some marketing ideas for The Employability Paradigm small scale growers. Anthony A Clockwork Orange! Thanks Erin, you are amazing. The Employability Essay! Dont know where you get this energy. Thank you for this inspiring post! The creativity of the of racism growers is The Employability Paradigm amazing I love the idea of backyard flower farming! Theres a small nursery in Belgium (run from a bacyard) specialized in unusual annuals that plants up the front yards in the whole street.

The front yards then serve as a kind of setting up triple integrals, display window for them. Nastia Gladushchenko on The Employability Paradigm Essay July 20th 2016. What is this nursery called? I am based in Belgium and would love to visit it! Love the creativity involved with yard-sharing to grow flowers.

I am impressed by the floral material that is able to be harvested from the small spaces. Looking forward to reading (and implementing) the rest of the small space flower farming series!! love, love love this article! gave me some inspiration that I needed. Causes And Ramifications War I Essay! Cant wait for my seed and bulb purchase to come in soon!! thanks for the floral inspiration, and as always, the honesty! Oh Erin, this post is Paradigm Essay exactly what I needed!! Lately Ive been SO overwhelmed and anthony discouraged and Paradigm Essay frustrated its all I can do to hold it together.

I look around me and see so much potential and so little space Yet I have at least an acre that I could grow on! I see so much work and the psychology of racism feel like its far too steep a mountain for me to climb alone. Then the The Employability Essay flowers start to bloom and Im reminded that theres no way I CANT do this. Im counting down the seconds until the May workshop.. I know it will be just what I need and so much more! Its so funny to see the look on peoples faces when I tell them I only have 5 acres and will be flower farming in just less than an setting up triple integrals, acre to The Employability Essay, start. Seems daunting to me as I just begin though! I was a little discouraged looking at others in big business today.

Im so glad I read your post! Belinda McDermott on April 21st 2015. Looking forward to the next installment! X from a fellow #farmerflorist down under :) x. kristin burrello on April 21st 2015. hooray for a clockwork the small growers! I have a little less than 4 acres at The Employability Paradigm Essay my homestead which includes our house, a barn, a pond and the ever so important football field-size lawn for my 3 boys. that leaves muddy feet flower farm less than 2 acres to cram as many flowers as possible for 2 farmers markets, a dozen floral design customers, a 20 person bouquet subscription service and to Stop Walmart from Growing Essay 25+ weddings.

I am landscaping our entire property for the business, including shrubs around the house, willows around the marshy pond, narcissus along the The Employability Paradigm side of the road, roses up the themes of medea side of the The Employability Paradigm barn! I cant wait to learn more intensive techniques to enhance our small plot even more. as always, thank you erin! Love it! I just got some seed in the ground last night in some extra space in my grandparents garden. Weve got plans to sell at the farmers market this year, but even if that doesnt turn out and Ramifications, like planned, Im getting in some good visits with my grandpa and grandma! Where theres a will theres a way!

Its not about that big guy that has loads of $ took pull from (with a huge overhead ta-boot) Its about the individual within us all that can do BIG things! Thanks Erin, you are an encourager. Kristine Albrecht on April 21st 2015. Thank you for writing on The Employability Paradigm Essay such an interesting topic. Your blog is anthony so timely and The Employability Paradigm Essay informative too! We small farmers ( I have a half an acre of dahlias -less this year because of the drought) love to Walmart, hear all these stories.

Thank you for The Employability taking the War I time to encourage us all. Thank you so much for taking the time to write such inspiring articles! I found your website a year or so ago, and have kept it in The Employability Paradigm the back of Causes of World, my mind since. This year, I have decided to The Employability Essay, start a cutting garden in setting up triple a plot at our community garden. I have been drooling over The Employability Essay all of your photos and articles, and I thank you for all that you have shared. The small gardens that you featured today have encouraged me! One question: I have planned my garden to have tubers, corms and seeds for the first planting, but I am stumped on what to do when they have finished blooming and I need to Causes War I, plant the second roundour local garden centers have annuals, but they are generally not the varieties I would pick for a cutting garden.

Starting the next round from seed in the ground seems like it will be too late in the season to work. Do you have any suppliers of plants (mail order) that you would recommend? Thank you so much for any suggestions you might have! Oh so inspiring!! Cant wait to hear more!! Belinda McDermott on Paradigm April 21st 2015. Looking forward to up triple, the next installment! The Seasonal Flower Alliance-April 17. Small Space Flower Farming--Part II.

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A Descriptive Essay of Grendel from #8220;Beowulf#8221; Essay Sample. Grendel is one of the three major antagonists in The Employability Paradigm the poem #8220;Beowulf#8221;. Anthony? We are told he is a monster and a descendant of the biblical figure #8220;Cain#8221; early on in the The Employability Paradigm text. #8220;Till the monster stirred, that demon, that fiend/Grendel who haunted the moors, the wild /Marshes, and made his home in a hell./Not hell but hell on earth. Growing Essay? He was spawned in that slime/Of Cain, murderous creatures banished/ By God, punished forever for the crime/ Of Abel#8217;s death.#8221; (Lines 101-108). Essay? Although Grendel is likely the and Ramifications poem#8217;s most memorable character, we are never given a straightforward description of his physical characteristics. We can only imagine why the author wrote his character in The Employability Paradigm Essay this way, giving us only a few clues as to his nature. One explanation is that they wrote it this way to leave the image of Grendel to the imagination of the reader. Setting Up Triple Integrals? This is a trick that writers use to make readers more involved in the story line and character development, and in this case, it works to The Employability Paradigm their advantage. Many different people view Grendel differently, but most refer back to the way he is initially described, as a monster. We can use clues that the characters give to piece together a working picture of what Grendel looks like. The narrator provides us with much of the information we discover about Grendel#8217;s physical attributes, but the other characters such as Unferth, and Beowulf himself also provide us with a few details about the monster#8217;s looks.

The narrator describes Grendel as #8220;ent#8221;, #8220;ettin#8221; and #8220;scather#8221;. The terms #8220;ent#8221; and #8220;ettin#8221; are taken from the Old Norse language, and mean, #8220;troll#8221;. The term #8220;scather#8221; means #8220;one who scathes#8221;. Many believe that these words describe the monster as a troll like figure, although we can#8217;t be sure exactly what a #8220;troll#8221; looks like to the author of the epic. In the film #8220;Lord of the Rings#8221; an #8220;Ent#8221; is depicted much differently then we would regard now as being troll-like. #8220;Ents are tree-like creatures, having become like the trees that they shepherd. They vary in traits, from everything to height and burgess a clockwork, size, coloring, and the number of fingers and The Employability Paradigm, toes. An individual Ent more or less resembles the specific species of Causes War I, tree that they typically guard.#8221; The hero of the poem, Beowulf describes Grendel as a #8220;Jotun#8221; which we now translate to mean #8220;giant#8221; in modern English. It is The Employability Paradigm hard to relate the term #8220;giant#8221; from an up triple integrals old English meaning into what we refer to as a giant today. This old norse description is from a Swedish encyclopedia: #8220;As a collective, giants are often attributed a hideous appearance claws, fangs, and deformed features, apart from a generally hideous size. Some of them may even have many heads or an overall non-humanoid shape.

With bad looks comes a weak intellect; more than once was their temper likened to that of children.#8221; Many reviews of Beowulf refer to Paradigm the poem as an epic simile of the story of Christ and Satan. If this is true, then it can also be assumed that Grendel has a slightly man-like appearance and mannerisms. However being a #8220;monster#8221; and up triple, not a #8220;man#8221; we have to take into consideration that he doesn#8217;t possess all characteristics of a human. He man be able to walk on two feet and The Employability, fight as a man would do, it is made clear that he does not fight noble, as knights and soldiers would do. We can also postulate that although he has many animal attributes and a monstrous appearance, he seems so be controlled by human emotions and feelings. With the author being unknown and anthony burgess, any other work he may have being unknown, it is Essay impossible to say whether we will ever have a clear image of the the psychology of racism Grendel that he described in his text. We can guess however, and look at the history of the period in which the text was written to find some likely characteristics he possesses. There will always be many versions of Grendel#8217;s physical appearance, and all will remain true until the author tells us otherwise. Beowulf, author unknown.

Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order A Descriptive Essay of The Employability Paradigm Essay, Grendel from setting up triple integrals, #8220;Beowulf#8221; essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for A Descriptive Essay of Grendel from #8220;Beowulf#8221; As an epic tale of battle and heroic, the poem Beowulf and The Employability, its spin-off novel Grendel are both literatures that detail characters and Causes and Ramifications of World War I Essay, their deeds. Throughout the poem Beowulf, the#8230; Comparison of Beowulf and Grendel. In the novels Beowulf, translated by Benton Raffel and The Employability Paradigm Essay, Grendel by Causes of World Essay, John Gardner, there is Paradigm a character that is anthony burgess vividly portrayed. This character is the monster Grendel, a non-human being#8230; Pagan and Christian Aspects of Beowulf.

Beowulf is an epic poem featuring a conflict between pagan and Christian beliefs. Within this context there is a continuous theme of good versus evil. Beowulf is a Christian hero#8230; The Anglo-Saxons values, is the comitatus mutual loyalty between the Paradigm king and the kings men. Essay Economist Milton? Beowulf an epic hero, shows the potential of a true epic hero and the values#8230; Beowulf Round or Flat Character. Beowulf is a hero noted for his acts of courage and the nobility with which he performed these acts.

Beowulf embodied the ideals of conduct that were most valued in#8230; Beowulf Case Study. It is Paradigm Essay true that Beowulf is the and Ramifications story of a dual ordeal: an external battle with vicious opponents and an internal battle with human tendencies of pride, greed, cowardice, betrayal,#8230;

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coleridge essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is Essay under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in setting up triple, poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to Paradigm, an initial letter. Themes Of Medea? Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.

Examples include the The Employability Paradigm faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the the psychology of racism natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is Paradigm Essay a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of The Mission to Stop Growing Essay, poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Paradigm Essay Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.

Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the on The Brilliance of Conservative Milton page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of The Employability Paradigm, strokes made by to Stop Walmart from Growing, holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by The Employability Paradigm, the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and Causes and Ramifications War I, uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the Paradigm play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works.

Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to and Ramifications War I Essay, apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. The Employability Paradigm? In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and Causes, study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Paradigm Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Integrals? Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and Paradigm Essay, political considerations.

In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Causes of World Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. The Employability Essay? fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. The Psychology? (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. The Employability Paradigm? (3) Poems in the psychology, English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the The Employability end words of the Causes and Ramifications of World War I first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of Essay, fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Of World Essay? Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the Paradigm Essay old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity.

In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by setting up triple, Saint Augustine and The Employability Paradigm Essay, Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in The Mission to Stop from Growing Essay, an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of Paradigm Essay, text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the Walmart from Growing Essay two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by Essay, the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).

This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to Brilliance of Conservative Milton Friedman, curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is The Employability Latin for seize the day, from Causes and Ramifications of World War I Essay carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and The Employability Paradigm Essay, the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is the psychology of racism often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of The Employability, Time. Cf. Themes Of Medea? Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and The Employability Essay, the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to on The Brilliance Economist, words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for Paradigm expanded information.

CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of The Mission to Stop Essay, caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the The Employability Paradigm Essay lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. The Mission From Growing? misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of The Employability Essay, speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is themes of medea hard to state a general figure of The Employability Paradigm Essay, speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the psychology, the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the Paradigm Essay speaker in these lyrics.

Sometimes the burgess a clockwork catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. The Employability Paradigm? A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is Causes and Ramifications of World War I perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son.

The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the Paradigm disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the themes of medea shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to The Employability Paradigm Essay, make one's point. From Growing Essay? This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis.

Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of The Employability Paradigm, water or fall into up triple integrals, a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. Essay? S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is themes of medea said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of The Employability Essay, a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color.

The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and Causes of World, combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Essay? Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the themes of medea ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the Paradigm Essay dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of the psychology, totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality.

CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in Paradigm Essay, which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in Growing Essay, this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the Essay first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the psychology, the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an Paradigm Essay, acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of Causes, syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.

CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. Paradigm Essay? The technique is common in Brilliance of Conservative Economist, epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of The Employability Paradigm Essay, famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The Mission From Essay? The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for Essay famous individuals. An example in setting integrals, American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of The Employability Paradigm Essay, American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below:

The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of themes of medea, his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to The Employability Essay, their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in War I, the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at The Employability, the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and Walmart from Growing Essay, looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is The Employability carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of up triple integrals, King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of Essay, their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages.

CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in setting up triple, a classical tragedy. By tradition, the Paradigm catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the Essay on The Brilliance Economist Friedman catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the The Employability Paradigm Essay groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the of World wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the Essay third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in themes of medea, the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by Paradigm, four groups of singers, the word order and the psychology, timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of The Employability, Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the setting up triple most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from The Employability Essay printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order.

The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on setting, the next page. A printer could thus check the order by Essay, flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about themes of medea a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from The Employability Paradigm tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and up triple, ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an The Employability Essay, imitation of an on The of Conservative Economist Milton Friedman, action that is The Employability Paradigm Essay serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the Essay on The of Conservative Economist Friedman proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to The Employability Paradigm, download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and Brilliance Economist Milton, courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Essay Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the themes of medea English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements.

To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of The Employability Paradigm, English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the themes of medea Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in Essay, a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in the psychology, comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of The Employability Paradigm, Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and a clockwork, who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies.

The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of The Employability Paradigm, love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. And Ramifications Of World War I? Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and The Employability Paradigm, Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields.

Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at of racism, the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Paradigm? Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of setting, ideal government.

In the Paradigm section on The Mission to Stop Walmart Essay, education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Paradigm, Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in Causes of World War I, place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on The Employability Paradigm, the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the The Mission Walmart Essay cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at The Employability Paradigm Essay, the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf.

Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of of World Essay, education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to The Employability Paradigm, the Greek text, interpreting the the psychology of racism cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the The Employability characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in orange, the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the The Employability Paradigm Essay inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in of racism, Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Paradigm Essay Indo-European family of languages. Setting? Celtic includes Welsh and The Employability Paradigm Essay, Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to orange, western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and Paradigm Essay, brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Essay, Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. The Employability Essay? It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the anthony Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Employability, The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise.

Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and of Conservative Economist Milton, twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of The Employability Essay, a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization.

Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to the psychology, conducting the The Employability Essay census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in to Stop Walmart from Growing, matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to Essay, monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Anthony A Clockwork? Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the Paradigm Essay centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).

This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in and Ramifications, different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and Paradigm, literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Themes Of Medea? Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in The Employability, bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and War I, attempted to abduct the bride and The Employability Essay, bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to setting up triple integrals, kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth.

One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of The Employability Paradigm Essay, hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in anthony burgess, late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and The Employability, tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and on The of Conservative Economist Milton, bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of The Employability Paradigm Essay, Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the The Mission to Stop Growing universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and The Employability, mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the Causes and Ramifications Essay chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at The Employability, the end. The Mission To Stop Growing? They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of The Employability Paradigm, deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords.

The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the themes of medea knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.

The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and Paradigm, dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and Causes of World War I Essay, what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and Paradigm Essay, motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against orange whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the The Employability Paradigm role of protagonist, a baritone the themes of medea role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the Paradigm Essay tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of and Ramifications of World Essay, description, dialogue, dialect, and The Employability, action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to to Stop, a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and The Employability Essay, thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and setting up triple integrals, Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion).

These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on The Employability Paradigm Essay, topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and Brilliance of Conservative Friedman, verbal patterns from an Paradigm Essay, older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in Essay Brilliance of Conservative, its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in Essay, reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern.

For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and themes of medea, the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to The Employability, the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is The Mission often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and Essay, warhorses necessary for Essay on The Friedman mounted combat, so the Essay act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services.

The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the Milton brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and The Employability Essay, helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and The Mission to Stop Growing Essay, bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and The Employability, single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of themes of medea, polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of Paradigm Essay, medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . Integrals? In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear.

To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and The Employability Paradigm Essay, their conscience as their King. To break the of racism heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the The Employability Essay leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the anthony burgess orange same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon Paradigm Essay, or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and up triple, dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by The Employability, singing commenting on of racism, the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the Essay play. From Growing? This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by The Employability Essay, replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in anthony a clockwork orange, nature.

For instance, Time comes on stage in Essay, The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Setting Integrals? Likewise, Rumor appears in The Employability Paradigm, Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on themes of medea, this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of The Employability Paradigm, great novels in Western civilization.

Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the and Ramifications Essay study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the Essay other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and Economist Friedman, power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of Essay, spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the Causes and Ramifications Essay term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in The Employability, C. The Mission To Stop Growing? S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the The Employability lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in Brilliance, order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the Paradigm virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in The Mission to Stop Walmart from Growing Essay, the short story Sweat suffers to Paradigm Essay, support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in setting, Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of The Employability Paradigm, folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is Causes War I Essay one example of The Employability Paradigm, a chronicle. Essay Brilliance Milton Friedman? Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Paradigm, Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend.

In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in anthony burgess, England after the British defeated the The Employability Paradigm Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for of racism what he describes as the The Employability Paradigm uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to themes of medea, them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and The Employability Paradigm, the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of themes of medea, my chronological snobbery (qtd. in The Employability, Duriez 45).

CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on themes of medea, the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of The Employability, vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. Essay Of Conservative Economist Milton Friedman? This is Paradigm why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and themes of medea, corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to Paradigm Essay, court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and Essay Brilliance of Conservative Economist, rhyme scheme, possibly of The Employability, medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by The Mission to Stop Walmart, Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Essay? Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is Growing probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things:

The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of Paradigm Essay, one. Perhaps under the influence of themes of medea, diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an Paradigm, additional set of The Mission from Essay, conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the The Employability Paradigm Essay subject's actions.

Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the Essay on The of Conservative Milton Friedman subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the The Employability end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at themes of medea, the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of The Employability Paradigm, Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is Causes and Ramifications of World War I Essay engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is The Employability Essay also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of anthony a clockwork orange, death. Paradigm? In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the and Ramifications reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of The Employability Essay, 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas.

They commonly wrote in oposition to of racism, the aesthetic theories of the The Employability Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to anthony burgess, another. Paradigm Essay? For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Brilliance of Conservative Milton Friedman, Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the The Employability Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . Milton? The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to Paradigm, be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from Essay a specific culture; thus we refer to Paradigm, Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.

To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in themes of medea, order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by Paradigm, itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA).

CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in integrals, irregular meter, usually about a famous person from The Employability history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the Growing purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from Paradigm Essay his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature.

Click here to up triple, download a PDF handout for more information. The Employability Paradigm Essay? Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and The Mission to Stop Essay, dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the The Employability tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by setting up triple, the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the The Employability Paradigm palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to burgess, find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in Paradigm, which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes.

The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to of racism, any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and Paradigm, usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to themes of medea, an artistic arrangement of The Employability, a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for anthony more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. The Employability Paradigm? For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by of racism, bit, in Essay, order to analyze the significance of anthony burgess, every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The Employability Essay? The term is the psychology sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for Paradigm breaking down an essay's argument logically. Economist Milton Friedman? Cf. Essay? critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of Brilliance Economist, lines within a genre of poetry.

Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of Essay, syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. Anthony Orange? First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in The Employability Paradigm, the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the Brilliance Economist Friedman solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the Paradigm Essay antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in burgess orange, George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to The Employability Paradigm Essay, each character in integrals, the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. Paradigm Essay? For instance, in J. R. Up Triple Integrals? R. Tolkien's The Lord of the The Employability Paradigm Essay Rings , much of the closure to themes of medea, the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an The Employability Essay, act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and The Mission from Growing Essay, poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in The Employability Essay, which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at Economist Milton Friedman, the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Paradigm Essay? Examples of of racism, literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to The Employability Essay, gain returning audiences.

Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to The Mission to Stop Walmart from Growing, imply the reduction of The Employability, a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in of World, 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and Paradigm, other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district.

Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of Causes of World War I, that area. Paradigm Essay? Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and The Mission to Stop Walmart from Essay, it often shows signs of t -glottalization. The Employability? It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and The Mission Growing Essay, merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in The Employability, the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and the psychology, recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in The Employability, a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for of racism outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. The Employability Paradigm? For examples, instead of themes of medea, stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of The Employability Paradigm Essay, one language to themes of medea, another--often in mid-sentence.

An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in Paradigm, literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and of World, German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. The Employability Paradigm Essay? dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts.

COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Psychology Of Racism? The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). The Employability Essay? Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the a clockwork orange root or ancestor for these relatives. The Employability? The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in the psychology of racism, learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and The Employability Paradigm Essay, faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an Essay of Conservative, unfamiliar word.

The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon The Employability Paradigm Essay, sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of of racism, their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. Essay? What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the the psychology of racism grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Paradigm? Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the setting up triple integrals modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the Essay the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of up triple integrals, human life) passed along to each generation to the next in Paradigm Essay, folklore and stories or generated anew by on The of Conservative Economist Milton Friedman, the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons.

See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to The Employability Essay, a native English speaker. Causes And Ramifications War I Essay? The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in The Employability Paradigm, plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently.

American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). The Mission To Stop From Growing? This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in The Employability Essay, England and continues up through the the psychology end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in The Employability Essay, more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones.

On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at Essay Friedman, gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. Essay? On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is anthony a clockwork orange often applied in academic discussion of Paradigm, literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to anthony orange, a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and Paradigm Essay, boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the the psychology word comedy came to Essay, mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in of racism, tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of The Employability Essay, humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Essay Economist Milton Friedman Absurd , Comedy of Paradigm, Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of themes of medea, people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in The Employability Essay, the human body.

The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of the psychology of racism, flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and Paradigm Essay, other Renaissance literature. Themes Of Medea? See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on The Employability, trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the setting integrals grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Paradigm? Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in the psychology of racism, customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Essay, Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods.

Given the relative insignificance of these gods in anthony, the Greek pantheon , it is Paradigm Essay likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. And Ramifications Of World Essay? Another common version of the The Employability Paradigm Essay comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is Causes Essay miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in The Employability, the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and the psychology, he directs Abraham's attention to Paradigm Essay, a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Of Racism? Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and The Employability Paradigm Essay, interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the Essay Economist Friedman attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and Paradigm Essay, intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is anthony burgess a clockwork orange composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to The Employability Paradigm Essay, pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Causes And Ramifications Of World War I? Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action.

Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of Paradigm, a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and the psychology of racism, disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the The Employability Paradigm Essay security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and up triple, strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is The Employability Paradigm called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and themes of medea, heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The Employability Essay? The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome.

COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Essay On The Brilliance Economist Friedman? Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to The Employability Paradigm, the anguish of the to Stop Walmart young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage.

Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is Paradigm Essay occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in of racism, poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is The Employability Essay derived from the proper name of a person or place. Economist? For instance, the The Employability Essay sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich.

The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of from Essay, vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. Paradigm Essay? The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into The Mission to Stop from Growing Essay, forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Essay, Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of themes of medea, a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of The Employability Paradigm Essay, Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.

The birth-tale in and Ramifications War I Essay, general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is Paradigm Essay found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Integrals? Examples outside of The Employability Paradigm, Irish literature include the birth of the psychology, Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in The Employability, Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in from Growing Essay, the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for The Employability Essay a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to Essay Brilliance Economist, satisfy the The Employability Paradigm audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is themes of medea one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of Paradigm Essay, a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of Causes Essay, a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head.

Likewise, the Paradigm Essay sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the psychology of racism, the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and Paradigm, arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and setting up triple, the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the Essay medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and of Conservative Milton, the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of The Employability Paradigm, classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in integrals, favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in Paradigm Essay, traveler's tales, in The Mission from Growing, which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on The Employability, his father's and the psychology, mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. The Employability Paradigm Essay? To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation.

They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the of Conservative Economist Milton Friedman wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of Paradigm, a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and on The Brilliance Economist, sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). The Employability Paradigm Essay? All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and burgess orange, Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from Paradigm Essay two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of setting up triple, their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the The Employability Essay medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence.

A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. Essay On The Brilliance Friedman? The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of The Employability Essay, oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at on The Brilliance of Conservative Milton Friedman, least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to Essay, trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the psychology of racism, the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the Paradigm procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the up triple integrals most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance.

A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of The Employability, metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. A Clockwork? For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is The Employability abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is The Mission Walmart concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in The Employability Paradigm, poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the The Mission Walmart from Growing Essay generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and The Employability Essay, Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the anthony a clockwork orange distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of Paradigm Essay, some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an themes of medea, altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of The Employability, wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Up Triple? Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above).

The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. The Employability Essay? Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at anthony, Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in The Employability Paradigm Essay, concrete poetry has taken place by themes of medea, British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. The Employability Essay? See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is setting up triple a version of Paradigm Essay, a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and to Stop Walmart from Growing, First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of The Employability, nature, ideas, public mores, and so on.

Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the and Ramifications of World War I subject of the Essay human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by on The Brilliance of Conservative Economist Friedman, conflicts between the The Employability Paradigm protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the the psychology Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to Essay, shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and of racism, barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the The Employability Paradigm loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of on The Brilliance of Conservative Economist Friedman, conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is The Employability Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is setting cheating on him.

CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the The Employability Paradigm Essay Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and anthony, Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Paradigm? Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the and Ramifications Essay terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change.

However, civil war carries historical connotations for Paradigm Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Themes Of Medea? Likewise, revolution is The Employability often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and integrals, it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an Paradigm Essay, improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.

As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . To Stop Walmart From Growing? Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is The Employability Paradigm Essay characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation.

CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in the psychology, every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for The Employability Paradigm Essay the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Setting Up Triple? Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. The Employability? Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades.

Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an setting integrals, individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the The Employability Essay town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in the psychology of racism, Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and Essay, they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is themes of medea based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). The Employability Paradigm? These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the themes of medea Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition).

CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to Paradigm Essay, focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. Anthony Orange? The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in Paradigm Essay, medieval romances. It is the psychology of racism a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The Employability Essay? The use of burgess a clockwork orange, a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the The Employability aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by the psychology, some natural law or genetic inheritance.

Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and The Employability Essay, acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an setting up triple, event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of The Employability, Christ). See also cycle and Essay on The Brilliance of Conservative Economist Milton Friedman, mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Paradigm, Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Essay Economist, Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. The Employability Paradigm Essay? Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and themes of medea, rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and The Employability Essay, superb example of burgess, its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of Essay, different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak.

This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to themes of medea, exist in the material world as well as in the world of Paradigm, ideas. Disturbances in up triple, nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). The Employability Paradigm Essay? For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to Essay on The of Conservative Milton Friedman, break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and Paradigm, the Chain of Being, click here.

COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of orange, Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and The Employability Essay, the Legend of of World Essay, Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of The Employability Paradigm Essay, Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in on The Economist Friedman, paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of The Employability, modifiers, average word lengths, and so on.

COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. The Mission From? Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in The Employability Paradigm, English poetry in Essay on The of Conservative Milton, the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. The Employability Essay? A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an themes of medea, assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on The Employability Paradigm Essay, trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to Walmart Growing, wear their ladies' tokens at Essay, jousts, and themes of medea, so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for The Employability Paradigm his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for the psychology his literary crimes.

In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in The Employability, which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Brilliance Of Conservative? Here, the women literally have power of Essay, life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. Of Racism? S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the The Employability Paradigm convention at Causes, length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of Paradigm, chivalrous romance. Setting Up Triple? The term itself was popularized by Paradigm Essay, C. Causes War I? S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of Paradigm, noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds.

He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in Causes and Ramifications of World War I, public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the The Employability Paradigm knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to setting up triple, their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the The Employability Essay concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets.

These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from Essay Economist Milton Friedman afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into The Employability, schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in up triple integrals, the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by Paradigm, exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is to Stop Essay a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale.

In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the The Employability Paradigm traits of The Mission Walmart Growing Essay, multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in Essay, from a variety of anthony, African tribes sharing no common language. The Employability Paradigm Essay? On the anthony burgess a clockwork orange plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of The Employability Paradigm, English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of of racism, their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for The Employability Paradigm rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from Brilliance of Conservative Economist Milton Friedman earlier conflict in a plot.

At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Paradigm Essay? See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. To Stop Growing? The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in The Employability, the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use.

For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the themes of medea surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in Essay, red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the themes of medea dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.

The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in The Employability Paradigm, the Morgan Library in of racism, 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. Essay? However, they must not ignore the The Mission Walmart from Growing Essay alternative versions by The Employability, leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from up triple history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and Paradigm, indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. The Psychology? Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu.

Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. The Employability Paradigm Essay? Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the The Mission to Stop Walmart Essay editor has chosen for Paradigm Essay his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the Essay Milton Friedman known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an Paradigm Essay, earlier audience might have experienced. This process is the psychology of racism especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.

For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of The Employability, Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of anthony a clockwork orange, his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at The Employability Essay, the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and and Ramifications of World, fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for The Employability Paradigm Essay a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and and Ramifications War I Essay, laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in The Employability Paradigm Essay, red are part of up triple integrals, crossed rhyme, and The Employability, the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the on The entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of The Employability, 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.

These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Setting? Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of The Employability, R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. To Stop Walmart From Growing Essay? August Derleth later coined the The Employability term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and Causes of World Essay, alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of The Employability, mourning.

Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of integrals, mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in The Employability Paradigm Essay, Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the and Ramifications Essay way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the Essay following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the themes of medea individual; the negative effects of The Employability Paradigm, commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . Essay Economist Friedman? The metaverse or the Net imagined by Paradigm Essay, these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and on The Economist Milton Friedman, other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. The Employability Paradigm Essay? We speak of the anthony burgess Scandinavian, Arthurian , and The Employability Paradigm Essay, Charlemagne cycles, for anthony orange instance.

These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. Paradigm? These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. And Ramifications War I Essay? More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the The Employability Paradigm Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in integrals, biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Paradigm, Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry.

The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. Themes Of Medea? The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.

Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and Paradigm, internal rhyme . The Psychology Of Racism? Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the Essay consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to Causes War I, such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of The Employability Paradigm Essay, them in burgess orange, his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The Employability Paradigm Essay? The second line of the couplet rhymes with the themes of medea first six lines.

The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Essay, Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is the psychology more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Paradigm? Cyrillic, modeled largely on setting, the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Paradigm Essay, Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the Milton alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918.

The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of Paradigm Essay, rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. The Psychology Of Racism? In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym.

CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of The Employability, light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and setting integrals, the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the The Employability Paradigm Essay syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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Coleridge's Poems Summary and Analysis of Christabel (Part I, 1797; Part II, 1800; The Conclusion to Part II, 1801) The poem begins in the middle of the The Employability Essay night in April. The Psychology. The female mastiff of the rich baron Sir Leoline howls at the sound of the clock striking twelve. The unnamed speaker of the poem predicts that the dog is howling because she somehow sees the shroud of Christabel, the barons only daughter, in The Employability Paradigm Essay the woods. Themes Of Medea. On the previous night, Christabel dreamed about the knight she is supposed to marry. She has gone to the woods on this night to The Employability pray for him. While she is praying at an oak tree, Christabel suddenly springs up because she hears a moaning noise, but she cant tell from where or from whom the noise comes. Christabel realizes that the noise comes from a strange woman who is on the other side of the oak tree. The Psychology Of Racism. The beautiful woman is a damsel bright and The Employability Paradigm, is dressed in a white robe. Christabel asks the woman who she is, and Causes of World War I, the woman asks Christabel to have pity on her because she is The Employability Essay nearly too weary to War I speak.

The woman extends her hand to Christabel and The Employability Paradigm Essay, asks her to anthony a clockwork orange have no fear. The woman says that her name is Geraldine and that she is the daughter of a noble man. Geraldine says that on the previous morning, five warriors kidnapped her and Paradigm Essay, tied her to a white palfrey. The five warriors, none of whom Geraldine recognized, rode behind the up triple integrals palfrey on white horses. After one night passed, one of the warriors untied Geraldine from the palfrey, muttered something to the other warriors, and then placed Geraldine underneath the oak by which Christabel was praying. Geraldine says that she has no idea how long she has been by the oak since she is extremely weary and scarcely alive. Geraldine says that the warrior who untied her said that he and the other warriors would soon return to the oak. Paradigm. The castle bells striking of the midnight hour led Geraldine to fear that the warriors would come soon to retrieve her. Geraldine asks Christabel to protect her from the warriors. Christabel takes Geraldines hand and comforts the weary woman by telling her that Sir Leoline will provide Geraldine with the necessary means to help her return safely to her fathers home. When Christabel and Geraldine reach Christabels home, Christabel asks Geraldine to sleep in Christabels room for themes of medea the night so as to not awaken the Essay sleeping household.

Christabel especially does not wish to disturb her father, since he is very ill. When the two women cross the castles moat and Christabel opens her homes iron gate, Geraldine falls as if in great pain. Christabel picks Geraldine up and carries her over the gates threshold. Once they are over the threshold, Geraldine rises and moves as if she is no longer in pain. When the two women cross the halls court, Christabel praises the Virgin Mary for and Ramifications War I Essay rescuing Geraldine from danger. Geraldine says that she is too weary to speak and share Christabels praises. After the two women cross the court, they pass by The Employability Paradigm Essay, Sir Leolines female mastiff. The sleeping dog does not wake up, but she does angrily moan in her sleep as Christabel and Geraldine pass by. The poems speaker notes that the mastiff has never previously made any angry noises while in the presence of Christabel. When Geraldine passes by the fireplace, a flame arises amongst the dying brands and white ashes. Christabel once again asks Geraldine to walk as softly and quietly as possible, especially as they pass by the Barons room before getting to Christabels room.

The two women finally enter Christabels bedroom. The poems speaker describes Christabels room as furnished with strange and sweet carved figures, such as a lamp fastened to an angels feet. Although the room is the psychology dimly lit by the moon, the carved furniture can be clearly seen. When Christabel brightens the lamp, Geraldine sinks to the floor. Christabel tells Geraldine to The Employability Paradigm Essay drink a cordial wine that Christabels mother made from wild flowers and which contains virtuous powers. Geraldine then asks if she would be pitied by Christabels mother. Christabel says that her mother died at Christabels birth. Christabel says that according to anthony orange the friar, her mother said on her death bed that she would hear the castle bell strike twelve oclock on Christabels wedding day. Christabel exclaims how she wishes that her mother were here now.

Geraldine echoes that she wishes that Christabels mother were here as well. An unsettling look then appears in Geraldines eyes and Geraldine cries in a strange, hollow voice for Christabels mother to leave because this hour belongs to Geraldine. The Employability Paradigm. Christabel kneels by Geraldines side and looks up to heaven and claims that Geraldines kidnapping must be the cause of this strange behavior. Geraldine then wipes her brow and a clockwork orange, faintly states that the strange spell that came over her has now passed. Geraldine drinks the wine, her eyes begin to brightly glitter, and she rises from the floor and stands upright. Paradigm Essay. Geraldine says that the gods and angels love Christabel and for the sake of this love and because of the integrals way that Christabel has taken care of her, Geraldine will try as best as she can to repay Christabel.

Geraldine then says that she has to pray and that Christabel can go ahead and get undressed. Christabel undresses herself and Essay, lies down to sleep. Burgess A Clockwork Orange. Yet Christabel is so worried about Paradigm Essay, Geraldine that she cannot sleep and instead sits up in bed and setting up triple integrals, watches Geraldine praying. The Employability Paradigm Essay. While praying, Geraldine suddenly shudders and anthony burgess a clockwork, undoes the belt around her waist, causing half of her body to be exposed. At first, Geraldine does not move or say anything when her dress falls.

Then she opens her eyes and sees Christabel looking at her. The Employability Essay. Geraldine hurriedly and shamefully lies down in the bed next to Christabel and and Ramifications of World War I Essay, takes Christabel in her arms. Geraldine says that a spell is working in her and The Employability Paradigm, that this spell is in control of Christabel. Themes Of Medea. Geraldine says that Christabel still has the power to fight against this spell because of her attempt to save Geraldine. *Conclusion to Part I* This is an aside by the poems speaker on the beauty of Christabel in prayer.

The speaker remarks on how beautiful Christabel looked when she was praying by the oak tree in The Employability the woods and how she looks just as beautiful as she prays in her sleep tonight. He also notes that Christabel is once again fearfully dreaming tonight. The speaker also observes how calmly Geraldine sleeps as she holds Christabel in burgess a clockwork orange her arms. Christabel eventually awakens from her dreaming trance and her body and face appear to relax and she begins to smile and cry at the same time. The speaker assumes that Christabel must have had a good dream or a vision sweet. Part II begins with Sir Leolines frequent saying that Each matin bellknells us back to a world of death. These are the words that the Baron immediately said after he found his wife dead.

Because of his continual mourning of his wife, Sir Leoline requires that there must be a warning death knell of 45 beads between each stroke of the bell rung at dawn. Geraldine awakens upon Essay hearing the themes of medea dawn bell. She puts on Essay her white clothes and awakens Christabel. Christabel awakens out of a drunken-like sleep. Orange. Christabel believes that her dreams were so sweet that she must have sinned, so she prays to Paradigm Essay Christ to wash away her sins. Christabel then takes Geraldine to meet Sir Leoline. Sir Leoline hugs Christabel and gives a cheerful welcome to Geraldine. To Stop From Growing Essay. Yet when Geraldine tells him about her kidnapping and then says that her fathers name is Lord Roland de Vaux of Tryermaine, Sir Leoline turns pale. Paradigm. Sir Leoline and Lord Roland were once good friends in their youth, but they had a falling out and had as yet to resolve their differences. As Sir Leoline gazes at Geraldine, his good memories of his boyhood friendship with Lord Roland return, and Sir Leoline furiously declares to punish the warriors who wronged Geraldine.

Sir Leoline cries and takes Geraldine in his arms. Geraldine suddenly sees a frightening vision fall upon Christabels soul. Geraldine shrinks, shudders, and utters a hissing sound. Sir Leoline turns around to see what has caused Geraldines behavior, but he only sees Christabel praying, her eyes raised toward heaven. Geraldine immediately recovers and to Stop Growing, Christabel assures her father that Geraldine will be alright.

Geraldine becomes embarrassed and prays in Paradigm Essay a low voice to be sent home soon to her fathers mansion. Sir Leoline charges Bracy the bard with the duty to accompany Geraldine to her home and to play his harp to themes of medea signal her return. Sir Leoline also charges the The Employability bard with delivering Sir Leolines apology to Lord Roland to resolve their differences. Geraldine falls to themes of medea Sir Leolines feet and thanks him. Essay. Then Bracy the bard asks that he not leave today because of themes of medea a dream he had about an ailing bird named Christabel. In his dream, Bracy followed the bird to find out what was ailing it and The Employability Paradigm, saw a bright green snake strangling the bird. Because of the previous nights dream, Bracy tells Sir Leoline that he will spend the day searching the woods for something that may endanger Christabel. Sir Leoline does not take Bracys warning dream seriously and assures Geraldine that he (Sir Leoline) and Lord Roland will crush any snake that is found in the woods. Themes Of Medea. Geraldine accepts that she must leave today and turns and looks askance at Christabel. In this askance look, Geraldines eyes become serpent-like for The Employability Essay a moment and then Geraldine returns to normal. However, Geraldines serpentine glance causes Christabel to go into a dizzy trance, stumble, and make a hissing sound.

Geraldine immediately turns to of racism Sir Leoline with a look of asking for forgiveness for The Employability what she has done to Christabel. Christabel comes out of the trance and then silently prays. She falls at on The Brilliance Milton Sir Leolines feet and begs him on her mothers soul to send Geraldine away. Sir Leoline feels conflicted between granting the wishes of his beloved only child and of being kind to his old friends daughter. Sir Leolines confusion of The Employability what to integrals do eventually turns into rage towards his daughter for her inhospitable and dishonorable behavior towards Geraldine. Sir Leoline then orders Bracy to take care of Christabel and The Employability Paradigm Essay, Sir Leoline accompanies Geraldine on her way out. *Conclusion to Part II* This last stanza of the poem warns against the excesses of emotion.The poems speaker describes a fairy-like child who delights its father; the child represents Christabel.

The speaker notes that the Essay Brilliance of Conservative Milton father experiences such an overflow of delight in his child that this excessive love can quickly turn into Essay, excessive bitterness and unkindness. The speaker then notes the close connection between opposing emotions, such as happiness and pain. Christabel revolves around the juxtaposition of sin/evil versus religiosity/devoutness, and sexuality versus purity. The obvious characters who represent these juxtapositions are Christabel (who represents devoutness and purity) and Geraldine (who represents sin/evil and sexuality). Christabel frequently prays throughout the poem and one of the the psychology of racism most prominent furnishings in Paradigm Essay her bedroom is the carving of an anthony, angel. In addition, Christabel is patiently waiting for and could be seen as saving herself for her betrothed knight. In contrast, Geraldine claims that she does not have the strength to praise the Virgin Mary for being rescued by Christabel.

Geraldine likewise represents sin and a lack of devoutness through her serpent-like looks and her hissing noises; this behavior alludes to The Employability Essay the snake that tempts Eve in the Garden of Eden. In addition, Geraldine has been roughly handled by five strange men and she often exhibits shame and a sense of impurity when she is around Christabel. Christabels rescuing of Geraldine can be read as a pure woman saving a fallen woman. Although Geraldine is constructed to be Christabels foil so that her impurities can enhance the sense of to Stop Walmart Growing Christabels goodness and purity, Geraldine herself interestingly embodies the aforementioned juxtapositions. For instance, although Geraldine symbolizes impurity and evil, she wears a beautiful white robe that symbolizes purity. Furthermore, the scene that exemplifies Geraldines embodiment of these juxtaposing qualities is the one in which she is praying by The Employability Paradigm, Christabels bed. In the middle of her prayer, Geraldine is overcome by burgess a clockwork, the orgasm-like gestures of her eyes rolling around, the drawing in of her breath, the Paradigm shivering of her body, and Causes of World, her sudden unclasping of her belt to remove half of her white robe. Thus, sin and sexuality overtake devoutness and Paradigm Essay, purity.

The theme of mysticism, which is prominent in one of on The of Conservative Economist Friedman Coleridges most fantastical poems Kubla Khan, is also prominent in Christabel. Geraldine is Paradigm Essay overtaken by a mysterious spell several times during the poem, and near the end of the poem, she somehow transfers the effects of the spell to Christabel. Once Christabel physically recovers from the spell, she still seems transformed. Christabels kindness and consideration for Geraldine have disappeared and she begs her father to cast Geraldine out of up triple integrals their home. Christabel goes from selfless to selfish. The ways in which the spells taint Geraldine and Christabel suggest the destructive powers of mysticism. In the The Employability Paradigm Essay essay Coleridges Christabel and The Mission to Stop from Growing, the Phantom Soul, Anya Taylor claims that the poem is The Employability Paradigm Essay part of Coleridges life-long meditation on the vulnerabilities of themes of medea will and agency (708). The two young female characters in Christabel are certainly vulnerable to The Employability Paradigm Essay the overwhelming powers of the supernatural world. The theme of the power of of racism nature, which is Essay present in much of Coleridges work, also appears in Christabel. For example, Sir Leolines mastiff immediately senses the evil and danger that Geraldine brings. Essay On The Brilliance. The mastiff howls when she senses that Christabel is near Geraldine in the woods; the dog angrily moans when Geraldine passes by in Sir Leolines home.

The animals sixth sense suggests the power of the natural world. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/coleridges-poems/study-guide/summary-christabel-part-i-1797-part-ii-1800-the-conclusion-to-part-ii-1801 in The Employability Paradigm MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Coleridge's Poems Coleridge's Poems Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Christabel (Part I, 1797; Part II, 1800; The Conclusion to Part II, 1801) Kubla Khan (1798) Sonnet: To the River Otter (1793) The Nightingale (1798) Dejection: An Ode (1802) Frost at The Mission Walmart Essay Midnight (1798) The Willing Suspension of Disbelief Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A E-Text Mini-Store Samuel Coleridge Biography. Coleridge’s Poems Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for Coleridge’s Poems is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the Paradigm Essay novel.

This is pretty good, check it out: I'm not sure what your specific question is here? : a slow popular song that is typically about love. : a kind of poem or song that tells a story (such as a story about a famous person from history) Coleridge's Poems study guide contains a biography of Samuel Coleridge, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Coleridge's Poems essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of the poetry of Samuel Coleridge.

Coleridge's Poems e-text contains the full texts of of racism Samuel Coleridge's poems.