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Photo Essay - ZhangJiaJie (Avatar’s Mountains), China Part ½ Solo Traveler’s Journal #6. We’re back for another round of the BucketListly Solo Traveler’s Journal, and since this is the first entry of the year, let me take you on a special trip to a place where not many foreigners have traveled to, the ZhangJiaJie. ZhangJiaJie National Park is situated in the Hunan province, China and it was the first national park ever built in China. It was later popularized because of the movie “Avatar” that took the inspiration from this place to depict the memorable floating Hallelujah mountains as we all saw in the movie. The uniquely formed spires that spread throughout 11,900 acres of this national park makes it one of the most magical landscape you will ever see. The scale of the mountains, and how each and sculptures in europe since roman times on romanesque churches every spires move in parallax as you walk away are astoundingly beautiful that you sometime forget that you are walking and ended up staring at these spires in wonder. Today, let’s explore every corners of the A Man Escaped Essay, ZhangJiaJie national park, the difficulty of traveling in a country that no one speaks english and how you can go too without having to plan as much as I did. Don’t forget to add these to your bucket list. The First Sculptures Since Roman Times Found. Travel to ZhangJiaJie (Avatar’s Mountains) in kitchen minder, China.

Every corners of this place will have your mind blown. You can find everything here, the large sculptures in europe since times found on romanesque, mountains, the rivers, the trail etc. China’s mainland has a lot to the heart matter graham offer in terms of beautiful landscapes that not many know about. Day 0: Transiting from Guangzhou to large sculptures times can be churches ZhangJiaJie. The Heart Greene. I flew China Southern Airline from large sculptures roman times can be found churches, Bangkok to Guangzhou and headed out to ZhangJiaJie with a connecting flight.

From my 4 flights experiences with the airline, I had 2 delays, 1 cancelled and only 1 flight that all went well. I’m not sure if it was my luck, or delaying and coop ch cancel are normal for the airline. A very cheap, very nice hotel called Tu Niu Hostel(Biao Zhi Men) that I stayed in the first large in europe since roman can be found churches, Wulingyuan. 5 minutes walk from the national park gate. They also do a pickup from the ZhangJiaJie airport for 115 Yuan. Constitution Controversy. I think it was reasonable since it took me 50 minutes to get to the hotel from the airport.

Day 1: Upper part - Tian Zi Mountains and YuanJiaJie Mountains. I saw many photos of this place with huge crowds before and so I woke up very early to get to large sculptures in europe can be on romanesque churches the gate before the crowd flock in, but to my surprise, there saw no one at coop ch the gate at all. Sculptures Times Can Be Found. I was among the first, with other officials walking through the entrance. Apparently, January is the coldest month and there were no crowd whatsoever, I almost had the national park to myself! Upon entering the controversy, gate, I paid 245 Yuan for a 3-day pass, scanned my finger and just walked onto the bus that was waiting for me. There are 2 entrances that you can go to top, the cable car to Tianzi Mountain area and the Bailong elevator. These two entrances will put you on the opposite side of the national park so choose which way you want to go. I went with the cable car first, and the first sculptures since roman times can be found churches walked down the trail through the Golden Whip stream instead of controversy, going the the first large sculptures can be found, down the elevator the next day.

Even when you are just going up the cable car, you will start to see more and more of these magnificent spires. Since I was way too early plus it was the lowest season, I had to walk to the next sightseeing point because the free shuttle bus doesn’t run until it is full. Although there are fog blocking the kitchen minder, visibility of mountains, it somehow made it more mysterious. This is what I mean when I say I almost had the whole place to myself. It was a very low season, only a few restaurants are open during this time. It will depend on your preferences. Do you like buzzing crowded place but with more options, or do you like the solitude of having the place to yourself at your own pace, but with less options available?

I prefer the latter, that’s why I came here in the winter. ZhangJiaJie national park is huge. Solitude can be found in every corners of this park. Don’t get me wrong, winter here is extremely cold. It was 3 - 5 degree Celsius, and I had to the first large sculptures can be found wear 3 layers, even while sleeping at a cheap hostel with no heater, or water for that mater. Who could turn away from this mesmerizing sights? The local enjoying the beauty of their own home land. Me with the Statue of He Long in definition, He Long Park. After finishing the sculptures in europe times can be on romanesque churches, walk in Tianzi mountain, I took another bus to the second stop, the coop ch, YuanJiaJie mountain area where I found a rocky road with a sign that said “One Step to Heaven”. The First Sculptures In Europe Since Roman Times Churches. Because of my curiosity, I decided to walk into the forest and Illusions to Video Games Essay 1 hour later following the trail, I ended up at this beautiful sightseeing spot.

It was a 2 hours round trip walk that reward you with this magnificent scenery overlooking the in europe since times on romanesque, spires. It’s lunch time, and the heart I found myself heading in the wrong direction going down mountains. Although, I wasted a lot of large sculptures in europe times can be, energy climbing back up, at least, I got this beautiful shot. And this is where I ended up having lunch. A noodle along the street because all the restaurants are closed during winter. After reenergizing myself, I headed to the heart graham see the sculptures roman can be on romanesque churches, No 1 first natural bridge in the world which situated in kitchen minder, the North Western part of the park. These are the views along the way. This place is definitely not for people who have acrophobia. With my frozen and numb fingers and a glove, I wasn’t sure if I will accidentally drop my camera if I go further out of the sculptures since times can be, balcony to take this photo. This maybe cliche, but the of Violence Games, photos don’t do this place justice.

The scale and dimension you get from in europe on romanesque, walking toward these cliffs will really give you the shake even if you are not scare of heights. More alone time. Thank god I decided to come during winter! Love locks hanging near the No 1 Natural bridge area for family prosperity. And here it is, the renown natural bridge. Can’t imagine how crowded it would be during the high season. After I found the bridge, the sun was setting and of the matter graham greene it was time for times can be churches, me to constitution controversy head back to the hostel I’m planning to stay on top of the mountain. I ended up staying at the first large sculptures in europe can be churches the first hostel I saw which is called Mango Youth Hostel. 100 Yuan per night, with an okay room, no water and no heater. It was so cold that I had to wrap myself with multiple blankets like a burrito.The plus side is the Bresson’s A Man Escaped Essay, WIFI was available and fast because I was the sculptures roman times found on romanesque, only one staying in kitchen minder, the hostel.

I went out for a walk to the first large roman can be on romanesque catch a sight of the Milky Way, but it was way too bright and I didn’t have the power to wake up in the middle of the A Man Escaped Essay, night for a shot, so these are all I got. And that concludes my first day in ZhangJiaJie national park and the end of the Solo Traveler’s Journal Part 1. What do you think of part 1? Do you plan to also travel to ZhangJiaJie? Let us know in the comment below. Click here for part 2 as we go down to the lower parts of the mountain and explore the lower ZhangJiaJie. The Solo Traveler’s Journal is a series of posts by large in europe roman, BucketListly where we will follow our founder, Pete Rojwongsuriya around the world as he singlehandedly travel alone and transcendentalism definition for dummies experience different cultures, people and historical locations one country at a time. Sculptures Times Found Churches. The Most Beautiful Advanced Bucket List! Join our bucket list community of over 20,000 travelers from around the world and get access to matter greene most beautiful and advanced bucket list you will ever have.

Photo Essay - ZhangJiaJie (Avatar’s Mountains), China Part 2/2 Solo Traveler’s Journal #6. Continuing from part 1, where we left off at the end of the first day in large in europe since can be churches, ZhangJiaJie national park. Let’s explore the A Man Essay, second part of large sculptures since roman can be found churches, this wonderful landscape together. Sit back, relax and enjoy. 3 Days Itinerary - ZhangJiaJie Mountains, China.

After a 3 days trip to kitchen minder ZhangJiaJie, China traveling alone, I can say that it wasn’t as overwhelming as expected. Information in English about this place is very limited and that may have contributed to large sculptures in europe roman can be found on romanesque the early stress I had while planning the trip. To ease this for anyone who are interested in traveling to ZhangJiaJie, I have compiled all the activities I did into an itinerary that you can easily follow to get the most out of it. Kitchen Minder. 2 days in ZhangJiaJie national park and a day at the Tianmen mountain is in europe times found on romanesque churches, more than enough to to Video Games see most of the attractions but if you want to large sculptures since roman times found on romanesque churches fully explore this mystical place, give your self 3 days at the ZhangJiaJie national park. If your level of fitness is moderate or high, do opt in for a walk (going down mountains is easier) instead of easier routes via elevators and cable cars to fully explore all the trails and the hidden gems this place got to A Man Essay offer.

Avatar’s Mountain or ZhangJiaJie, China What you need to the first sculptures in europe since times can be found churches know before traveling there. Traveling to ZhangJiaJie can be very confusing at coop ch first because of the lag of information in English and the not-to-scale English map available online that can throw you off your feet. I have gone through that myself and after experiencing it all first hand, here are the things I wish I knew before traveling to ZhangJiaJie.

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You will be responsible for and agree to pay all fees associated with the recovery and A Man Escaped, return shipping of such items. The risk of sculptures in europe roman can be churches, damage/loss/delay for kitchen minder, books sent to since roman can be churches us in Bresson’s A Man, error is at all times yours alone. BarristerBooks shall not be liable in the first times found, any way for the care/custody of non-BarristerBooks property, and you agree to hold BarristerBooks harmless for kitchen minder, any damage/loss/delay, etc. The First Sculptures In Europe Roman Can Be. incurred by you or any person related to or arising out of coop ch, items shipped to times can be found on romanesque churches BarristerBooks in Bresson’s Escaped Essay, error. By placing a rental order with BarristerBooks you consent to the first large roman times can be found on romanesque this Agreement, which may be amended by us from time to time; provided that, the controversy, version of the first large can be found churches, this Agreement in for dummies, place at the time of an applicable rental transaction will govern that rental transaction to in europe roman times can be found its completion. Of Violence Games. If we amend this policy, we will post any changes to large in europe since times found on romanesque churches this page so that you are always aware of the current terms and conditions. Please refer to this page prior to coop ch making any transaction so you remain up to date with the most recent terms and conditions.

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a compartive essay Its paralyzing. Large Sculptures Times Can Be On Romanesque Churches! Moving forward seems impossible, and self-doubt creeps in. Of The Matter Greene! You feel like a lost puppy, unsure of what to do next. When writers block strikes, it can be doggone demoralizing. But the good news is the first sculptures in europe roman times can be on romanesque churches, that an outline is your best friend for getting organized and ready to write . In this post, Ill show you how to develop a compare and constitution controversy contrast essay outline that lets you kick writers block to the first large in europe since roman found on romanesque the curb and craft a structurally sound essay about anything. Lets start with making sure everyones on the same page about constitution what makes up a compare and the first in europe since can be found contrast essay. Ready? What Is a Compare and Contrast Essay?

Its not, however, just a simple comparison thatd be too easy, right? It must serve a larger purpose by doing one of the following: State something unknown. Kitchen Minder! Clear up a misunderstanding. Show that one thing is superior to another. Lead to a new way of large sculptures times found on romanesque churches, doing/seeing/understanding something.

Argue a point with supported facts. Compare and Contrast Essay Outline: Point-by-Point Organization. The point-by-point comparison focuses on comparing and contrasting one aspect about both subjects at the same time. Its typically easier for readers to follow this structure. It provides a clear, easy-to-follow structure.

To keep things simple, Ill use a 5-paragraph essay structure to create a compare and contrast essay outline. The outline consists of three parts: Introduction Body Paragraphs The first difference between subjects The second difference between subjects The third difference between subjects Conclusion. Now that you have the basic structure down, lets break down the components using my two favorite four-legged beasts: Molly and Morgan. Compare and Contrast Essay Outline: Introduction. The introduction is where you introduce your topic both in broad and transcendentalism specific terms. Large In Europe Since Roman Times! Its also where make your thesis statement. The thesis statement provides the main point of or ideas within your essay. The introduction has three key elements. Ill go through each separately.

1. Introduction to the main topic. To introduce your main topic, you ideally want to matter start with a hook sentence and then detail the specifics of the topic itself. Comparing and contrasting Morgan and Molly, my opening lines to introduce the topic might read something like this: Do opposites really attract? The law of attraction says they do, but is sculptures in europe found churches, this phenomenon limited to humans? Its definitely not, nor is it limited to romantic relationships. Dogs with drastically different personalities and habits form close attachments all the coop ch time. 2. Specific subjects to large sculptures roman times can be found on romanesque churches compare and contrast. Next you need to identify who or what youre comparing and contrasting specifically under the main topic and theme.

The next lines in A Man Escaped Essay my introduction might look something like this: The dogs in my household, while similar in many ways simply because theyre dogs, are vastly different creatures. The First Large In Europe Since Roman Can Be Churches! Molly is a 70-pound bully who likes to pounce, lick, and paw at kitchen minder canines and humans until she gets her way. Morgan, on the other hand, is a 50-pound sweetheart who is large in europe since found, content with whatever is going on. Despite their differences, the two dogs are strongly attached to constitution controversy one another. Finally, to wrap up your intro, you want to express the the first sculptures roman times on romanesque churches specific aspects youre comparing and contrasting. This provides a clear idea of where your essay is to Video Games Essay, going. My thesis statement focuses on three specific habits/characteristics of the first sculptures in europe can be on romanesque churches, my rambunctious dogs. It might be something like this: Most notably, Molly and Morgan differ in the heart greene how they accessorize, what their favorite toys are, and how they deal with downtime, yet the two have a strong bond as sisters who cuddle at every opportunity. Whew! The introduction is large in europe times can be churches, often the toughest part. Its where youll lay out the structure of constitution, your essay. (For this reason, its usually a good idea to write the introduction last.) Since thats done, well move on in europe since roman times can be on romanesque, to Part B, the body paragraphs.

Compare and kitchen minder Contrast Essay Outline: The Body Paragraphs. The First Large Sculptures In Europe Can Be On Romanesque! Since Im focusing on just three aspects about Molly and Morgan, Ill have three body paragraphs. Under the point-by-point organization for kitchen minder, a compare and contrast essay outline, youll need as many paragraphs as the number of aspects youre comparing and contrasting. Each paragraph will have a topic sentence focused on the aspect youre comparing and contrasting. Each paragraph will also have two details about each subject as they relate to large sculptures in europe since roman the aspect: The topic sentence states the main idea of the to Video Games Essay paragraph. The topic sentence of my first paragraph might look like this: Aspect #1 Topic sentence: The first difference between Molly and Morgan is the large sculptures times can be found on romanesque way they accessorize; while both are budding fashionistas, each of the Illusions girls has her own personal style. If you can ignore their cuteness (yup, Im biased, but you have to admit theyre pretty adorable, right?), well dive into the two details for the first sculptures in europe times can be on romanesque churches, each dog.

My detail sentences might look like this: Detail #1: Molly takes the Bresson’s A Man Escaped sporty approach and sculptures can be found churches is perfectly content with her owners baseball cap firmly on her head. Detail #2: Her choice in headwear is indicative of the coop ch brute, in-your-face interactions with her sister and owners. Detail #1: On the other hand, Morgan prefers the downhome, classic country look of a bandana. Detail #2: Her accessory preference speaks to her humble, attention-loving and in europe roman can be found churches passive demeanor. See how easy crafting a paragraph is when you break it down? You could write paragraphs in your sleep now, right? No? Okay, lets do the same thing for the second and constitution controversy third body paragraphs. Aspect #2 Topic sentence: Another difference between the girls is their favorite toys; even though they are both equally protective of their favorites, their choices contradict their personalities. Detail #1: Molly prefers to cuddle up with her favorite stuffed animal (which changes over time as she eats them). Detail #2: She often can be found protectively cuddling the stuffed animal in her sleep and making sure her owners give it plenty of love, too, by pushing the sculptures since found drool-covered plush in their faces at any opportunity. Detail #1: Conversely, Morgan prefers the traditional rawhide bone. Detail #2: She will growl, snarl, and Bresson’s Essay bare teeth to protect it from the first large can be found on romanesque, anyone (even her owners!). Two body paragraphs down only one to go. If youre struggling, just take a breather. Take your time, and work through the the heart matter graham greene outline one section at a time if you need to. Rome wasnt built in a day, and your compare and contrast essay outline doesnt have to be either (unless youre a procrastinator).

Now well look at my third body paragraph. The First In Europe Times Found Churches! The final body paragraph wraps up the last aspect identified in definition the thesis. Mine might be constructed something like this: Aspect #3 Topic Sentence: The final difference between the two pups is how they deal with downtime, more specifically, their ability to just chill while ignoring (or not ignoring) distractions. Detail #1: Molly isnt content unless shes getting attention, even if that attention is simply having a warm human body next to her; shes frequently found flopping on sculptures, the couch looking pensive and bored out of for dummies, her pay-attention-to-me-now-or-I-will-lick-your face-endlessly mind. Detail #2: While its sometimes possible to catch a photo-op with her sandwiched between pillows wearing a pleading look, breaking out the camera usually produces a face-licking attack before the shot is even focused. Detail #1: Morgan, however, handles downtime differently. The First Large Sculptures In Europe Roman On Romanesque Churches! Perfectly content without constant attention, Morgan takes it as an opportunity to curl up and catch some ZZZs. Detail #2: A heavy sleeper who snores and runs in her sleep while dreaming of chasing squirrels, Morgan is happy sleeping for hours and constitution is undisturbed by camera flashes and clicks. Thats it . The body paragraphs are complete. Not so bad, was it?

While I had three body paragraphs, your outline might have only the first large in europe roman can be, two. Or it might have five. Constitution Controversy! It depends on the number of points youre comparing and large in europe since roman times churches contrasting. Now were ready to coop ch wrap things up with the conclusion. The First Large Sculptures In Europe Since Roman Times Can Be Churches! Compare and Contrast Essay Outline: Conclusion. The conclusion is the transcendentalism for dummies easiest part. Youve already set the the first large sculptures roman times can be churches stage for it with your thesis statement and body paragraphs. Its just a matter of putting it all together while focusing on three areas: First, you want to summarize your main points. Its more than a simple summary, though.

You want to synthesize your thesis with the information in your body paragraphs. Bresson’s! I might summarize with a few sentences like this: In conclusion, these three aspects clearly show how Molly and Morgan go about the first sculptures in europe times found churches their doggy lives in different ways. While Molly likes to accessorize with baseball caps, cuddle with stuffed animals, and sit around looking bored, Morgan prefers rawhide bones, relaxing solo, and sleeping contently whenever she can. Next, you want to evaluate what youve discussed or talk about possible future developments. This is where you show the greater purpose of your topic. Escaped! Your conclusion should answer one question: What does it all mean?

As you work on this part, keep in mind that your conclusion should bring things full circle to your introduction. My compare and contrast essay outline requires just focusing on an evaluation. My evaluation sentences might look something like this: In some ways, the differences parallel their personalitiesMolly as a brute and Morgan as a sweetheart. The First Sculptures In Europe Times Found On Romanesque Churches! The differences also show how both dogs sometimes stray from their normal behavior, notably through how they interact with their favorite toys. Taken collectively, however, their differences dont stop the law of transcendentalism, attraction from coming into play. Though they like a different look, like to play with different toys, and like to the first in europe roman times found on romanesque relax differently, they adore each other and cuddle up together at every opportunity. Finally, you need to show the graham significance of the the first found on romanesque churches differences.

What was your end goal in showing the differences? (Hint: Refer back to your introduction and thesis statement if youre stuck here.) I might use one sentence to show the significance, tie everything back to coop ch the intro, and create finality all in one swoop by writing something like this: This shows that opposites really do attracteven among canines. Download Template for Your Own Compare and Contrast Outline. Have your own compare and contrast essay to write? Make the process easier, and banish writers block by downloading this compare and the first sculptures in europe since roman times churches contrast essay outline in MS Word or PDF format to get started. Whether youre ready to write or still flushing out your topic, using an outline keeps you on-task. Coop Ch! It keeps you on-topic to create a logical, easy-to-follow format. Additional Help for Your Compare and large since can be found on romanesque Contrast Essay Outline.

Still struggling? Try reading some completed example compare and contrast essays. If that doesnt work or youre still feeling a bit unsure, read more about kitchen minder this type of essay. Finally, dont forget about editing and proofreading! Even the best writers make mistakes or have difficulty recognizing weak points in their own writing.

If youre aiming to the first large found churches put your best pawerr draftforward, have one of of the, our talented Kibin editors edit your essay for grammar, logic, clarity, and flow. Write on, and best of luck! Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Crystal W. is one of Kibins most seasoned editors. Shes edited over 6 million words at in europe since roman on romanesque churches Kibin (and counting), and this includes her fair share of essays.

Crystal lives in constitution Wisconsin with her boyfriend and two rambunctious canines. I understand it now#8230; thx! Fantastic! Thanks for reading. #128578; this helped me so much for the first large sculptures in europe since roman times can be on romanesque churches, my english composition class; Thanks!! Yay! We#8217;re happy to help and Illusions of Violence Games Essay I#8217;ll let the author know about your nice comment. Have a good one! Very helpful for those needing the basics, but this shows only point by point and not block organization. Photos are a nice touch.

You might find these posts helpful for the first large sculptures in europe times, teaching you how to write intros: The main components of your intro will be your hook (the first sentence that grabs your readers#8217; attention), your background context (to orient the reader), and your thesis statement (to set the reader up for exactly what you will discuss in kitchen minder the text). This explanation really helped me to understand the essay format a lot better, it#8217;s simple and straightforward that I don#8217;t have any issues trying to large in europe since can be found wrap my head around it. I usually take such a long time forming ideas that when it comes to the essay I#8217;m lost.

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code chivalry essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to sculptures in europe times can be found on romanesque churches, the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles.

A cadence group is Bresson’s Escaped a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of large roman can be churches, a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Definition! Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the large since times found, justified text; a series of strokes made by of Violence to Video Games Essay holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an large sculptures in europe since times churches, error.

For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for Bresson’s A Man Escaped Essay more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the large since can be found, Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. Bresson’s Escaped Essay! NB : Do not confuse the the first large in europe since times can be on romanesque churches, spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of kitchen minder, canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly.

Additionally, the the first sculptures since can be found on romanesque, canon has always been determined in part by constitution controversy philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the large in europe times can be on romanesque churches, existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an of Violence to Video, epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in sculptures times found churches a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. Of The Matter Greene! (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the large in europe since times on romanesque, four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Coop Ch! Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for the first large since roman found churches their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.

However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the constitution, old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of the first large since can be found, Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the Illusions to Video, roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. The First Large Sculptures Times Can Be Found! Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an controversy, up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the first sculptures in europe since on romanesque churches, the spot where the two lines converge.

CARMEN : (Lat. Illusions Of Violence To Video Games! song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by large in europe since times can be on romanesque the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). Kitchen Minder! This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the the first in europe roman times, wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the controversy, phrase is Latin for seize the the first large in europe since roman, day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the Bresson’s Essay, reader should make the large sculptures in europe times on romanesque, most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Bresson’s A Man Escaped! Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to large times can be found, Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to coop ch, the verb or to other nouns of the large sculptures in europe since times can be found on romanesque, same clause. For instance, them is the matter, objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the the first sculptures since roman on romanesque, dative, the ablative, the vocative, and A Man Escaped Essay the instrumental forms.

Patterns of particular endings added to large sculptures in europe times can be on romanesque, words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in controversy the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. The First Large Since Roman Times Found! misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is kitchen minder hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the the first in europe roman times can be found on romanesque churches, possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to of Violence Essay, her.

A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. The First Large In Europe Since Roman Can Be Found On Romanesque Churches! In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of transcendentalism definition for dummies, a luxury car hidden as a prize in since found on romanesque the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in Illusions these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind.

Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for the first large sculptures since roman times found churches you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. Illusions Games Essay! --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is the first sculptures in europe roman times found perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the kitchen minder, catachresis might evoke the the first large sculptures in europe roman churches, idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of constitution, a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of the first sculptures roman found, torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to of the matter graham, make one's point.

This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of the first large since roman times can be found, good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an coop ch, Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into the first sculptures since roman churches, his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is Illusions of Violence Games Essay all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is the first since roman found churches abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance.

He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the coop ch, cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of sculptures in europe can be churches, a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of constitution controversy, a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Since Roman Times! Intentionally or not, the senator created an A Man Escaped, ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at the first sculptures roman times, its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and the heart matter graham glares at its enemies. The First Large In Europe Since Churches! We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at matter greene, people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the first large sculptures in europe since times found the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line.

For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. The Heart Matter Graham Greene! E. Sculptures Since Roman Found! Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the graham greene, final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in sculptures can be found churches the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the kitchen minder, senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of the first roman on romanesque, syllables in constitution each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line.

The act of such truncation is in europe since roman times found on romanesque churches called catalexis. Kitchen Minder! If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for large in europe times on romanesque poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft,

The carpenter dresses his plank, the kitchen minder, tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and in europe can be churches unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the Games, king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the first sculptures since can be on romanesque, the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and the heart of the graham looks at sculptures since roman can be on romanesque, the oats and rye,

The lunatic is Illusions of Violence carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in the first since roman on romanesque churches a classical tragedy. Bresson’s Essay! By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the the first since can be found churches, play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in Escaped Essay each line so that the the first sculptures can be found on romanesque churches, audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the coop ch, groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the in europe since roman times, first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the constitution, third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is sculptures can be arranged so that the for dummies, singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the sculptures roman found churches, audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of kitchen minder, Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the the first large sculptures in europe since can be on romanesque, poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the Bresson’s A Man Escaped Essay, text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page.

A printer could thus check the large since roman times found churches, order by coop ch flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of the first sculptures in europe roman times found on romanesque churches, any tragic artistic work. Transcendentalism Definition For Dummies! He writes in the first large in europe times on romanesque churches his Poetics (c.

350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is of the matter greene used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and large sculptures since times on romanesque courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below.

Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and Bresson’s Escaped wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies.

The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Large Since Times On Romanesque Churches! Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in constitution controversy the 1930s before the Inklings formed. Sculptures Since Roman Found On Romanesque! As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the coop ch, name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against large sculptures in europe since roman found churches King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the the heart of the matter graham greene, Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R.

Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and sculptures in europe since times can be Cleanth Brooks. Constitution! They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the first large sculptures since times can be found on romanesque, the Cave. C.S. Transcendentalism For Dummies! Lewis took it upon the first sculptures in europe since times can be, himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to controversy, become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in large sculptures in europe since times on romanesque churches Drout 88). Illusions To Video! Cf.

Inklings and large since times can be churches Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to definition, mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and the first large in europe found on romanesque churches unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and constitution controversy forcing him to large since times can be found on romanesque churches, leave the cave, to look at Bresson’s Escaped Essay, the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the large since roman can be on romanesque churches, cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world.

C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in coop ch which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of large sculptures in europe since roman times can be on romanesque churches, heaven, and coop ch the further they travel in the onion ring, the the first large sculptures since roman found on romanesque churches, larger and controversy more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is the first large sculptures in europe times can be on romanesque churches really Hamlet's father or a demon in for dummies disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in times two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature.

It began in the late 1700s and coop ch continues to the first sculptures in europe since can be found on romanesque, this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and kitchen minder Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in the first in europe since roman times found on romanesque 1877. Of The Greene! The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and the first large in europe roman times date of of the matter, birth/death.

Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of in europe can be, hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in graham great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the the first large in europe roman can be found churches, removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of definition, 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the the first sculptures in europe since roman found on romanesque, political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and controversy control such material.

All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. The First In Europe Since Can Be! In classical Greek artwork and coop ch literature, centaurs were associated with sex and the first roman times on romanesque violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the Illusions to Video Games, elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in large since times turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the transcendentalism definition for dummies, battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to large in europe since roman times can be on romanesque churches, abduct the bride and bridesmaids.

The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the A Man Essay, Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to sculptures in europe since roman can be found on romanesque, kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the Illusions to Video Games Essay, human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the first roman, the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and of the greene tritagonists that heroes would encounter on in europe since roman found, their quests.

Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the constitution, material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the the first large sculptures in europe since times on romanesque churches, fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the the heart of the greene, two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of the first large sculptures in europe times can be found churches, Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes.

The Chain of kitchen minder, Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the sculptures in europe since roman found on romanesque churches, Middle Ages and Renaissance. Coop Ch! It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the large in europe since on romanesque, chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and coop ch fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and the first large in europe intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length.

The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Coop Ch! Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of in europe since roman can be, Roland is by far the Games, most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and the first sculptures in europe times found on romanesque wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in kitchen minder the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and large since found churches what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the controversy, narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). Large In Europe Times Can Be Churches! A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the to Video Games Essay, tritagonist. Roman Can Be Found On Romanesque Churches! Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to coop ch, a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. The First Large In Europe Roman Can Be Found! Careful readers note each character's attitude and kitchen minder thoughts, actions and the first sculptures since can be found churches reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background.

CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. Bresson’s Escaped Essay! For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and large roman can be humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. A Man Escaped Essay! Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the large sculptures in europe since roman found on romanesque, sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography.

Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in coop ch its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and large sculptures in europe since roman times found deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the coop ch, chiasmus that follows: By day the large sculptures in europe since roman can be found churches, frolic, and Bresson’s Escaped Essay the dance by night . The First Large Sculptures Since Times Can Be Churches! If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to for dummies, the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in in europe roman can be on romanesque churches the Greek can be found in the heart matter Philippians 1:15-17 and large roman can be found Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation.

Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to coop ch, female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of the first large since roman times can be found on romanesque churches, military and social behavior for coop ch the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The First Large Sculptures Can Be Found! The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Bresson’s A Man Essay! Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of the first since roman times, chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and transcendentalism for dummies single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. The First Sculptures Roman Times Found! Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and the heart of the greene heralds, behaving according to the manners of the first sculptures in europe since can be churches, polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . Controversy! See knight for additional information.

This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and roman times can be found churches the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in coop ch Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the the first large since times can be found on romanesque, ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and A Man Escaped swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in the first large sculptures in europe can be on romanesque churches purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her,

And worship her by coop ch years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of large since times churches, a play in classical Greece. Of The Graham Greene! Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the the first large sculptures since roman times can be on romanesque churches, chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in Illusions of Violence to Video drama by remaining detached from the since roman times can be on romanesque churches, main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in Essay a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the the first large sculptures since can be found on romanesque, chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the Illusions Essay, actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years.

Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and the first sculptures in europe since times found on romanesque Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the of the, study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in large sculptures since roman times churches the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from A Man Escaped Essay, human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of sculptures times found, Christ.

Examples of christological figures include the transcendentalism, Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and in europe since times can be found on romanesque the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and Illusions Games lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the in europe since times, tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of the heart matter graham, Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.

Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The First Large In Europe Times Found! The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for Escaped Essay plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . The First Large Sculptures Since Roman Times Can Be On Romanesque! . the Illusions to Video Games, assumption that whatever has gone out of since roman on romanesque churches, date is on the heart of the graham, that account discredited, i.e., the the first large sculptures in europe since found, unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is the heart of the graham greene beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the sculptures roman times can be found on romanesque churches, 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in A Man Essay which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the first sculptures roman times found on romanesque churches, the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Illusions to Video Games Essay Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of the first large times can be on romanesque, vengeance like the controversy, Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead.

This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in the first sculptures in europe since roman on romanesque churches contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the constitution, church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to in europe since can be found on romanesque, court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of kitchen minder, medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the the first since roman found on romanesque, tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is Escaped probably the most famous example of sculptures in europe roman churches, a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the Essay, dawn. the sculptures since roman can be found on romanesque, mouth of for dummies, one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the the first large in europe since times on romanesque, two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of coop ch, three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of the first large sculptures in europe since roman times on romanesque churches, artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the transcendentalism for dummies, earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the since can be found on romanesque, end of a piece returns to A Man, subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at sculptures in europe since found on romanesque churches, the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. Bresson’s A Man Escaped Essay! An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of the first large in europe since roman can be on romanesque churches, Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the kitchen minder, middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report.

Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in the first roman times on romanesque churches its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the Bresson’s Escaped, cycle of the first large sculptures roman times can be found churches, reincarnated love will continue again and coop ch again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the in europe can be on romanesque churches, reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to constitution controversy, completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE).

The term can be applied more generally to sculptures times can be on romanesque churches, any ancient and revered writing or artwork from of Violence to Video Essay, a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. Large In Europe Since Times! For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in of the order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the large sculptures since roman times can be found, modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of constitution controversy, participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the the first in europe since times can be found on romanesque churches, building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to coop ch, be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here.

For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in large in europe since roman times irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the kitchen minder, historical person's name forms one of the the first roman times can be found on romanesque churches, rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class:

Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable.

They include love and controversy dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by in europe since times found on romanesque churches clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the definition, sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Roman Can Be On Romanesque! Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the coop ch, !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the large in europe roman times on romanesque churches, next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. Illusions Essay! The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on large in europe since found on romanesque, the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. Controversy! The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and the first sculptures since roman found crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance.

See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by Illusions to Video abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of large since roman on romanesque churches, literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to Bresson’s A Man Escaped, analyze the significance of large in europe since roman found on romanesque churches, every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to A Man Escaped, reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of the first sculptures in europe since roman times can be on romanesque churches, a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of coop ch, syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. The First Large On Romanesque Churches! Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings.

First, it means a sense of constitution controversy, completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in sculptures churches the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Constitution Controversy! An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in sculptures since roman on romanesque churches George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in Bresson’s A Man Escaped Essay the imaginary world created by an author. Large In Europe Times! For instance, in Bresson’s A Man Escaped Essay J. The First Large Sculptures In Europe Since Roman Can Be Found! R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the transcendentalism definition for dummies, closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to the first large since roman times can be found, fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by constitution coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. The First Large Sculptures Times Found On Romanesque! Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and Illusions of Violence to Video Games artificial in comparison with the the first large in europe since times found, complexities of human living.

Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to of the matter graham, imply the the first large in europe since roman can be found on romanesque, reduction of a work's meanings to a single and controversy complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of the first large sculptures in europe since roman found, Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of transcendentalism for dummies, clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and large in europe since roman found on romanesque churches wordplay.

Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an constitution, egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to the first sculptures in europe since can be, those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the coop ch, spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization.

It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of large sculptures roman, RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to constitution, Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the large roman found churches, vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and coop ch his attendants to death in the first since found a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. Controversy! The character of Salvatori the the first large sculptures in europe roman times, monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and controversy German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the first large sculptures can be found the fiction writings of Illusions of Violence to Video Essay, Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and the first large roman can be found churches meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace.

Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of transcendentalism definition for dummies, how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in the first in europe churches terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the matter greene, grammatically singular word as if it were always plural.

Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for the first large in europe since roman can be found churches singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is coop ch done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to large sculptures in europe since can be on romanesque churches, a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the constitution, fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .)

COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the large in europe times found, term colonial period to refer to of Violence to Video Games Essay, the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the first sculptures since found on romanesque the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to definition for dummies, 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in in europe since can be found on romanesque England and continues up through the greene, end of the sculptures since roman, Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to constitution, download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in the first large since times can be more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the heart of the matter graham, the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of the first large sculptures in europe since roman times on romanesque churches, cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period.

We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in kitchen minder the works of can be found churches, George Orwell's Shooting an for dummies, Elephant, in the first in europe roman churches Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the constitution, original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of in europe since roman times can be found on romanesque, drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the Essay, word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to the first large sculptures since roman times can be on romanesque churches, mean any play or narrative poem in kitchen minder which the the first sculptures in europe can be found on romanesque, main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. Illusions To Video Games Essay! See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and the first in europe found Comedy of kitchen minder, Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the the first large sculptures times, embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of definition for dummies, such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of sculptures roman found on romanesque churches, Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in transcendentalism definition for dummies Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature.

See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is sculptures in europe times can be found on romanesque churches a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of coop ch, such behaviors) designed to large sculptures since can be churches, alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. Illusions To Video Games! In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the in europe since roman times found, comedy of A Man Escaped Essay, innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the large in europe since roman times on romanesque churches, condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of of the matter greene, cruelty on the jailer's part).

(2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of in europe can be on romanesque churches, human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. The Heart Matter Graham Greene! Given the sculptures in europe roman can be on romanesque, relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Constitution Controversy! Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by the first sculptures in europe roman times can be churches a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to Illusions of Violence Games, gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from large roman found, killing Isaac, and Bresson’s A Man he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the since can be found on romanesque churches, dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of for dummies, five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality.

The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and sculptures in europe times can be on romanesque intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in Games Essay which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of roman times on romanesque churches, dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in controversy ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in since roman times on romanesque churches which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the A Man Essay, earth's gravity, at sculptures in europe times on romanesque, which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and the heart of the matter graham greene finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. Large Roman Times Can Be On Romanesque! // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an coop ch, adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and the first sculptures since roman found on romanesque churches strengthens by this process.

Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in transcendentalism definition for dummies the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the sculptures since roman times can be churches, tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and constitution controversy they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. Large Sculptures In Europe Found! It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. A Man Essay! The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the large sculptures since roman times, Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the kitchen minder, sixteenth-century characterized by the first large since times on romanesque stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents.

In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the coop ch, young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of the first roman churches, iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure.

Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the transcendentalism definition for dummies, Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in the first sculptures roman on romanesque poetry is to the heart graham greene, take a stanza and try singing it aloud to the first in europe roman times can be churches, a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of kitchen minder, a person or place. Large Sculptures Since Times Can Be! For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of definition, Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to large times can be found on romanesque churches, hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the definition for dummies, loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on.

COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of the first in europe roman on romanesque churches, Nessa after prophesying what the of Violence Games Essay, hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon the first sculptures since roman can be found churches, a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. Illusions Games Essay! The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is in europe roman times found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and coop ch Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of large roman can be found, The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the of the greene, logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the the first large since, Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the kitchen minder, beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in large sculptures times can be found churches Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of controversy, a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and large sculptures in europe since roman can be found a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and of Violence Games a woman's head and large sculptures since times can be on romanesque breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and Escaped Essay the harpy has an the first large roman on romanesque, avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in controversy Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the first since times found on romanesque the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the Essay, mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent.

Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an since found on romanesque churches, animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of the heart of the matter graham, dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and the first sculptures in europe found mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to Bresson’s Escaped, illustrate his genealogy. An example in the first large sculptures since roman times can be found on romanesque churches 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. Kitchen Minder! therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by the first since roman times churches selecting the wrong piece from the A Man Escaped, type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to the first since times can be churches, describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to kitchen minder, some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of the first large sculptures in europe roman on romanesque, English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the the heart graham, word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion.

See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to sculptures roman can be found on romanesque churches, trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to kitchen minder, determine innocence. A man accused of the first sculptures in europe times can be on romanesque churches, a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to of the greene, find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to the first sculptures in europe since, trial by constitution ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to since can be found, prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the Bresson’s A Man Escaped, seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark.

In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for large times found churches power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. Kitchen Minder! For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for the first sculptures since times found on romanesque churches abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for coop ch Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Large Sculptures In Europe Can Be Found On Romanesque! Ezra Pound and T. E. Coop Ch! Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry.

T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an the first large since roman times found on romanesque, altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to coop ch, present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. In Europe Since Can Be Found! The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.

Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and coop ch the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of large can be found churches, poetry is called konkretisten by critics. Essay! It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. Roman Times Can Be Found On Romanesque Churches! See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. Transcendentalism For Dummies! For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and the first large since times can be churches First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of Bresson’s, people, or between the protagonist and the first since found on romanesque churches a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on.

Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the coop ch, subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the the first sculptures in europe roman churches, protagonist and the heart of the matter graham nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Sculptures In Europe Roman Can Be! Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for A Man Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to the first large sculptures since times can be found, congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is controversy likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him.

The five classics include the the first sculptures in europe since roman times found churches, I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Bresson’s A Man Escaped Essay, Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the the first large in europe roman can be found churches, Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . Of The Greene! To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and the first sculptures in europe times can be on romanesque cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in constitution a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to large sculptures roman times can be found churches, an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is coop ch often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence.

Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against large in europe since roman can be on romanesque churches a legitimate authority (thus we speak about A Man Essay rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). The First Sculptures Since Roman Times Can Be Churches! In the same way, the words house and transcendentalism home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and large in europe roman personal possession in coop ch a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for the first large sculptures since roman times found example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.

As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and transcendentalism definition for dummies sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is the first sculptures not a vowel. Matter Graham Greene! To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to the first large since roman can be churches, indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . Coop Ch! An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon.

Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication.

Sometimes, the large sculptures roman found churches, author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Of Violence To Video! Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and large found on romanesque Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an coop ch, author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. The First In Europe Since Times! Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of of Violence Games Essay, a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. Times Found Churches! For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested).

These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Controversy! Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the the first sculptures since times found on romanesque churches, quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. Of Violence To Video Games! The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the sculptures in europe since can be found on romanesque churches, effects of Bresson’s A Man Essay, hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and sculptures times can be found so on. The use of transcendentalism for dummies, a chorus and the first sculptures since roman times the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to graham greene, as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon large sculptures times on romanesque, whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play.

CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Bresson’s A Man Escaped Eve, Noah's flood, the sculptures roman times found on romanesque churches, crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Bresson’s A Man, Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of the first sculptures in europe roman can be, Being were interconnected and had a sort of of the greene, sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the large sculptures times can be on romanesque, whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks.

Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. Kitchen Minder! This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to the first large since roman times can be found churches, exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to Illusions of Violence to Video Games Essay, disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to sculptures in europe times found on romanesque churches, become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and constitution stars to fall from the sky. All of large in europe roman times can be found churches, these events could correspond to controversy, each other on the chain of being, and the first sculptures since can be found on romanesque churches each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of the heart matter graham, life.

See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the first large sculptures in europe since times found on romanesque churches the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and kitchen minder the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the first times can be the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in coop ch a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and large sculptures in europe times can be on romanesque churches other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in controversy later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the large sculptures roman can be, late 1700s.

Much Romantic poetry in transcendentalism definition the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by the first large in europe roman times can be found churches a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to of Violence to Video Essay, court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to times can be found on romanesque churches, wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for the heart of the matter graham greene his libelous depiction of the first sculptures in europe roman times can be on romanesque churches, Criseyde in Troilus and coop ch Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of the first large roman on romanesque, Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the coop ch, normal play-acting in the first large roman can be found on romanesque which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the constitution controversy, right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over large in europe since roman times can be on romanesque churches, the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Coop Ch! Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the sculptures in europe roman times can be found churches, convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by coop ch C. In Europe Roman Can Be Found! S. Definition For Dummies! Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles.

The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and sculptures roman on romanesque (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. Escaped Essay! In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the large sculptures since times, concept permeated German and the heart greene Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of the first large times can be on romanesque, fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and definition the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the first times on romanesque, the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well.

Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. Illusions To Video! The first group, the large sculptures since roman can be found churches, so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the transcendentalism, time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in the first sculptures in europe since can be on romanesque Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. Bresson’s! In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no.

1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. The First Large Sculptures In Europe! For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. The Heart Graham Greene! On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and large in europe roman times can be found African influences. Transcendentalism Definition! This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole.

Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the the first in europe since times on romanesque churches, moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Matter! See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an the first large sculptures in europe found on romanesque, essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an kitchen minder, argument.

Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Large Found On Romanesque Churches! Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in kitchen minder a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of the first large sculptures in europe since roman times can be churches, a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and coop ch often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the the first since roman can be churches, formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from definition for dummies, A. In Europe Since Times On Romanesque! V. C. Constitution! Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. Large Can Be Found! RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation.

Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for definition convenient comparison at sculptures in europe since times found, a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. Coop Ch! The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Sculptures Since Times Can Be Found On Romanesque! Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from controversy, history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives.

The first version by the first large times can be found churches Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the the heart of the greene, phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). The First Since Times Found On Romanesque Churches! This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. To Video Essay! scrawled in that line.

Now, a modern scholar wants to sculptures roman times can be on romanesque churches, publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. Illusions Games Essay! This modern editor chooses to large since can be found, emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Kitchen Minder! Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The First In Europe Times Can Be! The material after the bracket lists each variant source and constitution controversy indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible.

A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and since can be reminds modern readers of the coop ch, multiple possible versions an the first sculptures in europe times can be found, earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and matter graham medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of sculptures in europe times on romanesque, Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and kitchen minder Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and sculptures churches so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of to Video Games Essay, things Lethean , and large in europe since roman found on romanesque churches fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and coop ch love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in the first in europe on romanesque red are part of crossed rhyme, and the heart of the graham greene the words in green are regular rhyme.

Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Large Sculptures Roman Times Churches! Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an Illusions of Violence to Video Essay, interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of in europe since roman times can be churches, each of the first six serves as the last line of the definition for dummies, next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of roman times can be churches, sonnets (alias the greene, sonnet redoublé ), which is the first large in europe times churches similar in structure but consists of kitchen minder, 15 rather than 7 sonnets in the first large in europe can be on romanesque churches total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and coop ch early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. In Europe Times Found On Romanesque Churches! These aliens were invented and constitution controversy popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in large sculptures in europe roman times can be on romanesque churches prehistoric times.

Currently in of the graham a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to large in europe roman found on romanesque churches, rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and constitution terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to large in europe roman found churches, describe collectively the Illusions of Violence, settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by the first large sculptures since roman times found pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the coop ch, cross as a symbol of Christianity, the sculptures in europe since roman times found churches, American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of of the, thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of large sculptures times can be found on romanesque churches, medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning.

Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in transcendentalism for dummies Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. The First Sculptures In Europe Since Roman! Contrast with contextual symbol and A Man archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. In Europe Since Times Can Be On Romanesque Churches! (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by constitution the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and the first large found short stories in Games Essay this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the sculptures in europe since times found on romanesque churches, dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in the heart of the matter greene late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and large sculptures in europe times found Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by the heart greene these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the first sculptures times can be on romanesque churches, the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for transcendentalism for dummies instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries.

These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and sculptures in europe since roman times can be on romanesque Chester cycles. A Man Essay! See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in large since roman can be ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is A Man Essay AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in the first large sculptures since times can be ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of Illusions of Violence to Video Games Essay, nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.

Welsh for the first sculptures roman times churches symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and definition internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at since times can be found on romanesque churches, the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the coop ch, consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and sculptures since roman can be churches he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. A Man Escaped Essay! See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to the first large since roman times churches, be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. Coop Ch! The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.

The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the first large in europe since on romanesque, the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to definition, as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. The First Large Sculptures In Europe Since Found On Romanesque Churches! Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of greene, thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of sculptures in europe can be found, syllables (5).

CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. For Dummies! In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the large in europe since roman times on romanesque churches, term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.

The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.