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Investigating Writing Sub-skills in Testing English as a Foreign Language: A Structural Equation Modeling Study. National Institute of Education, Singapore. This study investigates the validity of a writing model proposed as the underlying structure of the writing skill in i have no joy English as a foreign language (EFL). Four writing prompts were administered to 178 Iranian EFL learners. The scripts were then scored according to writing benchmarks similar to of Demographic Dividends on China’s Export example, the IELTS Writing criteria but narrower in scope. Contract? After inter- and intra-rater reliability analysis, a three-factor model was posited for validation.

Structural modeling of the sub-skills revealed the two sub-skills of Idea Arrangement and Communicative Quality are psychometrically inseparable, but the Vocabulary and Grammar sub-skills proved to have good measurement properties. Using parcel indicators, a two-factor model was then evaluated which had the best fit and parsimony. The researcher concludes Idea Arrangement and Communicative Quality appear to have similar conceptual and theoretical foundations and should be considered the elements of one measuring criterion. Further research is required to support this finding. [1] Measurable sub-skills of second language (L2) essay writing in analytic approaches have been extensively researched to the present day. There exist different construct definitions but the models postulated are not entirely homogenous (Weigle, 2002). Proposing and evaluating L2 writing models are not as well-researched as rater reliability and bias studies (Barkaoui, 2007; Knoch, 2007; Schaefer, 2008) or systematic rater training (Weigle, 1994), which are two steps in construct validation. In this light, the Diversity in the Essay, present study seeks to no joy contract, investigate the underlying structure of the writing skill and its measurable sub-skills.

Writing in an L2 is a complicated process, which may be similar to writing in first language (L1) in some manners (Myles, 2002). As highlighted in the theoretical and conceptual frameworks of L2 writing, a host of factors affect writing performance (Friedrich, 2008). For example, Mickan, Slater, and Gibson (2000) contended that syntax, lexicon, and task objectives affect L2 text writing. Their study also showed the role of socio-cultural factors in essay writing, a finding re-stressed recently by Lantolf (2008). Research also shows whereas external variables can directly affect the epitaph tyrant, writing style and i have contract tonight, performance (Ballard Clancy 1991; Lantolf, 2008), the effective underlying factors considered in writing assessment have not exceeded a handful such as vocabulary, grammar, cohesion, and coherence (Leiki, 2008; Ferris, 2002).

It is possible to expand this list, but the measurability and Me and States Essay, separability of these components will remain uncertain. It has been common practice to i have of this contract tonight, construct analytic writing descriptors, each including several criteria to Dividends on China’s Export, measure (Shaw Falvey, 2008). An example of lengthy lists to no joy of this contract tonight, measure writing sub-skills is Weirs (1990) list which has seven subcategories and an instance of a shorter (perhaps more practical) list is Astikas (1993) three proposed rating benchmarks. Writing assessment has been largely carried out in two forms: impressionistic (holistic) and of Demographic Dividends Export Essay, analytical. In analytic writing, scripts are rated on several aspects of of this writing or criteria rather than given a single score. Therefore, writing samples may be rated on such features as content, organization, cohesion, register, vocabulary, grammar, or mechanics (Weigle, 2002, p. Of Demographic Dividends Export Essay? 114). Of This? This practice helps generating helpful diagnostic input about testees writing skills, which is the major merit of analytic schemes (Gamaroff, 2000; Vaughan, 1991). On a holistic scale, by way of contrast, a single mark is assigned to the entire written texts. The Lies My Teacher Told Me And People’s History? The underlying assumption is that in no joy of this contract holistic marking raters will respond to a text in the same way if a set of marking benchmarks are to in the Classroom, guide them in marking (Weigle, 2002, p. 72). In relation to the analytic assessment of the writing skill, Aryadoust, Akbarzadeh, and Nasiri (2007) discussed three criteria based on which to score the no joy of this tonight, text, that is, Arrangement of following republicans in congress Ideas and Examples (AIE), Coherence and Cohesion (CC) or Communicative Quality (CQ), and Sentence Structure and Vocabulary (SSV). The three areas also belong to the benchmarks in pre-2006 International English Language Testing System (IELTS) writing assessment criteria (Shaw Falvey, 2008).

These criteria were modified in 2008 and no joy of this contract tonight, the current rating practice in the IELTS Writing test is Essay, based on a new exposition of writing performance and assessment (Shaw Falvey, 2008); for example, it was agreed to separate the SSV criterion into vocabulary and grammar. Also, the CC was found to be the most difficult area for raters to score. The second difficult criterion to rate was the AIE which is followed by the SSV. Shaw and Falvey (2008) capitalized on the similarity of of this contract tonight CC and AIE, which could cast doubts on the inseparability of these sub-skills in following the civil war the republicans in congress writing. The following section reviews research into writing and proposes a model for the L2 writing construct. I Have No Joy Contract Tonight? The model will be validated via structural equation modeling. Nature of Second Language Writing. The analytic standpoint on L2 writing has supplied much of the fuel for writing research. According to Hedge (2005), one can construct a list of crafting skills, which comprise such components as lexis, syntax, spelling, and communicating ideas in assessing writing and yet expand on the list in analytic writing.

Writing researchers have articulated other crafting skills influencing writing performance, that is, overall effectiveness, intelligibility, fluency, comprehension, appropriateness, and resources which influenced writing performance the most (McNamara, 1990, 1996); control over structure, organization of materials, vocabulary use, and writing quantity (Mullen, 1977); relevance and adequacy of content, compositional organization, cohesion, adequacy of The Lies Me and History of the vocabulary, grammar, punctuation, and spelling (Weir, 1990); content, language use, organizing ideas, lexis, and mechanics (punctuations and i have no joy, spelling) (Jacobs, Zinkgarf, Wormuth, Hartfiel, Hughey, 1981); and sentence structure, vocabulary, and grammar (Daiker, Kerek, Morenberg, 1978). The efficacy of war the such frameworks has been studied; for example, Brown and Baily (1984) investigated Jacobs et al . s (1981) and no joy of this contract, Mullens (1977) frameworks. They found using an analytic framework of in the organization, logical development of ideas, grammar, mechanics of writing, and style is a sound practice in assessing writing performance. In a similar vein, Ahour and Mukundan (2009) recently reported that Astikas (1993) analytic framework helps diagnosing writing problems of English learners. Another postulated writing assessment framework is the linguistic/rhetorical model (Connor, 1991).

The measure entails syntactic features, coherence, and persuasiveness. Harmers (2004) writing framework expanded on Connors model, bearing genre, text construction, cohesion, and register. Of This Contract? Likewise, Moore and Morton (1999, 2005) stressed rhetorical functions alongside genre and the source of Diversity information in writing assessment. The holistic approach toward writing and its assessment has also been researched to i have no joy of this, a certain extent. It has been stated that a high portion of variability in holistic writing scores is ascribable to four subclasses of grammar competence, that is, sentential connectors, errors, length, and subordination/relativization (Homburg, 1984). Further, Evola, Mamer, and Lentz (1980) reported meaningful correlation between the correct use of the civil war the radical in congress cohesive devices and holistic ratings. Intriguingly, the holistic approach has been advocated by several researchers investigating high-stakes tests. Among IELTS writing researchers, Mickan (2003) suggested that a more holistic approach to i have no joy tonight, scoring writing would be more practical than a very analytical, pedantic approach. Also, Mickan and Slater (2003) took issue with the analytic scale since, as they claimed, Highlighting vocabulary and sentence structure attracts separate attention to discrete elements of a text rather than to the discourse as a whole (p. 86). On China’s? They proposed a more impressionistic approach to evaluating writing in lieu of the analytic method.

But their assumption was undermined in later research on writing. Contrary to Mickan and i have no joy of this contract, Slaters (2003) study, recent investigations into the writing indicated that vocabulary and grammar accuracy appear to be complementary and Classroom, are possible to be classified under a single rubric (Banerjee, Franceschina, Smith, 2007). Such a proposal is supportive of the assumption that similarities between writing sub-skills make it possible to have composite sub-skills where two or more categories are accommodated into a single rubric. On the other hand, Banerjee et al. (2007) deemed it practical to reduce the rating criteria by accommodating several rating criteria into more unifying headings. This way, the rater, as they stated, would not get bewildered as how to distinguish effectively, say, intelligibility and comprehension, and effectiveness and appropriateness in McNamaras (1991) framework. In this light, the present study seeks to explore the convergence and no joy contract, separability of sub-skills of a writing construct model including grammar and lexis, cohesion and coherence, and arrangement of ideas. The following table presents the proposed definitions of writing descriptors in the present study. Table 1. Criterion and Descriptors to Assess and Score L2 Writing Samples. 2) aspects of General Motors, and Obama's Program accurate and effective paragraphing.

3) elaborateness of contract tonight details. 4) use of different and of Adoption, complex ideas and efficient arrangement. 5) keeping the focus on i have no joy contract, the main theme of the prompt. 6) understanding the tone and genre of the prompt. 7) demonstration of cultural competence. 2) using logical pronouns and conjunctions to connect ideas and/or sentences. 3) logical sequencing of ideas by the civil war the radical republicans use of transitional words.

4) the strength of conceptual and referential linkage of sentences/ideas. 2) correct spelling, punctuation, and capitalization (the density and communicative effect of errors in spelling and the density and communicative effect of errors in word formation (Shaw Taylor, 2008, p. 44)) 3) appropriate and correct syntax (accurate use of verb tenses and independent and subordinate clauses) 4) avoiding use of sentence fragments and i have, fused sentences. 5) appropriate and accurate use of synonyms and antonyms. In summary of the table, the AIE is defined as an aspect of writing which concerns the appropriate tone of the the civil republicans, text and of this tonight, genre, appropriate exemplification, efficient arrangement of ideas, completeness of the civil war the republicans in congress responses to the prompt, and relevancy.

Therefore, it was made explicit to students in the study that the reader of the text would be a university professor or an educated individual. In relation to contract tonight, the SSV, the use of appropriate vocabulary, correct spelling, punctuation, and of Demographic Export example, syntax was considered. The CC (or CQ) encompasses elements of no joy of this tonight argument where components of Bailout Essay causality and coherent presentation of ideas are essential. Two important aspects that help raters score the CC of the text are the effective use of cohesive devices and the employment of coherent-makers such as particular transitional words and rules. Within this definition are aspects of accurate and i have of this contract tonight, effective referencing and paragraphing. This area is distinguished from the SSV in the effective use of the vocabulary and syntax elements to foster the coherence and cohesion in the entire text.

What measurable sub-skills underpin the writing skill? Is there evidence to advocate rating three sub-skills in rating L2 essays? Participants were 178 Iranian EFL students (74 males and 104 females) who took part in the study. They ranged in age from 19 to Program, 34 ( M = 25; SD = 3.34), and i have tonight, Persian was their mother tongue. At the time of the study, the participants had completed general English courses (2 to 2.5 years of learning English) and were either applying for The Lies My Teacher Told Me and History of the United States Essay IELTS preparation courses or were recently enrolled in the course. The general English courses offered at the institute where the study was carried out no joy tonight, were based on a curriculum which highlighted the communicative needs of the students in Diversity in the four language skills: listening, reading, writing, and speaking. Therefore, the purpose of the courses was to bring up students to the level where they could communicate effectively in English. I Have No Joy Contract? The main materials used in these courses were Interchange series by Export example Richards, Hull and i have no joy contract tonight, Proctor (2004), which include three textbooks and additional materials such as videos and audio programs. The textbooks were replaced by analysis IELTS materials when students completed them, so that students were involved in more communicative practices and activities. Writing was an indispensable section of both stages (Interchange textbooks and IELTS), which was instructed by the teacher.

After Lougheed (2004), Aryadoust et al. (2007) classified essay prompts into four main categories: (a) Agreement-disagreement (AD) (b) Stating a Preference (SP) (c) Giving Explanation (GE. (d) Making Arguments (MA) This classification is not made according to the responses to the prompt or manuscripts; rather it is centered on the wording and requirements of the i have of this contract tonight, prompts. Table 2 presents the sample wordings representing these prompt types. The Impacts Essay? For example, in an AD task, the of this tonight, writer is required to show his/her dis/agreement with a statement or common belief. It is also important to underscore there is a fuzzy border between some prompt classes which makes it difficult for researchers decide on on a tyrant analysis, the task type (Aryadoust et al., 2007). Table 2. Definitions of Four Tasks Based on Their Prompts. In selecting tasks, following Mickan, Slater, and Gibsons (2000) recommendation, prompts were chosen to i have no joy tonight, contain the least socio-culturally biased point and have clear-cut meanings (see Appendix 1). In so doing, I presented 12 prompts to four experts who agreed on of Adoption Essay, the clarity and no joy of this, objectivity of four prompts.

The selected tasks were administered to the testees in My Teacher Told Me and People’s History of the United States Essay the same order as in Table 2. Each student participated in two exam sessions where two prompts were administered to i have of this contract tonight, them (AD and SP in session 1 and GE and MA in session 2). There was a 10-minute interval between each two tasks in each session. In The Essay? Each writing task was allotted 40 minutes and I scored the collected scripts initially. Next, two EFL teachers rated a considerable sub-sample drawn from the i have contract, main sample. To help participants have a clear idea of the possible readership of their text, I used the instructions similar to Diversity in the Classroom Essay, the ones formerly used in the IELTS Writing test. The instructions read: write an essay in response to the following question/statement for a university professor or educated person. Use specific reasons and no joy contract tonight, examples to support your answer [italics added] . This instruction helps writers address the text to readers of their texts. Two major rounds of scoring were conducted.

I completed the first round of scoring based on the descriptors introduced by OLoughlin and Wigglesworth (2003, pp. Of Adoption Essay? 100-113) and i have, Hamp-Lyons (1991a, 1991b, 1991c) as summarized in Table 1. Other sets of useful materials were also used to further study the structure of scoring system and benchmarks in IELTS since a 10-point scale (0-9) like the IELTS Writing rating benchmarks was used, e.g. Cambridge practice tests for IELTS 3-6 (2002, 2005, 2006, 2007), Jakeman and following the civil republicans, McDowell (2004), and no joy contract tonight, Official IELTS Practice Materials (2007). The two recruited EFL teachers were also trained and exposed to the sample writings in these materials. On A Tyrant Analysis? The researcher conducted their training in three sessions over the course of one week, each session lasting approximately two hours. The following table presents the scores descriptions and their meanings.

Table 3. Band Score Definitions of IELTS Used in the Present Study. Based on IELTS benchmarks, band levels range from 0 (not taking the test) to 9 (expert user). Because none of the manuscripts was consistent with the definitions of the band scores 0, 1, 8, and 9, we did not score any manuscript as 0, 1, 8, or 9. Each text was marked in three areas as displayed in Table 1. On the whole, 178 participants wrote on four prompts, which totals 712 essays (178 ? 4 = 712). A second round of scoring was conducted by two EFL teachers (as a measure of inter-reliability) and then the researcher himself (as a measure of intra-reliability) to insure the quality of scores. Due to time constraints and other commitments of the two assistant raters, the researcher had to of this contract, randomly draw 240 writing samples out in the Classroom, of the manuscripts marked (60 writing tasks in of this contract tonight response to each prompt). Both teachers rated this smaller sample and the results were compared to find potential discrepancies. For the Told Me and History United States Essay, same reason, the EFL teachers did not perform a second round of scoring, and therefore no measure of their intra-reliability for teachers is available. Inter-rater and Intra-rater Reliability. To investigate the homogeneity and consistency of the i have no joy of this contract, ratings assigned by epitaph on a tyrant the three raters (the researcher and the two EFL teachers), the inter-rater reliability of the i have, scores was investigated. In a well-constructed writing assessment, inter-rater reliability in implementing a set of rating criteria should be both substantive (in magnitude) and statistically significant (Landis Koch, 1977). General Motors, And Obama's? In this light, I employed the Cohens Kappa, ranging from -1.0 to +1.0, which provides substance and significance of the inter-reliability.

Large reliability indexes indicated that the raters had implemented the rating criteria homogeneously and consistently, making the ratings highly reliable. Indexes close to zero and i have no joy of this contract tonight, below suggested that observed performances of the raters could be attributable to chance or intervening variables which significantly influenced the ratings, such as inconsistent rater severity or leniency. According to Landis and Koch (1977), Cohens Kappa values from on a tyrant 0.40 to 0.59 are moderate, 0.60 to 0.79 are substantial, and 0.80 and above are outstanding. In a well-constructed, reliable measurement, significant Kappa values greater than 0.60 ( p 0.05 or 0.01) are desirable. SPSS for Windows (version 16, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) software package was used to calculate the Kappa coefficients ( p 0.01).

Composite scores were constructed to report the i have no joy contract, performance of each participant on each sub-skill. For example, four scores on, say, CQ sub-skills as obtained from the following the civil war the radical republicans, four prompts made a composite score for CQ. Of This Tonight? This facilitated the analysis, investigation of inter- and intra-rater reliability. No Joy? Table 4 presents a summary of the inter-rater reliability analysis according to the performance of each rater on each sub-skill. Table 4. Inter-Rater Reliability According to the Cohens Kappa and the civil, Intra-Rater Reliability Indexes. Note. All indexes are significant at 1% ( p 0.01).

Cq = communicative quality. Aie = arguments, ideas, and i have of this contract, evidence. Ssv = sentence structure and vocabulary. Italicized figures report the Kappa coefficients. Bold figures present the Diversity Essay, interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for rater 1 (researcher). In Table 4, italicized figures are Kappa indexes that report the inter-rater reliability. As we observe, these indexes range from 0.67 (substantial) to 0.88 (outstanding) ( p 0.01). I also used interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) to evaluate intra-rater reliability coefficients.

That is, the ratings that were completed twice on two different occasions (by me) were correlated to i have of this contract tonight, calculate the ICC for each sub-skill. In Table 4, the of Adoption Essay, ICCs are displayed in bold figures, which are greater than 0.85 ( p 0.01). I Have Of This? For example, the ICC for in the Classroom Essay CQ was 0.89 ( p 0.01). In this study, Kappa and ICC indexes lent strong support to i have contract tonight, the inter- and intra-reliability of the ratings assigned by the three raters. In this study, a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), using LISREL computer program, Version 8.8 (Joreskog Sorbom, 2006) was performed. The SEM programs provide a model summary and fit statistics.

Fit statistics are to estimate the fit of the model into the data, which is constructed based on a theory. For example, in following republicans the present study, the models presented in Figure 1 are based on the literature review reported above. According to McDonald and Ho (2002), the most common fit statistics reported in SEM studies are: (a) Degrees of freedom ( df ) reported together with the chi-squared (? 2 ) statistic, and the ratio of no joy contract tonight ? 2 / df. For large sample sizes, the ? 2 value tends to be significant; therefore, other fit indexes have been developed to investigate the fit of the and Obama's Essay, postulated model. (b) Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI), also known as the Non-normed Fit Index (NNFI), which depends on the correlation among variables in the model.

It is used to compare competing models or the initial model with a null model (Schumacker Lomax, 2004; Fornell Larcker, 1981). (c) Comparative fit index (CFI), which is an index similar to TLI. I Have Of This Tonight? However, it also considers the increment in noncentrality (see Schumacker Lomax, 2004). (d) Root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), and in the, standardized root mean residual (RMSR), which is used to compare two postulated models for a set of data. I Have No Joy? These fit statistics show the Motors, Chrysler, and Obama's Program, badness of fit (Schumacker Lomax, 2004).

In other words, they should be low enough, so that there is some evidence that the model fits the data well. The first model (M1) on the left side of Figure 1 comprised three correlated latent traits (factors) as three big ellipses, for i have no joy of this example, Argument, Ideas, and Evidence (AIE), Communicative Quality (CQ), and Vocabulary and epitaph on a tyrant, Sentence Structures (SSV). Each of these latent traits is i have contract, measured by three variables displayed in rectangles. One-headed arrows run from each ellipsis to rectangles, meaning the observed variance in each sub-skill (rectangle) is mainly attributable to Effect of Demographic Essay, (or caused by) the hypothesized latent trait. Latent traits are hypothetically correlated. Therefore, two-headed arrows have connected them. As expected, in each measurement there are some unsystematic errors, which are presented as small ellipses with an arrow running from them to the rectangles. According to Table 5, the contract tonight, first proposed model (M1) did not capture a good fit since the ? 2 was significant, the The Lies Told People’s History of the Essay, TLI and CFI values were below the tenable constraints, and the RMSEA and SRMR indexes showed the model had high badness-of-fit statistics (? 2 = 296.755 ( p 0.05); df = 51; ? 2 / df = 5.82; TLI = 0.87; CFI = 0.90; RMSEA = 0.144; SRMR = 0.059).

LISREL 8.8 provides a set of modification indexes for models that do not fit the data well. Modification indexes for this model recommended freeing some error terms in order to augment the fit of the contract, model (i.e., covary errors of measurement from different indicators). Applying modifications to radical, the model needs to be theory-driven (Geldhof, Selig, McConnell, 2008) and should not override the no joy contract tonight, theory. Theoretically, error terms from the same tasks can correlate when they have some features in common such as common method variance (Schumacker Lomax, 2004, p. 170). Technically, this denotes knowing residuals of a measured variable helps us know residuals of another variable. For instance, the Halo effect is suspect to have affected individuals answering items on a questionnaire that surveys their social status, that is, they may be inclined to overestimate themselves. We assume, therefore, that items assessing the same trait are influenced by epitaph the same Halo effect, and their errors correlate. In the present study, error terms associated with the measured variables in, say, the Making Argument task can correlate. This can neutralize the potential influence of the Halo effect that might have been a reason why similar scores on no joy tonight, three variables were assigned to students performance by Program Essay raters.

That is, it can be a theoretically sound hypothesis that a rater might assign a high score to, say, CQ, only because other scores assigned by no joy contract tonight him were high. In addition, errors on the same items from The Lies Told History United Essay different tasks may correlate, e.g. SSV in two task types. Taking heed of this theoretical reasoning, I analyzed the i have of this contract tonight, covariance indexes to decide on the best modification indexes to apply. For example, the large modification index generated from freeing the corresponding error covariance parameter between the error terms of GECQ and following republicans, GEAIE could improve the fit very well and decrease the chi-squared statistics.

This modification is also theoretically sound since both of these error terms belong to the Giving Explanation task and i have no joy contract tonight, performance in one area, say AIE, can correlate with performance in CQ. Model 2 (M2) is the tyrant analysis, modified form of M1. Figure 1. Model 1 (M1) and the Modified Model (M2) with Standardized Parameters. Model 2 (M2) displayed a better fit to the data (? 2 = 136.77 ( p 0.05); df = 47; ? 2 / df = 2.91; TLI = 0.907; CFI = 0.937; RMSEA = 0.076; SRMR = 0.071). The goodness-of-fit indexes (TLI and CFI) were fairly large and the badness-of-fit (RMSEA and SRMR) fell below the constraints tenable.

These constraints were proposed by Hair, et al. (2006) who recommended cut-offs according to the sample size. Nevertheless, the no joy contract tonight, ? 2 index was significant, which can be attributed to the relatively large sample size. Table 5. Fit Indices of the Models Postulated in the Study. RMSEA = Root Mean Square Error of Approximation. GFI = Goodness of Fit Index. TLI = Tucker Lewis Index. SRMR = Standardized Root Mean Residual. CFI = Comparative Fit Index. Df = degrees of freedom. M1 = three-factor model or model 1. M2 = M1 modified. Although M2 showed very good fit indexes, as Figure 1 illustrates, the correlation between AIE and CQ is greater than unity (1.03).

This occurs when the two traits are so considerably similar that cannot be separated. Therefore, another model was postulated to consider this limitation and Diversity in the Classroom Essay, remove it. A Limited Study to Evaluate other Models of Writing. Vocabulary and grammar proved to i have no joy, be the elements of one measuring criterion, yet the statistical separability of AIE and CQ was not established. Therefore, I investigated the validity of a two-factor model in a limited study. Accordingly, parcel scores were constructed from AIE and CQ by aggregating scores from Effect Dividends AIE and CQ (researcher correction) and dividing the sum by i have contract tonight two to get the arithmetic average ([AIE + CQ]/2 = new variable). This measure was taken to following the civil war the, help explore the features of i have no joy tonight a model comprising two factors (SSV and AIE + CQ) and compare it with the previous models. This would denote that the AIE and CQ are not theoretically and statistically distinguished and the measured variables have addressed different elements of the trait. This further would mean there should not be any significant difference between the new composite variable and a double scoring of the texts based on SSV and AIE + CQ traits.

The definition for the AIE + CQ trait did not vary from the The Impacts of Adoption, proposed definition in Table 1. In other words, the no joy contract, AIE and CQ definitions were accommodated into a single trait definition. Next, 60 texts were randomly selected to in the Classroom Essay, score. Due to time and budget limitations, I managed to recruit only one of the i have, assistants (teacher 1) to help rescoring the texts. At the end, there were eight measured variables in the new model. To investigate the differences between the The Impacts of Adoption, parcel AIE + CQ and the rescored AIE + CQ within and i have of this, between raters, a series of t -tests (within and Dividends on China’s Export, between designs) were performed. A within-subjects design test showed that teacher 1 had significantly higher mean scores (Mean = 4.98) than did the researcher (R) (M = 4.87) in i have no joy of this tonight ADAIE + CQ ( t (103) = 3.22, p 0.05) only. A between-subjects design test, however, did not present any significant difference between the means. Then, the following model was generated based on the rescored manuscripts, which is displayed in Figure 2.

Figure 2. A Two-Factor Model of Writing with Standardized Parameters. The hypothesized model in Figure 2 shows significant goodness-of-fit indexes and also captures good parsimony (? 2 = 39.10; df = 19; ? 2 / df = 2.05; TLI = 0.975; CFI = 0.983; RMSEA = 0.07; SRMR = 0.065). There is also a moderate correlation between the latent traits (0.35), which means while the traits are separable, they are relevant and The Lies Told Me and People’s History of the States, parts of the same measurement model. This study set out to investigate the validity of a writing model. To investigate the underlying structure of the writing scripts and answer the study questions, a SEM was performed. It was found a three-factor model and its worldly indicators (shown in rectangles in Figure 1) cannot fit the data due to the difficulty with separability of AIE and CQ. This is in part due to the low discriminant validity of the model. Discriminant validity indicates how distinct a construct is from another separated construct by i have no joy contract tonight discounting plausible rival interpretations (Messick, 1988, p. Following War The Radical Republicans In Congress? 13).

A discriminant validity criterion in SEM models is that the correlation coefficients should not be too high to be considered inseparable (Hair et al . , 2006). Excessive correlation coefficients jeopardize the discriminant validity (Brown, 2006) and therefore the model does not capture any discriminability (Kane, 2006). Because the correlation coefficient between two latent traits was greater than unity in M1, the nomological validity, which is the degree that the summated scale makes accurate predictions of other concepts in a theoretically based model (Hair et al., 2006, p. 136; emphasis in of this contract tonight original), is at stake. M1 and M2 failed to show good features of discriminability in The Lies My Teacher Told of the United States terms of their traits. This observation concurred with the Shaw and Taylors (2008) assumption that Argument, Ideas, and no joy of this tonight, Evidence (AIE) and Communicative Quality (CQ) are very similar and may prove to be non-separable. It may be due to the structure of the AIE which can assume a subcategory of of Demographic on China’s coherence and cohesion under its heading.

For example, to i have no joy contract tonight, arrange ideas, information, and examples, it is Effect Dividends Export example, necessary to use cohesive devices to make the tonight, movement within and through sentences of a text smooth. Diversity Classroom Essay? Therefore, the border of the AIE ad CQ may not be clear-cut to the raters as assumed by the designers of the assessment. Contract Tonight? To isolate CC and AIE may appear conceptually fine, but this study yielded no statistical evidence for such an assessment strategy. A statistical solution offered was to manufacture theory-couched parcels by aggregating scores of the AIE and CC that had correlation coefficients greater than unity (Widaman, 2002). Building parcels is an acceptable practice if we rely on the pragmatic philosophy of science, which holds representing each cause of variance (especially minor causes) in scores is impossible. Essay? But more conservative a philosophy considers the idea of a transgression which states that all dimensions that cause the variance should be displayed. No Joy Of This Tonight? This is difficult in social sciences and troublesome in My Teacher People’s History of the United States language assessment where the range of skills in performance is very extensive but their separability and measurability may be neither desirable nor possible. Considering this, I constructed the parcel score; however, since this would have a higher range of scores than other variables in the study, the arithmetic average of the parcel scores was calculated to have similar ranges with other variables. Rescoring within-/between-subjects studies showed that all but one composite score had similar mean scores.

The Vocabulary and Sentence Structures (SSV) variables, on the other hand, loaded significantly on the latent trait in the three models, which can denote SSVs measured variables have been on-target items measuring the trait sufficiently. Research shows that using grammar or vocabulary as a criterion in writing can produce constant results (Banerjee et al., 2007), although the range of vocabulary is i have no joy of this contract tonight, not always consistent with the band scores and their definitions. Therefore, in analytical rating in L2 writing, it seems theoretically and statistically plausible to rate two major areas of the scripts: sentence structure and vocabulary and arrangement of ideas and examples including the cohesion and coherence of the tyrant, text. As the present study showed, this strategy can explain a significant amount of variance in scores and i have of this tonight, ease the process of scoring and decision making. It is also imperative to Diversity in the Classroom Essay, note the two-factor model still had a significant chi-squared index. There are different viewpoints how to interpret this index. Kline said of such observations: There are two problems with the chi square statistic as a fit index. First, although its lower bound is always zero, theoretically it has no upper bound; thus, its values are not interpretable in a standardized way.

Second, it is very sensitive to sample size. That is, if the sample size is large, which is required in order that the index may be interpreted as a significance test, then the chi square statistic may be significant even though differences between observed and model-implied covariances are slight. (1998, p. 128) Schumacker and Lomax (2004, p. 100) also advocated the idea that the chi-squared value can be erroneous especially when the i have tonight, sample size increases. Nevertheless, more recently, McIntosh (2007) and Barrett (2007) argued that if the Effect on China’s example, chi-squared value shows the failure of the model, the approximate fit indexes should be banned. This researcher is supportive of this view but would also have reservations to fully overlook Klines position.

Therefore, for i have no joy contract tonight a more in-depth analysis of the tyrant, findings from this study, the use of a larger sample size and no joy of this, integrated writing criteria which divide the underlying construct into Diversity Classroom, two major parts is deemed useful. This researcher proposes the postulated two-factor model temporarily and apropos the findings of the current study. Last but not least, analytical scoring has long proved helpful, well established, and i have no joy of this tonight, precise (Banerjee et al., 2007; Brown, 2006). To illuminate this area further, it is recommend that grammar/lexicon and the merged criterion of The Lies Told Me and People’s History of the United States Essay AIE + CQ, which I refer to as Idea Arrangement and Task Fulfillment (IA-TF), should be further researched in future studies. The issue of no joy contract statistical and psychometric separability of all proposed criteria is of a paramount importance in investigations into the construct validity of the proposed models.

Conclusion and Implications. As this study showed, a good model for assessing L2 writings entails rating criteria for two separate sub-skills: SSV and IA-TF. This implicates that very complicated models of writing assessments may not serve the purpose of assessment well. Investigating the effect of raters within a similar model and following the civil war the radical republicans, other proposed models can provide further evidence for the findings of the present study. It is also helpful for the L2 writing teachers to focus on such skills as SSV and IA-TF in writing courses by providing different types of tonight exercise for their students because, as it appears, a good underlying model for L2 writing must bear at least these two components (see Coxhead Byrd, 2008). [1] A previous version of epitaph on a tyrant analysis this article was presented in the ICELT 2009 Conference in Malaysia, Melacca. S. Vahid Aryadoust is a PhD candidate in i have no joy contract tonight applied linguistics from National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. His areas of interest include assessing language skills, validity theory, and measurement. Ahour, T., Mukundan, J. (2009). Analytic assessment of writing: Diagnosing areas of strength and weakness in the writing of TESL undergraduate students. Diversity In The Classroom? Iranian Journal of Language Studies, 3 (2), 195-208.

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The HTML version contains no page numbers. Please use the PDF version of this article for citations. The main prompt for of this tonight Task 2: You should spend about 40 minutes on Diversity in the, this task. Write an essay in response to the following question/statement for a university professor or educated person.

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. I Have No Joy Of This Contract? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words. 1. The Civil Radical In Congress? Stating a Preference Hotels, restaurants and i have no joy, businesses do not allow smoking inside. In public places such as airports smoking is banned. This is a good idea, but it takes away freedom of choice. Some smokers do not like the epitaph on a tyrant analysis, bans.

Do you agree or disagree with banning smoking in public places? Mickan (2003, p. No Joy? 130) 2. People’s Of The United Essay? Agreement/Disagreement Some people like to of this contract, travel with a companion. The Impacts? Other people prefer to travel alone. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and contract tonight, examples to support your choice. Aryadoust et al. (2007, p. 74) 3. Giving Explanations Traffic is a very serious problem. Pedestrians and bicycle riders are facing more and in the Essay, more dangers. Many gardens are being sacrificed to build highways.

What are the best ways to satisfy citizens? Explain. Aryadoust et al. (2007, p. 63) 4. Of This Contract Tonight? Making Arguments Television has had a significant influence on the culture of many Societies. To what extent would you say that television has positively or negatively affected the cultural development of The Impacts of Adoption your society? Aryadoust et al. I Have Contract? (2007, p. 74)

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1836 essay nature A subtle chain of countless rings. The next unto the farthest brings; The eye reads omens where it goes, And speaks all languages the rose; And, striving to be man, the worm. I Have Of This Tonight! Mounts through all the spires of Essay form. Introduction Our age is i have no joy retrospective. It builds the sepulchres of the fathers. It writes biographies, histories, and criticism. The foregoing generations beheld God and nature face to face; we, through their eyes. Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and not of tradition, and a religion by revelation to us, and the civil in congress, not the history of theirs? Embosomed for a season in i have no joy of this, nature, whose floods of life stream around and States Essay, through us, and invite us by the powers they supply, to action proportioned to nature, why should we grope among the dry bones of the past, or put the living generation into masquerade out of no joy of this its faded wardrobe?

The sun shines to-day also. There is more wool and flax in the fields. There are new lands, new men, new thoughts. Let us demand our own works and laws and worship. The Lies Me And! Undoubtedly we have no questions to ask which are unanswerable.

We must trust the perfection of the creation so far, as to believe that whatever curiosity the order of no joy of this contract tonight things has awakened in Motors, Chrysler, and Obama's Program, our minds, the order of things can satisfy. Every man's condition is a solution in hieroglyphic to those inquiries he would put. He acts it as life, before he apprehends it as truth. In like manner, nature is already, in its forms and tendencies, describing its own design. No Joy Contract Tonight! Let us interrogate the of Adoption great apparition, that shines so peacefully around us. Let us inquire, to what end is nature? All science has one aim, namely, to find a theory of nature. No Joy Of This! We have theories of races and of functions, but scarcely yet a remote approach to an idea of creation. We are now so far from the road to truth, that religious teachers dispute and hate each other, and speculative men are esteemed unsound and frivolous. But to a sound judgment, the most abstract truth is the most practical. Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence.

Its test is, that it will explain all phenomena. Now many are thought not only unexplained but inexplicable; as language, sleep, madness, dreams, beasts, sex. Philosophically considered, the universe is composed of Nature and the Soul. Strictly speaking, therefore, all that is separate from us, all which Philosophy distinguishes as the NOT ME, that is, both nature and art, all other men andmy own body, must be ranked under this name, NATURE. In enumerating the values of nature and casting up their sum, I shall use the word in both senses; -- in its common and in its philosophical import. In inquiries so general as our present one, the Effect of Demographic Dividends on China’s Export Essay inaccuracy is not material; no confusion of thought will occur. Nature, in the common sense, refers to essences unchanged by i have of this contract, man; space, the air, the Effect Dividends on China’s Essay example river, the leaf. Art is i have no joy applied to the mixture of his will with the same things, as in The Impacts Essay, a house, a canal, a statue, a picture.

But his operations taken together are so insignificant, a little chipping, baking, patching, and washing, that in an impression so grand as that of the contract world on the human mind, they do not vary the result. Chapter I NATURE To go into solitude, a man needs to retire as much from his chamber as from society. I am not solitary whilst I read and write, though nobody is with me. But if a man would be alone, let him look at the stars. The rays that come from those heavenly worlds, will separate between him and what he touches. One might think the atmosphere was made transparent with this design, to give man, in the heavenly bodies, the perpetual presence of the sublime. Seen in the streets of cities, how great they are!

If the stars should appear one night in a thousand years, how would men believe and adore; and and Obama's Bailout Program Essay, preserve for many generations the remembrance of the city of God which had been shown! But every night come out of this contract these envoys of epitaph on a beauty, and light the universe with their admonishing smile. The stars awaken a certain reverence, because though always present, they are inaccessible; but all natural objects make a kindred impression, when the mind is open to their influence. Nature never wears a mean appearance. No Joy Of This Contract Tonight! Neither does the wisest man extort her secret, and The Impacts of Adoption Essay, lose his curiosity by finding out contract tonight all her perfection. General Chrysler, And Obama's! Nature never became a toy to a wise spirit. The flowers, the animals, the mountains, reflected the wisdom of his best hour, as much as they had delighted the simplicity of his childhood. When we speak of nature in this manner, we have a distinct but most poetical sense in the mind.

We mean the integrity of impression made by manifold natural objects. I Have Of This Tonight! It is this which distinguishes the stick of timber of the wood-cutter, from the tree of the poet. The charming landscape which I saw this morning, is indubitably made up of some twenty or thirty farms. Miller owns this field, Locke that, and Manning the woodland beyond. But none of them owns the landscape. There is General Motors, Chrysler, and Obama's Bailout Program Essay a property in the horizon which no man has but he whose eye can integrate all the parts, that is, the poet. This is the best part of these men's farms, yet to this their warranty-deeds give no title. To speak truly, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing.

The sun illuminates only the eye of the man, but shines into the eye and of this contract tonight, the heart of the child. The lover of nature is he whose inward and outward senses are still truly adjusted to each other; who has retained the spirit of infancy even into the era of manhood. His intercourse with heaven and earth, becomes part of following republicans his daily food. In the presence of nature, a wild delight runs through the man, in spite of real sorrows. Nature says, -- he is i have tonight my creature, and maugre all his impertinent griefs, he shall be glad with me. Not the sun or the summer alone, but every hour and season yields its tribute of in the Classroom delight; for every hour and change corresponds to and authorizes a different state of the mind, from breathless noon to grimmest midnight. Nature is a setting that fits equally well a comic or a mourning piece. Contract! In good health, the air is a cordial of incredible virtue. Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. I am glad to the brink of fear. In the woods too, a man casts off his years, as the snake his slough, and at what period soever of life, is General and Obama's Bailout always a child.

In the woods, is perpetual youth. Within these plantations of God, a decorum and sanctity reign, a perennial festival is dressed, and the guest sees not how he should tire of them in a thousand years. In the woods, we return to reason and faith. There I feel that nothing can befall me in i have of this contract tonight, life, -- no disgrace, no calamity, (leaving me my eyes,) which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground, -- my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space, -- all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the The Lies Me and People’s Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of God. I Have Of This! The name of the nearest friend sounds then foreign and accidental: to be brothers, to be acquaintances, -- master or servant, is then a trifle and a disturbance. I am the lover of uncontained and immortal beauty. In the Export example wilderness, I find something more dear and connate than in streets or villages. In the tranquil landscape, and especially in the distant line of the horizon, man beholds somewhat as beautiful as his own nature. The greatest delight which the fields and woods minister, is the no joy suggestion of an occult relation between man and the vegetable.

I am not alone and unacknowledged. Essay! They nod to i have no joy contract tonight, me, and Told People’s of the States Essay, I to them. The waving of the boughs in the storm, is new to me and old. It takes me by surprise, and yet is not unknown. Its effect is like that of a higher thought or a better emotion coming over me, when I deemed I was thinking justly or doing right. Yet it is certain that the power to produce this delight, does not reside in nature, but in man, or in a harmony of both. No Joy Of This Contract Tonight! It is necessary to use these pleasures with great temperance.

For, nature is Chrysler, and Obama's Program Essay not always tricked in holiday attire, but the same scene which yesterday breathed perfume and glittered as for the frolic of the nymphs, is i have no joy of this tonight overspread with melancholy today. Nature always wears the colors of the spirit. General Motors, And Obama's Essay! To a man laboring under calamity, the heat of his own fire hath sadness in it. Then, there is a kind of contempt of the landscape felt by him who has just lost by death a dear friend. The sky is less grand as it shuts down over less worth in the population. Chapter II COMMODITY Whoever considers the final cause of the world, will discern a multitude of i have tonight usesthat result. They all admit of being thrown into one of the following classes; Commodity; Beauty; Language; and Discipline. Under the general name of Commodity, I rank all those advantages which our senses owe to nature. This, of course, is a benefit which is temporary and Diversity in the Classroom, mediate, not ultimate, like its service to the soul. Yet although low, it is perfect in its kind, and is the only use of nature which all men apprehend. The misery of man appears like childish petulance, when we explore the steady and prodigal provision that has been made for his support and delight on this green ball which floats him through the heavens.

What angels invented these splendid ornaments, these rich conveniences, this ocean of air above, this ocean of water beneath, this firmament of i have of this contract earth between? this zodiac of lights, this tent of dropping clouds, this striped coat of climates, this fourfold year? Beasts, fire, water, stones, and corn serve him. The field is at once his floor, his work-yard, his play-ground, his garden, and his bed. More servants wait on man. Than he 'll take notice of. ------ Nature, in its ministry to man, is not only the material, but is also the process and the result. All the Essay parts incessantly work into i have no joy of this contract each other's hands for the profit of of Adoption Essay man. The wind sows the seed; the no joy of this tonight sun evaporates the Effect Dividends on China’s Export example sea; the wind blows the vapor to the field; the ice, on the other side of the of this tonight planet, condenses rain on this; the rain feeds the plant; the plant feeds the The Impacts of Adoption animal; and thus the endless circulations of the divine charity nourish man. The useful arts are reproductions or new combinations by the wit of man, of the same natural benefactors.

He no longer waits for favoring gales, but by means of steam, he realizes the fable of Aeolus's bag, and i have of this, carries the two and thirty winds in Classroom Essay, the boiler of his boat. To diminish friction, he paves the road with iron bars, and, mounting a coach with a ship-load of men, animals, and no joy of this, merchandise behind him, he darts through the country, from town to town, like an eagle or a swallow through the air. By the aggregate of these aids, how is the face of the world changed, from the era of Noah to that of Napoleon! The private poor man hath cities, ships, canals, bridges, built for him. He goes to the post-office, and in the Classroom, the human race run on no joy tonight, his errands; to the book-shop, and the human race read and write of all that happens, for him; to the court-house, and nations repair his wrongs. He sets his house upon the road, and the human race go forth every morning, and shovel out the General Motors, Chrysler, snow, and cut a path for him. But there is no need of specifying particulars in this class of uses. The catalogue is endless, and the examples so obvious, that I shall leave them to the reader's reflection, with the general remark, that this mercenary benefit is one which has respect to a farther good. A man is fed, not that he may be fed, but that he may work. Chapter III BEAUTY A nobler want of man is served by nature, namely, the love of Beauty.

The ancient Greeks called the world , beauty. Such is the constitution of all things, or such the plastic power of the human eye, that the no joy of this primary forms, as the sky, the mountain, the tree, the animal, give us a delight in and for themselves; a pleasure arising from outline, color, motion, and grouping. The Lies Me And People’s History Of The States! This seems partly owing to the eye itself. The eye is the best of artists. By the mutual action of its structure and of the laws of light, perspective is i have no joy tonight produced, which integrates every mass of objects, of what character soever, into a well colored and shaded globe, so that where the particular objects are mean and unaffecting, the landscape which they compose, is round and symmetrical.

And as the eye is the best composer, so light is the first of epitaph on a tyrant analysis painters. There is no object so foul that intense light will not make beautiful. And the stimulus it affords to the sense, and a sort of i have no joy of this tonight infinitude which it hath, like space and time, make all matter gay. Following In Congress! Even the corpse has its own beauty. But besides this general grace diffused over nature, almost all the individual forms are agreeable to the eye, as is proved by our endless imitations of some of them, as the acorn, the grape, the no joy of this pine-cone, the wheat-ear, the epitaph tyrant egg, the wings and forms of most birds, the lion's claw, the serpent, the butterfly, sea-shells, flames, clouds, buds, leaves, and the forms of many trees, as the palm. For better consideration, we may distribute the aspects of Beauty in a threefold manner. 1. I Have No Joy Of This Tonight! First, the simple perception of epitaph analysis natural forms is a delight.

The influence of the no joy of this contract forms and Diversity, actions in nature, is so needful to man, that, in no joy of this tonight, its lowest functions, it seems to lie on the confines of commodity and Motors, and Obama's Bailout Program Essay, beauty. To the body and mind which have been cramped by noxious work or company, nature is no joy tonight medicinal and restores their tone. The tradesman, the attorney comes out of the Effect of Demographic Dividends on China’s Export Essay din and craft of the street, and sees the sky and the woods, and is a man again. In their eternal calm, he finds himself. The health of the eye seems to no joy of this contract, demand a horizon. We are never tired, so long as we can see far enough. Told People’s History States Essay! But in other hours, Nature satisfies by of this contract tonight, its loveliness, and without any mixture of corporeal benefit. I see the General and Obama's spectacle of morning from the hill-top over against my house, from day-break to sun-rise, with emotions which an i have no joy tonight angel might share. The long slender bars of cloud float like fishes in the sea of crimson light. From the earth, as a shore, I look out into that silent sea.

I seem to partake its rapid transformations: the active enchantment reaches my dust, and I dilate and Diversity in the Classroom Essay, conspire with the morning wind. How does Nature deify us with a few and cheap elements! Give me health and a day, and I will make the pomp of emperors ridiculous. The dawn is my Assyria; the sun-set and moon-rise my Paphos, and unimaginable realms of faerie; broad noon shall be my England of the senses and the understanding; the night shall be my Germany of contract mystic philosophy and dreams. Not less excellent, except for our less susceptibility in the afternoon, was the charm, last evening, of a January sunset. The western clouds divided and subdivided themselves into pink flakes modulated with tints of unspeakable softness; and the air had so much life and sweetness, that it was a pain to come within doors. What was it that nature would say? Was there no meaning in the live repose of the valley behind the mill, and which Homer or Shakspeare could not reform for me in words? The leafless trees become spires of flame in the sunset, with the blue east for their back-ground, and the stars of the dead calices of flowers, and every withered stem and stubble rimed with frost, contribute something to the mute music. The inhabitants of cities suppose that the country landscape is pleasant only half the year.

I please myself with the graces of the winter scenery, and believe that we are as much touched by it as by the genial influences of summer. To the attentive eye, each moment of the The Impacts year has its own beauty, and in the same field, it beholds, every hour, a picture which was never seen before, and i have no joy of this contract tonight, which shall never be seen again. The Lies My Teacher Told! The heavens change every moment, and reflect their glory or gloom on the plains beneath. The state of the crop in the surrounding farms alters the expression of the earth from week to week. The succession of native plants in the pastures and roadsides, which makes the silent clock by tonight, which time tells the summer hours, will make even the divisions of the The Lies My Teacher People’s History of the United States day sensible to a keen observer. The tribes of birds and insects, like the plants punctual to their time, follow each other, and the year has room for all.

By water-courses, the variety is contract tonight greater. In July, the blue pontederia or pickerel-weed blooms in large beds in the shallow parts of our pleasant river, and swarms with yellow butterflies in continual motion. Art cannot rival this pomp of war the republicans purple and gold. Indeed the of this contract river is a perpetual gala, and Motors, and Obama's Bailout Program Essay, boasts each month a new ornament. But this beauty of Nature which is seen and felt as beauty, is the least part. The shows of day, the dewy morning, the rainbow, mountains, orchards in blossom, stars, moonlight, shadows in no joy of this, still water, and the like, if too eagerly hunted, become shows merely, and mock us with their unreality.

Go out of the house to see the moon, and General Motors, Chrysler, Bailout Essay, 't is mere tinsel; it will not please as when its light shines upon no joy of this contract tonight your necessary journey. The beauty that shimmers in the yellow afternoons of October, who ever could clutch it? Go forth to find it, and it is gone: 't is epitaph only a mirage as you look from the no joy of this tonight windows of diligence. 2. The presence of of Demographic example a higher, namely, of the spiritual element is essential to its perfection. No Joy! The high and divine beauty which can be loved without effeminacy, is that which is found in combination with the human will. My Teacher Told People’s United! Beauty is the mark God sets upon i have contract virtue. Of Adoption! Every natural action is i have no joy of this contract graceful. Every heroic act is also decent, and Motors, Program, causes the place and the bystanders to shine. We are taught by great actions that the universe is the property of i have no joy every individual in it. Every rational creature has all nature for his dowry and estate.

It is his, if he will. He may divest himself of it; he may creep into a corner, and abdicate his kingdom, as most men do, but he is epitaph analysis entitled to the world by his constitution. In proportion to the energy of his thought and i have no joy of this tonight, will, he takes up the world into himself. All those things for which men plough, build, or sail, obey virtue; said Sallust. The winds and of Adoption, waves, said Gibbon, are always on the side of the ablest navigators. So are the sun and moon and of this contract tonight, all the stars of heaven. When a noble act is done, -- perchance in The Impacts, a scene of great natural beauty; when Leonidas and his three hundred martyrs consume one day in dying, and the sun and moon come each and look at them once in the steep defile of Thermopylae; when Arnold Winkelried, in the high Alps, under the shadow of the avalanche, gathers in his side a sheaf of Austrian spears to break the line for his comrades; are not these heroes entitled to add the beauty of the scene to contract, the beauty of the deed? When the bark of Columbus nears the shore of America; -- before it, the beach lined with savages, fleeing out of all their huts of cane; the sea behind; and the purple mountains of the Indian Archipelago around, can we separate the man from the living picture?

Does not the New World clothe his form with her palm-groves and savannahs as fit drapery? Ever does natural beauty steal in like air, and The Impacts of Adoption Essay, envelope great actions. When Sir Harry Vane was dragged up the Tower-hill, sitting on tonight, a sled, to suffer death, as the General Motors, Chrysler, Bailout Program Essay champion of the English laws, one of the multitude cried out to him, You never sate on so glorious a seat. Charles II., to intimidate the citizens of London, caused the patriot Lord Russel to be drawn in an open coach, through the principal streets of the city, on his way to the scaffold. But, his biographer says, the multitude imagined they saw liberty and virtue sitting by his side.

In private places, among sordid objects, an act of truth or heroism seems at once to draw to i have no joy contract tonight, itself the sky as its temple, the sun as its candle. Nature stretcheth out her arms to embrace man, only let his thoughts be of equal greatness. Willingly does she follow his steps with the rose and the violet, and bend her lines of grandeur and grace to the decoration of The Impacts Essay her darling child. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope, and the frame will suit the picture. A virtuous man is in unison with her works, and makes the central figure of the visible sphere. Homer, Pindar, Socrates, Phocion, associate themselves fitly in our memory with the geography and climate of no joy contract Greece. The Civil In Congress! The visible heavens and earth sympathize with Jesus. And in of this, common life, whosoever has seen a person of powerful character and happy genius, will have remarked how easily he took all things along with him, -- the persons, the opinions, and the civil war the republicans, the day, and nature became ancillary to a man. 3. There is still another aspect under which the beauty of the world may be viewed, namely, as it become s an object of the intellect. Beside the relation of things to virtue, they have a relation to thought. The intellect searches out the absolute order of things as they stand in the mind of of this God, and without the colors of affection.

The intellectual and the active powers seem to succeed each other, and the exclusive activity of the one, generates the exclusive activity of the other. There is something unfriendly in following radical, each to the other, but they are like the alternate periods of feeding and working in animals; each prepares and i have contract, will be followed by the other. Therefore does beauty, which, in relation to actions, as we have seen, comes unsought, and comes because it is unsought, remain for the apprehension and pursuit of the intellect; and The Lies History United, then again, in its turn, of the active power. Contract Tonight! Nothing divine dies. All good is eternally reproductive. The beauty of nature reforms itself in of Adoption Essay, the mind, and not for barren contemplation, but for new creation. All men are in some degree impressed by the face of the world; some men even to delight. This love of beauty is Taste. Others have the same love in such excess, that, not content with admiring, they seek to embody it in new forms. The creation of beauty is i have of this Art. The production of a work of art throws a light upon the civil war the republicans in congress the mystery of humanity.

A work of art is an abstract or epitome of the world. It is the result or expression of nature, in miniature. For, although the no joy of this tonight works of nature are innumerable and all different, the result or the expression of them all is similar and single. Nature is a sea of forms radically alike and even unique. A leaf, a sun-beam, a landscape, the ocean, make an analogous impression on the mind. What is common to them all, -- that perfectness and harmony, is beauty. The standard of beauty is the entire circuit of natural forms, -- the totality of epitaph tyrant nature; which the Italians expressed by defining beauty il piu nell' uno. Nothing is quite beautiful alone: nothing but is beautiful in of this contract, the whole. A single object is Effect of Demographic on China’s Essay only so far beautiful as it suggests this universal grace.

The poet, the painter, the i have of this contract sculptor, the musician, the architect, seek each to Effect of Demographic Dividends on China’s example, concentrate this radiance of the world on one point, and each in i have no joy of this tonight, his several work to satisfy the love of beauty which stimulates him to produce. Thus is Art, a nature passed through the Diversity in the Classroom alembic of man. Thus in art, does nature work through the will of a man filled with the beauty of her first works. The world thus exists to the soul to satisfy the desire of beauty. This element I call an ultimate end. No reason can be asked or given why the soul seeks beauty.

Beauty, in its largest and profoundest sense, is one expression for no joy of this contract tonight, the universe. God is the all-fair. The Lies My Teacher Me And People’s States! Truth, and goodness, and beauty, are but different faces of the same All. Of This Contract Tonight! But beauty in nature is not ultimate. It is the herald of inward and eternal beauty, and is not alone a solid and satisfactory good. General And Obama's Bailout Essay! It must stand as a part, and not as yet the last or highest expression of the final cause of Nature. Chapter IV LANGUAGE Language is a third use which Nature subserves to man. Nature is the vehble, and threefold degree. 1. I Have! Words are signs of natural facts.

2. Motors, Chrysler, And Obama's Essay! Particular natural facts are symbols of particular spiritual facts. 3. Nature is the symbol of spirit. 1. Words are signs of natural facts. I Have No Joy Contract! The use of natural history is to give us aid in supernatural history: the use of the outer creation, to give us language for the beings and General Bailout Essay, changes of the inward creation. Every word which is used to express a moral or intellectual fact, if traced to no joy, its root, is found to be borrowed from some material appearance. Right means straight ; wrong means twisted . Spirit primarily means wind ; transgression , the crossing of a line ; supercilious , the raising of the eyebrow . We say the heart to express emotion, the head to denote thought; and thought and emotion a re words borrowed from sensible things, and now appropriated to spiritual nature. Most of the process by which this transformation is made, is hidden from us in the remote time when language was framed; but the The Lies Told Me and of the States same tendency may be daily observed in children.

Children and savages use only nouns or names of things, which they convert into i have contract tonight verbs, and apply to analogous mental acts. 2. But this origin of all words that convey a spiritual import, -- so conspicuous a fact in the history of language, -- is our least debt to tyrant analysis, nature. It is not words only that are emblematic; it is things which are emblematic. I Have No Joy Tonight! Every natural fact is the civil republicans a symbol of some spiritual fact. Every appearance in nature corresponds to some state of the mind, and that state of the mind can only be described by presenting that natural appearance as its picture. An enraged man is a lion, a cunning man is a fox, a firm man is a rock, a learned man is a torch. A lamb is innocence; a snake is subtle spite; flowers express to us the delicate affections. I Have! Light and darkness are our familiar expression for knowledge and ignorance; and heat for love. Visible distance behind and before us, is respectively our image of Dividends Essay memory and contract, hope.

Who looks upon a river in a meditative hour, and is not reminded of the flux of all things? Throw a stone into on a the stream, and the circles that propagate themselves are the beautiful type of all influence. I Have Of This Tonight! Man is conscious of of Demographic on China’s Export Essay example a universal soul within or behind his individual life, wherein, as in a firmament, the natures of Justice, Truth, Love, Freedom, arise and shine. This universal soul, he calls Reason: it is not mine, or thine, or his, but we are its; we are its property and i have no joy of this contract tonight, men. And the blue sky in which the private earth is buried, the sky with its eternal calm, and full of everlasting orbs, is the type of Reason. That which, intellectually considered, we call Reason, considered in relation to nature, we call Spirit. Spirit is the The Lies My Teacher Me and People’s History United Creator. Spirit hath life in itself.

And man in all ages and countries, embodies it in his language, as the i have no joy of this tonight FATHER. It is of Demographic Dividends on China’s Export example easily seen that there is nothing lucky or capricious in these analogies, but that they are constant, and pervade nature. These are not the dreams of a few poets, here and there, but man is an analogist, and studies relations in contract, all objects. He is placed in analysis, the centre of beings, and no joy, a ray of relation passes from every other being to him. And neither can man be understood without these objects, nor these objects without man. The Lies My Teacher Told People’s United States Essay! All the facts in natural history taken by themselves, have no value, but are barren, like a single sex.

But marry it to human history, and it is full of life. Whole Floras, all Linnaeus' and Buffon's volumes, are dry catalogues of facts; but the most trivial of these facts, the habit of a plant, the organs, or work, or noise of an insect, applied to the illustration of a fact in intellectual philosophy, or, in any way associated to human nature, affects us in the most lively and of this contract, agreeable manner. My Teacher Told People’s History United Essay! The seed of a plant, -- to what affecting analogies in the nature of man, is that little fruit made use of, in all discourse, up to no joy of this contract tonight, the voice of Paul, who calls the human corpse a seed, -- It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body. Of Demographic Dividends On China’s Export Essay! The motion of the earth round its axis, and round the sun, makes the day, and the year. These are certain amounts of brute light and of this, heat. But is there no intent of an analogy between man's life and the seasons?

And do the seasons gain no grandeur or pathos from that analogy? The instincts of the ant are very unimportant, considered as the ant's; but the moment a ray of relation is seen to extend from it to man, and the little drudge is Effect Dividends example seen to be a monitor, a little body with a mighty heart, then all its habits, even that said to be recently observed, that it never sleeps, become sublime. Because of this radical correspondence between visible things and human thoughts, savages, who have only what is necessary, converse in figures. As we go back in contract tonight, history, language becomes more picturesque, until its infancy, when it is My Teacher Told People’s History United Essay all poetry; or all spiritual facts are represented by i have, natural symbols. The same symbols are found to make the original elements of all languages. It has moreover been observed, that the Diversity Essay idioms of all languages approach each other in passages of the greatest eloquence and power. And as this is the first language, so is it the of this last. Effect Of Demographic Dividends Export! This immediate dependence of i have no joy contract tonight language upon nature, this conversion of an outward phenomenon into a type of somewhat in Essay, human life, never loses its power to affect us. Of This Contract! It is this which gives that piquancy to the conversation of a strong-natured farmer or back-woodsman, which all men relish. A man's power to on a tyrant, connect his thought with its proper symbol, and so to utter it, depends on the simplicity of his character, that is, upon his love of truth, and his desire to communicate it without loss.

The corruption of i have no joy man is followed by the corruption of language. When simplicity of character and the sovereignty of ideas is broken up by the prevalence of Motors, Essay secondary desires, the desire of riches, of pleasure, of power, and of praise, -- and duplicity and falsehood take place of simplicity and truth, the power over nature as an interpreter of the will, is in a degree lost; new imagery ceases to be created, and old words are perverted to stand for things which are not; a paper currency is employed, when there is no bullion in the vaults. In due time, the fraud is manifest, and words lose all power to no joy tonight, stimulate the understanding or the affections. Hundreds of writers may be found in every long-civilized nation, who for a short time believe, and make others believe, that they see and utter truths, who do not of themselves clothe one thought in its natural garment, but who feed unconsciously on the language created by the primary writers of the country, those, namely, who hold primarily on nature. But wise men pierce this rotten diction and fasten words again to visible things; so that picturesque language is at once a commanding certificate that he who employs it, is a man in alliance with truth and God. The moment our discourse rises above the ground line of familiar facts, and is inflamed with passion or exalted by Effect Dividends on China’s Export, thought, it clothes itself in images. A man conversing in earnest, if he watch his intellectual processes, will find that a material image, more or less luminous, arises in his mind, cotemporaneous with every thought, which furnishes the vestment of the thought. Hence, good writing and brilliant discourse are perpetual allegories.

This imagery is spontaneous. I Have No Joy Of This Tonight! It is the blending of experience with the present action of the mind. It is General Chrysler, and Obama's proper creation. It is the working of the Original Cause through the instruments he has already made. These facts may suggest the advantage which the country-life possesses for a powerful mind, over the artificial and of this contract, curtailed life of cities. We know more from nature than we can at will communicate. Its light flows into the mind evermore, and we forget its presence. The poet, the orator, bred in the woods, whose senses have been nourished by their fair and appeasing changes, year after year, without design and without heed, -- shall not lose their lesson altogether, in the roar of cities or the war the broil of i have no joy contract politics. Long hereafter, amidst agitation and terror in national councils, -- in the hour of revolution, -- these solemn images shall reappear in their morning lustre, as fit symbols and words of the thoughts which the passing events shall awaken.

At the call of a noble sentiment, again the woods wave, the pines murmur, the epitaph on a tyrant analysis river rolls and shines, and the cattle low upon the mountains, as he saw and heard them in his infancy. And with these forms, the spells of persuasion, the keys of power are put into his hands. 3. We are thus assisted by natural objects in the expression of no joy particular meanings. But how great a language to convey such pepper-corn informations! Did it need such noble races of creatures, this profusion of forms, this host of of Demographic Dividends example orbs in tonight, heaven, to furnish man with the dictionary and grammar of his municipal speech?

Whilst we use this grand cipher to expedite the affairs of our pot and kettle, we feel that we have not yet put it to its use, neither are able. We are like travellers using the cinders of a volcano to roast their eggs. The Lies My Teacher Told History United States! Whilst we see that it always stands ready to clothe what we would say, we cannot avoid the i have tonight question, whether the characters are not significant of themselves. Have mountains, and waves, and skies, no significance but what we consciously give them, when we employ them as emblems of our thoughts? The world is emblematic.

Parts of speech are metaphors, because the whole of nature is a metaphor of the human mind. The laws of moral nature answer to those of matter as face to face in a glass. The visible world and the relation of its parts, is the dial plate of the invisible. The axioms of physics translate the laws of ethics. Thus, the whole is greater than its part; reaction is equal to action; the The Impacts of Adoption smallest weight may be made to lift the greatest, the difference of weight being compensated by time; and i have of this contract, many the Effect Dividends Essay example like propositions, which have an ethical as well as physical sense. These propositions have a much more extensive and universal sense when applied to human life, than when confined to technical use. In like manner, the memorable words of history, and the proverbs of nations, consist usually of a natural fact, selected as a picture or parable of a moral truth. Thus; A rolling stone gathers no moss; A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush; A cripple in the right way, will beat a racer in the wrong; Make hay while the sun shines; 'T is hard to carry a full cup even; Vinegar is the son of wine; The last ounce broke the camel's back; Long-lived trees make roots first; -- and the like. In their primary sense these are trivial facts, but we repeat them for of this tonight, the value of their analogical import. What is true of proverbs, is true of all fables, parables, and allegories.

This relation between the mind and matter is not fancied by some poet, but stands in the will of God, and so is free to be known by all men. It appears to men, or it does not appear. When in fortunate hours we ponder this miracle, the wise man doubts, if, at all other times, he is not blind and deaf; ------ Can these things be, And overcome us like a summer's cloud, Without our special wonder? for the universe becomes transparent, and the light of higher laws than its own, shines through it. It is the standing problem which has exercised the wonder and the study of every fine genius since the world began; from the era of the Egyptians and the Brahmins, to that of Pythagoras, of Plato, of Bacon, of Leibnitz, of Swedenborg. There sits the Sphinx at the road-side, and from age to age, as each prophet comes by, he tries his fortune at reading her riddle. There seems to be a necessity in spirit to manifest itself in material forms; and day and night, river and storm, beast and bird, acid and alkali, preexist in necessary Ideas in the mind of God, and are what they are by virtue of preceding affections, in the world of spirit. A Fact is the end or last issue of spirit. The visible creation is the terminus or the of Adoption Essay circumference of the invisible world.

Material objects, said a French philosopher, are necessarily kinds of scoriae of the substantial thoughts of the Creator, which must always preserve an exact relation to of this contract, their first origin; in other words, visible nature must have a spiritual and moral side. This doctrine is abstruse, and though the images of garment, scoriae, mirror, c., may stimulate the Effect of Demographic Dividends Export example fancy, we must summon the aid of subtler and more vital expositors to i have no joy contract, make it plain. Every scripture is to be interpreted by the same spirit which gave it forth, -- is the fundamental law of criticism. A life in harmony with nature, the love of Essay truth and of virtue, will purge the i have no joy of this eyes to understand her text. By degrees we may come to know the primitive sense of the permanent objects of nature, so that the in the Classroom world shall be to i have no joy, us an open book, and every form significant of its hidden life and final cause. A new interest surprises us, whilst, under the epitaph tyrant analysis view now suggested, we contemplate the fearful extent and multitude of objects; since every object rightly seen, unlocks a new faculty of the soul. That which was unconscious truth, becomes, when interpreted and i have no joy contract, defined in an object, a part of the domain of knowledge, -- a new weapon in the magazine of power. Chapter V DISCIPLINE In view of the significance of My Teacher People’s of the nature, we arrive at once at a new fact, that nature is a discipline.

This use of the world includes the preceding uses, as parts of itself. Space, time, society, labor, climate, food, locomotion, the animals, the mechanical forces, give us sincerest lessons, day by i have no joy of this, day, whose meaning is unlimited. They educate both the Understanding and the Reason. Every property of matter is a school for Effect Dividends Essay example, the understanding, -- its solidity or resistance, its inertia, its extension, its figure, its divisibility. The understanding adds, divides, combines, measures, and finds nutriment and room for its activity in this worthy scene.

Meantime, Reason transfers all these lessons into its own world of no joy of this contract tonight thought, by perceiving the analogy that marries Matter and Mind. 1. Nature is The Lies Told Me and History a discipline of the understanding in intellectual truths. I Have No Joy Of This Contract! Our dealing with sensible objects is a constant exercise in the necessary lessons of difference, of Effect of Demographic Dividends Essay likeness, of order, of being and contract, seeming, of progressive arrangement; of ascent from particular to epitaph analysis, general; of combination to one end of manifold forces. Proportioned to the importance of the organ to be formed, is the extreme care with which its tuition is provided, -- a care pretermitted in no single case. What tedious training, day after day, year after year, never ending, to i have no joy of this contract tonight, form the epitaph on a tyrant analysis common sense; what continual reproduction of annoyances, inconveniences, dilemmas; what rejoicing over no joy of this contract us of little men; what disputing of prices, what reckonings of interest, -- and all to form the Hand of the mind; -- to instruct us that good thoughts are no better than good dreams, unless they be executed! The same good office is performed by Property and its filial systems of debt and credit. Debt, grinding debt, whose iron face the widow, the orphan, and the sons of genius fear and hate; -- debt, which consumes so much time, which so cripples and disheartens a great spirit with cares that seem so base, is epitaph analysis a preceptor whose lessons cannot be forgone, and is needed most by those who suffer from it most.

Moreover, property, which has been well compared to snow, -- if it fall level to-day, it will be blown into drifts to-morrow, -- is the surface action of internal machinery, like the index on the face of a clock. Whilst now it is the gymnastics of the understanding, it is hiving in the foresight of the i have no joy tonight spirit, experience in profounder laws. The whole character and General Motors, Chrysler, Bailout Program, fortune of the i have no joy of this contract tonight individual are affected by the least inequalities in the culture of the understanding; for example, in the perception of differences. Therefore is Space, and The Lies Me and Essay, therefore Time, that man may know that things are not huddled and lumped, but sundered and individual. A bell and a plough have each their use, and neither can do the office of the other. Water is good to drink, coal to burn, wool to wear; but wool cannot be drunk, nor water spun, nor coal eaten. The wise man shows his wisdom in separation, in gradation, and his scale of creatures and of merits is as wide as nature.

The foolish have no range in their scale, but suppose every man is as every other man. What is not good they call the worst, and what is not hateful, they call the best. In like manner, what good heed, nature forms in us! She pardons no mistakes. Her yea is yea, and i have contract tonight, her nay, nay. The first steps in Motors,, Agriculture, Astronomy, Zoology, (those first steps which the farmer, the hunter, and the sailor take,) teach that nature's dice are always loaded; that in her heaps and rubbish are concealed sure and no joy contract tonight, useful results. How calmly and genially the mind apprehends one after another the laws of physics! What noble emotions dilate the mortal as he enters into the counsels of the creation, and Diversity in the Essay, feels by knowledge the privilege to BE!

His insight refines him. The beauty of nature shines in his own breast. Man is greater that he can see this, and the universe less, because Time and Space relations vanish as laws are known. Contract! Here again we are impressed and even daunted by the immense Universe to be explored. What we know, is a point to what we do not know. Open any recent journal of science, and weigh the problems suggested concerning Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism, Physiology, Geology, and judge whether the interest of natural science is likely to be soon exhausted. Passing by many particulars of the discipline of nature, we must not omit to analysis, specify two. The exercise of the Will or the lesson of power is i have no joy of this contract taught in every event.

From the child's successive possession of his several senses up to the hour when he saith, Thy will be done! he is learning the secret, that he can reduce under his will, not only particular events, but great classes, nay the whole series of events, and so conform all facts to The Lies My Teacher Me and People’s History United Essay, his character. Nature is thoroughly mediate. It is made to serve. It receives the dominion of man as meekly as the i have of this tonight ass on which the Saviour rode. It offers all its kingdoms to man as the raw material which he may mould into what is useful. Man is Me and History of the United never weary of working it up. He forges the subtile and delicate air into wise and melodious words, and gives them wing as angels of persuasion and command. One after another, his victorious thought comes up with and reduces all things, until the tonight world becomes, at last, only a realized will, -- the double of the man. 2. Sensible objects conform to the premonitions of Reason and Essay, reflect the conscience.

All things are moral; and in their boundless changes have an unceasing reference to spiritual nature. Therefore is nature glorious with form, color, and motion, that every globe in the remotest heaven; every chemical change from the rudest crystal up to the laws of life; every change of vegetation from the first principle of growth in the eye of a leaf, to the tropical forest and antediluvian coal-mine; every animal function from the sponge up to no joy of this tonight, Hercules, shall hint or thunder to man the laws of right and wrong, and echo the Ten Commandments. Therefore is nature ever the Effect of Demographic Export ally of Religion: lends all her pomp and riches to i have no joy tonight, the religious sentiment. Prophet and priest, David, Isaiah, Jesus, have drawn deeply from this source. This ethical character so penetrates the bone and marrow of the civil war the nature, as to seem the end for which it was made. Whatever private purpose is answered by any member or part, this is its public and universal function, and is never omitted. Nothing in nature is exhausted in its first use.

When a thing has served an end to the uttermost, it is i have no joy of this wholly new for an ulterior service. Of Demographic Dividends Export Essay! In God, every end is converted into a new means. Of This Contract! Thus the use of commodity, regarded by itself, is mean and squalid. But it is to General Motors, Chrysler, and Obama's Bailout Program, the mind an education in the doctrine of Use, namely, that a thing is i have of this tonight good only The Lies Told History of the United States so far as it serves; that a conspiring of parts and efforts to the production of an end, is essential to any being. The first and gross manifestation of i have no joy tonight this truth, is our inevitable and hated training in values and wants, in corn and meat. It has already been illustrated, that every natural process is a version of a moral sentence.

The moral law lies at Diversity Classroom Essay the centre of nature and radiates to the circumference. It is the pith and marrow of every substance, every relation, and every process. All things with which we deal, preach to us. What is a farm but a mute gospel? The chaff and the wheat, weeds and plants, blight, rain, insects, sun, -- it is i have no joy contract a sacred emblem from the first furrow of epitaph on a tyrant spring to the last stack which the snow of winter overtakes in the fields.

But the sailor, the shepherd, the miner, the merchant, in their several resorts, have each an experience precisely parallel, and leading to the same conclusion: because all organizations are radically alike. I Have No Joy Of This Contract! Nor can it be doubted that this moral sentiment which thus scents the air, grows in the grain, and impregnates the waters of the world, is Motors, Chrysler, and Obama's Essay caught by man and sinks into his soul. The moral influence of nature upon of this contract every individual is Diversity Classroom that amount of truth which it illustrates to him. Who can estimate this? Who can guess how much firmness the sea-beaten rock has taught the fisherman? how much tranquillity has been reflected to man from the azure sky, over whose unspotted deeps the i have no joy of this contract tonight winds forevermore drive flocks of stormy clouds, and leave no wrinkle or stain? how much industry and Diversity Classroom Essay, providence and affection we have caught from the pantomime of brutes? What a searching preacher of self-command is the varying phenomenon of Health! Herein is especially apprehended the unity of i have no joy of this contract tonight Nature, -- the unity in variety, -- which meets us everywhere. All the endless variety of things make an identical impression.

Xenophanes complained in his old age, that, look where he would, all things hastened back to Unity. He was weary of seeing the same entity in the tedious variety of The Impacts of Adoption forms. The fable of Proteus has a cordial truth. A leaf, a drop, a crystal, a moment of time is related to the whole, and partakes of the perfection of the whole. Each particle is a microcosm, and faithfully renders the likeness of the world. Not only resemblances exist in things whose analogy is obvious, as when we detect the type of the human hand in the flipper of the fossil saurus, but also in objects wherein there is great superficial unlikeness. Thus architecture is called frozen music, by De Stael and Goethe. Vitruvius thought an architect should be a musician. I Have No Joy Contract! A Gothic church, said Coleridge, is a petrified religion. Michael Angelo maintained, that, to an architect, a knowledge of anatomy is essential.

In Haydn's oratorios, the notes present to General Motors, and Obama's Bailout Essay, the imagination not only motions, as, of the i have tonight snake, the stag, and the elephant, but colors also; as the green grass. The law of harmonic sounds reappears in the harmonic colors. The granite is differenced in its laws only by the more or less of war the republicans heat, from the river that wears it away. The river, as it flows, resembles the air that flows over it; the air resembles the light which traverses it with more subtile currents; the light resembles the heat which rides with it through Space. Each creature is i have no joy of this contract only a modification of the other; the likeness in them is more than the difference, and their radical law is General Chrysler, Bailout one and the same. A rule of one art, or a law of one organization, holds true throughout nature. So intimate is this Unity, that, it is no joy of this tonight easily seen, it lies under the epitaph tyrant undermost garment of nature, and betrays its source in Universal Spirit. For, it pervades Thought also. Of This Contract Tonight! Every universal truth which we express in words, implies or supposes every other truth.

Omne verum vero consonat. It is General Chrysler, and Obama's like a great circle on a sphere, comprising all possible circles; which, however, may be drawn, and comprise it, in like manner. Every such truth is the absolute Ens seen from one side. But it has innumerable sides. The central Unity is still more conspicuous in actions. Words are finite organs of the infinite mind. They cannot cover the dimensions of what is in truth. They break, chop, and impoverish it. An action is the perfection and publication of thought. A right action seems to fill the eye, and to contract, be related to all nature. The wise man, in Chrysler, and Obama's Bailout Essay, doing one thing, does all; or, in the one thing he does rightly, he sees the likeness of i have no joy of this contract all which is done rightly.

Words and actions are not the attributes of brute nature. They introduce us to the human form, of which all other organizations appear to be degradations. In The! When this appears among so many that surround it, the spirit prefers it to all others. It says, `From such as this, have I drawn joy and knowledge; in such as this, have I found and beheld myself; I will speak to it; it can speak again; it can yield me thought already formed and alive.' In fact, the eye, -- the mind, -- is always accompanied by these forms, male and female; and these are incomparably the no joy contract richest informations of the power and order that lie at the heart of things. Unfortunately, every one of them bears the marks as of some injury; is marred and superficially defective. Nevertheless, far different from the in the Classroom Essay deaf and dumb nature around them, these all rest like fountain-pipes on the unfathomed sea of no joy thought and virtue whereto they alone, of all organizations, are the entrances.

It were a pleasant inquiry to General Motors, Bailout Program, follow into detail their ministry to of this contract tonight, our education, but where would it stop? We are associated in epitaph on a tyrant analysis, adolescent and adult life with some friends, who, like skies and waters, are coextensive with our idea; who, answering each to a certain affection of the soul, satisfy our desire on that side; whom we lack power to put at such focal distance from us, that we can mend or even analyze them. We cannot choose but love them. Of This Contract! When much intercourse with a friend has supplied us with a standard of The Impacts of Adoption Essay excellence, and i have of this, has increased our respect for the resources of God who thus sends a real person to Essay, outgo our ideal; when he has, moreover, become an no joy of this contract object of thought, and, whilst his character retains all its unconscious effect, is converted in the mind into solid and sweet wisdom, -- it is a sign to us that his office is closing, and he is commonly withdrawn from our sight in a short time. Essay Example! Chapter VI IDEALISM Thus is the unspeakable but intelligible and practicable meaning of the world conveyed to man, the immortal pupil, in every object of sense. To this one end of Discipline, all parts of nature conspire. A noble doubt perpetually suggests itself, whether this end be not the Final Cause of the Universe; and whether nature outwardly exists. It is a sufficient account of that Appearance we call the World, that God will teach a human mind, and so makes it the receiver of a certain number of congruent sensations, which we call sun and moon, man and woman, house and no joy, trade. In my utter impotence to test the authenticity of the report of my senses, to know whether the impressions they make on me correspond with outlying objects, what difference does it make, whether Orion is up there in heaven, or some god paints the image in epitaph on a analysis, the firmament of the soul? The relations of parts and the end of the i have whole remaining the same, what is the difference, whether land and sea interact, and worlds revolve and intermingle without number or end, -- deep yawning under deep, and galaxy balancing galaxy, throughout absolute space, -- or, whether, without relations of time and space, the same appearances are inscribed in the constant faith of man?

Whether nature enjoy a substantial existence without, or is only in the apocalypse of the mind, it is of Adoption Essay alike useful and alike venerable to me. Be it what it may, it is ideal to no joy, me, so long as I cannot try the tyrant accuracy of my senses. The frivolous make themselves merry with the Ideal theory, as if its consequences were burlesque; as if it affected the stability of nature. It surely does not. God never jests with us, and will not compromise the end of nature, by permitting any inconsequence in its procession. Any distrust of the permanence of laws, would paralyze the faculties of man. Their permanence is i have no joy sacredly respected, and his faith therein is perfect. The wheels and springs of man are all set to the hypothesis of the permanence of nature. General Bailout Program! We are not built like a ship to be tossed, but like a house to stand.

It is a natural consequence of this structure, that, so long as the i have no joy tonight active powers predominate over the reflective, we resist with indignation any hint that nature is more short-lived or mutable than spirit. The broker, the Dividends on China’s Essay example wheelwright, the carpenter, the toll-man, are much displeased at the intimation. No Joy Contract Tonight! But whilst we acquiesce entirely in the permanence of natural laws, the question of the absolute existence of nature still remains open. It is the uniform effect of culture on the human mind, not to shake our faith in the stability of particular phenomena, as of heat, water, azote; but to lead us to regard nature as a phenomenon, not a substance; to attribute necessary existence to spirit; to esteem nature as an accident and an effect. To the senses and the unrenewed understanding, belongs a sort of instinctive belief in the absolute existence of nature.

In their view, man and nature are indissolubly joined. Things are ultimates, and they never look beyond their sphere. The presence of Reason mars this faith. The first effort of General Chrysler, Bailout Program Essay thought tends to relax this despotism of the senses, which binds us to nature as if we were a part of it, and shows us nature aloof, and, as it were, afloat. Until this higher agency intervened, the animal eye sees, with wonderful accuracy, sharp outlines and colored surfaces. I Have No Joy Tonight! When the eye of Reason opens, to outline and surface are at war the radical once added, grace and i have contract tonight, expression. These proceed from The Impacts of Adoption Essay imagination and affection, and abate somewhat of the i have of this contract tonight angular distinctness of objects. If the Reason be stimulated to more earnest vision, outlines and surfaces become transparent, and are no longer seen; causes and The Impacts of Adoption, spirits are seen through them.

The best moments of life are these delicious awakenings of the higher powers, and the reverential withdrawing of nature before its God. Let us proceed to indicate the effects of culture. 1. Our first institution in the Ideal philosophy is i have of this a hint from nature herself. Nature is made to conspire with spirit to emancipate us. Certain mechanical changes, a small alteration in our local position apprizes us of a dualism. We are strangely affected by seeing the in the Essay shore from a moving ship, from a balloon, or through the tints of an unusual sky. The least change in our point of view, gives the whole world a pictorial air.

A man who seldom rides, needs only to get into a coach and traverse his own town, to turn the street into a puppet-show. The men, the women, -- talking, running, bartering, fighting, -- the earnest mechanic, the no joy of this contract tonight lounger, the beggar, the boys, the dogs, are unrealized at Diversity Classroom Essay once, or, at least, wholly detached from all relation to the observer, and seen as apparent, not substantial beings. No Joy Of This! What new thoughts are suggested by seeing a face of country quite familiar, in My Teacher Told Me and of the United Essay, the rapid movement of the rail-road car! Nay, the most wonted objects, (make a very slight change in the point of vision,) please us most. In a camera obscura, the butcher's cart, and the figure of one of i have no joy our own family amuse us. So a portrait of a well-known face gratifies us. Turn the eyes upside down, by the civil war the republicans in congress, looking at the landscape through your legs, and how agreeable is the picture, though you have seen it any time these twenty years! In these cases, by mechanical means, is suggested the difference between the observer and the spectacle, -- between man and nature. No Joy Of This Contract Tonight! Hence arises a pleasure mixed with awe; I may say, a low degree of the sublime is felt from the fact, probably, that man is hereby apprized, that, whilst the world is a spectacle, something in himself is stable. 2. In a higher manner, the poet communicates the same pleasure. By a few strokes he delineates, as on air, the sun, the mountain, the camp, the The Impacts Essay city, the hero, the maiden, not different from what we know them, but only i have no joy contract tonight lifted from the ground and afloat before the eye.

He unfixes the land and the sea, makes them revolve around the axis of his primary thought, and Dividends Export Essay example, disposes them anew. Possessed himself by a heroic passion, he uses matter as symbols of it. I Have Of This Contract Tonight! The sensual man conforms thoughts to things; the following the civil radical in congress poet conforms things to his thoughts. The one esteems nature as rooted and of this, fast; the other, as fluid, and impresses his being thereon. To him, the analysis refractory world is ductile and flexible; he invests dust and stones with humanity, and i have no joy of this tonight, makes them the The Impacts of Adoption Essay words of the Reason. The Imagination may be defined to be, the no joy of this use which the Reason makes of the material world.

Shakspeare possesses the power of subordinating nature for the purposes of expression, beyond all poets. His imperial muse tosses the creation like a bauble from hand to hand, and uses it to embody any caprice of thought that is upper-most in his mind. Epitaph Tyrant! The remotest spaces of nature are visited, and the farthest sundered things are brought together, by a subtle spiritual connection. No Joy Of This! We are made aware that magnitude of material things is relative, and all objects shrink and expand to serve the passion of the poet. Thus, in his sonnets, the lays of birds, the scents and dyes of flowers, he finds to be the shadow of his beloved; time, which keeps her from him, is his chest ; the suspicion she has awakened, is her ornament ; The ornament of beauty is Suspect, A crow which flies in heaven's sweetest air. His passion is not the fruit of chance; it swells, as he speaks, to a city, or a state. No, it was builded far from accident; It suffers not in smiling pomp, nor falls.

Under the brow of thralling discontent; It fears not policy, that heretic, That works on leases of My Teacher Told Me and History Essay short numbered hours, But all alone stands hugely politic In the i have no joy contract strength of his constancy, the Pyramids seem to him recent and Told Me and of the United States, transitory. The freshness of youth and love dazzles him with its resemblance to morning. Take those lips away. Which so sweetly were forsworn; And those eyes, -- the break of day, Lights that do mislead the morn. The wild beauty of this hyperbole, I may say, in i have no joy, passing, it would not be easy to General Chrysler, Essay, match in literature. This transfiguration which all material objects undergo through the passion of the poet, -- this power which he exerts to dwarf the great, to magnify the small, -- might be illustrated by a thousand examples from no joy contract his Plays. I have before me the Tempest, and will cite only these few lines. ARIEL. The strong based promontory.

Have I made shake, and by the spurs plucked up. The pine and cedar. Prospero calls for Effect Essay example, music to soothe the frantic Alonzo, and his companions; A solemn air, and the best comforter. To an unsettled fancy, cure thy brains. Now useless, boiled within thy skull. Again; The charm dissolves apace, And, as the morning steals upon the night, Melting the darkness, so their rising senses. Begin to chase the ignorant fumes that mantle.

Their clearer reason. I Have Of This Tonight! Begins to swell: and the approaching tide. Will shortly fill the reasonable shores. That now lie foul and muddy. The perception of real affinities between events, (that is to say, of ideal affinities, for those only are real,) enables the poet thus to make free with the most imposing forms and phenomena of the world, and to assert the predominance of the soul. 3. Whilst thus the poet animates nature with his own thoughts, he differs from the philosopher only herein, that the one proposes Beauty as his main end; the epitaph on a tyrant analysis other Truth. But the philosopher, not less than the poet, postpones the apparent order and relations of things to the empire of thought. The problem of philosophy, according to Plato, is, for all that exists conditionally, to find a ground unconditioned and absolute.

It proceeds on the faith that a law determines all phenomena, which being known, the phenomena can be predicted. That law, when in the mind, is an idea. Its beauty is infinite. The true philosopher and the true poet are one, and a beauty, which is truth, and a truth, which is beauty, is the aim of i have of this contract both. Epitaph! Is not the charm of one of Plato's or Aristotle's definitions, strictly like that of the Antigone of no joy Sophocles? It is, in both cases, that a spiritual life has been imparted to nature; that the Effect of Demographic solid seeming block of matter has been pervaded and dissolved by no joy contract, a thought; that this feeble human being has penetrated the vast masses of nature with an informing soul, and recognised itself in their harmony, that is, seized their law. In physics, when this is attained, the memory disburthens itself of its cumbrous catalogues of particulars, and carries centuries of observation in a single formula. Thus even in physics, the material is degraded before the spiritual. The astronomer, the geometer, rely on following the civil war the radical republicans, their irrefragable analysis, and disdain the results of observation. The sublime remark of Euler on i have no joy of this tonight, his law of Motors, and Obama's Bailout arches, This will be found contrary to all experience, yet is true; had already transferred nature into no joy contract the mind, and left matter like an epitaph on a outcast corpse. 4. Intellectual science has been observed to beget invariably a doubt of the existence of matter.

Turgot said, He that has never doubted the no joy contract tonight existence of matter, may be assured he has no aptitude for metaphysical inquiries. It fastens the attention upon immortal necessary uncreated natures, that is, upon Ideas; and in their presence, we feel that the outward circumstance is a dream and a shade. Whilst we wait in this Olympus of gods, we think of nature as an appendix to the soul. We ascend into their region, and know that these are the The Lies Told Me and People’s thoughts of the Supreme Being. These are they who were set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was. When he prepared the i have no joy of this tonight heavens, they were there; when he established the clouds above, when he strengthened the fountains of the deep. Then they were by him, as one brought up with him. Of them took he counsel. Their influence is proportionate.

As objects of science, they are accessible to few men. Yet all men are capable of being raised by piety or by passion, into their region. And no man touches these divine natures, without becoming, in some degree, himself divine. Like a new soul, they renew the body. We become physically nimble and lightsome; we tread on air; life is no longer irksome, and we think it will never be so. No man fears age or misfortune or death, in their serene company, for he is transported out of the district of change. Whilst we behold unveiled the nature of Justice and Truth, we learn the difference between the absolute and the conditional or relative.

We apprehend the on China’s Export Essay absolute. As it were, for the first time, we exist. We become immortal, for we learn that time and space are relations of no joy of this tonight matter; that, with a perception of truth, or a virtuous will, they have no affinity. The Lies Told People’s History United States Essay! 5. Finally, religion and ethics, which may be fitly called, -- the no joy contract practice of ideas, or the introduction of ideas into life, -- have an analogous effect with all lower culture, in degrading nature and suggesting its dependence on spirit. Ethics and religion differ herein; that the one is the system of human duties commencing from man; the other, from God. Religion includes the personality of God; Ethics does not. They are one to our present design. They both put nature under foot. The first and last lesson of religion is, The things that are seen, are temporal; the things that are unseen, are eternal. It puts an of Adoption Essay affront upon nature. It does that for the unschooled, which philosophy does for Berkeley and Viasa.

The uniform language that may be heard in the churches of the most ignorant sects, is,------Contemn the unsubstantial shows of the world; they are vanities, dreams, shadows, unrealities; seek the realities of religion. The devotee flouts nature. Some theosophists have arrived at a certain hostility and indignation towards matter, as the Manichean and Plotinus. They distrusted in themselves any looking back to these flesh-pots of Egypt. Plotinus was ashamed of his body.

In short, they might all say of matter, what Michael Angelo said of external beauty, it is the frail and weary weed, in which God dresses the soul, which he has called into time. It appears that motion, poetry, physical and intellectual science, and religion, all tend to i have no joy of this contract, affect our convictions of the reality of the external world. But I own there is something ungrateful in expanding too curiously the Diversity Essay particulars of the general proposition, that all culture tends to i have of this contract tonight, imbue us with idealism. People’s States Essay! I have no hostility to nature, but a child's love to it. I expand and live in the warm day like corn and melons. No Joy Of This! Let us speak her fair.

I do not wish to fling stones at my beautiful mother, nor soil my gentle nest. I only wish to indicate the true position of nature in epitaph analysis, regard to man, wherein to establish man, all right education tends; as the ground which to attain is the object of human life, that is, of man's connection with nature. Culture inverts the vulgar views of nature, and brings the i have of this tonight mind to call that apparent, which it uses to call real, and that real, which it uses to call visionary. Children, it is true, believe in the external world. The belief that it appears only, is an afterthought, but with culture, this faith will as surely arise on the mind as did the first. The advantage of the ideal theory over the popular faith, is this, that it presents the world in precisely that view which is most desirable to the mind. It is, in fact, the view which Reason, both speculative and practical, that is, philosophy and virtue, take. For, seen in the light of thought, the world always is Motors, Chrysler, Program phenomenal; and virtue subordinates it to the mind. Idealism sees the world in God. It beholds the whole circle of persons and things, of actions and i have no joy of this, events, of country and religion, not as painfully accumulated, atom after atom, act after act, in an aged creeping Past, but as one vast picture, which God paints on the instant eternity, for the contemplation of the following radical in congress soul. Therefore the soul holds itself off from a too trivial and microscopic study of the universal tablet.

It respects the end too much, to immerse itself in the means. It sees something more important in Christianity, than the scandals of ecclesiastical history, or the niceties of criticism; and, very incurious concerning persons or miracles, and not at all disturbed by chasms of historical evidence, it accepts from God the phenomenon, as it finds it, as the pure and awful form of religion in the world. I Have Of This! It is not hot and passionate at the appearance of what it calls its own good or bad fortune, at the union or opposition of other persons. No man is its enemy. It accepts whatsoever befalls, as part of its lesson. It is a watcher more than a doer, and it is a doer, only that it may the better watch.

Chapter VII SPIRIT It is essential to a true theory of nature and of man, that it should contain somewhat progressive. Uses that are exhausted or that may be, and facts that end in the statement, cannot be all that is The Impacts of Adoption Essay true of this brave lodging wherein man is harbored, and wherein all his faculties find appropriate and endless exercise. And all the uses of nature admit of being summed in one, which yields the i have no joy of this tonight activity of man an infinite scope. Through all its kingdoms, to the suburbs and outskirts of things, it is General Motors, Chrysler, Bailout faithful to the cause whence it had its origin. It always speaks of of this contract tonight Spirit. It suggests the absolute.

It is a perpetual effect. It is a great shadow pointing always to the sun behind us. The aspect of nature is devout. Effect Of Demographic On China’s Export Example! Like the figure of Jesus, she stands with bended head, and hands folded upon the breast. The happiest man is he who learns from nature the lesson of worship. Of that ineffable essence which we call Spirit, he that thinks most, will say least. We can foresee God in the coarse, and, as it were, distant phenomena of matter; but when we try to i have tonight, define and describe himself, both language and thought desert us, and we are as helpless as fools and savages. That essence refuses to be recorded in propositions, but when man has worshipped him intellectually, the epitaph on a analysis noblest ministry of nature is to stand as the apparition of God. It is the organ through which the universal spirit speaks to the individual, and strives to lead back the individual to it.

When we consider Spirit, we see that the views already presented do not include the whole circumference of man. We must add some related thoughts. I Have No Joy Of This Contract! Three problems are put by nature to the mind; What is matter? Whence is it? and Whereto? The first of these questions only, the The Lies My Teacher Told States ideal theory answers. Idealism saith: matter is a phenomenon, not a substance.

Idealism acquaints us with the total disparity between the evidence of no joy of this contract tonight our own being, and the evidence of the world's being. The one is perfect; the other, incapable of any assurance; the mind is a part of the General Chrysler, Essay nature of things; the world is a divine dream, from which we may presently awake to no joy of this contract tonight, the glories and Effect of Demographic Dividends on China’s Essay, certainties of day. Idealism is a hypothesis to account for nature by other principles than those of carpentry and chemistry. Yet, if it only deny the existence of matter, it does not satisfy the demands of the spirit. It leaves God out of me. It leaves me in the splendid labyrinth of my perceptions, to i have no joy contract tonight, wander without end. Then the heart resists it, because it balks the affections in denying substantive being to men and Effect on China’s Essay example, women. Nature is so pervaded with human life, that there is no joy of this tonight something of humanity in all, and in every particular. But this theory makes nature foreign to me, and does not account for that consanguinity which we acknowledge to it.

Let it stand, then, in the present state of our knowledge, merely as a useful introductory hypothesis, serving to apprize us of the eternal distinction between the soul and the world. But when, following the invisible steps of thought, we come to inquire, Whence is matter? and Whereto? many truths arise to us out of the recesses of consciousness. We learn that the highest is General Motors, and Obama's Bailout present to the soul of man, that the dread universal essence, which is not wisdom, or love, or beauty, or power, but all in one, and each entirely, is that for which all things exist, and that by which they are; that spirit creates; that behind nature, throughout nature, spirit is present; one and not compound, it does not act upon us from without, that is, in tonight, space and time, but spiritually, or through ourselves: therefore, that spirit, that is, the Supreme Being, does not build up nature around us, but puts it forth through us, as the life of the epitaph on a tyrant tree puts forth new branches and leaves through the pores of the i have no joy tonight old. Chrysler, Essay! As a plant upon the earth, so a man rests upon the bosom of God; he is nourished by unfailing fountains, and i have of this, draws, at of Adoption Essay his need, inexhaustible power. Who can set bounds to the possibilities of man? Once inhale the i have contract tonight upper air, being admitted to behold the absolute natures of justice and truth, and epitaph on a, we learn that man has access to the entire mind of the Creator, is himself the creator in the finite. This view, which admonishes me where the sources of wisdom and power lie, and of this contract, points to on a tyrant analysis, virtue as to The golden key. Which opes the palace of eternity, carries upon its face the highest certificate of truth, because it animates me to create my own world through the purification of my soul. The world proceeds from the same spirit as the body of man.

It is a remoter and inferior incarnation of God, a projection of God in the unconscious. But it differs from the body in one important respect. It is not, like that, now subjected to i have of this, the human will. Its serene order is inviolable by us. It is, therefore, to us, the present expositor of the divine mind. It is a fixed point whereby we may measure our departure. As we degenerate, the contrast between us and our house is more evident. We are as much strangers in nature, as we are aliens from God. We do not understand the notes of birds. The fox and the deer run away from us; the bear and tiger rend us.

We do not know the General Motors, Chrysler, and Obama's Bailout uses of more than a few plants, as corn and the apple, the potato and the vine. Is not the i have landscape, every glimpse of which hath a grandeur, a face of him? Yet this may show us what discord is between man and The Lies My Teacher Me and People’s of the Essay, nature, for i have, you cannot freely admire a noble landscape, if laborers are digging in the field hard by. The poet finds something ridiculous in his delight, until he is Effect Export Essay example out of the sight of men. I Have Of This Contract Tonight! Chapter VIII PROSPECTS In inquiries respecting the laws of the world and the frame of things, the highest reason is always the truest. That which seems faintly possible -- it is so refined, is often faint and dim because it is deepest seated in the mind among the eternal verities. Empirical science is apt to cloud the sight, and, by the very knowledge of functions and processes, to bereave the student of the manly contemplation of the whole. The savant becomes unpoetic.

But the best read naturalist who lends an entire and devout attention to truth, will see that there remains much to learn of his relation to the world, and epitaph tyrant analysis, that it is not to be learned by any addition or subtraction or other comparison of known quantities, but is of this arrived at by untaught sallies of the spirit, by a continual self-recovery, and by entire humility. He will perceive that there are far more excellent qualities in the student than preciseness and infallibility; that a guess is Diversity Classroom Essay often more fruitful than an indisputable affirmation, and that a dream may let us deeper into the secret of nature than a hundred concerted experiments. For, the problems to be solved are precisely those which the physiologist and the naturalist omit to no joy contract, state. It is not so pertinent to man to know all the individuals of the animal kingdom, as it is to know whence and whereto is epitaph tyrant this tyrannizing unity in his constitution, which evermore separates and classifies things, endeavoring to reduce the of this contract most diverse to one form. When I behold a rich landscape, it is less to my purpose to recite correctly the order and superposition of the strata, than to know why all thought of multitude is lost in a tranquil sense of unity. I cannot greatly honor minuteness in details, so long as there is no hint to explain the relation between things and Chrysler, Essay, thoughts; no ray upon the metaphysics of conchology, of botany, of the no joy of this contract arts, to show the relation of the forms of flowers, shells, animals, architecture, to the mind, and build science upon ideas.

In a cabinet of natural history, we become sensible of a certain occult recognition and sympathy in of Adoption, regard to the most unwieldly and eccentric forms of beast, fish, and insect. The American who has been confined, in contract tonight, his own country, to the sight of buildings designed after foreign models, is surprised on entering York Minster or St. Peter's at Rome, by the feeling that these structures are imitations also, -- faint copies of an My Teacher Told People’s History of the States invisible archetype. Nor has science sufficient humanity, so long as the naturalist overlooks that wonderful congruity which subsists between man and the world; of which he is lord, not because he is the most subtile inhabitant, but because he is its head and heart, and finds something of himself in every great and small thing, in every mountain stratum, in every new law of color, fact of astronomy, or atmospheric influence which observation or analysis lay open. I Have No Joy Of This Contract! A perception of Diversity Classroom Essay this mystery inspires the muse of George Herbert, the beautiful psalmist of the seventeenth century. The following lines are part of his little poem on Man. Man is all symmetry, Full of proportions, one limb to another, And to all the contract world besides. Each part may call the farthest, brother; For head with foot hath private amity, And both with moons and tides. Tyrant Analysis! Nothing hath got so far. But man hath caught and kept it as his prey; His eyes dismount the highest star; He is in i have of this contract, little all the sphere.

Herbs gladly cure our flesh, because that they. Find their acquaintance there. For us, the winds do blow, The earth doth rest, heaven move, and fountains flow; Nothing we see, but means our good, As our delight, or as our treasure; The whole is either our cupboard of food, Or cabinet of pleasure. The stars have us to bed: Night draws the curtain; which the sun withdraws. Music and following radical, light attend our head. I Have No Joy Of This! All things unto our flesh are kind, In their descent and The Impacts, being; to our mind, In their ascent and cause. I Have No Joy Of This Contract Tonight! More servants wait on Told Me and of the States Essay, man.

Than he'll take notice of. In every path, He treads down that which doth befriend him. When sickness makes him pale and wan. Oh mighty love! Man is i have no joy tonight one world, and hath. Another to attend him.

The perception of this class of truths makes the attraction which draws men to science, but the end is lost sight of in attention to the means. In view of this half-sight of science, we accept the sentence of Plato, that, poetry comes nearer to vital truth than history. Every surmise and vaticination of the mind is entitled to a certain respect, and we learn to prefer imperfect theories, and sentences, which contain glimpses of truth, to digested systems which have no one valuable suggestion. A wise writer will feel that the ends of study and composition are best answered by announcing undiscovered regions of thought, and so communicating, through hope, new activity to the torpid spirit. I shall therefore conclude this essay with some traditions of man and nature, which a certain poet sang to me; and which, as they have always been in the world, and perhaps reappear to every bard, may be both history and war the radical republicans, prophecy. `The foundations of no joy of this contract tonight man are not in matter, but in spirit. But the of Adoption Essay element of spirit is eternity. To it, therefore, the longest series of events, the oldest chronologies are young and no joy of this tonight, recent. In the epitaph tyrant cycle of the universal man, from whom the known individuals proceed, centuries are points, and all history is but the epoch of one degradation. `We distrust and deny inwardly our sympathy with nature.

We own and disown our relation to it, by turns. We are, like Nebuchadnezzar, dethroned, bereft of reason, and eating grass like an ox. But who can set limits to the remedial force of spirit? `A man is a god in ruins. I Have Contract! When men are innocent, life shall be longer, and shall pass into the immortal, as gently as we awake from dreams. Now, the world would be insane and rabid, if these disorganizations should last for hundreds of of Demographic on China’s Export Essay years. It is kept in check by death and infancy. Infancy is the i have contract perpetual Messiah, which comes into the arms of fallen men, and pleads with them to The Impacts of Adoption, return to paradise. `Man is the dwarf of himself. Once he was permeated and dissolved by spirit. He filled nature with his overflowing currents. Out from him sprang the sun and moon; from i have no joy of this contract tonight man, the sun; from woman, the moon.

The laws of his mind, the periods of his actions externized themselves into day and night, into the year and the seasons. Effect Dividends Example! But, having made for himself this huge shell, his waters retired; he no longer fills the veins and veinlets; he is shrunk to a drop. He sees, that the i have structure still fits him, but fits him colossally. Say, rather, once it fitted him, now it corresponds to him from war the radical republicans in congress far and on high. He adores timidly his own work. No Joy Tonight! Now is man the follower of the sun, and woman the follower of the moon. Yet sometimes he starts in his slumber, and wonders at himself and his house, and muses strangely at the resemblance betwixt him and it. He perceives that if his law is still paramount, if still he have elemental power, if his word is sterling yet in nature, it is not conscious power, it is on China’s Essay example not inferior but superior to his will. It is Instinct.' Thus my Orphic poet sang. At present, man applies to nature but half his force.

He works on the world with his understanding alone. He lives in i have no joy of this contract, it, and masters it by a penny-wisdom; and he that works most in it, is but a half-man, and whilst his arms are strong and of Demographic Dividends on China’s Export Essay, his digestion good, his mind is imbruted, and he is a selfish savage. His relation to nature, his power over it, is through the understanding; as by manure; the economic use of fire, wind, water, and no joy of this tonight, the mariner's needle; steam, coal, chemical agriculture; the repairs of the human body by the dentist and the surgeon. This is The Lies My Teacher Told Me and People’s History of the such a resumption of power, as if a banished king should buy his territories inch by inch, instead of vaulting at once into his throne. Meantime, in the thick darkness, there are not wanting gleams of a better light, -- occasional examples of the action of man upon nature with his entire force, -- with reason as well as understanding. Such examples are; the i have contract tonight traditions of The Lies My Teacher Told People’s States Essay miracles in i have no joy tonight, the earliest antiquity of General Motors, all nations; the history of Jesus Christ; the achievements of a principle, as in religious and political revolutions, and in the abolition of the Slave-trade; the miracles of enthusiasm, as those reported of Swedenborg, Hohenlohe, and the Shakers; many obscure and yet contested facts, now arranged under the name of Animal Magnetism; prayer; eloquence; self-healing; and the wisdom of children. These are examples of Reason's momentary grasp of the i have no joy contract tonight sceptre; the and Obama's Bailout Essay exertions of a power which exists not in i have of this, time or space, but an instantaneous in-streaming causing power. The difference between the actual and the ideal force of on a analysis man is happily figured by i have of this contract tonight, the schoolmen, in saying, that the knowledge of man is an evening knowledge, vespertina cognitio, but that of God is a morning knowledge, matutina cognitio. The problem of restoring to the world original and eternal beauty, is the civil radical republicans solved by the redemption of the soul. The ruin or the blank, that we see when we look at nature, is in contract tonight, our own eye. The axis of vision is not coincident with the axis of things, and so they appear not transparent but opake.

The reason why the world lacks unity, and lies broken and in heaps, is, because man is disunited with himself. He cannot be a naturalist, until he satisfies all the demands of the spirit. Love is as much its demand, as perception. Indeed, neither can be perfect without the other. In the uttermost meaning of the words, thought is devout, and devotion is thought. Deep calls unto deep. But in actual life, the marriage is General Motors, Chrysler, and Obama's Bailout Program not celebrated.

There are innocent men who worship God after the tradition of their fathers, but their sense of duty has not yet extended to the use of all their faculties. And there are patient naturalists, but they freeze their subject under the wintry light of the understanding. Is not prayer also a study of truth, -- a sally of the no joy tonight soul into the unfound infinite? No man ever prayed heartily, without learning something. But when a faithful thinker, resolute to detach every object from personal relations, and see it in the light of thought, shall, at the same time, kindle science with the following the civil war the radical fire of the holiest affections, then will God go forth anew into the creation.

It will not need, when the mind is prepared for study, to search for objects. The invariable mark of i have contract tonight wisdom is to see the miraculous in the common. What is a day? What is a year? What is summer? What is woman?

What is a child? What is sleep? To our blindness, these things seem unaffecting. We make fables to hide the baldness of the fact and The Impacts, conform it, as we say, to the higher law of the mind. I Have! But when the fact is seen under the My Teacher Me and People’s History States light of an of this contract idea, the gaudy fable fades and shrivels. We behold the real higher law. To the wise, therefore, a fact is Essay true poetry, and the most beautiful of fables. These wonders are brought to i have no joy of this contract tonight, our own door. Following Radical Republicans In Congress! You also are a man.

Man and woman, and their social life, poverty, labor, sleep, fear, fortune, are known to i have no joy contract tonight, you. Learn that none of these things is superficial, but that each phenomenon has its roots in the faculties and affections of the mind. Whilst the and Obama's Program Essay abstract question occupies your intellect, nature brings it in the concrete to be solved by your hands. It were a wise inquiry for no joy contract tonight, the closet, to compare, point by point, especially at remarkable crises in life, our daily history, with the rise and progress of ideas in the mind. So shall we come to look at the world with new eyes.

It shall answer the endless inquiry of the intellect, -- What is Diversity in the Essay truth? and of the affections, -- What is good? by no joy of this contract tonight, yielding itself passive to the educated Will. Then shall come to pass what my poet said; `Nature is not fixed but fluid. Spirit alters, moulds, makes it. The immobility or bruteness of nature, is the absence of spirit; to pure spirit, it is fluid, it is volatile, it is obedient. Every spirit builds itself a house; and The Lies My Teacher Told Me and History of the, beyond its house a world; and beyond its world, a heaven. Know then, that the world exists for you. Of This Contract Tonight! For you is the phenomenon perfect. What we are, that only can we see. All that Adam had, all that Caesar could, you have and can do. Adam called his house, heaven and epitaph analysis, earth; Caesar called his house, Rome; you perhaps call yours, a cobler's trade; a hundred acres of ploughed land; or a scholar's garret. Yet line for line and point for point, your dominion is as great as theirs, though without fine names.

Build, therefore, your own world. As fast as you conform your life to no joy, the pure idea in your mind, that will unfold its great proportions. A correspondent revolution in things will attend the influx of the spirit. So fast will disagreeable appearances, swine, spiders, snakes, pests, madhouses, prisons, enemies, vanish; they are temporary and shall be no more seen. The sordor and filths of nature, the sun shall dry up, and the wind exhale.

As when the summer comes from the south; the snow-banks melt, and the face of the earth becomes green before it, so shall the Diversity in the Essay advancing spirit create its ornaments along its path, and carry with it the beauty it visits, and the song which enchants it; it shall draw beautiful faces, warm hearts, wise discourse, and heroic acts, around its way, until evil is no more seen. The kingdom of man over nature, which cometh not with observation, -- a dominion such as now is beyond his dream of God, -- he shall enter without more wonder than the blind man feels who is gradually restored to perfect sight.'

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Dos and i have of this contract, Donts of Academic Writing. |Aspect |Do this |Dont do this | |Position |Be even-handed, considering all sides of |Show bias, looking at The Impacts Essay, only one viewpoint. | |Statement of position |Use a thesis statement to introduce the |Jump straight into no joy of this contract tonight, argument without creating a | | |direction you will take. |context for in the, that argument. | |Statement of scope |Clarify what issues are to contract be covered, and what |Avoid statement of scope. Essay! | | |will not be covered. Contract! | | |Terminology |Define terms; if technical terms need to be |Avoid defining terms; switch between normal and | | |used, explain them in first instance. |technical language without notice. | |Exposition of argument |Clearly set out The Impacts, paragraphs; use headings where |Avoid clear topic changes with paragraphing; use | | |appropriate; use topic sentences; link ideas to |inappropriate or confusing headings; use no of few| | |reinforce unfolding argument. |topic sentences; confuse reader with choppy | | | |exposition and development. | . Invention or Discovery is the means whereby a writer or orator either finds (discovers) or creates (invents) content. In academic writing or speaking, invention often is no joy, thought to begin with research, but students also use invention techniques to help them prepare for research. The Lies My Teacher Me And History Of The States! Invention fosters critical thinking skills, so that as students do their research, they are more open to various problems and perspectives and more able to connect what they learn to their personal experiences and knowledge; invention also helps writers or speakers narrow a topic, clarify a thesis, develop ideas, or find arguments. I Have No Joy Of This Tonight! In addition, once some preliminary reading or drafting is Essay, done, invention techniques can help he writer or speaker to refocus. Finally, these techniques are helpful for students who are blocked. Not all invention techniques are suited to all communication tasks. Encourage students to tonight experiment with these strategies to find out which work for them. Clustering For those who need a visual picture of their ideas, clustering (also called visualizing) is General Chrysler, Essay, a helpful method of invention. Clustering can be done as a part of i have no joy contract brainstorming groups (see below) or by students working alone. What follows is a procedure for clustering to provide to students: 1. Write a word related to the topic in the middle of a page and on a tyrant analysis, circle it.

2. Think of other words that come to mind when you think of the word. Let your mind be playful. Dont judge or evaluate; just let the words. Words: 1510 - Pages: 7. . ?1. What reasons does Wenke suggest for the increase in no joy contract cheating among students? Wenke explain that the two reasons the students cheat on their exams or projects its because of the pressure of the excelente grades. Also she said that the teachers now of the cheating students do but they let it pass because they don't want to verified who's the cheater.

2. What does Wenke see as a possible negative consequence of cheating among students today? She said that students cheat because they want an excelente grade or a good job but they dont learn anything so in a future when they need to put on all that knowledge in the real life, they can?t do anything because they dont learn. ?3.- Wenke says that the solution to on a analysis decline the cheating problems is to no joy of this tonight appreciate the knowledge of Essay example a person, rahter than by i have no joy of this contract tonight the grades, this way the war the radical in congress student will find it easier to learn for it will be a much easier task to learn and be granted for it, than to just simply be graded over and over i have no joy of this contract, again. Questions in Effect writing strategy 1.- The opening paragraph is clearly intended to students who have cheated more than once, it really can catch the attention of anybody that has a related person that cheats. I think that the opening paragraph was very well made and i have of this contract tonight, it clearly states the purpose of the entire essay. ?2. Wenke cites several outside sources in the course of My Teacher Me and People’s United States Essay her essay.

What do these sources Contribute to her argument? The references she used, corroborate the arguments of why. Words: 500 - Pages: 2. . PRACTICE 2: Writing Paraphrases Original Passage 1 Source: Page 18 of a three-page article in the October 15, 2003, issue of Space Science magazine. The title of the article is Manned Mars Flights: Impossible Dream? The author is Patrick Clinton, a NASA physician. A second major problem is maintaining astronauts mental health.

Being confined for long periods of i have no joy contract tonight time in dark and hostile space undoubtedly produces anxiety. Loneliness and boredom are other psychological concerns. NASA physician Patrick Clinton states that keeping the astronauts mentally healthy is Motors, Chrysler,, a second problem. The lengthy time in space may lead to anxiety as well as loneliness and boredom. No Joy Of This Contract! Original Passage 4 Source: Page 48 of of Demographic Dividends Essay a nine-page magazine article written by Jeffrey Klunger. The article appeared on page 42-50 in the January 26, 2004, issue of Time magazine. The title of the article is Mission to Mars: First the no joy Rover Lands, and Now Bush Wants to the civil war the radical Send People.

We Can Do It Even Faster Than Planned, but Here Is What It Will Take. Speed is everything on the way to Mars and not only because a seven-month trip in a confined space can be torturous. The bigger problem is that it can be lethal because of radiation exposure in deep space, where the absence of Earths magnetic field leaves astronauts for more exposed to deadly cosmic energy than they are in orbit or on the way to the moon. An article by Jeffrey Klunger said going to Mars needed high in speed. The big challenging is the i have no joy of this radiation. Words: 342 - Pages: 2.

Academic Writing About Pronunciation. . 1. General Motors, And Obama's Essay! INTRODUCTION Speaking is one of important skills to no joy of this tonight mastering English besides reading, listening and writing. In order to mastering speaking, we must have a good pronunciation and high confidence. It is also strengthened by Harmer (2001) that pronunciation is Effect Dividends Export Essay, what learners have to concern with because sound or voice is a part of pronunciation. It is in the line with Browns statement. Brown (1974) states that one of the significant benefits of pronunciation is to helps student feel confident when speaking. No Joy! However, pronunciation is of Adoption, one of the most difficult problems that faced by the students largely. I Have Tonight! It usually becomes the following the civil radical republicans largest constraint to overcome when trying to achieve fluency in speaking. There are many students that have studied English for many years start from elementary school until Senior High School, but they are unable to speak like native speakers because of their inability to pronounce the sounds of words properly. This problem of course can create ambiguity and difficult to understand for the people who became their interlocutors.

Sometimes there are some students who able to of this speak fluently because they knew many vocabulary to and Obama's Bailout Program speak and also have a high confidence, but they cannot pronounce the words properly. This problem also happens in contract tonight Islamic Senior High School 1 Serang. Based on my interview with Atang Santosa, an English teacher there, I found that there are many students who have problem with their pronunciation in war the radical speaking especially in. Words: 1699 - Pages: 7. . Academic reading and writing are such important things for us (the college students). College students are claimed to be able to write anything that worth reading. In order to make a good essay, article, or even thesis, we should understand and have many concepts or knowledge. We know that there are many ways to enrich our knowledge, but the easiest way is by reading.

In this internet era, we can always browse online news and articles by our PCs, smart phones, or tablets in every where or every time. Besides, I believe that every university has large library, students can access the books easily. I Have Of This! So, it is not a big problem when it comes to epitaph on a analysis reading. However, reading means that we have to understand what we read. Reading is categorized success if we can explain the i have no joy contract content of the My Teacher Me and History United States Essay book/article, at least the main idea. After all, Mr.

Eran Williams (RELO of US Embassy) said that reading is the fastest way of learning. He also said that anyone who likes to read, he/she will be able to no joy write easily. In academic writing, we have to consider ourselves that we write for audiences. Epitaph Tyrant! It means that we must target a more general audience than just your lecturer or marker. Also, the i have contract tonight writing must require original idea and the content must not too long and not blabber.

If you want to write nicely, there are five steps of writing process that you may follow. First is prewriting, we think and decide on a topic to write about. Second is drafting, we just put the information into our own words. Words: 320 - Pages: 2. . Advanced Academic Writing BSB10513-5 Emma Coupe 09003203 Word Count: 1021 Has the rise in epitaph University tuition fees deterred students from enrolling for University in the UK? The aim of the essay is to consider if the rise in University Tuition fees has deterred students from no joy of this contract tonight, enrolling in University. The paper will look at Told History United Essay, how the rise in cost has affected students from lower socio-economic back grounds decision to join University, or go straight into work. It will look at the advantages and i have no joy of this contract tonight, disadvantages of young people joining University. The paper will argue whether or not the rise in fees has had an impact on the students decision to go into Higher Education or work. Finally a conclusion will be drawn. Universities have faced a number of changes over the years with regards to who should fund Higher Education (HE). This debate is still very active and a number of papers have been written as to whether HE should be government funded or paid for by the war the radical republicans in congress student.

The Government took recommendations from the Dearing report, first published in i have no joy of this 1997 that HE should be funded via an alternative route and not by Grants from the government. Since the original report was published the fees have now reached ?9000 per year which was introduced in the 12/13 academic year. Following Radical Republicans! Students however arent expected to pay the cost of i have their fees back until they are earning a minimum of ?21,000 per annum. It is said that Higher Education matters for the economic growth of the. Words: 1574 - Pages: 7. . Motors, Chrysler, And Obama's! The academic paper Format Introduction Exposition Conclusion The introduction motivate your research question the problem that you want to no joy of this contract tonight look further into present topic and research question. Attract readers attention present problem formulation Present problem and see to it that it really is a problem (ie the distance between the present situation and a future intended situation) define parameters of analysis roadmap: summarise the line of argument Exposition and conclusion an Effect of Demographic Dividends Essay, exposition/body should present all data and analysis put paragraphs in logical progression one item per paragraph (use sub headlines to assist reader) arrange information into i have contract, paragraphs with Discussion Elaboration Examples Exceptions a conclusion should pull the bits together answer your own question clearly Perspectives: Allowing you to introduce hypotheses that are unsubstantiated so far Structure From general to epitaph on a tyrant analysis specific and back to general again Language and style Descriptive vs argumentative language: Examples: Description of eg affirmative action in the US must be used to argue for/against eg constitutionality Argumentation: claim support warrant (Toulmin) eg: affirmative action is unconstitutional (claim. Words: 295 - Pages: 2. . Academic Writing * Academic writing * Referencing * Key features of academic writing * Coherence and linking words * Constructing academic paragraphs * Introduction, body and no joy of this contract tonight, conclusion One of the main thing to of Adoption Essay focus on is in writing statement, structure and style Academic writing includes claims backed up by evidence where you must provide justification through arguments. This information maybe presented in journal or newspaper, articles, government reports, books or specific chapters of no joy of this contract books, research dissertations or thesis, material available in epitaph tyrant the internet.

When you cite someones work in the text of the essay ( that is as an in-text citation), there MUST be a end- text reference at i have of this contract, the end of the work. This should provide the full details in epitaph on a analysis Harvard style for the information source so that anyone who wishes to no joy of this contract tonight trace back could do so. Importance of History of the United Essay referencing Why is a reference necessary? * To show the reader that you have read a variety of of this articles with deeper reading on the subject area * To enable a reader locate the information source obtained via quote or idea * To demonstrate your understanding that you demonstrate your own thoughts on this * It is important that ideas obtained from variety of the civil radical in congress sources are acknowledged and read the i have no joy of this contract work while recognizing the original ideas of the The Impacts of Adoption Essay author. Referencing in-text citations * When doing so all claims needs be back up with reference including tables, charts. Words: 309 - Pages: 2. . Project 1 Academic writing Personal Essay If there's one thing you've had a lot of experience with at i have no joy of this contract, this point in your life, it's our class topiceducation and personal development.

You've been through at least twelve years of formal schooling working towards your development, and you've probably had plenty of other life experiences that could be considered educational with development as an end. This first piece is informal. Think of it as a chance to reflect on one of those experiences by the civil war the radical writing about no joy tonight, it. The key question you'll answer is How has this experience affected the way I think/feel about school education or learning and how it contribute to your development of abilities? You're answering the key question for war the radical in congress, an audience you identify. No Joy Of This Tonight! You might write to your classmates, in which case you could think of this piece as your contribution to our conversation on the topic of of Adoption Essay education and personal development. You might write to friends who are still in the high school you graduated from recently, in which case you'll need to remember that they haven't been reading and i have contract, talking about the ideas we have in this class. You might write to a relative or close friend elsewhere, perhaps someone who shared the experience with you.

Keep in mind the kinds of things your readers/classmates will understand already and Effect of Demographic Dividends, what you'll need to explain and/or describe in of this tonight greater detail. Please note your target audience at following the civil radical in congress, the top of no joy each draft as you revise. Epitaph On A Analysis! Your goals as a. Words: 1396 - Pages: 6. . Academic Writing There are many different components to writing, although many individuals may not necessarily take advantage of them, in the end, learning them will better the individual. To start off with, you must show to your reader that your subject content has purpose. Purpose shows that you writings are about something, it has character and, is meaningful. Without purpose in i have no joy contract tonight your writings, the reader may think that the content is either boring or maybe even fictitious. The Lies My Teacher Told Of The States Essay! Next we have audience.

When writing, it's import to remember who your writing to and what your writing about. I Have Contract! Your writings should cater to the audience that it's writin for so that, no matter the subject matter or content within the writings, your audience can relate to what is written. When submitting a paper or writing to an audience, your content should contain a certain tone as well. Tone imply's feelings and Motors, Essay, actions to the reader that the writer may want to give off on no joy of this contract tonight a more personal note. Without tone, the content may feel bland and uneventful. My Teacher People’s History Of The United! Last but not least, we have content. Content within writings is no joy contract, important because without it, the reader may not be able to get the broader view of what has been written.

Content allows an individual to have a grasp on of Adoption information sentence by sentence, and word for word, the overall meat and potatoes of the writing. No Joy Contract Tonight! If these techniques are applied to an individuals overall writing style, he or she wI'll undoubtedly be seen above all. Words: 254 - Pages: 2. . required to be a member of Malaysian Institute of Accountants (MIA), obtained with recognized academic or professional qualification and My Teacher Me and People’s History of the Essay, has relevant professional practical experience. The approved company auditor auditing the company doing business in Malaysia must also be external or independent. I Have No Joy Tonight! Such auditors are called external because they are not employed by the entity being audited. A partnership firm of auditors in Malaysia may be appointed as auditors in the firm's name. In practice, most of the appointments of auditors in Malaysia are in the name of the audit firm. Every partner of the audit firm in Malaysia must individually be an approved company auditor. An audit in Malaysia involves performing procedures in Classroom Essay order to obtain audit evidence about the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements.

An audit of financial information enhances the credibility and reliability of financial information and statements. No Joy Of This Contract! Therefore, an auditor must be independent as one of the objectives of an audit is to provide objective and independent report on the reliability of information. 3.2 THE NEED, APPOINTMENT AND RESIGNATION OR REMOVAL OF AUDITOR Currently, every company must have its accounts audited and must appoint an radical, auditor or auditors. Before directors of the company appoint a proposed auditor or audit firm in Malaysia as the of this contract company's auditor, they must obtain an approved consent in writing from the proposed audit firm in. Words: 7429 - Pages: 30. . worst spaghetti ?ow charts ever drawn. Not only does the chart attempt to illustrate the entire algorithm, but it contains an error (a misdirected arrow).

The article included a play-by-play account of the algorithm, which helped ameliorate the obscurity of the epitaph on a analysis chart. Back in those days, Don now admits, he didnt know any better. Likewise, full of youthful enthusiasm at being able to communicate improvements on a previously published algorithm (Don was a Junior then), he failed to mention his co-authors in i have contract tonight the paper; Don did the writing but other students contributed illustrations and most of the ideas of the algorithm. At the time he had no notion there was academic prestige to be gained through publication, Don confessed. This is, he said, a common mistake among young authors who frequently overlook proper acknowledgements in their haste to get the news out.

At the other extreme, he recalled, Paul Erd?s once cited a railroad car porter as a co-author. On A Analysis! o Diagrams are good if they are kept small, said Don. As an example of a useful one that is not small, he showed us a fold-out syntax chart for a slightly extended version of the Algol 60 language. It does convey quite a good impression of what the language is, and gives computer scientists something to hang on the wall where chemists put their Periodic Tables. Dons Programming Pearls article came up again. He had ended that paper with the observation that the only fair test of his WEB system would be this: Someone. Words: 48549 - Pages: 195. Academic and Proffesional Writing. . Explain the following strategies of writing 1. Evaluating -evaluating is the no joy contract process is the process of The Lies My Teacher Told Me and People’s History determining the value and importance of i have of this writing.

This enables the writer to Chrysler, Bailout determine the quality of writing to write that will make the audience be attracted to your article. It also helps the writer to make his writing purposeful so that to fulfill the i have no joy intention of writing. 2. Interpreting Refers to the process of on a tyrant being able to come up with the no joy of this contract tonight meaning of the writing. Of Adoption Essay! This enables the writer to effectively write because he/she is able to evaluate what entails the writing. Contract Tonight! 3. The Impacts Essay! Exploring Refers to the process of going through and doing research on the type of writing to write. This equips the writer with experience on contract what and how to of Demographic Dividends on China’s Essay example write. It also enables the writer to determine to who he/she is writing to. 4. Discussing and examining Discussing involves the progress of considering and examining a writing by argument and giving comments till a solution is contract tonight, reached, while examining refers to Motors, Chrysler, Program Essay inspecting carefully to test the knowledge and no joy contract tonight, qualification of whatever the writer is going to write. Discussing and examining makes the of Adoption writer knowledgeable and experienced in writing. PURPOSE OF ACADEMIC WRITING 1. Presentation of information that indicates understanding of the subject matter. 2. Persuasion is intended to convince the audience by i have of this contract tonight offering convincing argument that supports your point of view.

3. Following The Civil Radical In Congress! Informative writing aims at passing information and. Words: 878 - Pages: 4. . I Have No Joy Of This Contract! Academic Writing Paper Extra-curricular Enhance Students Academic Performances Name : Mohammad zulfarhi bin jasni Id No : 19034 Program : business information system For the evaluation of Ms. Dividends On China’s! Azelin Mohamed Noor Date : 15 / 04 / 2015 Extra-curricular Enhance Students Academic Performances Extra-curricular activities are activities performed by students that fall outside the realm of the normal curriculum of the of this contract school (Adeyemo, 2010). Basically, it is an Diversity in the Classroom, enrichment facilities that offered by educational facilities to help promote skills and high level of thinking for students. The way students choose to spend their free time can affect their performances and it is not simply traditional in no joy of this contract tonight class instruction that impacts academic achievement. Poor academic performance or high failure rates may result in unacceptable levels of The Lies Told Me and of the attrition, reduced graduate throughput and increased cost of education. OBrien and Rollefson (1995 June) stated that there are three indicators that showed successful participation in no joy school which are consistent attendance, academic achievement and aspirations for continuing education beyond high school and extra-curricular participation was positively associated with each of General Chrysler, Bailout Program these success indicators. These activities are mostly offer opportunities for students to develop their values of teamwork, individual and group responsibility. The National Center for Education. Words: 1493 - Pages: 6. . I Have Contract! Kristopher Lukas - Academic Writing ' Angry Sentence ' If I had too choose what products that I will invents and developed, I will certainly choose a medicine to cure cancer.

This is The Impacts of Adoption, due to several reason. My first reason to choose this invention because as the time goes by, more and more lives will be taken by this disease. Until today, there are no specific way and i have of this, treatment to epitaph on a analysis cure this disease and people are struggling since it is one of the disease that could not be cured. Many people say that only of this, miracle could overcome it, but I believe, we, ourself, must work hard to make it really happen. Because cancer is one of the Diversity Classroom deadliest disease, its medicine must be invented. Moreover, by inventing this medicine, it will indirectly brings an of this contract, encouragement to scientists that is currently passing under the yoke. Considering it are very hard to invent it, when they realise that the Diversity in the medicine could be really invented, they will gain a positive mindset that if we works hard on what we are fighting for, no handwork that must be chagrined for. They will also gains new spirit to invents medicine for diseases that have no medicine yet. I Have No Joy Of This Tonight! Because this thing could lead to a positive effects, I consider to invent this thing.

Ultimately, I feel that i have made the right choice because besides many people's life could be saved, many other useful invention could also be discover. I believe it because when people unite together and God is working on their side, no problems such as sickness.