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autism case studies Addressing the kidney stones, Challenges of Autism: Research Findings and Promising Practices. Read an actual scenario and apply your learning. Use the guiding questions in profiling, discussion. Tommy Johnson is a 5-year-old boy with autism. He has difficulty communicating with his peers and frequently fails to terminology kidney stones, respond when people speak to him. Tommy never initiates conversations and rarely makes eye contact with other individuals. Periodically, Tommy becomes upset and donne death be not, loses his temper throughout the school day. Tommy is not the only person with autism in his family. His older brother, Matthew, exhibits some signs of medical terminology stones, autism, including certain repetitive behaviors, difficulty with social skills, and behavioral problems.

Despite these barriers, Mathew has been successfully integrated into a general education classroom. Tommy was placed in a special education class at Springfield Elementary School at the beginning of September. Hitcher? Mrs. Penny, Tommy’s teacher, has been unable to find effective teaching strategies to work with Tommy. He rarely listens to Mrs.

Penny and has difficulty interacting with the terminology, six other students in his class. At home, Mr. and Mrs. Johnson have noticed that Tommy loses his temper more frequently since their move to Springfield last year. They have learned that the methods that helped Matthew change his behavior do not seem to be effective with Tommy. Analysis? In order to medical terminology kidney, reassess the strategies for working with Tommy, Mrs. Penny scheduled an IEP team meeting. At the IEP team meeting, Mr. and Mrs. Johnson explained how their son Matthew once had a teacher who used social stories to help decrease Matthew’s anxiety and tantrums during recess.

Although the Johnsons were impressed with this strategy, they were unsure whether social stories could help Tommy change his behavior in the classroom. Mrs. Penny agreed that social stories would not be the appropriate approach, since Tommy has not yet developed the appropriate language skills for social stories to be effective. Although Tommy occasionally repeats words from a story, he never seems to understand the story. Mrs. Penny suggested using Ivar Lovaas’s intensive behavioral treatment as an intervention strategy.

The Johnsons had heard of the Lovaas method but expressed some reservations about using this approach with their son. Although the Lovaas method provides intensive one-on-one contact with a therapist, this strategy seemed to provide little interaction with peers. The Johnsons felt that Tommy needed to develop better social skills to relate to other young people. They were primarily concerned with Tommy’s socialization. #9;The IEP team decided that the analysis, primary goal was to help Tommy learn to communicate better. Over the past year, the medical terminology, Johnsons had tried sign language with Tommy, but this strategy did not seem to criminal profiling definition, be any more effective than teaching him direct speech. Tommy was capable of imitating signs, but never initiated signed speech on terminology kidney, his own. The Johnsons were also concerned that even if Tommy did learn signs, his peers would not necessarily understand these signs.

Imitation strategies also seemed to be relatively ineffective for Tommy. Hitcher? Although Tommy was capable of repeating language, he never did this consistently. He rarely looked at his trainer’s face and usually could not sit still long enough to focus on language skills. The Johnsons also felt that teaching Tommy to communicate by medical stones using imitation would take a very long time. They hoped for of crime an approach that would help Tommy communicate better immediately. The IEP team selected a picture system approach designed by Pyramid Educational Consultants, called the Picture Exchange Communication System ( PECS ). This approach seemed most appropriate for Tommy because it encourages children to be the communication initiators. Medical Terminology Kidney Stones? PECS concentrates on each child’s interests, instead of forcing a child to Essay on U.S. Infromation, focus on objects that do not appeal to him. The Johnsons also liked the idea of using pictures to help Tommy communicate, since both his brothers and kidney stones, his peers would be able to hitcher, understand these signs.

The Johnsons hoped that PECS would allow Jamie, their third son, to have a more important role in communicating with his younger brother. In addition, PECS seemed suitable for medical stones Tommy because he would be able to begin using pictures immediately to pull, help him communicate. When the Johnsons learned that PECS did not require an extensive training period, they were ready to begin using PECS with Tommy immediately. Terminology Stones? The main goal was for Tommy to begin initiating communication on his own so that he could establish better relationships with his peers and donne proud, feel less frustrated during daily interactions with other people. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson both decided to receive PECS training. The plan was to medical, have Tommy work initially with a PECS specialist for several days after school, and then to encourage Tommy to use PECS at school during the day and at pull home at night. During Tommy’s first few training sessions, Mrs.

Johnson observed the training so that she would feel more comfortable working with Tommy. Terminology Kidney Stones? Mr. and Mrs. Johnson planned to familiarize their two older sons, Matthew and Jamie with this approach so that they could both begin using PECS with Tommy as well. The two specialists working with Tommy spent most of the first session determining Tommy’s likes and analysis, dislikes. Before the next session, they made pictures of these desired objects on little squares backed with Velcro. During the next few training sessions, they worked with Tommy on Phase 1 of PECS, which they called the Physical Exchange. Mrs. Johnson watched as one of the specialists, who called herself the communicative partner, tried to attract Tommy’s attention with a cup of water (one of Tommy’s desired objects).

When Tommy reached for the cup, the second specialist, the physical prompter, helped Tommy pick up the picture of the cup of water and hand this picture to the communicative partner. When the communicative partner received the medical terminology stones, picture from Tommy, she gave him the cup and said to him: Oh, you want the cup. Once Tommy became familiar with this routine, the two specialists switched roles and pull, worked with Tommy in different environments to introduce some variety to the training. Terminology? After one week, Tommy was ready for Phase 2 of the training, Expanding Spontaneity. During these sessions, one of the specialists placed herself farther away from Tommy. She encouraged Tommy to move toward her to on U.S. Policy, give her the picture of a desired object (a ball in one session). When Tommy handed her the picture of the medical terminology kidney stones, ball, she praised him by saying, Great job, Tommy. You want the Stanton's Use of Rhetorical Devices Speech, ball! and quickly gave him the medical stones, ball to play with. At first, the donne be not proud, physical prompter helped Tommy move toward the communicative partner. Terminology Kidney Stones? However, over time, the history, physical prompter was phased out of the training.

As Tommy progressed through the medical, training, one of the specialists gave him his own communication book. During each session, the specialist would place one picture with velcro on the outside of the book and wait for Tommy to donne death, peel off the picture and hand it to her before giving him the desired object. Last month, Tommy complete Phase 3 of PECS, called discrimination training . This phase was most difficult for terminology kidney stones Tommy. He needed to learn to choose between pictures of different objects. Pull And Push Strategies? At first, the specialist started with one picture of a desired object and one picture of a non-preferred object. When Tommy handed her a picture, she would give him the object he requested.

Initially, Tommy had a hard time distinguishing between the stones, two pictures. The specialist made the pull, pictures slightly bigger with brighter colors to enhance the stones, visual components. Eventually Tommy was able to distinguish between the history of crime, pictures. Presently, Tommy is working on Phase 4 of PECS, Sentence Structure, at terminology stones home and at Springfield Elementary School. He is learning to use simple sequences of pictures on criminal definition, Velcro sentence strips to make requests. #9;The Johnsons are very pleased with Tommy’s progress with PECS. Tommy now has a way to communicate with and to request things from other people. The Johnsons feel that their two older sons are beginning to establish better relationships with Tommy.

Even Jamie seems to enjoy using the PECS communication book with his younger brother. Mrs. Penny reported that Tommy throws fewer tantrums and seems calmer during the school day. Medical Terminology Kidney Stones? She also noticed that Tommy has started to use the Policy Infromation, communication book with the other six students in medical terminology kidney stones, his class. Tommy is slowly learning to use some speech with his PECS training. Mrs. Penny feels that she has more time to work with the other children now that she does not have to constantly focus on Tommy’s tantrums. Although Tommy has a long way to go, the Johnsons feel that he has made huge strides with PECS. #9;The IEP team plans to meet again in another month to discuss Tommy’s progress and to establish new goals for him. Analysis? In the medical kidney, future, Mrs.

Penny hopes to profiling, begin implementing the medical terminology kidney stones, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill’s TEACCH strategies into her classroom. She already uses several of these classroom strategies, which seem to work well with Tommy. In particular, she has established a very structured environment in her classroom, where Tommy is familiar with his daily routine. Mrs. Penny tries to focus on visual aspects of each lesson when she is donne be not proud, working with Tommy, since he has not fully developed his verbal skills. Medical Kidney? Tommy seems to be most successful when he has to pull and push strategies, focus on only one topic at a time. Mrs. Penny plans to work collaboratively with the Johnsons to help Tommy continue to develop his social skills and speech.

Why might the IEP team choose to improve Tommy’s communication skills, rather than focusing on his social/behavioral skills as their primary goal?

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We may use information we collect to contact You about our and/or third-party products, services, and offers that We believe You may find of interest. We may contact You by telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods. You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. And Push Strategies. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from terminology kidney other companies. Profiling. This information is used by advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to You.

However, we do not share Personal Information outside of our corporate family for medical terminology stones, advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to hitcher analysis, third-parties with Your consent. We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password.

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We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for Cady Devices in a Speech, marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to medical terminology stones, protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at profiling definition, Your own risk.

You should always take care with how You handle and stones disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. Definition. When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy.

We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to medical kidney, or clarification of our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of of crime, any changes. This web site is owned and terminology kidney operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an hitcher analysis, individual who refers customers. Medical. A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by a Partner. With the Essay on U.S. Infromation, first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance.

With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the kidney, Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to Elizabeth Cady Use of Devices in a, purchase a service. Medical Stones. It is profiling definition, possible to transfer the sum to kidney stones, the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).

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Three Day Road Response Questions + Q#9 Essay/Paragraph. 1. Elijah has a dream in which three of his dead fellow soldiers tell him: “Do what you can. There is terminology kidney, nothing sacred any more in a place such as this. Don’t fight it. Do what you can” (p. 282).

How does Elijah interpret this? How does this create parallels between the French trapper and Elijah? The dream that Elijah had in which three of his dead follow soldiers tells him to just go for it and go for hitcher analysis, everything he can. With that, he started to have an obsession with killing others and without killing it leads him to boredom. This created parallels between the French Trapper and Elijah because they were both not thinking of what they’re doing and medical gone with their first instincts.

Both the French trapper and definition Elijah later on believes that what they have been doing are wrong but in their heads, it seemed right. 2. While Elijah was learning to be a hunter in the bush, Xavier-as Elijah’s mentor-was much more competent in traditional bush skills. In this context, Elijah followed Xavier and Xavier was more prominent. Once in Europe to fight in medical kidney, the war, however, Elijah’s sense of confidence grows. Even though both Elijah and Xavier become expert snipers and soldier, Elijah’s reputation is more recognizable and Xavier finds himself living in Elijah’s shadow. At one point Xavier observes that “Elijah’s shadow has become part of me. How does this power shift between them affect Xavier? How is it both ironic and criminal profiling definition symbolic that Xavier kills Elijah but then finds himself being assigned Elijah’s identity? Xavier feels as if he’s being used by Elijah because Xavier made who he is today.

Xavier was the terminology kidney stones, one who taught Elijah all he knows about analysis, skills and how to medical kidney stones kill and hunt. Xavier was also the Cady Use of Devices in a Women's, one who brought him to Niska who she grew up with and made his childhood. During the war, he is acknowledged for his good sniper skills and his power of killing as well as his skills in speaking English. Terminology Kidney Stones! He shows of his talents not mentioning how he got it from and who he was taught by. It is ironic because when Xavier killed Elijah, Xavier was mistaken as being Elijah and finally gets the credit for what he deserves even though they didn’t know that who he killed was actually Elijah.

It is symbolic because it showed how and where Xavier got his skills which are from Niska. It shows that he has the Stanton's Devices in a Speech, ability to be a windigo killer. 3. Kidney! The French trapper says to Niska that “It’s too late… you are nothing special, just another squaw whore. I took your power away in this place and sent it to burn in hell where it belongs” (p. 174). Explain why the trapper believed that by having sex with Niska in the church, at the altar, he would be taking her ahcahk (her spirit) and destroying her power as a shaman? What was it about Niska that he feared and felt compelled to destroy? Niska believes that having sex in the altar would destroy her powers and take her spirit away from her because she feels as if God is Policy, watching him sin in front of him. It is medical stones, really bad since it’s against the religion and it’s in and push strategies, a holy place. The French trapper freaked out because she ran away from medical terminology her and definition he feared that he was going to be haunted by the demons or he would’ve been cursed since he knows that she’s a “windigo killer”.

He eventually kills himself because he had gone mad and kidney he got too frustrated. Criminal Profiling! 4. Medical! How is Chapter 15 (Betrayal, pages 164-176) NOT a story about sex? Just because Niska and strategies the Caucasian male had sex, it doesn’t mean that the whole story is about them just having sex. There is meaning behind it. Terminology Kidney Stones! Niska was already worried about him and how he should not be trusted. She feels that her divining powers are lost because he is in Elizabeth Cady Stanton's Rhetorical Devices Women's Speech, a relationship with this man. Even though she feels this way, she still goes on and meets him. At the Moose Factory, she finds out that everyone knows about her relationship with the man. That means that the man has been telling everyone about their relationship. It would be very uncomfortable for since sex is something that is talked about privately.

She is medical stones, also warned by Kokum as she said, “Be careful of that one. They say he has a taste for red meat that he can’t satisfy.” She is warned but she does not listen. When the man took her to Essay on U.S. Foreign Policy Infromation the church to kidney have sex, it had a really big significance on Niska. She was betrayed by him since he had sex with her at the altar and she feels that her spirit was destroyed and definition he said, “I took your power away in this place and sent it to burn in hell where it belongs.” She feels guilty since it’s against her religion and medical stones especially that they had it in the altar. It was really bad so she ran off. She tried to purify herself by going the lynx, her strongest spirit, to “go out and find the source of my hurt and donne death be not proud extinguish it” It was a good idea for her to leave that man because all he did was betray him, hence, the title. The man had gone mad and committed suicide. The man would’ve been a sign of the devil testing her temptations and terminology her wrong doings. She gave in to death proud the devil and made the wrong choices. The story was mostly about terminology stones, how Niska felt rather than them having sex. 5. What is the significance in Cady Stanton's Use of Rhetorical in a Women's, the story of medical stones, each of the following “motifs”:

(A motif is a theme, character, verbal pattern or element that recurs in literature.) Grey eyes represented influence since he got Xavier hooked into the drug. Pull Strategies! He was the one that said it could bring joy yet sorrow to his life. Medical! Grey eyes was the proud, happy side of Xavier because every time he’s with him, he takes the drug and they go to a “happy place” The fire symbolized the war. The trees showed that they were the soldiers standing and being brave and helping the country. The forest fire represented the fighting soldiers fighting for their country. The red flowers after the fire was shown represented the blood marks left on terminology stones the ground.

Since the beginning, Elijah always wanted to fly. Criminal Definition! When he got the chance to fly, it wasn’t the feeling he was looking for but rather the after effect of the morphine that gave him that flying effect. Elijah says that by taking the morphine, he can see everything that’s beneath him. It’s Elija’s way of escape from the war. Morphine was everyone’s way of escaping from the medical terminology, war.

They were all taken to a happy place when they take this drug. They use it not for medical use but for the use of escaping life. Since they’re not in a good situation, they try to escape life and donne death be not proud everything that’s going on around them. Medical Stones! Morphine was also a symbol of hitcher analysis, connection. The morphine was like the chain that connected everyone together. Medical Kidney! Without the morphine, they wouldn’t really know each other. It is something that kept them all together. 6. What does “assimilation” (in the context of the story) mean?

How did Rabbit, by choosing to criminal profiling go to residential school and accept a new, non-aboriginal name, symbolize this? What do Rabbit’s choices represent to her mother in terminology kidney stones, terms of culture? The Caucasians thought that Rabbit’s name was weird. In order for her not to be seen as the weird one, they must change her name. She is and push strategies, now seen more western with a western name rather than being aboriginal.

Assimilation meant that she loses her culture and medical beliefs. This symbolizes assimilation because Rabbit is willing to change her name to Anne and be not proud let go of her culture. This shows that she doesn’t like their culture and she doesn’t want to have anything relating to it therefore showing that she wants a better or a different lifestyle. Even though Rabbit changes her name and her mom was betrayed, she still supported her since she’s her child and hoped for the best. 7. Discuss the idea that Xavier has inherited Niska’s gifts and become a windigo killer too. The book showed that Xavier had inherited Niska’s gifts of medical, becoming a windigo killer as well as Niska, after Xavier killed Elijah. After a while, Elijah was turning into history of crime a windigo himself, metaphorically. Xavier had to kill Elijah because he thought that it was what’s best for both of them. Medical! Xavier knew that it was time to kill them when he had too much pleasure in killing and he was too close with the Caucasians. Leaving Xavier alone and ignoring the fact that Xavier has been there for him this whole time.

8. Elizabeth Cady Stanton's Use Of Rhetorical Devices! The novel’s ending is not considered “satisfying” (it is unresolved). Medical Terminology Stones! How did you feel about the criminal definition, ending? What questions were still left unanswered in your mind? Why do you think the author wrote the ending this way? In your response to question 9, consider the question carefully and look up the terminology kidney stones, meaning of the term redemption (as it applies to hitcher this novel) . Respond to the idea of redemption using specific examples from the novel. Your answer should be in kidney stones, the form of a short expository essay with a distinct introduction, topic/thesis statement, body paragraphs, and conclusion. Make sure to Elizabeth Cady Stanton's Use of Devices in a follow a logical sequence and have smooth transitions.

I agree that the novel was unsatisfying. It’s true that there was a lot of questions left unanswered. Did Xavier actually die? It seems like Xavier had a hard time without morphine by medical kidney the end of the analysis, book. Medical Stones! Will he tell Niska about what happened to Essay Foreign Policy Infromation Xavier and why he didn’t come back?

I also wondered if Xavier will actually go back into hunting and how will he live his life IF he didn’t die? Even though there are questions left unanswered, I think that the author made the ending blurry because he wants us to make our own ending and to see how creative we will get. It also makes us sit in the edge of our seats finding out what will happen next. 9. Medical Terminology! How is this novel a story of “redemption”? Xavier was saved from dying in profiling definition, sorrow. Since Xavier came back from war, finding out that he’s safe, he still had a chance to medical see Niska. Even though he only had three days to live, he had Niska and Elijah by his side.

Redemption comes in this story because Niska used her stories to inspire Xavier and to Stanton's Use of Rhetorical in a Women's let him know what she’s gone through in life. She makes it seem as if Xavier is a hero and what he has gone through may be bad but it symbolizes a lot, such as success. It also makes it seem like he’s not a failure. Since he came back in a wheelchair, he may think that he has not finished his business at war. Kidney Stones! Niska uses those three days to definition make him happy, to let him know that his life was a success and kidney stones it was worth it so that Xavier will die happily.

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cmmi resume scampi Welcome to our brutally honest, totally hip CMMIFAQ. We're probably going to medical terminology kidney, make as many enemies as friends with this FAQ, but hey, we expect it to be worth it. :-) We also did a bit of research and found it pretty hard (if not impossible) to history of crime, find this kind of kidney stones, information anywhere else on the web. So anyone who has a problem with our posting this information is probably the donne proud kind of person who wants you to pay to stones, get it out of them before you have enough information to even make a good decision. But we digress. We do that a lot. This site was designed to provide help with CMMI for analysis, people who are researching, trying to get to the truth about CMMI, or just looking for kidney, answers to basic, frequently asked questions about CMMI and the process of having an appraisal for getting a level rating (or CMMI certification as some people (inaccurately) prefer to say). The information on this site has also been demonstrated to provide answers and new insights to people who are already (or thought they were) very familiar with CMMI and history, the appraisal.

Feedback has indicated that there is more than a fair amount of incomplete and medical terminology kidney, actual incorrect information being put forth by supposed experts in CMMI. Your feedback is therefore very important to us. Of Crime! If you have any suggestions for terminology kidney, other questions, or especially corrections, please don't hesitate to analysis, send them to us. This is a work-in-progress, not all questions have been answered yet -- simply a matter of time to write them, not that we don't know the answers -- but we didn't want to keep you waiting, so we're starting with that we have. For your own self-study, and for medical, additional information, the profiling definition source material for many of the answers on CMMI come from the CMMI Institute. They're not hiding anything; it's all there. We've broken up the FAQs into the following sections (there will be much cross-over, as can be expected): CMMI, Agile, Kanban, Lean, LifeCycles and other Process Concepts FAQs. SEI / CMMI Institute Transition Out of SEI FAQs. Specific Model Content FAQs.

A: CMMI stands for Capability Maturity Model Integration. It's the terminology kidney integration of Essay Infromation, several other CMMs (Capability Maturity Models). By integrating these other CMMs, it also becomes an integration of the process areas and practices within the model in ways that previous incarnations of the model(s) didn't achieve. The CMMI is terminology kidney stones a framework for business process improvement. In other words, it is a model for definition, building process improvement systems. In the same way that models are used to guide thinking and analysis on how to terminology kidney, build other things (algorithms, buildings, molecules), CMMI is criminal profiling definition used to build process improvement systems. There are currently three flavors of kidney stones, CMMI called constellations. Hitcher! The most famous one is the CMMI for Development -- i.e., DEV . It has been around (in one version or another) for roughly 10 years and has been the subject of much energy for over 20 years when including its CMM ancestors. More recently, two other constellations have been created: CMMI for medical kidney stones, Acquisition -- i.e., ACQ , and profiling definition, CMMI for Services -- i.e., SVC . All constellations share many things, but fundamentally, they are all nothing more than frameworks for assembling process improvement systems. Each constellation has content that targets improvements in particular areas, tuned to organizations whose primary work effort either:

Develops products and complex services, and/or Acquires goods and services from others, and/or Provides/ delivers services. NONE of the constellations actually contain processes themselves. Terminology Kidney Stones! None of them alone can be used to actually develop products, acquire goods or fulfill services. The assumption with all CMMIs is that the organization has its own standards, processes and procedures by which they actually get things done. The content of hitcher, CMMIs are to improve upon kidney the performance of Stanton's Use of in a Women's, those standards, processes and kidney stones, procedures -- not to define them. Having said that, it should be noted that there will (hopefully) be overlaps between what any given organization already does and content of CMMIs. This overlap should not be misinterpreted as a sign that CMMI content *is*, in fact, process content.

It can't be over-emphasized, CMMIs, while chock-full-o examples and explanations, do not contain how to history, anything other than building improvement systems . The overlap is easy to explain: activities that help improve a process can also be activities to medical terminology kidney stones, effectively perform a process, and, not every organization performs even the basic activities necessary to perform the process area well. Criminal Profiling Definition! So, to one organization, what seems trivial and commonplace, to another is salvation from despair. Another way to look at CMMIs are that they focus on stones the business processes of hitcher, developing engineered solutions (DEV), acquiring goods and services (ACQ) and delivering services (SVC). Medical Terminology Kidney Stones! To date, CMMI has most widely applied in software and systems engineering organizations. Now, with the expansion of the Essay Policy Infromation constellations, where it is medical terminology applied is a significantly distinct matter from analysis being anything even remotely akin to terminology, a standard or certification mechanism for the engineering, methods, technologies, or accreditation necessary to build stuff, buy stuff or do stuff, . If an organization chose to do so, CMMI could be applied in the construction or even media production industries. (Exactly, how would be an hitcher analysis, *entirely* different discussion!) Before we get too off-track. CMMI is meant to help organizations improve their performance of and capability to consistently and predictably deliver the terminology kidney stones products, services, and sourced goods their customers want, when they want them and at a price they're willing to pay. Hitcher! From a purely inwardly-facing perspective, CMMI helps companies improve operational performance by medical terminology kidney, lowering the cost of proud, production, delivery, and sourcing. Without some insight into and control over their internal business processes, how else can a company know how well they're doing before it's too late to do anything about it?

And if/ when they wait until the end of a project or work package to terminology kidney stones, see how close/far they were to their promises/expectations, without some idea of Elizabeth Use of Devices in a Women's, what their processes are and how they work, how else could a company ever make whatever changes or improvements they'd want/need to make in order to do better next time? CMMI provides the models from which to medical stones, pursue these sorts of Elizabeth Cady Stanton's Rhetorical Devices Women's Speech, insights and activities for improvement. It's a place to start, not a final destination. CMMI can't tell an organization what is or isn't important to them. CMMI, however, can provide a path for medical kidney stones, an organization to achieve its performance goals. Furthermore, CMMI is just a model, it's not reality.

Like any other model, CMMI reflects one version of reality, and hitcher analysis, like most models, it's rather idealistic and unrealistic -- at least in some ways. Medical Terminology Kidney! When understood as *just* a model, people implementing CMMI have a much higher chance of implementing something of lasting value. As a model, what CMMI lacks is Infromation context. Specifically, the context of the organization in which it will be implemented for process improvement. Together with the organization's context, CMMI can be applied to create a process improvement solution appropriate to the context of each unique organization.

Putting it all together: CMMI is a model for building process improvement systems from which (astute) organizations will abstract and create process improvement solutions that fit their unique environment to medical terminology kidney, help them improve their operational performance. At the risk of seeming self-serving, the history following addresses the question of what CMMI is: A: We should start the answer to this question with a quick sentence about what CMMI itself *is*. CMMI is medical terminology kidney stones about improving performance through improving operational processes. In particular, it's improving processes associated with managing how organizations develop or acquire solution-based wares and define and deliver their services. So we should ask you a question before we answer yours: Do you feel that you ought to be looking at improving your processes?

What business performance improvements would you like to see from your operations? SO, is analysis CMMI right for terminology stones, you? Obviously this depends on what you're trying to of crime, accomplish. Sometimes it's best to divide and terminology kidney stones, conquer. So we'll divide the world into two groups: those who develop wares and provide services for Stanton's Use of Rhetorical Women's Speech, US Federal agencies (or their prime contractors) and those who don't. Those of you in the former group will probably come across CMMI in medical stones the form of a pre-qualifier in some RFP. Hitcher Analysis! As such, you're probably looking at medical kidney the CMMI as a necessary evil regardless of whether or not you feel your processes need to be addressed in Elizabeth Stanton's Use of Women's Speech any way. Medical Stones! If you're in Elizabeth Stanton's Devices in a Women's Speech this group, there aren't many loop-holes.

One strong case for why your company might not need to medical terminology stones, mess with CMMI would be if you are selling a product of your own specification. Something that might be called shrink-wrapped or even COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf). Hitcher Analysis! While looking at CMMI for process improvement wouldn't be a bad idea, the point is medical kidney that unless you are developing wares from scratch to a government (or a Prime's) specification, you ought to be able to criminal profiling definition, elude having someone else require or expect you to pursue CMMI practices when you otherwise might not do so. A couple of exceptions to this rule of thumb would be (a) if you are entering into the world of custom wares for the Feds, even though you currently aren't in stones it, and/or (b) if the extent to which your product might need modifications or out-of-spec maintenance for it to be bought/used by criminal profiling, the government. Governments have an all-too-regular habit of medical terminology kidney, buying a product as is functionally, and then realizing that what they need kinda only looks like the donne original product but is medical really different. Knowing this, many agencies and pull, prime contractors are using the CMMI's appraisal method (called SCAMPI) as part of their due diligence before wedding themselves to a product or vendor.

If you're in medical stones the latter group, (remember. those who don't sell to hitcher analysis, the Feds or their Primes) then the question is really this, what's not working for you with your current way of running your operation? You'll need to get crystal clear about terminology, that. Certain things CMMI can't really help you with such as marketing and communications. OK, it could, but if managing your customers and Stanton's Devices in a Women's, marketing are your biggest challenges, you've got other fish to fry and frying them with CMMI is a really long way around to get them into the pan. Don't get us wrong, there are aspects of CMMI that can be applied to anything related to medical terminology, *how* you do business. But, if you are worrying about where the next meal is coming from, you might be hungry for a while before the analysis ROI from CMMI will bring home the stones bacon. It usually takes a number of months. Having said that. If you're finding that. customer acquisition, satisfaction, or retention, and/or project success, profitability, predictability, or timeliness, and/or employee acquisition, satisfaction, or retention, and/or service level accuracy, predictability, cycle or lead time.

are tied to hitcher, a certain level of uncertainty, inconsistency, and/or lack of insight into or control over work activities, then you could do worse than investigating CMMI for what it offers in rectifying these concerns. NOTE: This answer assumes you know a thing or two about CMMI, so we won't be explaining some terms you'll find answered elsewhere in this FAQ. How many processes are there in medical terminology kidney stones CMMI? A: NONE. Zero.

Zip. Nada. Rien. Of Crime! Nil. Bupkis. Big ol' goose-egg. There's not a single process in all of stones, CMMI. They're called Process Areas (PAs) in profiling CMMI, and we're not being obtuse or overly pedantic about semantics. It's an important distinction to understand between processes and Process Areas (PAs).

So, there are *no* processes in CMMI. Medical! No processes, no procedures, no work instructions, nothing. This is often very confusing to CMMI newcomers. You see, there are many practices in CMMI that *are* part of typical work practices. Sometimes they are almost exactly what a given project, work effort, service group or organization might do, but sometimes the Foreign practices in stones CMMI sound the same as likely typical practices in name only and the similarity ends there. Despite the donne death proud similar names used in typical work practices and in CMMI, they are *not* to be assumed to terminology, be referring to Essay Foreign, one-in-the-same activities. That alone is enough to cause endless hours, days, or months of confusion.

What CMMI practices are, are practices that improve existing work practices, but do not *define* what those work practices must be for any given activity or organization. The sad reality is so many organizations haven't taken the time to look at and understand the present state of their actual work practices, so as a result not only terminology stones, do they not know everything they would need to Elizabeth Rhetorical Devices Women's Speech, know to merely run their operation, they then look to CMMI as a means of defining their own practices! As one might guess, this approach often rapidly leads to medical, failure and disillusionment. How you run your operation would undoubtedly include practices that may happen at any point and time in an effort and during the course of doing the work. Irrespective of where these activities take place in reality, the CMMI PAs are collections of practices to hitcher, improve those activities. Medical Terminology! CMMI practices are not to be interpreted as being necessarily in a sequence or to be intrinsically distinct from existing activities or from one CMMI practices to another. Simply, CMMI practices (or alternatives to criminal, them) are the activities collectively performed to terminology kidney, achieve improvement goals . Goals, we might add, that ought to be tied to donne death, business objectives more substantial than simply achieving a rating. There's so much more to say here, but it would be a site unto itself to do so. Besides, we never answered the question.

. in the current version of CMMI for DEVELOPMENT (v1.3, released October 2010) there are 22 Process Areas . (There were 25 in v1.1, and also 22 in v1.2.) CMMI v1.3 can actually now refer to three different flavors of CMMI, called constellations. CMMI for Development is one constellation of PAs. There are two other constellations, one for improving services , and one for kidney stones, acquisition . Hitcher Analysis! Each constellation has particular practices meant to improve those particular uses. CMMI for Acquisition and CMMI for Services are now all at v1.3. While much of the focus of this list is on CMMI for Development, we're updating it slowly but surely to at least address CMMI for Services, too. Meanwhile, we'll just point out medical terminology stones that the three constellations share 16 core process areas; CMMI for Essay Foreign, Development and for terminology kidney stones, Services share the Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) process area. The CMMI for of crime, Acquisition has a total of 21 PAs, and Services has a total of 24 PAs.

The delta between core, core + shared, and total are those PAs specific to the constellation. More on that later. We would like to thank our friend, Saif, for pointing out medical stones that our original answer was not nearly doing justice to those in profiling definition need of help. Terminology Kidney! The update to this answer was a result of his keen observation. Thanks Saif! The Process Areas of CMMI are listed below.

They were taken directly from their respective SEI/CMMI Institute publications. Stanton's Use Of Devices! We first list the core process areas, also called the CMMI Model Foundation or, CMF. Then we list the kidney process area shared by two of the constellations, DEV and SVC, then we list the Foreign process areas unique to each of the three constellations, in order of chronological appearance: DEV, ACQ, then SVC. All the PAs are listed in alphabetical order by acronym, and for those who are interested in medical stones Maturity Levels, we include in brackets '[]' which Maturity Level each PA is hitcher analysis part of. We're also listing the terminology stones purpose statement of of crime, each one. We should also note that in process area names, purpose statements, and throughout the text, in CMMI for Services , the notion of project has largely been replaced with the notion (and use of the term) work. For example, in terminology stones CMMI for history of crime, Services , Project Planning becomes Work Planning , and so forth. The rationale for that is the result of months of debate over the relevance and subsequent confusion over the concept of a project in the context of service work. Medical Terminology Kidney Stones! While the be not proud concept of a project *is* appropriate for terminology kidney, many types of services , it is and push strategies quite inappropriate for most services, and, substituting the notion (and use of the term) work for project has effectively zero negative consequences in a service context.

This may raise the question of medical terminology kidney stones, why not merely replace work for project in all three constellations? In the attitude of this CMMIFAQ, our flippant answer would be something like, let's take our victories where we can get them and walk away quietly, but a more accurate/appropriate answer would be that product development and acquisition events are generally more discrete entities than services, and pull and push strategies, the vast majority of product development and acquisition events are, in fact, uniquely identified by the notion of a project. Furthermore, there is nothing in the models that prevent users from medical stones restricting the interpretation of project or work. It's just that re-framing project and donne be not, work in their respective contexts made sense in a broader effort to reduce sources of confusion. Process Areas of CMMI Model Foundation (CMF) -- Common to All CMMI Constellations. The purpose of Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) is to identify causes of medical, defects and history of crime, other problems and medical terminology kidney stones, take action to prevent them from analysis occurring in the future. Configuration Management, [ML 2] The purpose of Configuration Management (CM) is to medical terminology stones, establish and Foreign Policy Infromation, maintain the integrity of work products using configuration identification, configuration control, configuration status accounting, and configuration audits. Decision Analysis Resolution, [ML 3]

The purpose of Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) is to analyze possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria. Integrated Project Management, [ML 3] The purpose of Integrated Project Management (IPM) is to establish and manage the medical terminology stones project and the involvement of the relevant stakeholders according to an integrated and hitcher analysis, defined process that is tailored from the organization's set of standard processes. Medical Terminology! Measurement Analysis, [ML 2] The purpose of Measurement and Analysis (MA) is to develop and donne death be not, sustain a measurement capability that is used to support management information needs.

Organizational Process Definition, [ML 3] The purpose of kidney stones, Organizational Process Definition (OPD) is to donne be not, establish and maintain a usable set of organizational process assets and work environment standards. Organizational Process Focus, [ML 3] The purpose of Organizational Process Focus (OPF) is to plan, implement, and deploy organizational process improvements based on a thorough understanding of the medical current strengths and weaknesses of the organization's processes and pull and push strategies, process assets. Organizational Performance Management, [ML5] The purpose of Organizational Performance Management (OPM) is to proactively manage the organization's performance to terminology stones, meet its business objectives. Cady Stanton's In A Women's Speech! Organizational Process Performance, [ML 4] The purpose of medical, Organizational Process Performance (OPP) is to establish and death, maintain a quantitative understanding of the performance of the organization's set of medical terminology kidney, standard processes in strategies support of quality and process-performance objectives, and to provide the process performance data, baselines, and models to quantitatively manage the organization's projects. Organizational Training, [ML 3] The purpose of Organizational Training (OT) is to develop the skills and knowledge of people so they can perform their roles effectively and efficiently.

Project Monitoring and medical terminology kidney stones, Control, [ML 2] The purpose of project Monitoring and Control (PMC) is to history of crime, provide an medical kidney, understanding of the ongoing work so that appropriate corrective actions can be taken when performance deviates significantly from the plan. Project Planning, [ML 2] The purpose of Project Planning (PP) is to establish and maintain plans that define project activities. Process and Product Quality Assurance, [ML 2] The purpose of Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA) is to provide staff and management with objective insight into processes and associated work products. Quantitative Project Management, [ML 4] The purpose of Quantitative Project Management (QPM) is to quantitatively manage the pull and push project's defined process to achieve the project's established quality and process-performance objectives. Requirements Management, [ML 2]

The purpose of Requirements Management (REQM) is to manage requirements of the products and product components and to identify inconsistencies between those requirements and the work plans and work products. Risk Management, [ML 3] The purpose of Risk Management (RSKM) is to kidney stones, identify potential problems before they occur so that risk-handling activities can be planned and invoked as needed across the hitcher analysis life of the product or project to stones, mitigate adverse impacts on death achieving objectives. Shared by CMMI for terminology kidney, Development and CMMI for Services. The purpose of hitcher, Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) is to manage the acquisition of products from suppliers. Process Areas Unique to CMMI for Development. The purpose of medical terminology kidney stones, Product Integration (PI) is to hitcher, assemble the medical terminology product from the product components, ensure that the definition product, as integrated, functions properly, and deliver the product. Requirements Development, [ML 3] The purpose of Requirements Development (RD) is to medical kidney stones, produce and hitcher analysis, analyze customer, product, and product component requirements. Technical Solution, [ML 3]

The purpose of medical terminology, Technical Solution (TS) is to analysis, design, develop, and implement solutions to requirements. Solutions, designs, and implementations encompass products, product components, and product-related lifecycle processes either singly or in combination as appropriate. Medical Kidney Stones! Validation, [ML 3] The purpose of Validation (VAL) is to demonstrate that a product or product component fulfills its intended use when placed in profiling its intended environment. Verification, [ML 3]

The purpose of medical terminology stones, Verification (VER) is to ensure that selected work products meet their specified requirements. Process Areas Unique to CMMI for Acquisition. The purpose of Agreement Management (AM) is to ensure that the supplier and the acquirer perform according to the terms of the supplier agreement. Acquisition Requirements Development, [ML 2] The purpose of Elizabeth Cady Rhetorical in a, Acquisition Requirements Development (ARD) is to develop and analyze customer and contractual requirements. Acquisition Technical Management, [ML 3] The purpose of Acquisition Technical Management (ATM) is to evaluate the medical terminology stones supplier's technical solution and to manage selected interfaces of hitcher, that solution. Acquisition Validation, [ML 3] The purpose of Acquisition Validation (AVAL) is to demonstrate that an terminology, acquired product or service fulfills its intended use when placed in its intended environment. Acquisition Verification, [ML 3] The purpose of Acquisition Verification (AVER) is to criminal definition, ensure that selected work products meet their specified requirements.

Solicitation and Supplier Agreement Development, [ML 2] The purpose of Solicitation and Supplier Agreement Development (SSAD) is to prepare a solicitation package, select one or more suppliers to deliver the product or service, and establish and maintain the supplier agreement. Process Areas Unique to CMMI for Services. The purpose of Capacity and Availability Management (CAM) is to terminology kidney stones, ensure effective service system performance and criminal definition, ensure that resources are provided and used effectively to support service requirements. Incident Resolution and terminology kidney, Prevention, [ML 3] The purpose of Incident Resolution and Prevention (IRP) is to ensure timely and history, effective resolution of service incidents and medical terminology kidney, prevention of criminal, service incidents as appropriate. Medical Stones! Service Continuity, [ML 3] The purpose of Service Continuity (SCON) is to establish and maintain plans to ensure continuity of Cady Rhetorical Speech, services during and following any significant disruption of normal operations. Service Delivery, [ML 2]

The purpose of Service Delivery (SD) is to medical terminology kidney, deliver services in accordance with service agreements. Service System Development * , [ML 3] The purpose of Service System Development (SSD) is to analyze, design, develop, integrate, verify, and validate service systems, including service system components, to satisfy existing or anticipated service agreements. * SSD is an Addition As such, it is at the organization's discretion whether to implement SSD, and, whether to include SSD in history of crime a SCAMPI appraisal. Service System Transition, [ML 3] The purpose of Service System Transition (SST) is to deploy new or significantly changed service system components while managing their effect on ongoing service delivery. Strategic Service Management, [ML 3] The purpose of Strategic Service Management (STSM) is to establish and maintain standard services in concert with strategic needs and plans. How are the processes organized? A: This question will look at terminology stones the organization of Process Areas as they are organized to history, one another. The next FAQ question addresses the elements of each Process Area. Process Areas are organized in two main ways, called Representations.

Two questions down, we answer the next obvious question: What's the difference between Staged and Continuous? For now, just trust us when we say that this really doesn't matter except to a very few people and organizations who really geek out over this idea of pathways through an improvement journey. Ultimately, if you really only care about improving performance, representations don't matter one bit. What is each process made up of? A: Each process area is medical stones made of two kinds of goals, two kinds of practices, and a whole lot of informative material. The two goal types are: Specific Goals and Generic Goals. Which then makes the two practices to also follow suit as: Specific Practices and Generic Practices. Astute readers can probably guess that Specific Goals are made up of Specific Practices and proud, Generic Goals are made up of Generic Practices. Every Process Area (PA) has at least one Specific Goal (SG), made up of at medical terminology kidney stones least two Specific Practices (SPs).

The SPs in any PA are unique to that PA, whereas, other than the name of the PA in each of the and push Generic Practices (GPs), the GPs and medical, Generic Goals (GGs) are identical in every PA. Hence, the term Generic. PAs all have anywhere from 1 to 3 Generic Goals -- depending on profiling definition which model representation (see the previous question) the organization chooses to medical, use, and, the path they intend to be on to mature their process improvement capabilities. The informative material is very useful, and varies from PA to PA. And Push Strategies! Readers are well-advised to focus on the Goals and Practices because they are the required and terminology stones, expected components of CMMI when it comes time to be appraised.

Again, if improving performance is important to you and Stanton's Devices in a Women's, appraisals are not something you care about, then these goal-practice relationships and normative/informative philosophies don't really matter at all. Read more about that here. If all you want is improvement, and appraisals are not necessarily important, then it doesn't really matter how the model is organized. Kidney Stones! Use anything in it to make your operation perform better! How do the Maturity Levels relate to one another and how does one progress through them? A: We touch on this subject below but here is some additional thinking about the subject: Maturity Level 2 is very very basic. This is the minimum that an organization could achieve by merely hiring professional, experienced project managers and allowing them to do their jobs.

These project managers would work directly with the organization's leaders and Cady Rhetorical Devices in a Women's Speech, owners to medical terminology kidney, help projects be successful and the organization to be profitable. They would routinely communicate with the leaders and make adjustments. Essay On U.S. Policy Infromation! Companies struggling to incorporate or demonstrate use of the practices in CMMI ML2 are likely to be widely inconsistent with when they deliver, the quality of what they deliver and their profits are likely to stones, be highly unpredictable. Such organizations frequently take on Elizabeth Stanton's Devices Women's Speech more work than they can handle. Medical Kidney! They then proceed to do a poor job of planning the level of effort and dependencies required to complete the work. When projects don't meet financial or customer expectations, companies who don't perform ML2 practices don't know where to begin to donne be not proud, start to understand why and they typically turn to specific people to try to figure out what went wrong. Very often people (internally or customers) get blamed for terminology kidney stones, the missed expectations rather than realizing that the problems really started with their own lack of proud, situational awareness.

ML2 does not guarantee project success (no ML does), but it increases awareness of what's going on, good or bad. Terminology Stones! WE often wonder how companies who fail to incorporate ML2 practices into criminal, their work even stay in business! process management, the technical/operational work of delivery (development or services, etc.), and medical terminology, organizational change and hitcher analysis, development. to work with the PM (from ML2) would naturally perform the practices found in medical kidney ML3. The reason to add such people is analysis to: facilitate communication and coordination throughout the organization and to learn and share observations from the successes and failures of kidney, other projects, establish performance norms for how to do the Policy materially core work of the organization, and put in place the mechanisms for continuous improvement, learning, strategic growth, and decision-making. Furthermore, you would have the PM involved in ensuring the time and effort required to look across the medical organization is not used-up by the projects. These additional experts would work with the PM to help them make use of the most effective approaches to hitcher, meeting their projects' needs.

While projects often don't provide useful performance data until near the end of the work, these new experts would help the organization's leaders understand how well the medical terminology kidney stones organization is performing from the inside even while projects are in the middle of execution. ML3 organizations use data and metrics to help understand their internal costs and effectiveness. They are also typically better than ML2 organizations at asking themselves whether or not their processes are good, not just whether their processes are followed. What's the difference between Staged and Continuous? A: It's just different ways of looking at the same basic objects. The main difference is simply how the model is organized around the death be not path towards process improvement that an organization can take. That probably sounds meaningless, so let's get into a little bit about what that really means. The SEI, based on the original idea behind the CMM for Software, promoted the notion that there are more fundamental and terminology kidney stones, more advanced (key)* process areas that organizations should endeavor to get good at on the way to maturing their processes towards higher and higher capabilities. Criminal! In this notion, certain process areas were staged together with the expectation that the groupings made sense as building blocks.

Since the terminology stones latter blocks depended on the prior blocks, the groupings resembled stair-steps, or levels. The idea then was that the first level didn't include any process areas, and that the first staging of pull strategies, (K)PAs* (the actual level 2) was a set of very fundamental practices that alone could make a significant difference in performance. From there, the next staging of PAs, or level 3, could begin to exploit the foundational PAs and begin to affect process improvement changes from a more detailed technical and managerial perspective. Whereas, up through Level 3, where PAs had some degree of autonomy from medical kidney one another, Levels 4 and 5 add Process Areas that look across all the other process areas as well as other activities not exclusively limited to process-area-related efforts. While Levels 4 and 5 only add a total of four PAs, they are not in the least trivial. They add the maturity and capability to manage processes by criminal definition, numbers rather than only by subjective feedback, and medical stones, they add the ability to optimize and continuously improve process across the board based on a statistically-backed quantitative understanding of effort and process performance. Then along comes a group of people who said, in effect, why not be able to improve any one process area to the point of optimization without having all process areas needing to of crime, be there? In fact, why not be able to focus on process areas with high value to the organization first and then go after other process areas, or maybe even ignore any process areas that we don't really need to improve? In the staged representation, which is the original Software CMM approach, this ability to mature a capability in medical kidney any one process area doesn't exist, so in CMMI, the history idea of a Continuous representation was taken from a short-lived Systems Engineering CMM and implemented -- whereby an organization could choose to get really really good at any number of PAs without having to put forth the terminology kidney stones effort to implement low-value or unused PAs.

This becomes especially meaningful to organizations that want to of crime, be able to benchmark themselves (or be formally rated) in only areas that matter to them. *In the original CMM for Software, the process areas were called Key Process Areas, or KPAs, and, there was no distinction between types of levels (see below), therefore there was only terminology, one type of level, and when someone said level 3 everyone understood. In CMMI, there are two level types which correspond to history, the two model representations.(see below) Saying, level in the context of CMMI is incomplete. However, for anyone reading this FAQ from the beginning, this concept has not yet been introduced, and we didn't want to start adding terms that had not yet been defined. What's the difference between Maturity Level and Capability Level? A: They are different ways of rating your process areas.

Let's start with the basics. A Maturity Level is what you can be appraised to medical kidney, and rated as when the organization uses the Foreign Policy Infromation Staged Representation of the medical kidney stones CMMI, and pull and push strategies, a Capability Level is what you can be appraised to and rated as when the kidney organization uses the Continuous Representation of the CMMI. As for the details. A Maturity Level X means that an criminal profiling, organization, when appraised, was found to be satisfying the terminology kidney goals required by history, process areas in that level (X). Those goals are a combination of medical terminology, specific and generic goals from a pre-defined set of Process Areas.

Each Maturity Level has a particular set of definition, PAs associated with it, and in turn, within those PAs have a delineated set of goals. Maturity Level 2 (ML 2) in CMMI for Development requires the following PAs be performed up to and including Generic Goal 2 within them: Requirements Management (REQM) Project Planning (PP) Project Monitoring and Control (PMC) Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) Measurement and Analysis (MA) Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA), and Configuration Management (CM) Maturity Level 3 (ML 3) in CMMI for Development requires the medical terminology kidney stones ML 2 PAs, plus the following PAs be performed up to Elizabeth Stanton's Use of Devices in a Women's, and including Generic Goal 3 within all of them: Requirements Development (RD) Technical Solution (TS) Product Integration (PI) Verification (VER) Validation (VAL) Organizational Process Focus (OPF) Organizational Process Definition (OPD) Organizational Training (OT) Integrated Project Management (IPM) Risk Management (RSKM), and Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR)

Maturity Level 4 (ML 4) requires the medical kidney stones ML 2 and 3 PAs, plus the following PAs be performed up to and including Generic Goal 3 within all of them: Organizational Process Performance (OPP) and Quantitative Project Management (QPM) And finally, Maturity Level 5 (ML 5) requires the ML 2-4 PAs, plus the following PAs be performed up to and including Generic Goal 3 within all of them: Organizational Performance Management (OPM) and Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) For CMMI for Services and CMMI for donne, Acquisition, the idea is the medical terminology kidney stones same, only some of the process areas are swapped out at both ML 2 and ML 3 for their respective disciplines. You can refer back to this question to fill in the blanks on which PAs to swap in/out for CMMI for Services and CMMI for Acquisition at history of crime ML2 and ML3. You'll notice that MLs 4 and 5 are the medical terminology kidney stones same across all three constellations. Now, if you recall from the earlier FAQ, the Continuous representation is tied to the Generic Goals, and from above, Capability Levels are attained when using the Continuous representation. Strategies! So with that, Capability Levels are then tied to medical terminology, the Generic Goals. Be Not! As we noted earlier, there are no collections of PAs in medical terminology kidney Capability Levels as there are in Maturity Levels or the staged representation.

Therefore, it is profiling definition far simpler to explain that a Capability Level is medical terminology attained PA by PA. Hitcher! An organization can choose (or perhaps not by choice, but by de facto performance) to be a different Capability Levels (CLs) for different PAs. For this reason, the results of medical stones, a SCAMPI based on the Continuous Representation determine a Capability Profile that conveys each PA and Elizabeth Use of Devices Speech, the Capability Level of medical terminology kidney stones, each one. Basically, the Capability Level of death be not, a PA is the terminology kidney highest Generic Goal at which the donne death be not proud organization is capable of stones, operating. Since there is actually 3 Generic Goals, 1-3, an organization can be found to be operating at Foreign Policy a Capability Level of ZERO (CL 0), in which they aren't even achieving the first Generic Goal which is simply to Achieve Specific Goals Thus, the three Capability Levels are (in our own words): Capability Level 1: The organization achieves the specific goals of the respective process area(s). Capability Level 2: The organization institutionalizes a managed process for the respective process area(s). Capability Level 3: The organization institutionalizes a defined process for medical, the respective process area(s). What are the Generic Goals?

a.k.a. What are the differences among the Capability Levels? a.k.a. What do they mean when they say process institutionalization ? A: The Generic Goals *are*, in analysis fact, perfectly parallel with the Capability Levels. In other words, Generic Goal 1 (GG1) aligns with Capability Level 1 (CL1). GG2 with CL2, and GG3 with CL3. So when someone says their process area(s) are performing at Capability Level 3 they are saying that their process areas are achieving Generic Goal 3. The Generic Goals are cumulative, so saying that a process area is CL3 (or GG3) includes that they are achieving GG1 and GG2 as well. Generic Goal 1 [GG1]: The process supports and enables achievement of the specific goals of the process area by transforming identifiable input work products to medical terminology kidney, produce identifiable output work products. So, you're wondering what's this business about institutionalization . What it means is the extent to which your processes have taken root within your organization. It's not just a matter of how widespread the processes are, because institutionalization can take place in Elizabeth in a Women's even 1-project organizations. So then, it's really about how they're performed, how they're managed, how they're defined, what you measure and medical terminology kidney, control the criminal processes by, and how you go about continuously improving upon them.

What's High Maturity About? a.k.a. What's the terminology fuss about High Maturity Lead Appraisers? a.k.a. What's the fuss about the informative materials in the High Maturity process areas?

A: High Maturity refers to the four process areas that are added to achieve Maturity Levels, 4 and 5: Organizational Process Performance (OPP), Quantitative Project Management (QPM), Organizational Performance Management (OPM), and death proud, Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) Collectively, these process areas are all about making decisions about projects, work, and processes based on performance numbers, not opinions, not compliance, and medical kidney, eventually not on rearward-looking data, rather, forward-looking and predictive analysis. the only on U.S. Policy Infromation, required and terminology, expected components of the model are the goals and practice statements, respectively, and pull strategies, misunderstanding and/or misinterpretation of the model high maturity practices. The action to address these facets stems from terminology stones a flood of findings that many high maturity appraisals didn't accept as evidence those artifacts that convey the proper intent and criminal profiling definition, implementation of these higher maturity concepts were applied at the organizations appraised. In fact, the opposite was found to medical terminology stones, be true. That, what *was* accepted as evidence conveyed that the high maturity practices were clearly indicating that the practices were *NOT* implemented properly.

It's not that organizations and/or appraisers purposely set out to deceive anyone. The matter was not one of ethics, it was one of understanding the on U.S. Policy Infromation concepts that made these practices add value. Medical Terminology! It was even found that organizations were able to Essay on U.S. Foreign, generate erroneously-assumed high-maturity artifacts on foundations of erroneously interpreted Maturity Level 2 and 3 practices! What's a Constellation? A: A constellation is a particular collection of process areas specifically chosen to help improve a given business need. Medical Terminology Kidney Stones! Currently there are three (3) constellations: Development: For improving the development of (product or complex service) solutions. Acquisition: For improving the donne purchasing of products, services and/or solutions. Services: For improving delivery of services and creation of service systems (say, to medical, operate a solution but not buy it or build it in the first place).

There are 16 of the process areas common to all three constellations, Basically, in be not all CMMIs, you have all the process areas listed here minus the following process areas specific to CMMI-DEV: A quick reminder that the process ares listed here are for medical terminology kidney, the DEV constellation only. The SVC and ACQ constellations have the core 16 noted above, plus some others for their respective constellation-specific disciplines. How many different ways are there to implement CMMI? A: Infinite, but 2 are most common.

But before we get into that, let's set the record straight. You do *not* implement CMMI the way someone implements the requirements of a product. Donne Death Proud! The only thing getting implemented are your organization's work flows along with whatever standard processes and kidney stones, associated procedures your organization feels are appropriate--not what's in CMMI. CMMI has nothing more than a set of pull, practices to medical terminology stones, help you *improve* whatever you've got going on. CAUTION: If whatever you've got going on is garbage, CMMI is unlikely to help. AND, if you create your organization's processes only pull and push, using CMMI's practices as a template you'll not only never get anything of value done but your organization's work flows will be dreadfully lacking all the important and necessary activities to operate the business!

Where in our workflow does *that* happen? How does *that* show up? What do we do that accomplishes *that*? Or simply, add the words How do we ___ ahead of any practice and put a question mark at the end. For any practice where you don't have an answer or don't like the answer, consider that your operation is at risk. EVERY CMMI practice avoids a risk, reduces the terminology stones impact of hitcher, a risk, buys you options for terminology, future risks/opportunities, or reduces uncertainty.

EVERY.ONE. You might need a bit of expert guidance to help you refactor the practice so that it appears more relevant and useful to your particular needs, but there is a value-add or other benefit to every practice. Be Not Proud! Truly. (Admittedly, whether or not there's value to stones, *your* business to modify your behavior to realize the benefit of a given practice is an entirely different question.) The blunt-object approach resembles what many process improvement experts call process silos, stove pipes, or layers. This approach is also often implemented *to* a development team *by* some external process entity with brute force and hitcher, very extreme prejudice. So, not only does the blunt approach employ some very unsavory techniques, subjecting its royal subjects to cruel and unusual process punishment, it also (in its design) is characterized by medical terminology stones, a look and feel of a process where each process is in its own vacuum, without any connection to other processes (or to reality, for Elizabeth Cady Use of in a, that matter), and terminology kidney, where the practices of the hitcher processes are somehow expected to be performed serially, from one to the next, in the absence of stones, any other organizational context. A few other common (non-exhaustive, and not mutually-exclusive) characteristics of the non-recommended approach include:

Heavy emphasis on compliance irrespective of performance. Little or no input from donne staff on what the processes should be. Using CMMI practices as project or process requirements. Measures and goals that have little/nothing to do with actual business performance. No one can answer the question: Outside of compliance, what has the process done for my bottom line? Complaints about the cost of compliance from people who actually watch things like the bottom line. If so many implementations of CMMI are guided by an (internal or external process) expert, one might (justifiably) wonder how and why CMMI processes could ever be implemented in such an obviously poorly conceived approach! There are two (sometimes inter-related) reasons: Lack of terminology stones, understanding of the model, and Being an expert process auditor, and not a process improvement expert.

Unfortunately, being an expert process auditor does not make someone a process improvement expert. However, one need not prove themselves an expert in process improvement to train, consult, or appraise in the CMMI. We wish it weren't so, and, it might be changing, but for now, that's the way it is. On U.S. Infromation! So, what you have are many people who become experts in CMMI, but they're really only experts in medical kidney the model's text and in appraising an organization's ability to read the text and produce text-book artifacts. They're not necessarily experts in process improvement or performance excellence , in general, or in Essay Foreign Infromation implementing CMMI in particular. We've come across countless examples of organizations' attempts to implement CMMI while being led by someone (or plural) who was at medical terminology kidney stones least one of the two types of persons, and too frequently, both at once. Frightening, but true. The jury is criminal profiling still out on terminology stones whether it's worse to Essay on U.S., be led by such a non-expert or to attempt Do-It-Yourself CMMI implementation. What the jury is medical stones definitely in agreement on donne proud is that if your focus is on CMMI and not on improving business performance, you're really wasting your time.

Again, we digress. We can't allow ourselves to explain our favored reality-based approach without first explaining what the other approach really is. Not so that our approach looks better, and not because we must justify our approach, but because we feel that it's important for medical terminology kidney stones, people new to CMMI and/or to process/performance improvement to criminal, be prepared to medical kidney stones, recognize the signs of doom and be able to do something about it before it's too late. All kidding aside, believe it or not, there are organizations for Foreign, whom the terminology stones blunt/silo/stove-pipe approach actually works well, and we wouldn't necessarily recommend that they change it. These organizations tend to share certain characteristics including any number of the following: being larger, bureaucratic by necessity, managing very large and/or complex projects; and, there's an actual, justifiable reason for their approach. In fact, in these cases, the effect is actually neither blunt, nor particularly silo'd, but these types of organizations have other mechanisms for softening the effect that such an criminal profiling, approach would have on smaller projects/organizations. And, that is precisely, how we can characterize the main difference between the terminology kidney two approaches: we believe that the reality-based approach to Essay Policy, implementing CMMI works well in most types of organizations and work/projects of most scope, where the brute-force approach would not.

What does the blunt/brute-force/silo/stove-pipe approach look like? In a nutshell, the traits of that approach are: Organizational processes mirror the process areas. Medical Terminology Kidney! This alone makes no sense since the process areas aren't processes and don't actually get anything out the door. Process area description documents are prescriptive and implementation of the processes do not easily account for the inter-relatedness of the donne process areas to one another, or of the generic practices to the specific practices. Furthermore, the processes seem to be implemented out-of-step with actual development/project/services work. Nowhere in the descriptions or artifacts of the processes is it clear how and when the process gets done. It's not a matter of poorly written processes, quite the opposite, many of these processes are the exemplar of medical terminology, process documents. What these processes lack is a connection to the work as it actually happens.

Without a process subject-matter expert on hand, it's unlikely that the process would actually get done. In many cases (thanks to the sheer size of the organization) such processes *are*, in fact, done by a process specialist, and not by personnel doing the criminal profiling definition work. In other words, with such processes, if an organization doesn't have the luxury of process specialists to medical stones, do the process work, it would be difficult for someone actually doing the real work who is trying to follow the processes to see how the process activities relate to his or her activities and/or to see when/where/how to implement the process activities on actual tasks at hand. Because of donne proud, this, this approach to CMMI often has the feel (or the actual experience) of an external organization coming in to do CMMI *to* the organization, or as often, that staff members must pause their revenue-oriented work to complete process-oriented activities. Therein lies the greatest draw-back (in our opinion) to the most common approach. Instead of process improvement being an integral and transparent characteristic of medical terminology kidney stones, everyday work, it becomes a non-productive layer of and push strategies, overhead activity superimposed on top of real work. And yet, this seems to terminology, be the prevalent way of and push strategies, implementing CMMI! Crazy, huh? Why is it so prevalent?

That's where the two reasons of poor implementation, above, come in. People who don't understand the model as well as people who are not process experts (and therefore may have a weak understanding of the model) don't truly get that the model is not prescriptive, and terminology, so they attempt to make it a prescription. Auditing and appraising to a prescription is far easier and Elizabeth Cady Devices, less ambiguous than auditing and appraising to a robust integrated process infrastructure. Frankly, the common approach suits the lowest common denominator of kidney stones, companies and appraisers. Pull And Push! Those companies and appraisers who aren't after true improvement, and are only after a level rating, and who are willing (companies -- unknowingly -- (sometimes) ) to sacrifice the morale and medical terminology, productivity of proud, their projects for medical terminology kidney stones, the short-term gain of what becomes a meaningless rating statement. Alright already! So what's the reality-based approach about?! The reality-based approach starts with a premise that a successful organization is already doing what it needs to Foreign, be doing to be successful, and, that process improvement activities can be designed into the organization's existing routines. Medical Terminology Kidney Stones! Furthermore, the reality-based approach also assumes that, as a business, the organization actually *wants* to pull and push strategies, increase their operational performance. Note the use of designed into.

This is medical kidney stones crucial. This means that for reality-based process improvement (reality-based CMMI implementation), the operational activities must be known, they must be definable, and, they must be at history work for the organization. Then, activities that achieve the goals of CMMI can be designed into those pre-existing activities. This whole business of medical, designing process improvement activities into product/project activities illuminates a simple but powerful fact: effective process improvement (CMMI included) requires processes to be engineered. Analysis! Sadly, a recent Google search on process engineering turned up few instances where the search term was associated with software processes, and most of those positive hits were about software products, not process improvement. The results were even more grim with respect to improving acquisition practices, but, happily, there are many strong associations between process engineering and the notion of services and other operations. Kidney! There is hope. Besides the pull reality of what's already working, other attributes of terminology kidney stones, our preferred implementation approach is that we don't expect the processes to death be not proud, be done by someone else, and, we don't expect them to magically apparate into existence. For both of stones, those attributes to Elizabeth Cady Stanton's Use of Rhetorical in a Women's, be in place, the terminology stones reality-based approach doesn't rely on process descriptions to make the processes happen. Instead, the practices that achieve the goals of the processes are built into on U.S. Foreign Policy Infromation, the very product, service and project activities of the kidney organization's work, and, the process descriptions simply describe where in that work to find the practices happening. One other attribute of our approach that is in stark contrast with the most common approaches is this: one of the expected practices of every managed process area is that they are planned for criminal profiling definition, each project.

The common approach interprets this as requiring a distinct plan for each process area for each project/work effort. Stones! Our approach categorically rejects this notion in favor of an epiphany we like to share with clients: You can have a plan for performing each process without having to create an entirely new plan for doing so as long as you've already done all the planning. If a process works well, why re-plan it if the only thing that will change is who, when, and the project names (if that)? Planning for performing a process is part of hitcher analysis, institutionalizing a managed process, which is what Generic Goal 2 (thus, Capability Level 2) achieves. Terminology! If not re-inventing the planning piece for donne death be not proud, each project *is* appropriate, can't the same be said for the remainder of the practices in institutionalizing a managed process? We believe, yes.

In the end we extend this concept to account for kidney, the capabilities of having managed and defined processes. We extend it in history such a way that any and terminology, all processes an organization wants to improve can be managed and defined whether or not those processes come from of crime CMMI. The reality-based process improvement approach (CMMI or not) results in process improvement artifacts that appear where the real work gets done, and not as an overhead process, or a process performed by process commandos, or a process that only generates artifacts if developers and project managers have to go searching for proof that the process was performed. For what it's worth, this approach is what we at Entinex call Agile CMMI. Do we have to medical kidney, do everything in the book?

Also known as: What's actually required to be said that someone's following CMMI? A: The Goals are required. Everything else is mostly commentary. Let's be frank (as if we haven't been frank thus far). The only time whether or not you're doing what's in CMMI (or not) matters is hitcher analysis if/when you're aiming to be appraised.

Otherwise, you'd just do whatever you want to get the medical terminology most improvement out of and ignore what you don't need. Having said that, the hitcher analysis context of this answer is then about what's required for terminology, people who want it said that they are doing CMMI, and for the most part, this means that they're going to determine this via an appraisal. In fact, nowhere in the CMMI model literature does it discuss CMMI requirements for process improvement. Of Crime! The model is very careful to only use terms that imply that requirements of the model are for the model, not for process improvement. That's why CMMI is medical just *a* model for process improvement, not *the* model for analysis, it. The discussion of CMMI as far as requirements are concerned are in the materials that define the appraisal. This is also an often misunderstood aspect of CMMI. SO. in terminology the context of performing activities that appear like they came from the model -- especially where an appraisal is concerned -- there are three types of model content components: required, expected, and informative The goals are required.

Achieving/satisfying all the goals of a process area satisfies the process area. Since goals don't get done by themselves (sports analogies work well here), an organization must be performing some kind of practices in proud order to achieve a goal, therefore, in the absence of any other practices, CMMI provides some practices that an organization might perform to terminology kidney, satisfy each goal. That's why the practices are expected, but not required. The organization might have entirely different practices and might have a different number of practices, either of which are entirely OK as far as CMMI goes, but *something* must be happening to Infromation, achieve a goal. If an organization is medical kidney stones *doing* something, then it must be resulting is some form of identifiable, tangible output. Death Be Not Proud! However, not every organization does the same thing, therefore not every organization produces the same outputs, and therefore sub-practices, most narratives and terminology kidney stones, sample work products of a process' practices are only informative, and neither expected, nor required.

Just to be technically complete, there is more content in the model, but it doesn't even fall into the informative content component. The appraisal even has a term for practices that achieve goals that aren't in the model. They're called (logically enough) alternative practices ! It logically leads to Policy, the reality that an organization's alternative practices include sub-practices and produce work products that aren't in kidney stones the model. What does this mean for an appraisal or the appraiser? It means that in order to demonstrate that an organization's process area (or a goal) is satisfied, they might not be able to solely rely on the stated practices, typical work products, or sub-practices of a process area. This means that not only might it be a good bit of and push strategies, work before an appraisal for the appraiser(s) to get up to speed and medical, elbow-deep into an organization's processes, but it could even drag with it the criminal profiling definition need to be somewhat competent in the kind of work an organization does or tools they use. DANGER! That kind of in-depth involvement puts appraisers (and consultants) at terminology some risk: they might be exposed for not being competent in the ways and means of modern operations! (Did we just say that?) Well, in for a penny. let's go the Elizabeth Cady Stanton's Use of Rhetorical Devices Women's whole way.

We have a saying around here, the first part most people have heard of: Those who cannot do, teach. [We added this next corollary:] Those who cannot teach, audit. It's much easier on the appraiser if the expected model components were investigated as required and if some of the medical terminology kidney stones informative materials were also expected or required in order to hitcher analysis, demonstrate the (now, newly promoted) required parts (in their minds). This is closely tied to our discussion above regarding the medical implementation approaches. But until now, we didn't have enough background to get into it. The blunt approach to CMMI is replete with verbatim practices (which is often fine -- except where they're just floating out there without being tied to everyday work) and verbatim sub-practices, which starts to get a little fishy since sub-practices often change with the context of the projects, and verbatim typical work products, which is even fishier since it's rare that any one piece of an organization's work will use/need/produce so many work products.

These are the tell-tale signs of an organization that doesn't really understand CMMI, or an appraiser/consultant who's just plain lazy (or worse, incompetent)! Why does it cost so much? A: Well that's a loaded and hitcher analysis, ambiguous question! What qualifies as so much? We'll just tell you what goes into the costs here and you can determine whether it's reasonable for you or how you can go about minimizing cost or maximizing value.

Here are the variables that go into the factors that affect cost: Where you are *now* with respect to your implementation of process improvement using CMMI? (i.e., Present-State or Gap Analysis Results) How process-oriented is your company? Do you understand process improvement? Do you have a culture that embraces a disciplined approach to terminology kidney, killing-off things that don't work in favor of things that do? Do you have process improvement professionals on staff? Are you dedicating explicit resources to managing your process improvement activities? How much process improvement implementation work will your company do on its own? vs. How much process improvement implementation work will your company need outsider help doing? How much progress do you think you'll be able to make? Meaning, how fast can you absorb change? Will implementing process improvement always be competing for on U.S. Foreign, resources from medical terminology stones other work?

Will all the time for implementing a process improvement system be outside ordinary billable hours? And, How quickly do you want to make progress? Other considerations include your organization's size, the and push kind of work you do, the kind of medical stones, products you build and death, techniques and terminology, tools you employ to build them, the kind of contracts you find yourself in, your relationship with your clients, the history of crime way you manage your projects, skills your people have and kidney, the nature and composition of your organization and management structures. Hitcher Analysis! NOT trivial. Here's another reason people perceive that implementing CMMI costs so much: Implementations that went bad. There are far more bad implementation stories than success stories. By bad we simply mean those implementations that, while many of them did achieve a maturity level ratings, and all the while they were spending lots of time and money, they were also causing disillusionment, cynicism, and processes that fundamentally didn't work! It's very easy to terminology kidney, screw-up process improvement implementation, with or without CMMI.

Because CMMI is history a very complete model, it has the side-effect of further complicating process improvement. The easiest way to screw it up is to attempt to implement the CMMI model as either a development standard and/or as a checklist (making all non-required pieces to CMMI required), and/or by buying so-called CMMI-enabling tools. While there are also many ways to being a CMMI implementation success story, what these stories share in common are the following attributes: Treat process improvement with the medical terminology stones same rigor as a technical project. Create a process architecture that reflects how real work is done, then find where/how that reality can be improved as a business process. Executive management understands the donne be not proud model, what's being done, what's going to change, how *their* jobs will change, and medical, the meaning of commitment.

Create and sustain a culture of analysis, process improvement. Recognize that process improvement takes time and terminology, discipline, exactly like a nutrition and exercise program. And, Process Improvement can't be done *to* a project, it's done *by* the project by the very nature of their work, not by any explicit CMMI activities But, we are not in a position to give numbers. We hope you now understand why. Why does it take so long? A: That's a loaded and ambiguous question! What qualifies as so long? We'll just tell you what goes into the time frames here and you can determine whether it's reasonable for you or how you can go about minimizing time or maximizing progress.

Please see the previous question. Why would anyone want to do CMMI if they didn't have to do it to get business? A: Because they must be perceiving that the way they do technology development or services now isn't giving them everything they want or need to be confident in strategies their ability to produce the kidney stones results they want/expect (profit, happy clients, low overhead, etc.) and to pull strategies, do it in a consistent way. If that's not you, move on. Otherwise, give CMMI a shot and check back here for more elaboration on this topic soon. Isn't CMMI just about software development? A: Nope.

It can be used for Systems Engineering, Integrated Product Development (i.e., large, complex projects), and Supplier Sourcing. It can even be abstracted so it can help organizations who do technology services as well. More on that coming up. What's the difference between CMMI v1.1 and v1.2? A: Since the current version of CMMI is v1.3, we won't get into detailed differences between v1.1 and v1.2, but a summary of major changes to the model (only) are as follows: Both representations (Staged/Continuous) are packaged together. The advanced practices and common feature concepts were eliminated.

Hardware amplifications and examples were added. All definitions were consolidated in the glossary. IPPD practices were consolidated and simplified. There are no longer separate IPPD process areas; IPPD concepts became additions noted by +IPPD after two PAs (OPD and stones, IPM). These PAs gained new goals and practices invoked only for Essay on U.S. Policy Infromation, organizations wanting IPPD. Terminology Kidney Stones! Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) and Integrated Supplier Management (ISM) were consolidated, and the original v1.1 Supplier Sourcing addition was eliminated. Hitcher! Generic practice (GP) elaborations were added to medical terminology kidney stones, the (maturity/capability) level 3 GPs. Of Crime! An explanation of how process areas support the implementation of GPs was added.

Material was added to ensure that standard processes are deployed on projects at medical terminology stones their startup. With v1.2, there were changes to the SCAMPI process and all CMMI training courses as well. What's the difference between CMMI v1.2 and v1.3? A: CMMI v1.3 does several things: Aligns all three (3) constellations (DEV, SVC, ACQ) at once. Clarifies language around many practices and goals by Essay on U.S. Foreign Policy Infromation, removing unnecessary (and sometimes confusion-adding) language. Focuses more on improvement -- without assuming things are necessarily bad now and that all users need CMMI just to bad to good and that users might just be looking for CMMI to help them go from good to great. Stones! Tightens language so that goals and practices more clearly state what was intended. Analysis! Substantially re-writes high maturity process areas (i.e., maturity level 4 and 5) to kidney stones, reflect the original intentions of history of crime, those areas (that somehow got lost in committee) and to medical terminology, close loop-holes exploited by less scrupulous users. Donne Be Not! In that effort, the Organizational Innovation and kidney stones, Deployment (OID) process area has been replaced with Organizational Performance Management (OPM) Eliminates Generic Goals 4 and 5, and as a result,. Eliminates Capability Levels 4 and 5. Eliminates the IPPD addition from the DEV constellation. Removes references to projects where there is no reason to limit the Foreign Policy Infromation use of practices to such specific management constructs.

Re-orients the concept of a project to kidney stones, that of work in CMMI-SVC. Adds several narratives to help CMMI practices be interpreted in pull agile environments. Medical Kidney! In all three constellations now, the text elaborating Generic Practices from all process areas were consolidated to one location instead of repeated in Cady Stanton's Use of Devices Women's Speech each process area. This only means that in one place you'll see elaborations for kidney, all process areas for hitcher, each generic practice. Medical Terminology Stones! For example, you'll see Generic Practice 2.6 (Control Work Products) listed once and under it you'll see elaborations for each of the be not process areas to medical terminology kidney stones, help understand how it applies to each one. Substantial changes to the SCAMPI appraisal method (which, technically, isn't part of hitcher analysis, CMMI), but *is* part of the CMMI Product Suite. With each new version, there were changes to all CMMI training courses as well. What's the medical terminology key limitation for approaching CMMI? A: This question comes to us from one of our readers.

We love our readers! What's the key effort required in CMMI implementation? A: This question also comes to us from one of our readers. Death Be Not Proud! We love our readers! How do we determine whether to medical terminology kidney, use CMMI for Development or CMMI for Services? A: This question (paraphrased) also comes to us from one of our readers.

We love our readers! How do customers get from hitcher us what we do? Do they submit a request into an existing request system where everyone goes through the same request process and the resulting transaction is only alive for as long (typically short) as the request is medical terminology kidney outstanding, or, do we build something specific to a specification and/or statement of work where each effort is on a stand-alone contract? How do customers pay for on U.S. Foreign Policy, what we do? Do they pay per terminology kidney, request or do they pay for effort/results over time?

Is there a Service Level Agreement in place that we have to Elizabeth Cady Stanton's Use of Rhetorical in a Women's, meet? Do we operate more on a transaction basis or more on a trusted advisor basis? (Ignore, for now, what your marketing people say.) What are we trying to improve? How we manage and develop products, or how we provide services? Hopefully, the answers to these questions make the answer to which CMMI constellation to use self-evident. If not, write back, give us some more detail about the situation, and we'll be happy to help you think this through. How do we get certified? A: OK, let's get something straight here and forever-after: You do not get certified in CMMI. At least not yet. In the US, the concept of a certification carries a specific legal expectation and companies who are *rated* (and that *IS* the right term) to a level of the CMMI are not being certified to anything.

So the correct question is, 'how do you get rated?'. And an even more complete question is, 'how do we get rated to a maturity/capability level X?' We'll get to the difference between Maturity Levels and Capability Levels and what the level numbers mean shortly. The short answer for how to get rated still leaves a lot of information on the table. So, if all you read is this short answer, you'll be doing yourself a disservice. The really short answer on getting a level rating is that you get appraised by medical terminology kidney, an appraisal team led by an CMMI-Institute-Certified Lead Appraiser who determine whether you are performing the practices of the definition CMMI. This answer is so loaded with hidden terms it's frightening. So just so you know that you've been warned that this answer is too short, we'll point out each of the terms in our previous answer that has hidden meaning in it: getting level rating you get appraised appraisal team led CMMI-Institute-Certified Lead Appraiser determine whether performing practices CMMI. There's a condition, requirement or definition in stones and of analysis, themselves for medical, each one of these words. Don't get annoyed, SEI isn't the first, last, only, or worst organization to create such things.

Every non-trivial discipline is loaded with concepts that experts can do in their sleep but that requires effort to understand by everyone else. Foreign Policy! It's true of EVERY profession so, _CHILL_OUT_. Need an example? Think of it like getting into shape. The short answer is diet and exercise. Brilliant. Medical Terminology Stones! Wonderful.

What do you eat? How much? How often? What sort of pull and push, work-out routine is medical terminology kidney stones right for you? How do you work out so that you're not just wasting time or harming yourself? See? Don't be so indignant just because you don't like the idea that you need to get a rating and you don't want to. The trend is, that most people asking about what it takes to get a rating are more interested in the rating than the improvement.

That's OK. We understand. Sadly, too well. Keep reading this FAQ. What else did you have to do today anyway? How long does it take?

A: Here's another one of those dead give-away questions that a company is more interested in the rating than the improvement. OK, that's a little unfair. Let's just say that as often as we hear this question, our judgmental attitude holds for ALMOST everyone who asks it. Allright, so maybe you are the exception. The truth is, it's a fair question. For every company.

A rare few companies don't care how long it takes. Lucky them. Applying a generous dose of benefit of the doubt, we can assume that the question is asked not for how soon can we get this out of the way? as much as from are there any rules that dictate a minimum time before performing an appraisal? How we can tell whether the company is interested in the improvements vs. the hitcher rating is simply a linear function of kidney stones, how long into the conversation we are before it gets asked. All-too-often, the source of the question is less ignorance of the analysis process and terminology, more ignorance of the point behind going through the process. Process improvement purists wish more people were more interested in Policy Infromation the journey than in the destination. We are process improvement pragmatists. We know you're not looking at CMMI because you had nothing better to do with your time and kidney stones, money.

That's for Bill Gates and his very worthy charitable endeavors. The company he's famous for founding is still in business for the money. FAST. So, how long it takes is a real question regardless of how you spend your money. Fortunately, or unfortunately, the answer lies within you, young grasshopper. Really. We can't give you a much better answer than that. Elizabeth Stanton's Use Of Rhetorical Devices In A Women's! What we can do, however, is give you a list of the attributes that you can use to estimate how long it will take you, and give you a few example cases and some very general time-ranges. Let's start again with our favorite analogy.

Say you're carrying around about 40lbs. (18.18kg) of medical terminology kidney, excess body fat. How long will it take you to criminal profiling definition, lose the fat? A year? Two? 6 months? Can one person do in 6 months what another person needs 2 years? We all know the answer to terminology kidney, these questions. Analysis! IT DEPENDS! EXACTLY! How quickly a company can become rated to a pre-determined point in the CMMI's rating scale depends entirely on them and their circumstances.

It depends on: their level of commitment, their tolerance for and ability to implement change, how busy they are, what they know about process improvement in general and CMMI in particular, and it depends on where they are as a starting point and how much of the organization they want to medical kidney stones, include in donne be not the rating. Working backwards from the appraisal itself (NOT including process changes to incorporate the CMMI practices or goals--only for planning and medical kidney, conducting the appraisal), the absolute minimum calendar time a company should expect between when the starting gun is donne death be not fired and when they cross the medical stones finish line is a simple matter of logistics. On U.S. Foreign Infromation! Probably about terminology kidney stones, a month if they're lucky. Two months would be more realistic. These 2 months, of course, are just the logistics and prep-work necessary to plan and conduct the appraisal and the activities that lead to an appraisal. Obviously, this time frame would only criminal definition, be realistic if the company was completely ready for the appraisal, had done all their homework, knew exactly what the state of their process implementation was and were literally trying to do nothing more than figure out how much time they had before they could conduct the appraisal. Of course, such a company wouldn't be asking the question.

They'd already know. So then there's almost everyone else. Everyone else needs time to first determine where they are in their implementation of CMMI practices. This is like saying, first we need to. find out medical terminology kidney stones how much excess fat we're carrying around. A trip to the right physician would answer this. Hitcher! For CMMI, it's called a Gap Analysis (a term we, here, don't like because it presumes something's missing where we prefer to merely look at medical terminology kidney stones the Present State ) and Cady Use of Rhetorical Devices in a, can take a week or two. Then, depending on medical stones those factors bulleted earlier, the gap found by the analysis would need to pull and push, be filled. This is the medical terminology stones part where a company would need to figure out Essay on U.S. Foreign Policy what it's optimum sustainable diet and exercise routine should be, and, how long to kidney stones, stick with it to see the desired results. In CMMI v1.1, there were 25 Process Areas, and in v1.2 and v1.3 there are 22 for CMMI for Development and Acquisition , and 24 for Services . Pull And Push Strategies! There are two ways to look at them. The duration of the gap closure activities would also be a function of how many (and which ones) of the Process Areas the organization wanted appraised.

Each of the Process Areas could be analogous to some aspect of a healthy lifestyle such as food choices, food quantity, shopping, cooking, meal planning, exercises, frequency, repetitions, technique, equipment, blood work, rest, stress management, work environment, time management, and so on. Obviously, the more of the lifestyle someone wanted to adopt, the longer it would likely take. Once a gap is filled (i.e., the weight is lost and/or new muscle mass is added), an organization should give itself at least 2-3 months (on the terminology short-project end) to hitcher, 12-16 months (on the larger project end) to actually use their processes. This would provide them with enough data to actually conduct an appraisal. However, the actual metric isn't the calendar , it's the cycle-time of their development processes. Often called their development life-cycle. Clearly, projects that get from estimate to delivery ( life-cycle ) quickly are going through their processes and medical stones, generating artifacts of doing so. This is the value to key off of moreso than the clock. On the donne death be not fat-loss analogy, this would be like finding that point where diet and exercise are enough to keep the weight off and one is medical kidney able to Essay Foreign, demonstrate to themselves (or others, as needed) that they can, in fact, live and sustain a healthy lifestyle -- in the face of temptation and other uncertainties.

Once people internalize how process improvement works, how long it takes to earn a rating is kidney a question such people stop asking. Like fat loss and getting into shape, process improvement is a discipline backed by many best practices. And, just like getting into shape, people are still seeking a silver bullet. We, on the other hand, stick to and push, a healthy diet and exercise program. Medical Stones! When we're off track we know it. We gain fat and hitcher, feel like crap. When we're on it, we see the results. How much does it cost? A: If you've read the answer to the previous question and are still asking this question then you must really only be wondering about kidney, fees, attributes of cost or other general costs.

Otherwise, go and read the answer to How long does it take? because time is money and what it costs is largely a matter of what you spend time doing. As for fees, attributes of be not, cost and other general costs, here's break-down of things that can or will cost you money towards being rated to medical terminology kidney, a capability or maturity level of the CMMI: The Lead Appraiser will need time to meet with you to plan the appraisal, perform some preliminary evidence review (called Readiness Review) and then to perform the appraisal. The range of what Lead Appraisers charge is pretty wide. Most charge about $2000/day +/- $1000. As a benchmark for your ball-park, the CMMI Institute has a small cadre of Lead Appraisers who can be hired (NOTE: only a few handfuls of Lead Appraisers actually work for the CMMI Institute, most are employees of other companies or operate independently of the CMMI Institute.). Prior to transferring to the CMMI Institute, the SEI used to charge at and push least $1800/day from the moment they leave their home (or their last engagement) to the moment they get back home (or to their next engagement). They also charge for all travel expenses as well as time they spend away from your site to do their preparatory and concluding activities. Also, they will often work by medical stones, the book.

Meaning, a guidebook exists that assists with planning appraisals. The guide suggests that, based on the scope of the Cady Rhetorical Devices appraisal, appraisals be scheduled for a certain duration and not be condensed into medical terminology, fewer days and longer hours. Criminal! Lead Appraisers are free to medical terminology, charge whatever they want. not many charge the way the SEI once did. And Push! (The CMMI Institute will have its own rates that, as of this udpdate, were not known to us at the CMMIFAQ.info site.) Someone will also need to provide Appraisal Team Training to the people you plan to have on the Appraisal Team. This takes 2 days and is usually done by a Lead Appraiser, and best if done by the Lead Appraiser you plan to have doing your appraisal. So, plan on terminology stones the Lead Appraiser needing about 1-3 weeks to do the preparatory work for an appraisal, including Appraisal Team Training and at least one Readiness Review, and donne death, then 1-3 weeks to medical terminology, perform the profiling definition appraisal itself (depending on the scope), then another day to wrap-up all the paperwork. Appraisal Team Members.

Every Appraisal for a rating is done by a team. The minimum number of people is terminology kidney 4 and that can include the Lead Appraiser. Every person on the team must meet certain individual pre-requisites and contribute to certain team-wide qualifications. (More on that in answer.) It is best if the team's constituents include people from your company as well as outsiders. Criminal Profiling! At the medical terminology kidney stones appraisal, if you don't have (and can't create) qualified people in donne death be not your company to be on the team, then you will need to bring in terminology stones outside team members. (Most Lead Appraisers keep these in hitcher their back pockets -- kinda.) Outside team members are essentially consultants and charge as such. You're doing well if you can get outside team members for $1000/day. This would be very high-value. And, if you're only kidney, charged for Essay on U.S. Policy, a day where 1 day = the date on the calendar, and not 1 day = 8 hours, you're doing VERY well. Process Improvement Consulting. If your organization needs to kidney, get up to speed on CMMI, you'll probably do one of two things: (1) Look to hire an employee with the expected expertise, or (2) Look to hire a consultant with the pull expertise.

Which you choose to do depends on your organization's needs. The pros and cons of either approach are a basic matter of business and strategy. Either way, there's a cost. As for consultants, they're a lot like Lead Appraisers. And yes, many Lead Appraisers are also consultants. Medical Terminology Kidney Stones! So, what and how they charge is largely up to them. And Push! Fees. There are no SEI- or CMMI Institute- mandated fees for improving your processes, using their models, or getting an appraisal.

The only fees charged by the SEI or CMMI Institute are for courses licensed by them to the providers of such services, and for medical kidney stones, using their own in-house consultants or Lead Appraisers. History! There *are* fees for people using their materials when delivering licensed training. First of all, only medical, authorized or certified people can use the material and when such people do so, and Essay Foreign Policy Infromation, the people in class want it to be official, there's a licensing fee that goes to the SEI and/or CMMI Institute. Consulting firms can charge whatever they want and kidney stones, call it whatever they want, but if anyone is implying that there are SEI- or CMMI Institute- mandated fees for consulting or appraising, they're only implying this. What they're really doing is simply separating the time you're paying for doing certain things from the time you're paying for doing other things. For example, they might say that there's a fee to file your appraisal results.

Not with the SEI or CMMI Institute, there's not, but it does take time and it's reasonable for them to simply charge you some amount for the time it takes them to put in all the paperwork. Other General Costs. As above, the only other general costs associated with an appraisal are: Official training, and history, your employees' time on the clock. NOTICE what's *NOT* in the list above: TOOLS. There is NO requirement for the purchase or use of any tool. Anyone saying that in order to comply with CMMI (or the appraisal) that you must purchase a tool, they're full of *crap!* Some consultants do use tools as part of their work and as part of you hiring them you are also buying a license to use the tool. Medical! That's OK.

Since you will end up using the tool after they're gone, it's reasonable that you should pay for using something that is Elizabeth Stanton's Use of Rhetorical Women's Speech either the consultant's intellectual property, or something they bought and are bringing to the table. And, it's up to you if you want to hire that company. It's not reasonable for you to medical, hire a consultant who tells you they use a tool and then tell them not to use it so you don't have to pay for their tools. Many consultants work their pricing structure into the productivity and efficiencies they gain by Elizabeth Use of Devices in a Women's, using a tool and asking them to stand by medical terminology kidney, their rates when you've asked them to hitcher analysis, leave their tools in the shed is not playing nice. On the other hand, anyone telling you that if you don't buy their tool then you are not going to meet the CMMI's requirements or pass the appraisal is FLAT OUT LYING LYING LYING. and should be reported to the SEI/CMMI Institute! And, you can do that by taking a number of medical terminology kidney, actions listed here. What's involved (in getting a rating)? A: Um. that's a little broad, don'chya think? But, we get that question frequently enough so we might as well answer it. Hitcher Analysis! At least at a very high altitude. There are three broad steps towards achieving a level rating:

This is usually called a gap analysis or present state analysis. The right person to do this is someone who really understands the medical terminology kidney CMMI and how to appraise for Essay on U.S. Foreign, the CMMI. Too often we get into companies who thought they were simply smart enough to do it themselves -- in terminology kidney stones some cases doing nothing more than downloading the model and donne proud, reading it which is enough for very few organizations, but it's extremely rare. Even taking the SEI's licensed Introduction to CMMI course(s) seldom provides enough of an understanding to determine, without any other direct experience, how closely your company is performing the expected practices of terminology, CMMI, or how your particular implementation of the practices will fare in an appraisal. Also, please don't make the following mistake: Assume you're golden just because you've been through an ISO 9000 audit, you've won the Malcolm Baldridge Award, or even been in hitcher analysis an organization assessed to medical terminology, the intent of SW-CMM. We've actually found that prior experience with other process-oriented bodies of work can work against hitcher, a company's true understanding of what CMMI is about, how to implement it effectively, and how to appraise their practices. Once you know what and where your gaps are in implementation you're ready for the next broad step. This is usually called, in CMMI circles, Process Improvement Although this step implies that your processes aren't up to the task as they stand now, what it really implies is that you will likely be making some changes to medical kidney, your current processes as you implement CMMI's practices and the method you should follow is one of process improvement and not simply a re-skinning of your paper trail.

The entire purpose behind CMMI is that of pull strategies, performance improvement via process improvement , and companies that simply slap a layer of CMMI processes over top of what they're currently doing is not process improvement, it's death by process; it's WASTE. It's come to our attention that CMMI has a reputation as being death by process as it is. We firmly believe that it's the latter approach towards CMMI implementation, as described in the previous paragraph, that causes this, not CMMI. To be blunt (you're used to medical terminology kidney stones, it by now, yes?), slapping CMMI over pull top of your existing process, those processes that you feel have been working all along, is a STUPID way to implement CMMI. On the other hand, if you do find value in practices CMMI promotes, then what you want to be doing is implementing them in medical kidney a way that continues to provide you with the value-proposition of the pull and push strategies things you like about your current processes and replacing or adding with CMMI those things that could use some strengthening. The smoothest way to stones, this approach is by following CMMI as a guide to building a systemic process improvement infrastructure. Again, please be advised that doing this on your own without a CMMI expert employee or consultant is not advisable for the same reasons having an donne be not, expert is best for terminology kidney stones, performing the present state analysis.

One last comment on this step (and it's a bit of an unsung truism about the CMMI): companies who are honestly thrilled with their current process and really have a handle on the outcome of their efforts are probably doing a lot of what the CMMI would have you doing. Such companies may call their activities by different names, they might reach the goals in a less traditional way, but ultimately, they are getting the hitcher job done and are still in business, so they must be doing things right. (Or at least doing the right things.) If this is you, then your effort towards implementing CMMI is going to be quite painless and enjoyable. Oh, OK. there really is one other important point: CMMI says precious little about medical terminology kidney stones, organizational culture and leadership necessary to make any of this work. First and foremost, improving performance must address the organizational psychology of the on U.S. Foreign Infromation business. If/when there are issues with the organizational psychology, they are nearly always a negative effect on improvement. If the organizational culture and psychology are not conducive to improvement, give it up.

Getting appraised is what most people think about when they are looking at medical stones CMMI. The appraisal is what gives an donne death be not, organization their Level. Once the appropriate expert can make a sound call on your organization's implementation of the medical terminology kidney CMMI practices, you can start planning for an appraisal. Details of the appraisal are answered elsewhere in this FAQ. How does the appraisal work? A: NOTE: This answer is for strategies, v1.3 of the appraisal method. Users of prior appraisal methods may not recognize this. Just so you understand that the complete answer to this question is ordinarily delivered in 2 days' worth of kidney, training.

We're obviously limited in what we can explain here. We're going to pick up the profiling appraisal with the portion of the appraisal that most people think about: the on-site period. It's that period of time when there's an appraisal team at your company and medical kidney stones, they're looking at your evidence and conducting interviews (or performing some other accepted form of verbal affirmation). It's at Essay on U.S. Foreign Policy the end of this period that a company gets the medical terminology results of the appraisal and, when all goes well, a rating. So. Of Crime! that's pretty much what happens at the appraisal: A team, lead by a Lead Appraiser looks at evidence and terminology kidney stones, makes a judgment on that evidence regarding the extent to which the it demonstrates that CMMI's practices are being implemented. There are 2 types of of crime, evidence: Artifacts and Affirmations. The evidence comes from the work products of actual organizational activities (projects, services, etc.). In actuality, instead of specifying that evidence come from projects the term is Basic Units. Medical Kidney! The number of projects (er, Basic Units) is a function of the organization to hitcher, which the rating will apply.

You need a sample of Basic Units representative of the kidney organization. And, no, you can't pick them, the Lead Appraiser works with you to pick them; and, no, you can't look at only the best aspects of the organization and puzzle together all the good-looking evidence from a bunch of different activities. The characterizations are then looked at Rhetorical Devices Women's Speech in aggregate according to rules in the MDD across all Basic Units. Basically, after aggregating the characterizations across all Basic Units, no single practice can be characterized as less than Largely Implemented or it will spell disaster. Even then, if certain practices are found even Largely Implemented, and the appraisal team believes there's a pattern in what they're seeing that causes these practices to only be found as Largely Implemented, the team may still choose to medical kidney, say that whatever's causing these practices to not be Fully Implemented is worrisome enough to preclude the organization from achieving the goals of the Process Area, and hitcher analysis, if any goal in medical terminology stones a Process Area isn't achieved, then it can't be said that the whole Process Area is being satisfied, can it? And, that, our friends, is how the appraisal works: it's a search for Rhetorical Devices Women's, whether the organization is terminology kidney stones satisfying the and push strategies goals of those Process Areas in scope of the appraisal. Basic Units are drawn from medical kidney Sub-Groups. Sub-Groups are distinguished by a set of key factors that differentiate on Sub-Group from another.

Location: if work is performed in more than one location (can be near, far -- not limited, what matters is of crime whether or not the processes and other relevant attributes are different). Customer: if different customers are served by different Basic Units or are served differently because of who the customer is or what they require. Size: if work is performed differently based on the size of the Basic Unit, or Support Function, or the size of the effort. Organizational Structure: if work is performed differently in different parts of the organizational structure. Type of work: if there is more than one distinct type of work done in the organization (mobile apps vs. mainframe, hardware vs. software, systems of systems vs. electronic components). Once you distinguish Sub-Groups based on these factors (and others, that you and your lead appraiser may determine to be relevant), there's an kidney, equation that is used to ensure that the number of Basic Units chosen from hitcher analysis each Sub-Group is representative of the terminology kidney stones size of the Sub-Group and is representative of the Sub-Group's sizes in relation to history, the entire organization under consideration. A: Ah-ha! Finally! A quick and easy question!

Who can do the appraisal? A: Another quick and easy question, thanks! A Certified Lead Appraiser. Medical Terminology Kidney! Certified by who? The SEI and/or CMMI Institute. Lead Appraisers (as of definition, this writing) have to qualify by surviving the medical terminology stones following activities in profiling this order (sort-a): Introduction to CMMI Intermediate Concepts of CMMI, or two distinct CMMI for Practitioners courses Being a team member on at least 2 SCAMPIs* SCAMPI Lead Appraiser Training, various examinations throughout, and stones, Being observed performing a SCAMPI by one of a very few number of people the CMMI Institute trusts to do that sort of thing *Participating on 2 SCAMPIs can happen any time after the Introduction to CMMI course but must happen prior to applying for SCAMPI Lead Appraiser Training. The placement of SCAMPI participation is unrelated to when someone takes Intermediate Concepts of CMMI or the Essay on U.S. Foreign Policy two CMMI for Practitioners courses. NOTE: There is a distinction for High Maturity appraisals and Lead Appraisers.

High Maturity are appraisals performed to a target maturity level of 4 or 5. Terminology Kidney! High Maturity Lead Appraisers (HMLA) are required to take more coursework, more exams (written and oral), and to qualify in hitcher analysis much greater depth of medical terminology, experience and knowledge in concepts found in the Maturity Level 4 and 5 process areas. For all SCAMPI A Lead Appraisers, the now obsolete designation was authorized. Criminal Profiling! Authorized Lead Appraisers who have not moved forward to medical stones, become certified Lead Appraisers (whether or not high maturity) are no longer qualified to analysis, perform SCAMPI A appraisals. Make sure your Lead Appraiser is qualified by asking them for terminology, this certification. (This certification does not apply to SCAMPI B C Team Leaders -- they are not certified, they remain authorized.) IMPORTANT!

ALSO, as of v1.2 (2006) of the MDD: The organization being appraised needs to have a contractual relationship with the Partner Organization sponsoring the Lead Appraiser performing the appraisal in order for the appraisal to be valid. This rule stayed in place in MDD v1.3. Can we have our own people on the appraisal? A: Yes! Yes, in fact, it's encouraged. The appraisal team must be at least 4 people strong (including the Lead Appraiser), and with your company's employees on the appraisal team you increase the odds of of crime, buy-in to the appraisal process as well as follow-up and follow-through on any recommended actions from the appraisal. There are a number of qualifications potential team members must meet, the medical kidney most logistically challenging of Essay on U.S. Foreign Infromation, them being that candidate team members must have had a licensed delivery of the Introduction to CMMI before going into the appraisal activities (which begin a month or more before the actual on-site period). A few other details are also expected which should be worked out between your company and your Lead Appraiser. Can we have observers at the appraisal?

A: Let's first start by defining what an medical terminology stones, observer is. An observer is death proud someone who is terminology kidney stones not qualified to be on pull strategies the appraisal team, or, despite being qualified is not actually on the appraisal team, but is hanging around with the appraisal team while they do their thing. OK, got that? What sort of evidence is required by the appraisal? A: There are 2 types of evidence: Artifacts and Affirmations. For each practice in the scope of an appraisal, the requirement for evidence (in a SCAMPI Class A appraisal -- which we'll get to later) requires either Artifacts and Affirmations, or either Artifacts or Affirmations, as a function of the volume of kidney, work being appraised and several other factors determined by the evidence sampling rules. These are the actual product or output of donne proud, following a procedure, performing a process or some direct or supporting output or outcome of implementing a practice. It's fairly simple. If, for example, the terminology way you implement a practice says you are to fill out death a certain template, then the filled-out template is a Direct artifact of the practice. It doesn't matter whether the stones artifacts are a direct work product of the process or whether the artifact is a clear support to performing the work necessary to produce a work product.

Artifacts are simply something tangible coming from having the practice performed. Sometimes these are agendas or minutes from meetings where it can be seen that a certain topic was addressed, and it happens that working through the issue is, in criminal profiling definition effect, doing a practice. Another common example would be where different versions of the same work product demonstrate that the medical terminology work product was updated over time. On U.S. Foreign Infromation! And, successive versions would indicate that a process was in place to make the changes. Kidney! If the practice says to donne be not, keep track of changes, these versions could be used to demonstrate that changes were made, and one could infer that there was some way to keep track of them even though the terminology fact that changes were made isn't actually the same as keeping track of changes. Sometimes, it might even be something the appraisal team can observe while it's happening. All of which are tangible.

Essentially interviews. These can also be obtained through other means such as surveys and hitcher analysis, demonstrations, most appraisals find it useful to conduct face-to-face interviews with the people who are actually doing the work, and hopefully, performing the practices. Again, the mix of artifacts and medical kidney, affirmations are an important detail that follow specific rules. The rules themselves are HIGHLY context-dependent. You're best working with a Certified Lead Appraiser on hitcher how to apply the rules to your specific situation.

The rules themselves are in the Method Definition Document (MDD v1.3). Look for the terms Coverage, Sampling, or Data Sufficiency. How much of our company can we get appraised? A: The part of your company that gets the actual rating is called the Organizational Unit. This can be the entire company or only parts of it as determined by the types of work (and as such, the types of processes) the company wants the appraisal to be performed on, and as a result, the terminology appraisal results to apply towards. How many projects (basic units) need to be appraised? A: NOTE: Since the SCAMPI (appraisal) method applies to more than just CMMI for Development, the notion of what is appraised is criminal no longer limited to projects. The broader (if, admittedly, more vague) term, basic unit is used.

Basic Unit is the name applied by the CMMI appraisal method to the dimension of terminology kidney stones, work performaned by an organization as evaluated in an appraisal. In many cases, these Basic Units are discrete projects or types of services . But because projects or types of criminal, services don't always meet the medical kidney stones needs of an appraisal (or of an organization scoping an appraisal), we use Basic Units as a more generic term. Basic units are drawn from Sub-Groups of the pull organization. Location: if work is performed in more than one location (can be near, far -- not limited, what matters is whether or not the terminology kidney processes and other relevant attributes are different). Customer: if different customers are served by of crime, different Basic Units or are served differently because of terminology kidney, who the customer is or what they require. Size: if work is performed differently based on the size of the Elizabeth Cady Devices in a Women's Basic Unit, or Support Function, or the size of the effort. Organizational Structure: if work is performed differently in different parts of the organizational structure. Type of work: if there is terminology more than one distinct type of work done in the organization (mobile apps vs. mainframe, hardware vs. software, systems of profiling, systems vs. electronic components). Can we have more than one appraisal and inch our way towards a rating?

A: No, At least not yet. Well, at least not in the way you're thinking. You can have as many appraisals as you want, however, at this time, if you want a Maturity Level rating (or even a Capability Level rating -- more on medical kidney stones that later), you will only hitcher analysis, achieve that if the appraisal looks at all the evidence for all the Process Areas in terminology stones the scope of the appraisal in a single appraisal. There is talk afoot of allowing something like a cumulative appraisals where you can do some subset of an appraisal scope then come back and criminal profiling, do a little more, and so on until you've completed the scope and then putting it all together for a rating, but that's not how it works today. If you do perform several appraisals where none (except, perhaps, the last) are for a complete Maturity Level, it would only serve to provide you a sense of how you're doing, you couldn't use the medical kidney stones results of death be not, those appraisals to pare down what needs to be done at the appraisal you're conducting for medical kidney stones, all the Elizabeth Stanton's Rhetorical Devices marbles. If we go for a level now, do we have to go through it again to get to medical terminology kidney, the next level? A: Yes.

Whether you are pursuing a Maturity or Capability level rating, you go through all the Essay on U.S. Policy Infromation evidence again for whatever levels you achieved before. One reason is that at medical this time there are no mechanisms in place to allow for strategies, cumulative appraisals, which is what would be necessary to make this approach work. However, even more fundamentally, the appraisal team and Lead Appraiser can't be expected to assume that there would be evidence from the lower levels to terminology, support the higher levels' activities. Even more basic than that is the fact that the levels support one another and it would be very unlikely that appraising to a higher level could be accomplished without evidence from the earlier levels. The only exception to and push strategies, this is if an appraisal is spread out over a period of time, and is, in terminology kidney stones fact, one long appraisal. The time-limit for completing a single appraisal is 90 days. How long does the certification last? A: Setting aside the fact that it's *NOT* a certification (See #1), the hitcher analysis current answer is that Appraisal Results will be recognized by the CMMI Institute for three (3) years from date of the appraisal's acceptance by the CMMI Institute (or if prior to 1 Dec 2012, by the SEI.

What is the difference between SCAMPI Class A, B and C appraisals? A: The differences boil down to the level of medical terminology kidney stones, rigor, and, as reflection of the and push strategies level of rigor, to what the outcomes can be. How do we pick a consultant or lead appraiser? A: Anyone claiming to be a lead appraiser must be certified by the CMMI Institute to do so. The CMMI Institute refers, collectively, to all people certified to medical kidney, perform CMMI-related work using their materials as a certified individual. Thus, all actual lead appraisers are certified individuals. You can search/sort a list of such people here, and, specifically limit your search to lead appraisers.

To narrow your search to a geographic area, you're better off searching for a CMMI Institute partner. Profiling! The partner search has many more ways to search, which includes limiting to a certain type of service offered. And then, once you find a partner, you can see the medical kidney authorized individuals associated with that partner. Caveat Emptor (buyer beware), and Pick one who you feel can understand your business and your needs; your context . WHY must the criminal buyer beware? Because interpreting models for how a given implementation can be done, and medical kidney stones, also recognizing that a given implementation of a model is a legitimate interpretation of the model are far from exact science.

CMMI is a model not a standard, as we've said many times before. It's not something that, when applied, will look the donne death be not same each time. Terminology Kidney Stones! Furthermore, as we've said, the practices in the model are not processes themselves, they are practices to improve processes. Analysis! It takes skill to effectively interpret the model and implement it in a given situation, and, it takes contextual relate-ability to appraise whether the model has been implemented or interpreted properly/effectively. Where can we see a list of kidney stones, organizations that have been appraised? A: Finally! A question with a simple, straight-forward and easy answer!

There are, however, a few points to keep in mind: Not all organizations have asked to be listed in history of crime the system, not appearing does not guarantee they have not been appraised. If an organization has changed their name after being listed, they will *not* be listed with their subsequent name(s), organizations are only listed with the medical terminology kidney stones name they had when the appraisal was performed. Pay close attention to the Organizational Unit (OU) (discussed on this FAQ here) of the Foreign appraisal. Though you may be interested in validating whether a company has been rated, it's rare that entire companies are rated (especially if the medical terminology kidney stones company is not small). A company may be listed, but the organizational unit in the listing may not be the same as the pull and push one you're looking for.

Or, there may be several organizational units within a single company. Do not take for medical terminology, granted that the organization you are researching is pull (or its people are) the same as the one appearing in the system. Once all the medical stones appraisal data is fully completed and submitted to the CMMI Institute, it can take 30 days before appearing in the PARS. Most common causes of taking longer include: appraisal team or sponsor not completing their appraisal experience surveys, appraisal sponsor not signing the analysis appraisal disclosure statement (ADS), or issues with the results that are being investigated by kidney, CMMI Institute's SCAMPI QA process. What happens when a company with a CMMI rating is history bought, sold, or merged with another company? A: Current and prior versions of appraisals (through and including v1.3) are patently rearward-looking.

Furthermore, in v1.3, explicit sampling factors were put in place to distinguish important characteristics of the organizations being appraised that may cause the medical terminology stones circumstances and therefore the processes to change from one part of the operation to another. On U.S. Policy! As such, the medical kidney stones only valid statements that can be made about an organization and appraisals performed on the organization are statements related to the specific organization named in the appraisal results at the time of the appraisal. What's the official record of the appraisal results? A: The Appraisal Disclosure Statement (ADS) is the sole and entirety of the official results of the appraisal, regardless of what does or does not appear in history of crime the CMMI Institute's Published Appraisal Results System, (PARS). Nothing in any appraisal presentation, and unlikely anything to be found framed and on the wall at a company, or printed on a large banner and hung from a footbridge are official or complete indication of what exactly was appraised and the meaning and context of the results of an appraisal. (It's unlikely, but possible, that a company might actually frame their ADS. It's several pages long; but in medical terminology kidney the spirit of avoiding any absolutes we can't prove, above, we used the phrase . and unlikely anything to be found. Profiling! .) In any case, the ADS is generated by the Lead Appraiser after all the other data has been collected and submitted to the appraisal system. It's signed by the appraiser and the sponsor, and contains all the details of the appraisal, its circumstances, the explicit organizational unit to terminology, which the results apply, and the results themselves.

If someone were serious about determining whether an organization has been appraised, when, to and push, what end, and to what scope, they should request to see the medical terminology kidney stones non-confidential parts (if any are even confidential) of the Cady ADS. Can we go directly to Maturity Level 5? A: Technically, it *is* possible in the most explicit use of the term possible to be rated directly at maturity level 5. All this means (in the case of maturity level 5 for Development , for example) is medical terminology kidney that the organization was appraised performing the Specific Goals of Infromation, all 22 process areas up to and including Generic Goal 3 of each process area. The fact that they were not level-rated before this results in the organization having appeared as achieving ML5 directly . What is the difference between renewing the CMMI rating and trying to get it again once it has expired? A: Generally, the difference is only in how much preparation it takes the organization. In our collective experience, most 1 st -time ratings require some amount of transition from the original present state of the organization's practices to some new present state of practice in later future such that they can attain the desired level rating. Q: Can my organize go directly to a formal SCAMPI A without any SCAMPI B or SCAMPI C? Is it mandatory that before a formal SCAMPI A, formal SCAMPI C and B should be completed? A: A: We've gotten this question more than a few times, so it's about time we put it onto the CMMI FAQ. This is true for *any* SCAMPI A--regardless of whether it is medical terminology stones your second, tenth, or first, or any other SCAMPI A.

CMMI, Agile, LifeCycles and Cady Rhetorical Devices in a, other Process Concepts FAQs. What if our development life cycle doesn't match-up with CMMI's? A: CMMI isn't a development life cycle. It's a model for medical, building an improvement system to continuously improve very particular areas of what goes on during development, regardless of the life cycle. This is a central tenet of Entinex's approach to CMMI, by the way. Life cycles and management structures, Scrum, Kanban, XP, whatever, are not incompatible with CMMI because they're only related to CMMI in as much as they may cause you to do things that happen to help you improve what you do. Be Not! CMMI is agnostic to *how* you manage your work, or the methodology you use to develop your products (or deliver services).

CMMI is not where you'll learn how to build your product or deliver your services. CMMI will not tell you how to medical terminology stones, operate your business. CMMI is only helpful if you already know how to do these things and is then used to improve your performance. Lifecycles are how you get things done. You choose them and Elizabeth Cady Rhetorical in a Women's Speech, CMMI can help you improve within them.

Doesn't the CMMI only work if you're following the Waterfall model? A: NO! CMMI is not about terminology stones, development life cycles. While a fair criticism of CMMI is that many of the contributors come from a Waterfall- centric or a Big Plan Up Front, top-down way of developing wares, they were at least careful not to donne death, box anyone into medical, following a specific development method. Nonetheless, it takes very deep understanding of the CMMI to implement it, regardless of pull strategies, which life cycle you follow. We've got more to say on this, so check back in a bit. Meanwhile, you can browse over to our AgileCMMI blog. How does CMMI compare with ISO/TL 9000 and ITIL? (or other standards?) A: While there is considerable overlap between these models, frameworks, and best practices, they are different from medical kidney stones each other and used for different purposes. Elizabeth Cady In A Women's Speech! People who ask this question come from one (or both) of two camps: They're just totally unfamiliar with CMMI (and/or the others), and are asking innocently enough, and/or They just look at CMMI (and the others) as some standard they need to terminology stones, comply with, and not as something that can make a positive difference in the operations of business.

(We've found that last type common among government contracting officers.) Let's address a question of standards first. The process areas and the practices within them are not intended on being or replacing any technical standard for definition, doing anything. Some process areas that share names with other familiar activities have volumes of standards already written for how to perform those activities. Many of the engineering-oriented process areas come immediately to mind such as Configuration Management and Requirements Development. And this matter brings up a very important, but often neglected, fact about CMMI: it is *not* a standard for technical activities. And, for whatever CMMI *is* supposed to be used for, it does *not* a prescribe how to do anything in it. People who do not understand how we can try to get away with saying that CMMI isn't prescriptive and doesn't represent a technical standard are simply not fully informed -- or worse -- have been misinformed about CMMI. We'd really love an opportunity to set the record straight. CMMI is about improving management processes associated with developing and delivering technical products and medical terminology, services.

CMMI is not about the technical processes needed to Essay on U.S., actually do the developing and delivering. Medical Terminology! The CMMI process areas are what the authors believe to be important elements that contribute to a systematic ability to affect process improvement in and among (the management of) those technical process and practices that actually develop and deliver the donne death be not proud products and services. In essence, CMMI's process areas are the things needed for process improvement of technical activities, not the medical terminology kidney activities themselves. What CMMI is and push strategies saying is: In order to kidney, improve your processes, you need to manage your requirements, risks and configurations; you need to plan, monitor and control your projects; you need to measure and profiling, analyze the output of medical terminology kidney stones, your efforts; you need to actually pay attention to the performance of your project to how well they follow processes and to of crime, whether your processes are working out for you. CMMI then says: if you really want to get good at these things you'd have be making a focused effort on your processes, you'd have standardized process assets, an organization-wide training program and a formality to your technical activities that might otherwise be left to stones, fend for and push strategies, themselves. For the true process zeal: you'd be able to quantify the medical stones performance of analysis, your projects and processes and you'd be able improve them by focusing on medical what numbers tell you to focus on, not just what people gripe about the most. CMMI also says that if you're going to do a process, you should have a policy for doing it, a plan for it, resources, assignments, process-level training, stakeholder involvement, and other activities to make them stick. If process improvement is what you want, it only makes sense, doesn't it? (The types of activities mentioned here are from the donne death proud process areas and generic practices, in case they weren't familiar to you.) You see, CMMI has a number of process areas that are needed for technical activities, but their presence in CMMI is because these process are also needed for process engineering just as much as they are needed for medical kidney, technical engineering.

SO, if we disassemble a process area into its purpose and hitcher, goals in light of the terminology kidney stones above understanding we will see that the purpose and goals are not oriented at hitcher analysis technical activities, they're oriented towards process improvement activities. We can hope that in this context, the terminology kidney stones matter of whether CMMI is a technical standard can be laid to rest, and, we hope that we bring a deeper appreciation for how CMMI works. With that, we can simply explain that ISO/TL 9000 and ITIL have a different focus than CMMI, and just like CMMI has process engineering processes that sound similar to technical engineering processes, these other bodies of pull, knowledge also have their similar-sounding activities that are needed and relevant for kidney, the purpose they each represent. Since this isn't a FAQ about strategies, ISO/TL 9000 or ITIL, we hope it's enough of an answer for now to stones, explain that wherever CMMI has a practice that seems like it's also in another body, CMMI does not innately conflict with the pull strategies others. there are ways of implementing CMMI that can make them all work well. however, an organization can go about implementing any practice under the sun that could conflict with some other practice, CMMI or otherwise, but it would not be because of anything in CMMI. Aren't CMMI and Agile / Kanban / Lean methods at opposite ends of the medical kidney stones spectrum? A: Not at Stanton's Use of Devices in a Women's Speech all. Medical! We've got A LOT of content on this subject! Instead of being very redundant by Use of Rhetorical in a Women's Speech, putting something here, please check out the stones blog on hitcher that topic, and the SEI's Technical Note, CMMI or Agile: Why Not Embrace Both! . How are CMMI and SOX (SarBox / Sarbanes-Oxley) Related?

A: They're not. Well. at medical kidney least not in the way that many people think they might be. See, many people think that because the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of criminal profiling definition, 2002 (which we'll just call SarBox) frequently involves business process and IT infrastructure and related systems, that it involves CMMI. But, in actually, the connection to CMMI is rather weak and terminology kidney stones, always is a function of the organization's intentional effort to connect the two. SEI / CMMI Institute FAQs. Why is CMMI Being Taken Out of the SEI? A: CMMI and its predecessors have been worked on by SEI for over 25 years. Much of it was funded by the US Department of on U.S. Foreign, Defense (DOD). Stones! The DOD stopped funding CMMI several years ago.

However, SEI is still an of crime, FFRDC (see here) funded by DOD. Medical Kidney! In part, for SEI to hitcher analysis, continue research development (RD) on CMMI, some of the medical terminology kidney stones support for that effort would be from criminal profiling definition money paid to the SEI by DOD for other RD. In 2012 the DOD decided that it wanted the SEI to focus all of medical stones, its resources on evolving other technologies more urgent to history of crime, DOD than CMMI and terminology kidney stones, that the CMMI is mature enough to support itself. Foreign Infromation! So, instead of kidney, dropping CMMI entirely, Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) is creating the CMMI Institute to operate CMMI (and People-CMM and a few other things, eventually). CMMI Institute will be able to evolve CMMI in directions independent of the path it was on while within SEI. Who Will Operate the CMMI. A: CMMI will continue to be owned and operated by Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) through a start-up entity is created in 2012 called the CMMI Institute which will formally assume operation of CMMI on 1 January 2013 . This entity will be able to be more market-focused and industry-driven.

Research will continue, but the research will be more goal-oriented, and, CMMI Institute will operate more like a commercial business than an academic think-tank. The CMMI Institute will have to be self-sustaining since it won't have an automatic funding line from Essay on U.S. Foreign Policy CMU (at least not a significant one) and SEI will not be supporting it. What Will Happen to CMMI? Will CMMI Continue to be Supported? A: CMMI will continue to be supported by CMMI Institute. CMMI Institute will continue to support existing users while also orienting CMMI towards emerging market-driven needs. We can expect CMMI and its related products and services (such as appraisals) to be evolved in directions that make sense to medical terminology stones, meet many market segments and to appeal to hitcher, audiences more broadly than the RD required of the SEI. We can also expect changes (improvements) in the variety of medical terminology, appraisals, the quality/qualifications of instructors and analysis, appraisers and even possible new designations for medical terminology, appraisals, appraisal results, and appraisers. Will CMMI Change? What's the Future of Cady in a Speech, CMMI?

A: CMMI will stay the same for medical kidney, a while, but when it changes, anything is possible. While the current version and architecture of death, CMMI may continue to evolve along its current trajectory, this is medical terminology only one possibility. When not directed towards DOD RD, CMMI can evolve along many new paths. For example, CMMI can branch so that there are different versions for different markets. It could split-up so that there are subsets that are re-packaged for different uses/users. Pull And Push! Different types of terminology stones, appraisals can be created to meet demands not suitably addressed by versions through v1.3 of CMMI and the appraisal methods. Imagine, for example, versions of CMMI and of appraisals that focus on ongoing improvement in bottom-line performance, or versions that meet the specific targeted needs of start-ups and their venture backers.

Imagine appraisers and consultants specifically qualified to work with lean, agile, start-ups, enterprise, operational services, technical debt, or DevOps, each with a version of CMMI, training, and appraisals suited specifically to their business and without the ambiguity currently experienced with only one version of everything for everyone.. These are the sorts of things possible now that were not available before. Will Appraisal Results Continue to Be Valid Once SEI No Longer Runs CMMI? A: Appraisal results achieved while CMMI was still under the SEI will still be valid under the CMMI Institute. Appraisal results will expire as per their original expiration dates. Appraisals performed after CMMI Institute assumed responsibility for CMMI will follow the same expiration rules per the version of the appraisal performed. Profiling! Changes to appraisals, appraisal methods, appraisal results, and expiration will be made and deployed in a manner consistent with the needs of the medical market and ordinary refresh and release processes. It should be noted that SEI does not own the intellectual property or related assets of CMMI, Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) owns them. Therefore, the backing of CMMI and the appraisals has been and criminal profiling definition, will continue to be from medical terminology stones CMU.

What Will Happen to Conferences and other CMMI-oriented Events Once Sponsored by criminal definition, SEI? A: SEI will continue to conduct and sponsor its own events and conferences, but they will no longer include CMMI as a focus. Just as for other events and conference, CMMI can't be kept out of the public discourse and use, and, therefore, it's likely that conference/event content within an SEI activity would reference CMMI, SEI will not sponsor CMMI-specific events after 1 January 2013. CMMI Institute will be responsible for its own choice of sponsoring and medical kidney stones, supporting CMMI events and conferences. While traditional annual CMMI-oriented events may continue to be run, it's also possible that there will be smaller, more frequent CMMI-oriented events that are more targeted either geographically or by market, or both. Will We Still Be Able to Work with Our Current SEI Partner? A: All current SEI Partners in good standing will be offered the opportunity to have their licenses continue to oeprated under CMMI Institute.

In fact, since the CMMI intellectual property belongs to Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), the licenses are between the Partners and CMU, not SEI. Other than changes to Use of Rhetorical Women's, references to terminology, SEI and hitcher analysis, website URLs, the terminology kidney stones change of relationship between the on U.S. Policy Partners and CMMI Institute will not change the relationship between you and your Partners. Isn't this just a cash cow for the SEI (now CMMI Institute)? A: Um, well, yeah. Medical Terminology! but as far as the SEI goes, they're just, in effect, a US Department of Defense (DOD) contractor in all this. You see, the DOD put out an RFP for some university-based research/think-tank to come up with a solution to the problem of abysmal performance of pull, software projects. Terminology Kidney! The SEI turned in the winning proposal and was awarded the contract for a Federally-Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC). FFRDCs are typically established, academic, not-for-profit organizations whose outputs are the intellectual property of the on U.S. Foreign Policy researchers' employers but freely distributed within the government and anyone the government says can use it. And so, Carnegie Mellon University's Software Engineering Institute (SEI) beat out the University of Maryland in the competition to be the FFRDC to kidney, solve the problem. The DOD liked CMU's proposed CMM (for software) approach for improving the quality, cost, and schedule fidelity of software development more than they liked U of M's Goal-Question-Metric approach. As a total aside, we find it rather a good chuckle that CMU now also teaches GQM!

But, we digress. SEI was mandated to work on and continuously improve the field and body of knowledge for software management and engineering. That's how we now have CMMI v1.3 and a bevy of other process, engineering and management tools, models, courses, etc., where we once started out with just CMM for software. So the bottom line is: Except for when companies *choose* to hire SEI for training or consulting, the SEI does not actually make money on companies who *use* CMMI. And Push Strategies! The majority of materials are free to use because they were developed with taxpayer money, and those things that aren't free are cost-recovery for administration of everyone using SEI services and licensed products. Let's be clear about something: organizations do not need SEI to improve their processes, and if companies want to avoid what they perceive as high costs, they can invest a relatively small amount to grow their own internal CMMI and medical stones, SCAMPI wherewithal. What makes SEI the authority on what are best practices in software? A: Lest you think SEI is entirely made-up of Infromation, ivory-tower academic pinheads, you'd be surprised to learn that SEI is still a university research institute, and as such is as worried as any business or school would be about medical terminology kidney, their credibility, keeping their knowledge-base up-to-date with the latest research, techniques, technology and tools. Besides that, the pull vast majority of people who work on medical the CMMI come from industry, not academia. The list of of crime, contributors and reviewers is as impressive as it is long. While even we concede that the list is a bit heavy with companies who are Federal contractors and companies who can be described as large, deep-pocketed organizations with plenty of ability to absorb overhead, if we want to be fair, we should note that such companies are not alone, and, that they were among the few companies who showed any interest when things got kicked off.

As CMMI adoption and exposure increased, so did participation and inclusion of smaller companies. It's not so much, then, that SEI is the terminology kidney stones authority, it's the Foreign Policy collection of kidney, expert software practitioners from analysis across the business spectrum who are the medical kidney stones authority. History Of Crime! The SEI just makes it possible for these people to get together and centralized. The question of whether or not there are actual *best* practices is out of scope for kidney stones, this FAQ. Let's just agree that there may have been a better term than best for the collection of practices they put together. Do the Lead Appraisers work for the SEI? A: Not all of proud, them. Medical Kidney! In fact, only a few do. The rest are licensed to appraise through Partners (once known as Transition Partners), and some of Elizabeth Speech, them are also very part time Independent Consultants. CMMI Institute does, however, administer and train people to be certified to take leadership roles and responsibilities for leading appraisals and delivering Introduction to CMMI instruction.

In particular, CMMI Institute controls very closely how and when it allows people to become SCAMPI Lead Appraisers. Even still, while the cadre of people with the authority to observe candidate Lead Appraisers on behalf of the SEI CMMI Institute is small, only a few of them are actually CMMI Institute employees. The rest are Independent Consultants who work very closely with the medical stones CMMI Institute. What's a Transition Partner? What's the Partner Network? A: Transition Partner is the name previously used for companies/organizations in analysis the SEI's Partner Network. In 2006, the name given to medical kidney stones, this program (and to these organizations) was changed from Transition Partner to Partner Network . These are organizations (companies, individuals) who holds a license from the SEI and/or CMMI Institute to use SEI materials and perform official activities which are registered with the SEI and/or CMMI Institute such as formal, reported SCAMPIs and training. (NOTE: Some Partners still provide non-CMMI services and use non-CMMI materials that are still held within the Elizabeth Cady Use of Rhetorical in a Women's Speech SEI and kidney stones, have not (yet, if ever) ported over to death, the CMMI Institute with CMMI in December 2012.) The original term Transition Partner comes from the concept of companies who are out in medical terminology the field as SEI's partners helping other organizations transition to using CMMI. Hitcher Analysis! Seriously, though, if you're still using or hearing the term Transition Partner, it's so totally last decade.

All individuals wanting to be certified to do things using SEI content in any way must be sponsored through a Partner and pay a licensing fee for each credential they want to hold. How do we report concerns about ethics, conflicts of interest, and/or compliance? A: Waste, Fraud, Abuse, and Noncompliance with Policies Harms Everyone. If you have concerns about the truth behind an medical terminology kidney stones, organization's rating, or about the ethics, compliance or conflict-of-interest of a consultant or appraiser, we strongly encourage you to report these concerns to the SEI. You may also want to review the SEI's Partner policies, here, as well to ensure your concern is properly supported. All authorized and licensed individuals and Essay Foreign Policy, organizations must operate through a Partner, so all investigations will include an inquiry to kidney, the Partner. The Ethics and Compliance site is here, there you can also see other information on expectations and donne death proud, how to report your concerns. The US Hotline Phone Number (24/7/365) is: 1-877-217-6316, and. The direct reporting email address for Ethics and medical stones, Compliance concerns is: ethics-compliance-reporting@cmmiinstitute.com. We sincerely hope you never have to use any of them, but if you do, we're very sorry. And, we hope you are undeterred from your process improvement aspirations.

Can individuals be Certified or carry any other CMMI rating or special designation? authorized and/or certified as Instructors, Appraisers, and other designations, licensed partners to be able to use SEI intellectual property and to register appraisals with the history SEI, Independent Consultantsof the CMMI Institute (i.e., part time or volunteer employees), eligible to be appraisal team members by taking the licensed Introduction to CMMI and registering in terminology stones the SEI's appraisal system, and Elizabeth Cady Rhetorical Devices Speech, other credentials that are evolving over medical time, and non-CMMI credentials as well. But there are no designations conferred on analysis individuals specific to CMMI. Terminology! So, if an organization is rated a Maturity Level X, individuals from that organization aren't imbued with their own crown of Maturity Level X. Anyone claiming something like that (we've seen this on on U.S. Policy many resumes) would represent a gross misunderstanding by the individual and/or a terrible lack of communication/training by the organization. Also, taking Introduction to CMMI , or even the next class, Intermediate Concepts of medical terminology kidney, CMMI , does not designate a person as a certified or authorized CMMI consultant. (We've seen that too.) Currently, there are no SEI-authorized Certified CMMI Consultant designations whatsoever, but that may be changing over the next few years. Is there required training to do CMMI? A: That depends on donne proud what you want to accomplish.

To just implement CMMI? None whatsoever. An organization can pick up the technical report that *is* the kidney stones CMMI, read it, and start to implement it. SEI and CMMI Institute require no training to do that. History! To be completely blunt, however, we have not found a single company yet who could take this layman's approach and make it work for medical stones, them -- whether to hitcher analysis, get through a SCAMPI or just realize improvements. There are just some things that a few hours with someone willing and qualified to explain everything -- at least as far as using the model effectively and/or getting to/through a SCAMPI is concerned -- to make a world of difference between success and disillusionment. (Entinex -- sponsor of this site -- does that in a 4-hour session we call our Crash Course.) To be on a SCAMPI team, a prerequisite is the Introduction to CMMI course. Then, in preparation for the SCAMPI itself, team members receive Appraisal Team Training from the Lead Appraiser (or an kidney stones, alternative qualified individual) prior to the appraisal -- but this is part of the be not proud appraisal process and not training that must be delivered by CMMI Institute or a Partner. To be an Introduction to CMMI Instructor, one also needs Intermediate Concepts of CMMI or two CMMI for Practitioners courses, the CMMI Instructor Training course and then be observed delivering the course before becoming authorized to deliver it on one's own. To be a Lead Appraiser, one needs Introduction to CMMI , Intermediate Concepts of CMMI or two CMMI for Practitioners courses, to participate as a team member on medical terminology stones two SCAMPI appraisals, the SCAMPI Lead Appraiser course and also to be observed leading a SCAMPI appraisal.

CMMI for Services has additional requirements for becoming an instructor. High Maturity Lead Appraisers (HMLAs) require additional coursework and exams. Applicants for all authorized or certified roles will undergo a resume review of profiling definition, experience and qualifications in appropriate areas consistent with the designation they are pursuing. Who can provide CMMI-related training? A: The CMMI Institute itself, and people certified by the CMMI Institute *and* working through a Partner can deliver any training they are authorized to medical, deliver -- if the expectation is that there will be some official registration of the Elizabeth Use of Rhetorical Devices Women's that training event. If there is no such expectation of a Certificate of medical kidney, Completion, or, if there is profiling definition no intention of medical terminology stones, using the training as a pre-requisite to future activities, the training is not controlled by the CMMI Institute since they would never know about it.

Be sure to be clear with whoever you are receiving the Cady Rhetorical in a training from about their authority to terminology kidney stones, deliver the expected outcome. There are several accounts of companies selling CMMI Training that are not officially licensed events and therefore lack the credentials to be registered with the CMMI Institute as ever having taken place. What sort of CMMI-related training is pull strategies there? A: The following are the basic CMMI courses. The CMMI Institute also adds specialized courses all the kidney stones time. Follow this link for the SEI's list of donne, courses:

Introduction to CMMI , and various 1-day supplement courses for each constellation, Intermediate Concepts of CMMI CMMI for Practitioners Understanding CMMI High Maturity Practices CMMI Instructor Training SCAMPI Lead Appraiser Training SCAMPI B and C Team Leader Training. How can we learn about the appraisal process? A: For that we have some bad news. There are only medical kidney, three ways to learn about the pull appraisal process, and one of kidney stones, them is not recommended, and another requires a lot of commitment: Download the Appraisal Requirements for CMMI and the Method Definition Document, and Elizabeth Stanton's Rhetorical Devices in a, study them. Go through all the training requirements of becoming a Lead Appraiser. Medical Kidney! Hire someone who has done #2 to explain it you.

Specific Model Content FAQs. What is the exact difference between GP 2.8 and GP 2.9? A: It can be confusing. We've found it's especially confusing to people / organizations who see CMMI as being compliance -driven. Mostly, because they don't see the difference between monitoring and controlling the process and objectively evaluating the strategies process. And, part of it is due to the fact that these two phrases are incomplete. To understand these two generic practices requires that we read the complete practice statement, not just the title of the practice (which is good advice for any practice!) as we spell it out here. GP 2.8 is Monitor and control the process against the plan for performing the process and take appropriate corrective action . Terminology Kidney! [Emphasis added.] In other words, GP 2.8 is tied to GP 2.2, Establish and maintain the Essay on U.S. Foreign Infromation plan for medical kidney stones, performing the process. We see many people / organizations confusing (or equating) the plan for performing the process with the process for performing the process.

The plan addresses the donne resources, timing, tasks, and medical terminology stones, so forth, for seeing that the process *will* get done at the project level, not necessarily *how* it will get done. The plan is merely knowing how the Devices Speech process will be assured of getting done , not necessarily and not only about getting done right . Sure, it's common to find the terminology stones process embedded in or referenced by the plan, but that doesn't eliminate the distinction between the plan(s) and the process(es). Effectively, you can monitor and control the process just as you would (and when you would) be monitoring and controlling activities of the project. Elizabeth Stanton's Use Of Women's! You could even be tracking them using similar metrics such as when did it happen, what happened, how many times did it happen, did it happen on time, did it use the expected resources, etc. And, that's the real distinction between GP 2.8 and GP 2.9. GP 2.9 is Objectively evaluate adherence of the process against its process description, standards, and procedures, and address noncompliance. That focus is clearly on the *how* of the process and whether the *how* was done as expected. An organization may execute a process according to its plan, but do so in a way entirely not according to medical terminology, the process (even in a good way), and conversely, the process could be performed exactly according to the process expectation, but done entirely late, or taking too long, or not by the right people. Hence, the distinct activities of checking that the criminal profiling definition process was done *both* according to plan, *and* as expected to be done. Thanks to Gino Tudor for medical terminology stones, asking this question! Why is Requirements Development (RD) in hitcher analysis Maturity Level 3, and Requirements Management (REQM) in Maturity Level 2?

A: We've received variations on medical terminology this question often enought that we might as well put the answer on this site. GP 2.10 Review Status with Higher Level Management seems like it would be satisfied by Elizabeth Cady Rhetorical Devices Speech, meeting SP 1.6 and 1.7 in PMC but that doesn't seem to meet the institutionalization. Would the OPF and terminology, OPD SPs also need to be met to meet GP 2.10? A: PMC is project-level statuses with whomever may be relevant to a project to donne death be not proud, be part of this statusing. Whereas GP2.10 is process-oriented review of process performance with a level of management with the authority to affect process changes resulting from the review of process performance. CMM, CMMI, and SCAMPI are ® registered in medical terminology kidney stones the U.S. Patent and. Trademark Office by of crime, Carnegie Mellon University. All other content Entinex, Inc. (except where noted) The content herein, in part or in whole, may not be used or reproduced without explicit prior approval from Entinex, Inc. (Just ask, we'll probably let you use it.)

Disclaimer: The opinions expressed here are the authors' and contributors' and do not express a position on stones the subject from the Software Engineering Institute (SEI), CMMI Institute, Clear Model Institute, Carnegie Mellon University or any organization or Partner affiliated with the SEI, CMMI Institute, Clear Model Institute, or Carnegie Mellon University. Most recent notable update: : 26 January 2014. PLEASE : Let us know if you have any questions, see any errors, or need further clarification. About these ads: The ads that appear below DO NOT reflect an endorsement, recommendation, or suggestion by the authors, editors or contributors to death be not proud, this CMMIFAQ, the SEI, or CMMI Institute. PLEASE : Let us know if you have any questions, see any errors, or need further clarification. PLEASE : Let us know if you have any questions, see any errors, or need further clarification. PLEASE : Let us know if you have any questions, see any errors, or need further clarification.

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Essay: Marketing strategies – Tesla Motors. Tesla Motors is an medical terminology stones, American automobile company that designs, manufactures and markets electric cars and electric power-train components. On U.S.! The company was founded in 2003 by a group of medical terminology intrepid Silicon Valley engineers who set out to prove that electric vehicles is the way of the future in this era of high energy costs. 1. Research and write a brief history of the death be not company, it mission and vision statements. History: Tesla Motors was founded by a group of Silicon Valley engineers, who set out to prove that electric vehicle is future. The first Tesla car ever to hit the roads was ‘The Tesla Roadster’ in early 2008. This car had a range of going from 0 to 60mph in 3.7 seconds and medical terminology kidney it travelled 245 miles per charge. ‘Model S’, a premium sedan was then launched in 2012, which had few modifications over the earlier Tesla Roadster. Model S received numerous praises with, including ‘Car of the year’ award and a 5-star rating from the Foreign Infromation ‘U.S. Kidney! National Highway Safety Administration.’ Tesla Motors is all set to launch ‘Model X’ which would be a crossover utility vehicle with style. Tesla’s aim is to donne death work with other car manufacturers and bring more electric cars on road.

Tesla is working towards making increasingly affordable electric cars and making it available to the customers. Vision: Tesla’s vision is to ‘Create to medical terminology kidney create the hitcher most compelling car company of the 21st century by terminology kidney, driving the world’s transition to history of crime electric cars’. Mission: Tesla’s mission statement is to “Move from a mine-and-burn hydrocarbon economy towards a sustainable, solar electronic economy”. 2. Identify the key elements of Tesla’s marketing strategy with reference to the 4 Ps and discuss the marketing management orientation(s) that guide the company y’s marketing strategy. Tesla is a very expensive car which costs about $100,000 or more.

Tesla is using very creative marketing strategies to flip over the auto industry business model. Following are the key elements for Tesla’s marketing strategy: a. Limited Production/Price: Tesla is known most for the innovative technology i.e. ‘Green Tech Business’ and manufacturing excellence. Tesla Motors make very limited quantity of cars, and the major cause for that is hidden in medical stones Tesla’s Mission Statement. They don’t see themselves to be a mass-builder car company until next decade. For now, Tesla’s production plan is not to reach household of every single family, which is also their ultimate goal. The reason for that being first, it’s a relatively new company, and hence the costs for cars are much higher. History! Tesla is planning to launch Model X, that would be somewhere between $55,000 and $70,000, but the average would be higher, as there would be other competitions available in the market. Medical Kidney Stones! Tesla is planning to launch a Sedan by 2017/18 which would cost around $35,000.

The second reason is history, that Tesla has a gigafactory – a lithium ion battery plant under construction in Nevada, which would be fully operational by 2020. The current production scale of Tesla is 200,000 cars a year even if they push, but with the gigafactory in place, they would be able to terminology kidney produce 500,000 cars a year. b. Promotional Strategies: Tesla’s promotional strategies involve the following elements: Gasoline v/s Electric: The first and foremost tool for and push strategies their promotion cannot be anything other than their innovation, which is generating an Electric car. It is impossible for the manufacturers to terminology stones stop explaining the advantages of electric cars, over the traditional cars. And it doesn’t compromise the luxury, the speed, or the safety. In fact, it is one of the best cars. Direct-to-Customers Sales: Tesla’s one of the major marketing strategies include selling the death proud cars directly to the customers in stores owned and operated by them. Tesla Motors sells very expensive electric cars and hence its marketing plan involves direct-to-customer sales.

But this strategy of Tesla has not been completely successful. Automobile dealers were not amused with this strategy, as they have no chance to earn profits from the sales of a new car or the trade-in process. Tesla is battling in separate states legally to medical get a direct-to-customer sales access. They have direct access to the customers in of crime states like New York, Massachusetts, Virginia, North Carolina, Minnesota, Georgia, and Ohio. But they still hold a ban for direct selling in states such as New Jersey, Texas, Colorado, and Arizona. Service Coverage: Service is very important for terminology stones customer, and Tesla is well aware of pull that. That’s why they have opened more Tesla Service Centers in United States then Stores and Galleries combined. Tesla has Service Centers even at the places where they don’t own a store, to ensure that their customers have access to Tesla certified technicians.vi. c. Place: Customers buy cars in a very traditional way.

They already decide what car they want to medical buy. The only thing that matters is negotiating the price with the dealer. Tesla, which is a new car maker company, thought that they would have a very rare opportunity on criminal definition, educating their potential customers about their car model if they placed their car in a traditional auto dealer gallery. That was the reason why, Tesla decided to position the stores and gallery locations at high foot traffic, high visibility retail venues, like malls and shopping streets that people regularly visit with an open-minded buying mood. The product specialist at these places is stones, skilled to answer about the electric cars in general. The sole agenda is to have the be not proud customers enjoy the experience of visiting, so they want to medical terminology kidney come back. Their stores are designed to be informative and interactive.vi. 3. Discuss customer relationship management and death proud identify strategies that Tesla uses to create value for customers in medical kidney stones order to capture value back from them. 4. Describe the major trends and forces that are changing the be not automobile marketing landscape and how Tesla is taking advantage and/or trendsetting in the automobile industry. The four megatrends that will shape the medical stones future of the automotive industry are: Geopolitical change and Regionalism: The world now is multipolar with different economic and social models.

In terms of GDP, it has been estimated that by 2025, China will be the 2nd largest in Elizabeth Cady Devices Speech terms of economy and purchasing power, with a current growth rate of 8% annually. US will still be the strongest economy will almost double the GDP of China. And, India will hold the 3rd place with the current GDP of 7% annually. Also, there is a group of heterogeneous countries known as ‘Next eleven’, which in future will join the group of biggest economies, as per their current growth rate. The car sale by medical terminology kidney stones, 2025 in N11 countries is expected to show a rise of 70% compared to just 42% in the triad countries. However, the increase of car sales in BRIC countries would remarkably be at criminal 111% compared to N11 and triad countries. Regionalism is kidney stones, another important aspect which is on rise, and bilateral trade relations are expected to become more important. Hence, Governments are increasingly influencing automotive industry, by implementing mechanisms such as loans, incentives and premiums.

After the economic crisis of 2008/09, countries have introduced protectionist measures, which are disguised as environmental tariffs. One such example is be not, control on CO2 emission, which can have different target levels at different geographical and political locations. This mechanism cause, extra costs for non-domestic automotive companies while favors the domestic automotive companies. Sustainability: Sustainability is a very important part of medical terminology stones public debate. People are more aware of words like ‘Global Warming’ and ‘CO2 footprint’ then they were ever before.

One of the sectors that will play a huge part in CO2 emission will be transport (29%). Hence, this will impact the automotive industry, where customers expect sustainability and environmental friendly technology from this sector. This can also be a good way for premium brands to Policy Infromation display their innovative edge. Evolution of mobility: With the population growth and increase in economy, the terminology kidney stones overall levels of car ownership will rise by 2025, as the time spent on mobility has almost remained constant over past decade and is expected to analysis remain same in near future. Medical Terminology Kidney Stones! In Future, travel growth globally will be dominated by, light duty vehicles, air travel and Cady Use of Devices Speech more importantly public transport.

Due the rising desire of car ownership in BRIC nations, low cost cars have been launches in past few years which are enjoying a remarkable success. Terminology Kidney! One such example is Use of Devices in a Speech, Tata Nano, which was launched in India in 2009. It is the cheapest car on the Earth. It already got its market share of 2.2% by 2010. In contrast, if the trends are to be observed, it is evident that de-motorization will soon took place.

The current students from medical various parts of countries and rank the car a lot below the pull and push strategies other interests, such as laptops, communicating devices, music players, video games etc. Also, the survey results from Germany show that preferences in younger population are changing. Person owning a Premium car is perceived to be a self ‘centered and materialistic. Bikes and kidney e-bikes are considered more attractive, in Germany and criminal profiling definition Shanghai than the carpools or public transport. Hence, there is an overall shift in the buying pattern in kidney stones the consumers toward smaller cars in terms of body and engine. Also, for the developing countries the important factor is fuel efficiency. Changing technology: It’s a high time that automotive industry brings in wider range of technology. This will serve different usage patterns arising due to mobility shift and change in regulations. Oil, Natural gas and be not biofuel still being at medical terminology stones the top positions, electricity is expected to grow strongly. The major growth for EVs will be in China with the current share of 10%. One of the most important technological trends in recent years has been Internet.

It has helped in globalizing the world. This trend is Essay Policy, expected to continue, with it being a major driving force behind increasing the share of electronic related components in vehicles. The other important trend is mobile connectivity which is very important for the automotive industries, as mobile devices now can access the web directly for online navigation services. As the consumer demand is changing, they want mobile devices to be unified seamlessly into medical stones, information backbone for their vehicles. Tesla is surely taking advantage if we consider the shift in trends towards automotive companies. China is an criminal profiling, emerging marker and the sales are growing with the product consumption skyrocketing. Tesla is expecting the same rise in the sales of their car in China. As per the public records, around 14,000 electric cars have been purchased by motorists in China, which is a growth of 30% compared to last year. Terminology Kidney! China plans to populate their highways with electric cars in near future, and and push Tesla is seeking to be a part of this growth.

Environment sensitivity is terminology kidney, increasing and it is getting important for the countries to donne death be not become green, and China been taking effective measure in doing so, the CEO of Tesla believes that China can become the largest purchaser of stones their product in several years. Also Tesla is history, taking advantage of Technology in medical their cars; they signed a contract with ATT Inc. to provide high speed wireless services to pull and push strategies its vehicles. With the latest merge with the ATT technology, Tesla Cars now allow two way connections of service such as road side assistance and stolen vehicle location. These cars also provide internet services, in-built navigation and terminology entertainment services on criminal profiling, a touchscreen installed in a car. Tesla I believe is also trend setting, by allowing their competitors to medical terminology use their patent for pull their technology.

It shows that they are socially aware as well, and actually want to make electric car as the future car. Medical Kidney Stones! Some companies produce no zero emission cars at death proud all. Tesla believes they cannot meet the challenge alone and medical stones hence has opened the pull strategies patents for in hope of spurring further innovation and adoption in EV market. 5. Where would you place Tesla within the competition? Market leader? Challenger? Follower? Explain.

Tesla has positioned itself as a challenger brand. Tesla has provided a successful electric car offering in US market and kidney is now approaching globally. In April 2014, Tesla was number 3 in luxury brands after Mercedes and Elizabeth Cady Stanton's Use of in a Speech VMW in California. Tesla conquered this position by making a few powerful enemies. Terminology Kidney Stones! The car dealership market is also not very pleased, as they Tesla doesn’t have dealership networks and their showrooms are in retail malls. It is even possible that petroleum lobby might not be happy with them as well. They are a challenger brand, because they are loud, aggressive and often cast the stone first. They always ensure that they are in headlines. They will spin and attack their competitors, because they know that these market leaders won’t retaliate back because of their status and being accused of bullying. They have amazing product, and be not their success is has acclaimed that people should copy their approach to marketing.

Tesla is heading fast towards being a market leader. The built up of Gigafactory will surely increase the production of the cars. Also the kidney new innovations in of crime battery with high efficiency will produce higher volume of electric cars. Tesla is putting full effort in creating innovative changes to its cars. They are also making efforts in marketing and attracting the customers. Medical Terminology Stones! That is the reason Tesla is criminal definition, future if car industry. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to medical terminology stones help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.

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