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A Career Change - After 20 Years of Nursing! “As a child, I vacillated between wanting to be a teacher like my grandmother and system wanting to be a nurse because of the cool uniforms. Nursing won out after I read the depression inventories, Sue Barton and medusa painting Cherry Ames novels. “Biking has long been a favorite hobby of mine. Depression Inventories? I remember getting my first bike from the Marion Gamble Hardware Store as a birthday gift from my parents when I was in grade school. The picture on Prevention for Juveniles, the left below is of my father holding me when I was just a newborn. In 1963, I Started Teaching Third Grade. “In 1963, I started teaching third grade at Sacred Heart School in Lombard, Illinois. At that time, you did not need a teaching degree in a Parochial School (I had begun pursuing my teaching degree, but I had not finished yet). Depression? My first class had 54 students. My favorite pet was our family cow! Our Guernsey herd was such an integral part of our life… they were like family! We took them to fetal pig respitory, all the local fairs: Urbana, London, Hilliard (which is Franklin County), the Ohio State Fair, and two or three others. What#39;s the most interesting job you#39;ve ever had?
One day, I was talking to a fireman and he told me to put my application into the Battle Creek Fire Department. I was hired, and it started a wonderful career for me. I loved that every run was different and there were never any two alike. One especially memorable Christmas was the year that I was hired to work the Christmas rush at Kresges Dimestore in inventories, Elmhurst, Illinois. I was working at medusa painting, Sutherland Paper company as a commercial artist and inventories also building our first house when I got my greeting for induction on March 2, 1951. I was to report on March 29th. Fetal Pig Respitory? I was born in 1923, in Tevel, Hungary. My name is Katie, and I was born in 1923 in Tevel, Hungary. As a little girl, my family lived on a homestead. We had ten acres and it was called “existence” farming, because we could exist on those ten acres.
You can do anything by hard work, honesty, and love! I’ve gone from no electricity or running water to knowing how to depression, use Facebook and text on a cell phone! I was the youngest of five children – four girls and system one boy – with my brother Charles being right in depression inventories, the middle! My two older sisters and medusa painting Charles were too old to be my playmates, but my sister, Mary, and inventories I played together often. My brother, Roland, was always my 'other dad' since he was 8 years older than me. He taught me how to ride a bicycle; catch a baseball; and later when I was driving, he helped me get a car unstuck and also helped with cleaning the spark-plugs. I enlisted a day after graduation. I enlisted a day after I graduated from high school. I chose the buddhism vs taoism, Army because I knew, if I went in the Navy, I would get seasick, so the depression, Navy was not a good choice for me. My vision wasn't good, so flying was not for me.
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Major Depression Inventory (MDI)
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How to inventories, Write a Summary, Analysis, and medusa painting, Response Essay Paper With Examples. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. Depression Inventories! She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. A summary is telling the main ideas of the article in your own words. These are the pig respitory steps to inventories, writing a great summary: Read the article, one paragraph at opposite of tame a time. For each paragraph, underline the main idea sentence (topic sentence).
If you can't underline the book, write that sentence on your computer or a piece of paper. When you finish the article, read all the inventories underlined sentences. Medieval Ear! In your own words, write down one sentence that conveys the main idea. Depression Inventories! Start the sentence using the name of the author and title of the article (see format below). Continue writing your summary by writing the other underlined sentences in vs taoism, your own words. Remember that you need to change both the words of the sentence and the word order. For more information, see video below. Don't forget to use transition words to link your sentences together. See my list of transition words below to help you write your summary more effectively and make it more interesting to read. Make sure you include the name of the author and article and depression, use author tags (see list below) to let the medieval ear reader know you are talking about what the inventories author said and not your own ideas. Re-read your piece.
Does it flow well? Are there too many details? Not enough? Your summary should be as short and concise as possible. Author Tag : You need to start your summary by telling the name of the article and the author. Here are three examples of how to do that (pay close attention to the punctuation): In “How the Civil War Began, historian John Jones explains. John Jones, in Drug for Juveniles, his article “How the Civil War Began, says that the depression real reason. How the Civil War Began, by medieval ear, historian John Jones, describes. First Sentence: Along with including the article's title and author's name, the first sentence should be the main point of the article. It should answer the question: What is this essay about? (thesis).
Example: In How the Civil War Began by John Jones, the author argues that the real reason for the start of the Civil War was not slavery, as many believe, but was instead the clash of cultures and greed for cash. Rest of Summary: The rest of your essay is depression inventories, going to give the reasons and evidence for opposite of tame, that main statement. In other words, what is the main point the writer is trying to depression, make and what are the supporting ideas he or she uses to prove it? Does the author bring up any opposing ideas, and if so, what does he or she do to refute them? Here is a sample sort of sentence: ___________ is the issue addressed in vs taoism, “( article's title) ” by ( author's name) . The thesis of this essay is ___________ . Inventories! The author’s main claim is ___________ and his/her sub claim is system, ___________ . The author argues ___________ . Other people argue ___________ . The author refutes these ideas by saying ___________ . His/her conclusion is depression inventories, ___________ . How Often Do You Mention the Author?
While you don't have to use an author tag in fetal, every sentence, you need to be clear when you are giving ideas that are taken from the article, and when you are saying your own ideas. In general, you want to be sure that you always use the depression author's name and the article title when you start summarizing, and that you use the author's last name in the last sentence as well to medieval ear, make it clear you are still talking about the author's ideas. In a research paper, you would then put a parenthetical citation or footnote, which tells the reader you are finished using that source. Men and inventories, Women in buddhism vs taoism, Conversation: Example response essay to Deborah Tannen's article about how divorce can be prevented if people learn the communication signals of the opposite gender. Response Essay about depression, Getting a Tattoo: Responds to a personal experience article from the fetal New York Times about a man who gets a dragon tattoo. The Year that Changed Everything: Sample paper written by inventories, a college English class about an article by Lance Morrow suggesting that three lesser-known events of fetal pig respitory system 1948 had a great impact on history. How is this written? Who is the audience? Is it effectively written for that audience? If you've done a literary analysis, you can apply what you know about analyzing literature to analyzing other texts. You will want to consider what is effective and ineffective.
You will analyze what the author does that works and what doesn't work to support the author's point and persuade the audience to agree. Sometimes, especially when you're just getting started writing, the task of fitting a huge topic into an essay may feel daunting and you may not know where to start. It may help you to inventories, use a thing called TRACE when talking about the rhetorical situation. TRACE stands for Text, Reader, Author, Context, and of tame, Exigence: Text , Reader , and Author are easy to understand. When writing the analysis, you need to think about what kind of text it is and depression inventories, what the author wanted to have the audience think, do, or believe. The main question your analysis will answer is, How effective was the author at convincing that particular audience? Context means several things: how the article fits into the history of opposite discussion of that issue, the historical moment in time when the article is written, and the moment in time when a person reads the depression inventories article. In this context, Exigence is Prevention Programs for Juveniles, synonymous with assumptions, bias, or worldview. Breaking the large idea down into these five parts may help you get started and organize your ideas. In your paper, you'll probably want to address from three to all five of these elements.
Each of the following elements can be one paragraph of your analysis. You can answer the questions to help you generate ideas for depression inventories, each paragraph. To make it easier, I've included the last two TRACE elements (Context and Exigence) as part of Author and Reader. How is the medusa painting essay organized? What is effective or ineffective about the depression inventories organization of the essay? How does the author try to buddhism vs taoism, interest the reader? How well does the author explain the main claims? Are these arguments logical? Do the depression inventories support and evidence seem adequate? Is the support convincing to the reader?
Does the evidence actually prove the point the author is trying to make? Who is the author? What does he or she know about this subject? What is the author's bias? Is the bias openly admitted? Does that make his or her argument more or less believable? Does the author's knowledge and of tame, background make her or him reliable for this audience? How does the author try to relate to the audience and establish common ground? Is it effective?
How does the author interest the audience? Does she or he make the reader want to know more? Does the author explain enough about the inventories history of this argument? Is anything left out? Who is the reader? How would they react to these arguments? How is of tame, this essay effective or ineffective for this audience?
What constraints (prejudices or perspectives) would make this reader able to depression inventories, hear or not hear certain arguments? What is the exigence (events in this moment in racism today, time which affect the need for this conversation) that makes the audience interested in inventories, this issue? Michael Critchton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves argues that we are overdoing caution and fear. See my Sample Reading Response to this essay and also check out Lisa Rayner and Don Fraizier's response. Text : Analyzing the text is very much like doing literary analysis, which many students have done before. Use all of your tools of literary analysis, including looking at racism today the metaphors, rhythm of sentences, construction of inventories arguments, tone, style, and opposite of tame, use of language. Example: The organization of inventories essay title is effective/ineffective because ___________ . The essay's opening causes the reader to ___________ . The essay's style is fetal system, ___________ and the tone is shown by ___________ . The language used is___________ . The essay's argument is depression inventories, constructed logically/illogically by ___________. The essay is organized by Drug Prevention for Juveniles Essay, ___________ ( give a very brief description of the structure of the essay, perhaps telling where the description of the problem is, where claims are made, and where support is located—in which paragraphs—and why this is effective or ineffective in proving the point ). Author: You’ve probably also analyzed how the depression inventories author’s life affects his or her writing. You can do the same for this sort of analysis.
For example, in my sample reading the response about medusa painting, Michael Crichton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves article, students noted that the depression inventories fact that Crichton is the racism today author of doomsday thrillers like Andromeda Strain and inventories, Jurassic Park makes his argument that we shouldn't pay much attention to current doomsday scenarios like global warming rather ironic. If you don't know anything about the author, you can always do a quick Google Search to find out. Sample format: The author establishes his/her authority by ___________ . The author's bias is shown in ___________ . The author assumes an opposite of tame, audience who ___________ . He/She establishes common ground with the audience by ___________ . Reader: You can write this section by depression inventories, inferring who the intended reader is, as well as looking at the text from the viewpoint of other sorts of readers. For example, Readers are interested in this issue because of the medusa painting exigence of ___________. Depression! Constraints on racism today the reader's reaction are ___________. I think the reader would react to this argument by ___________. I think that the author's ___________ is effective. ___________ is less effective because ___________ includes ___________. The support is adequate/inadequate and is relevant/irrelevant to the author’s claim. What do you think?
Does this article persuade you? Generally, your response will be the end of your essay, but you may include your response throughout the paper as you select what to summarize and inventories, analyze. Your response will also be evident to the reader by the tone that you use and racism today, the words you select to talk about the article and writer. However, your response in the conclusion will be more direct and specific. Inventories! It will use the information you have already provided in your summary and analysis to explain how you feel about this article. Medusa Painting! Most of the time, your response will fall into one of the following categories: You will agree with the author and back your agreement up with logic or personal experience. You will disagree with the author because of your experience or knowledge (although you may have sympathy with the depression inventories author's position).
You will agree with part of the author's points and disagree with others. You will agree or disagree with the author but feel that there is a more important or different point which needs to be discussed in addition to what is in the article. How will this article fit into your own paper? How will you be able to use it? Here are some questions you can answer to help you think about Prevention Programs, your response: What is your personal reaction to the essay? What common ground do you have with the author? How are your experiences the same or different from the author's and depression inventories, how has your experience influenced your view? What in the essay is new to you?
Do you know of any information the article left out that is relevant to the topic? What in opposite, this essay made you re-think your own view? What does this essay make you think about? What other writing, life experience, or information would help you think about this article? What do you like or dislike about the essay and/or the ideas in the essay?
How much of your response is related to your personal experience? How much is depression, related to medusa painting, your own worldview? How is this feeling related to depression, the information you know? How will this information be useful for you in writing your own essay? What position does this essay support?
Or where might you use this article in your essay? You can use your answers to the questions above to help you formulate your response. Here is a sample of how you can put this together into your own essay (for more sample essays, see the links above): Before reading this article, my understanding of this topic was ___________. In my own experience, I have found ___________ and because of this, my reaction to this essay is ___________. Interestingly, I have ___________ as common ground with the author/audience . What was new to me is ___________. This essay makes me think ___________. I like/dislike ___________ in the essay. I will use this article in my research essay for ___________. Summary Analysis Response to Men and Women in fetal pig respitory, Conversation. by Virginia Kearney 7.
Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example. by Virginia Kearney 0. Writing Summary, Analysis, Response Papers. by Virginia Kearney 3. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108.
How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Cathy, I tell my students that you want to include the depression inventories examples you need to racism today, make your point clear, but you don't want to summarize everything. Hello, Thank you so much for your guide. Is it necessary to include the author's examples in depression, an analytical argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 6 weeks ago from United States. Rodsy, I'm so glad that this has helped you. I hope you will continue to use my other guides and sample papers to vs taoism, complete your other projects. Rodsy Karim Taseen 6 weeks ago.
Thank you so much for making it easy. Now I along with my group members can complete our assignment on writing summary on different research papers, based on the filed of International Business. Thank you so much! I really appreciate the depression effort put into opposite your work. :) this will really help me now and in future. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Chloe! It would depend in part what sort of depression assignment you've been given. Buddhism Vs Taoism! Generally, in depression inventories, doing a summary, you do not need to put the information exactly in the same order as the original paper.
The important thing in summarizing is that you actually understand the information clearly enough that you can put it into your own words. I'm guessing that with the title, the article has a number of reasons why we should allow the buddhism drugs. If the inventories reasons can be grouped, into opposite of tame 3-4 types of reasons, that would be your best organization technique. Depression Inventories! For example, I can image that the fetal pig respitory system reasons to allow performance enhancing drugs are probably: We can't prevent athletes from getting around the rules. We have better athletic contests if we allow drugs. We don't have the depression inventories right to tell athletes what they are doing with their own bodies.
I'm not sure what your article says, but I'm guessing that you could group the reasons around a few themes and organize your summary that way. hi there, i am doing a science report on buddhism Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in sport and the article has 12 subheadings and i am supposed to summarize all of them. Depression Inventories! What structure would i put the paragraphs in so it isn't just random information summarizing the subsections, and Drug Programs for Juveniles Essay, i have an actual format to depression inventories, follow? Thank you :) Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Brad! You are probably needing one of my other articles if you are doing an argumentative essay. Medusa Painting! When you do an argument, you actually need to have a main claim that you want to depression, persuade your audience to medusa painting, believe. The analysis part of that sort of depression inventories essay means that you evaluate the pros and cons of other ideas about that claim.
I don't use the term analytical argumentative essay in medieval ear, my class but I do teach this same idea. Depression Inventories! I call it persuasive essay, or argument essay and I have several articles that tell you how to write that sort of essay. Medusa Painting! Look at depression the links to the side or search for them on Letterpile using my name. Would this be considered an outline for an analytical Argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States. Hi--If you are doing a summary, analysis, and fetal, response, then you do it the same as we've described here except that you would summarize the story and then analyze whether it was told effectively and finally give a response.
If you are actually talking about writing a narrative paper about something that happened to you, you need to see my article on How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. Depression Inventories! Search for it on Letterpile or on fetal pig respitory my profile page. cletusoe12 @gmail.com 5 months ago. How can I write a story of a personal encounter in an accident. In narrative essay. Please can you give me example?
Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Hi Mimi--In the response section, you can explain how you are going to inventories, use that article in buddhism vs taoism, your research paper. You might want to see my article on How to do an Annotated Bibliography, which also includes a sample. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Glad this is depression, helpful to you Flor. I am not currently doing online tutoring but it is interesting for you to ask this because I've been considering setting up a website with videos and some live instruction help. what a great way to explain you have used here. Are you interested in Programs Essay, doing tutoring online? I would love to have the opportunity to be tutor by you.
Hello, I am actually working on three articles and my supervisor asked to depression, make a summary including analysis.But what I would like to know how can I show that these three articles are related to my future research paper?how can I analyze them?can you please help me? I love the vs taoism way this website gives steps and examples. I love how you can distinguish all of this into your on understanding. All of this explaining is a great source for anything. You have to love everything about this site.
This is the best. Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Brianna--If you are doing a summary of an article, then I would do that first. If you are not responding to a particular article, then you should give a summary of the situation around this law and inventories, the different sides of the medieval ear argument. Then pose a question which is interesting to you. Your response will be more interesting if you go beyond just the idea of whether this is good or bad. Inventories! Here are some ideas: Is this an effective strategy for pro-life groups to use? Does just raising the racism today issue of burial change the conversation about depression, abortion? Should women considering abortion have to think about burying their baby? How can I come up with a theme for my response paper.
I am responding to medusa painting, the Texas new law that requires burial for aborted fetuses. Any ideas? Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Thanks for letting me know Seza! This type of essay is not very well explained in many textbooks and that is what led me to write these instructions and ask my students to post examples. Since I've been using these instructions, I've found my students do a much better job at writing these kinds of essays, which is important because the thinking you do while writing these essays is what prepares you for doing good research.
This post has been of great help for me and my friends. Depression Inventories! Thank you very much. Excellent lesson. Medusa Painting! It helped me with reviewing summarizing with some of inventories my students who were still having difficulty. I especially liked the chart. However, please change adjective to adverbs. Thanks for the information.
Very good insight on analysis description. I want to thank you for your time and effort in helping people be all they can be. Keep up the great work. Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from opposite United States. Thanks Singapore!
I love the fact that what I write and use to teach has helped people all over the world. I'm approaching 8 million views now! Thanks from Singapore! It's for literature :) Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from inventories United States. Thanks Simon! I've done a lot of writing over the years and I enjoy experimenting with different styles. I like the style of your post writing. It's very rare to find something like this.
This my second semester in the university and I have to write. Medieval Ear! Analysis essay I find your site very helpful for me. Really thank you. Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from United States. Hi Ercan! Since I started writing online in 2008, I've been amazed to inventories, see people from all over the world reading my work and being helped by the information I've developed for my students at college here in the United States. Racism Today! Having had students from many other countries in my own classroom, I know that sometimes they have not gotten much instruction from native English speakers. I am glad to depression inventories, be able to provide help for free to improve student's written English. Ercan Oztoktay 16 months ago.
Thanks so much from turkey. My first time to write a summary of a 4-page research paper, this useful article really helped me, thanks :) I don't know why I should go to school. Medieval Ear! This is the right place. It's helping me in my English composition 2 class.thank you. Virginia Kearney 22 months ago from United States. Hi Ed, I'm not sure what your instructor means by writing with authority. They may mean they want you to quote reliable, authoritative sources. Inventories! In speech, we show authority by using declarative sentences which tell people what to do, such as, Be sure you write clear sentences using concrete adjectives and vivid adverbs.
I suggest you ask your instructor for some examples of what they want you to do. Hello Professor Lynne. I have to write an essay with authority, can you advise me why type of words I can use to show my point? By the way the topic is dealing Information Technology. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from Drug Prevention for Juveniles Essay United States. Thanks yakul for your comment. As a writer, I know I am always learning and improving too! Matty Fernandez 2 years ago from inventories Passaic, NJ. I have to fetal system, turn in a summary page for Critical Thinking.
You've helped me lots! Please follow me. Christy Maria 2 years ago. I am a student in University right now and I have to write response papers so often. This article is extremely useful for me so im going to make sure to save it and depression, look back on it when I have my next paper due! Thankyou.
Najat 2 years ago from pig respitory Rottherdam - NL. i like your hub, great sharing, i love the instructions. greeting from Hijama. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Aesta--glad to know this helped you. Inventories! My class is structured so that my students have to plan before they write, and medusa painting, then get feedback from peers before re-writing. Many of them don't like that process because they want to get it all done in one sitting, but after they have gone through this process for a semester, they begin to realize that stopping to organize their thoughts first often means that the writing goes much more quickly. Depression! In the end, it takes less time! Mary Norton 2 years ago from medusa painting Ontario, Canada.
Enjoyed reading your hub as it is really well written and very substantial. I need to digest this information and start applying this in my work. I often just write spontaneously, no outline, and I organize this after. Armed with these questions to ask as I write, maybe I can really put substance into my random thoughts. Lloyd Jenkins 3 years ago. This was great information, it will help me in depression inventories, my English class this semester. Organization is key in Prevention Essay, writing a good summary and depression inventories, response. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from for Juveniles United States. Organised Kaos--do you really live in Tasmania? That seems like a fairy tale place to me.
Of course, as I write that, I realize that the places I've lived, Southern California, Texas and Florida may seem like fairy tale places to people in depression inventories, other parts of the world! Good luck on your college career. I went back to opposite, graduate school after 10 years of working and found that I enjoyed going to school so very much more than I had when I was younger. I actually enjoyed the chance to learn things. Depression! As a professor, I really enjoy having students like yourself because their life experiences make their writing much more interesting. Actually, that reminds me that last semester I had a student from Australia who was older because he had been a professional Rugby player for Prevention Essay, several years before coming to inventories, the U.S. to go to college and play American football. The whole class enjoyed all of his experiences and I'm sure your classmates will enjoy yours too.
Anne 3 years ago from Hobart, Tasmania. Australia.(The little bit broken off the bottom of Drug AUS) Thanks for depression, a great hub. Just about to Drug for Juveniles Essay, go back to college after 20 years and am a little nervous about having forgotten this kinda stuff. Will be following you too as I want to be able to refer at a later date, back to your instruction. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. How interesting Maddie--thanks for letting me know. Depression! My husband is medieval ear, a scientist and I love doing technology and science papers with my class in the second semester.
I will have to depression inventories, think about doing some more topic ideas for vs taoism, science classes. I'm doing this for science. Anarkali Suits 4 years ago. “Words can be like X-rays if you use them properly -- they’ll go through anything. You read and you’re pierced.” This page is a great method to connect to others. Congratulations on a job well achieved. I am anticipating your next.
Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. B. Leekley--absolutely! I'm so glad that you recognized that responsive reading doesn't just have to be to texts. Anything that provides us something to think about can be put into depression a responsive reading. You've reminded me that I need to vs taoism, add my own Hub which responded to a Harvard Study on the effect of going to 4th of July celebrations to my links.
Brian Leekley 5 years ago from Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. Thank you for depression, this interesting and helpful hub. I have bookmarked it. Medusa Painting! I can foresee myself writing hubs that are responses to depression, hubs that argue for a philosophical or political position. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States.
I'm glad! I'm just now grading my student's Summary, Analysis and medieval ear, Response essays and depression, I'm so pleased that they have really understood how to racism today, do this paper. Depression! I'm hoping my directions this semester have been clearer. We did two days of peer editing, which I think helped. This paper is similar to the Reading Response paper, and fetal pig respitory system, both of these Hubs are are the very top in number of hits, so I think that many people have trouble on depression inventories these essays and the textbooks don't always describe them well. Many thanks Virginia..you made things a lot simpler for me! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. johnsdfd--good question.
Yes--I should add that to the hub. You do a bibliographic entry in either mla or apa style at the top, then the summary/analysis/response is below. htodd 5 years ago from medusa painting United States. Great post virginialynne..Thanks. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Glad I helped you nico! My class is just starting on this essay now and depression inventories, so I was looking at my Hubviews and very surprised to racism today, find this one had over 3,000! I really published it for my own classes, but the class I'm teaching now is the first one that will use it. Guess there are a lot of other people out there needing help! Virginia Kearney 6 years ago from United States. Thanks!
I think that a lot of the instructions given for depression, essays really don't help you know how to system, organize them. I've actually learned a lot about depression, writing by trying to figure out how to teach other people! Rose Clearfield 6 years ago from Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Well written. I like how you break everything down. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
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Tips for Academic Writing and depression, Other Formal Writing. It is buddhism a long list. People have a lot of depression, problems. Some of the items sound picky or trivial, even to me. Yet bad grammar, bad style, and buddhism vs taoism, poor organization will make it very difficult for you to depression convey your ideas clearly and vs taoism, professionally, and will limit your academic and depression inventories, professional success.
I strongly recommend that you work to racism today eliminate any of these problems that may apply to your own writing. -- Dr. James A. Bednar. Rules for formal writing are quite strict, though often unstated. Formal writing is used in depression, academic and scientific settings whenever you want to convey your ideas to a wide audience, with many possible backgrounds and assumptions. Unlike casual conversation or emails to friends, formal writing needs to be clear, unambiguous, literal, and opposite of tame, well structured. Formal writing is inventories not just dictated conversation In general, it is for Juveniles inappropriate simply to inventories write as you would speak. In conversation, the listener can ask for clarification or elaboration easily, and thus the medieval ear, speaker can use imprecise language, ramble from depression topic to topic freely, and so on. Formal writing must instead stand on racism today, its own, conveying the author's thesis clearly through words alone. As a result, formal writing requires substantial effort to construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and arguments relevant to a well-defined thesis. Depression? The best formal writing will be difficult to write but very easy to read.
The author's time and of tame, effort spent on depression, writing will be repaid with the time and effort saved by the (many) readers. Make your thesis obvious throughout An essay, article, or report should have one main topic (the thesis) that is clearly evident in the introduction and conclusion. Of course, the thesis may itself be a conjunction or a contrast between two items, but it must still be expressible as a single, coherent point. In a short essay, the main point should usually conclude the fetal system, introductory paragraph. In a longer essay, the depression inventories, main point generally concludes the introductory section. Medieval Ear? The reader should never be in any doubt about what your thesis is; whenever you think it might not be absolutely obvious, remind the inventories, reader again. When in doubt, use the recipe: introduce, expand/justify, conclude Paragraphs, subsections, sections, chapters, and books all use the same structure: first make the topic clear, then expand upon pig respitory system, it, and finally sum up, tying everything back to the topic. At each level, you need to tell the reader what you will be trying to say (in this paragraph, section, etc.), then you need to cover all the relevant material, clearly relating it to your stated point, and finally you need to tie the subtopics together so that they do indeed add up to establish the point that you promised. Stay on topic Everything in your document should be related clearly to your main thesis. You can write other papers later for anything else you might want to say.
The reason your reader is reading this particular paper of yours is that he or she wants to know about your main topic, not simply about everything you might want to say (unless for some narcissistic reason everything you might want to say is your clearly stated main topic). Conversely, there is inventories no need to bring up items simply because they relate to your main topic, if you do not have anything to say about them. Vs Taoism? If you do bring something up, say something important about inventories, it! Staying on topic does not mean being one sided To avoid being misleading, you will often need to acknowledge some weaknesses in medieval ear, your argument or discuss some merits of an opposing argument. It is depression inventories quite appropriate to discuss such opposing views when they are relevant, i.e., when they relate directly to opposite the main topic of your paper. For instance, if you are reviewing a paper and arguing that it was not written well overall, it is depression inventories usually a good idea to point out the racism today, few things that were done well, e.g. so that the reader does not get the impression that you just like to depression complain :-) . Often such opposing observations fit well just after the introduction, providing a background for the rest of your arguments that follow. Whenever you do include such material, i.e. things that go in racism today, the direction opposite to your main thesis, be careful to depression put it into only a few well-defined places, reorganizing your argument to medusa painting achieve that when necessary.
Jumping back and forth will confuse the reader unnecessarily. In every case, try to make your point as clearly as possible, while at the same time not overstating it and not pretending that no other valid viewpoints exist. Transitions are difficult but very important Each sentence in your document should follow smoothly from the preceding sentence, and each paragraph should follow smoothly from the inventories, preceding paragraph. The world is arguably an medieval ear, unstructured jumble of depression, ideas, but anything that you expect the reader to read from start to finish needs to be a linear progression along one single path. Transition words and Drug Prevention Programs for Juveniles, phrases are what make it possible for inventories, a reader to follow you easily as you explore the various ideas in your paper. Without good transitions, the reader will end up backtracking repeatedly, which will often cause your point to be lost or your paper to be tossed aside altogether. One clue that your writing needs better transitions is buddhism if you find that you can cut and paste paragraphs from one section to another without doing substantial rewriting of how the paragraph begins and depression, ends. If making such rearrangements is easy, then you have not been linking your paragraphs into a coherent narrative that reads well from start to finish. In practice, making smooth transitions is very difficult. Learning to do it takes a lot of practice at first, and opposite of tame, actually making the transitions smooth takes a lot of effort every time you write or revise something.
One rule of thumb is that whenever you switch topics, you should try to provide a verbal clue that you are doing so, using transitions like However, . , As a result, . , For comparison, , etc. If you notice that you have to add these words between most of your sentences, not just the paragraphs, then you are bouncing around too much. In that case you need to reorganize your document to group related thoughts together, switching topics only when necessary. Once the organization is inventories good, all you can do is read and reread what you write, rewording it until each new item follows easily from those before it. Write what you mean, mean what you write Speakers use many informal, colloquial phrases in racism today, casual conversation, usually intending to convey meanings other than what the depression, words literally indicate. For instance, we often speak informally of going the extra mile, at fetal pig respitory system the end of the day, hard facts, things being crystal clear or pretty convincing, someone sticking to a topic, readers being turned off, something really being the case, etc. Avoid such imprecise writing in inventories, formal prose -- whenever possible, the words you write should literally mean exactly what they say. If there were no miles involved, do not write of extra ones; if there was no crystal, do not write about its clarity. Among other benefits, avoiding such informal language will ensure that your meaning is obvious even to racism today those who have not learned the inventories, currently popular idioms, such as those for whom English is a second language and those who might read your writing years from now or in another part of the medieval ear, world. Formal writing should be clear to as many people as possible, and its meaning should not depend on the whims of your local dialect of English. It is a permanent and public record of your ideas, and should mean precisely what you have written.
Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to depression avoid that temptation. When two words will do, there is no need to use twenty. Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over it to of tame see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. In the academic community, your ability to write concisely is depression inventories far more important than your ability to fill up a page with text. Academic courses specify page minimums to ensure that you write an medusa painting, essay of the appropriate depth, not to test whether you can say the same thing a dozen different ways just to fill up space. Inventories? In the real world, you will see many more page maximum specifications than page minimums. Be professional and diplomatic When writing about another's work, always write as if your subject may read your document. Your essays for a course assignment will probably not be published, but genuine scientific writing will be, and the subject of your paper may very well come across your work eventually. Thus it is crucial to avoid pejorative, insulting, and offensive terms like attempt to, a waste of time, pointless, etc.
If some of the essays I have seen were read out loud to the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result. At the very least, you would have made an enemy for life, which is of tame rarely a good idea. In any case, your points will be much more convincing if you can disagree professionally and diplomatically, without attacking the author or implying that he or she is an imbecile. And, finally, no one will publish your work if it is just a diatribe and not a sober, reasoned argument. To avoid these sorts of problems, it might be good to inventories pretend that you are the author under discussion and re-read your essay through his or her eyes. Medieval Ear? It should be straightforward to figure out depression inventories which parts would make you defensive or angry, and you can then reword those. Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the sentences in what you are reading right now!). E.g. Medieval Ear? do not say Recall that . . Depression Inventories? Of course, an medieval ear, occasional imperative in parentheses is not objectionable (e.g. (see Walker 1996 for more details).). A formal document needs to be structured at all levels, whether or not the structure is made explicit using section labels or other visible clues. Overall structure The standard format for an effective essay or article is to: (1) present a coherent thesis in depression inventories, the introduction, (2) try your hardest to convince the vs taoism, reader of depression, your thesis in buddhism, the body of the paper, and depression, (3) restate the thesis in the conclusion so that the medusa painting, reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and inventories, so that the reader can decide whether he or she was convinced.
Using any other format for vs taoism, a formal article is inventories almost invariably a bad idea. The introduction and conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to pig respitory be there. Note that an depression, abstract is no substitute for an introduction; abstracts act as an independent miniature version of the racism today, article, not part of the introduction. Each paragraph is one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in the paragraph. Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to inventories the main topic of your document; if not, either the medieval ear, paragraph should be eliminated, or the main topic should be revised. Use complete sentences Except in extraordinary circumstances, sentences in the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and a verb, so that they express an entire thought, not just a fragment or the beginning of a thought. Note that most -ing words are not verbs. Depression Inventories? The light turning green is just a fragment, i.e., a start to a sentence or a part of one. To be a sentence that you could use on its own followed by a period, it would have to be The light turned green, which has both a subject and a verb. Put appropriate punctuation between sentences.
Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon. However, they can never be connected with a comma in formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of medusa painting, your commas in inventories, turn. Drug Prevention For Juveniles Essay? If you could replace the inventories, comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an error -- a comma can never be used like that! Instead, replace the buddhism vs taoism, comma with a semicolon, in case you have two sentences that need to be linked in some generic way, or make the linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to depression inventories leave two complete and Drug Prevention for Juveniles, independent sentences. Section titles Section titles for an article should say exactly and depression, succinctly what the reader will get out of that section.
In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of Drug for Juveniles, section titles is best so that people can scan through your document quickly. Depression? Section standards vary in different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and Conclusion. If you do not use the standard titles, e.g. if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about what is in that section. Such labels should make sense to someone who has not yet read that section, and opposite, make it clear why they should read it. Inventories? For instance, a section about buddhism vs taoism, adding a second eye to a simulation of depression inventories, single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is meaningless to someone scanning the document. Instead, it should be something like Extending the model to racism today explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to the type of inventories, person likely to be reading the paper. Everything important goes in fetal pig respitory system, your introduction and conclusion Everyone who looks at your paper will at least skim the introduction and conclusion, and those who read it in depth will remember those two sections the best. So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and unmissable in those sections.
Say it, never just say that you will say it In the introduction, conclusion, and abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to say or have said; actually say it! For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is depression inventories not convincing. Instead state that the paper is unconvincing, and (in brief) why you believe that to be the case. Then you can elaborate on that point in subsequent paragraphs. Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and 1.1 that explains briefly what is in the subsections, mentioned in system, the order of the subsections.
That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text. If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and inventories, 1.1 should be merged. Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of what has been established in that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on to the next subsection. Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on medusa painting, what to put into figure captions. Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to be readable independently of the depression inventories, main article. That way, readers can skim articles and Prevention Programs, only look at interesting figures, before deciding whether to read the depression inventories, whole article.
In such cases, you must ensure that all of the main points of the figure are also mentioned in the text of the article, so that someone reading the article straight through will not miss them. Other journals and other publications like books, theses, and proposals tend to have very little in the caption, with the figures being understandable only when reading the main text. Medusa Painting? Even in such cases, I myself prefer to put all the graphical details like the dotted line represents in the caption, plus enough context so that the import of the depression, figure is clear. Prevention For Juveniles Essay? You are welcome to have your own preferences, but you should be aware of what you are trying to depression inventories achieve, i.e. whether you want the racism today, caption to depression inventories be readable on its own. Try hard to avoid ambiguous references Conversation is replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc. These words have no meaning in themselves, but in conversation the meaning is medusa painting usually clear from the context. In written text, however, the intended meaning is inventories quite often not evident to the reader, because there are e.g. many possible interpretations of it and this. It is a good idea to read over anything you write, searching for this sort of word. For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?.
For such a reference to Drug Programs Essay make sense, the depression inventories, object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to your reference. Often you will find that it or they refers to something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in fetal pig respitory system, your paper, in which case you should reword your text entirely. Even if the depression inventories, item to opposite which you refer is explicitly mentioned in your paper, ask yourself whether there is any chance that the reader might not know to which of several items you might be referring. E.g. for the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the actual name of each; he would be ambiguous. Often an ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by adding a noun that specifies precisely the depression, type of object or concept to which you are referring.
For instance, this argument or this paper is less confusing than simply this. Buddhism? That is, do not use this followed directly by a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in this sentence is a good example of the use of the word 'this'. Watch out for homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is confused with other actual words. As a result, homonyms are probably the most common spelling errors in word-processed text. Even if you are lazy and let the spell checker fix all of your other words, make certain that you know the differences between words like: If you do not know the difference, you must simply avoid using any of these words. Yet because the depression, spell checker takes care of all the other words you may misspell, learning to use these few words correctly is surely not much of a burden, and is crucial for convincing your readers that you are competent and trustworthy.
Avoid comprise Apparently the word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to mean compose that this usage is now becoming acceptable. But it is much safer simply to avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean compose. But and however are not interchangeable The words but and however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable. If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and replace it with however, or vice versa, the result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of comma punctuation. I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines. I like oranges.
However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines. I, however, do not like grapefruits. I like oranges however they have been prepared. If you exchange any of these buts and howevers, then the sentences would become incorrect, and in some cases meaningless.
A point is a single item The word point can only be used for a single, atomic item. Thus it is not appropriate to of tame discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the first half of depression inventories, a point, etc. Instead use topic or section, etc. A research There is no noun phrase a research in English. Use a study or just research, never a research.
Similarly, there is no separate plural form of research; researches is an English verb, not a noun. Avoid capitalization When in medusa painting, doubt, use lower case. Capitalization is appropriate only for specific, named, individual items or people. For example, capitalize school subjects only when you are referring to a specific course at a specific school: math is a general subject, but Math 301 is a particular course. Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. a computer science department, the president vs. Inventories? President Bush.
When in doubt, use lower case. Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for racism today, conversational use and for informal writing, never for depression inventories, technical or formal writing. Hyphenate phrases only when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to group pairs of words when the meaning might otherwise be ambiguous. That is, they act like the parentheses in a mathematical expression. They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of a single word (or the dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is a mistake to fetal pig respitory system use a hyphen where the meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an adjective. Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. For example, the phrase English language learners as written means language learners from depression inventories England, because, by default, language modifies learners, and vs taoism, English modifies language learners. But the phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. Inventories? learners of the fetal system, English language, and using the hyphen helps make that grouping clear. Note that there would never be a hyphen if the same phrase were used after the inventories, noun it modifies, because in that case there would be absolutely no chance of buddhism, ambiguity: a learner of the depression, English language ( NEVER a learner of the English-language; the hyphen effectively turns the noun phrase English language into pig respitory system an adjective, and a prepositional phrase starting with of the must be completed with a noun, not an adjective). Note that hyphens are used only in adjective phrases; they are not needed after an adverb (and are therefore incorrect).
An adverb explicitly modifies the adjective immediately following it, never a noun. For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and so quickly clearly must modify dropping. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in the correct examples an early-rising rooster or an inventories, early-rising English-language learner). You may want to search through your finished document for ly-; nearly all examples of those three characters in a row will be mistakes. In some very complicated phrases, two levels of grouping can be achieved using an en dash, i.e. Medieval Ear? a slightly longer dash than a hyphen. Depression Inventories? For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the hyphen groups language and learning, while the en-dash -- connects language learning with associated. Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the phrase would be quite difficult to read. But in such cases it is often clearer just to opposite reword the sentence to avoid the ambiguity, as in a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the word grouping is quite obvious because the pair of words are so often used together, the hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to depression avoid ambiguity.
For instance chocolate chip cookies is unlikely to be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the literal interpretation, and buddhism, so the hyphen can usually be omitted from chocolate-chip cookies. In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous. In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the same phrase but e.g. after the noun it modifies, you should leave out the hyphen. I.e., the hyphen is depression inventories not a property of the phrase, but of Prevention for Juveniles, how you are using the inventories, phrase in the sentence. American vs. British English I myself am American by Drug Prevention, birth, despite lecturing in depression, a British university, and I use American spellings by default (e.g. organization, not organisation). Authors are generally free to use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the spellings to make e.g. all the buddhism vs taoism, papers in a certain edited volume use the same conventions. Thus please do not hesitate to inventories use whichever one of the (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the document. Formatting and medusa painting, grammar rules When in depression inventories, doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in psychology and computer science generally follow the APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards. Unfortunately, you do have to pay for the APA guide, though it is now available in a less-expensive electronic edition.
Pay attention to racism today how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and reasonable margins, following the typical format used for similar documents. If your word processor cannot make the spacing regular between words (e.g. most versions of Microsoft Word), turn off right justification. Poor spacing makes the page look jumbled and seem incoherent, even if the writing is not. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional. For instance, using a fancy cover and binding for a short paper or report is distracting and makes it difficult to photocopy the paper; such binding is necessary only for long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together. At the opposite extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is not an acceptable substitute for a staple. Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the results are presented in a written paper.
Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and some authors may well not have written any word in the paper. Use last names Never refer to the authors by their first names, as if they were your friends. They are not, and even if they were, it would be inappropriate to draw attention to that circumstance. Except in depression, unusual cases to avoid ambiguity or to opposite of tame discuss specific people (e.g. the original founders of a field of research), first names are not even mentioned in the body of a scientific text; the last names are sufficient. Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an author's last name is like the key in a database lookup -- if the depression inventories, name is pig respitory system misspelled (e.g. Depression Inventories? Davis for Davies), your reader will not be able to locate works by opposite of tame, that author in the library or online. Inventories? Moreover, it is medieval ear extraordinarily impolite to inventories misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to them or their work.
So you should make a special effort to spell author names correctly, double and triple checking them against racism today, the original source, and ensuring that you spell them the same way each time. Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to the authors. If there are multiple authors, use they or the authors or the authors' last names, not he or the author. If there is only one author and you can determine the gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the author or the author's last name. Referring to other texts Use double quotes around the title of an article when you refer to it in depression inventories, the text. Drug Prevention Programs Essay? Italics are reserved for books or other works of similar length.
Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is just a way of depression inventories, indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in italics, and is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an medusa painting, author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into discussions of what one author said about another author. Depression Inventories? If commenting on vs taoism, such controversies, you should be extremely careful about using ambiguous terms like his, the author, etc. Inventories? Very often your reader will have no idea which of the various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to you. When in doubt, use the actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive. Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and system, should never be used as a way to avoid the depression inventories, hard work of making your text flow into a coherent narrative. Vs Taoism? Only when something genuinely cannot be made to inventories fit into the main flow of the text, yet is somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into a footnote.
Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to opposite literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only depression inventories, when the precise wording of the original sentences is racism today important, e.g. if the work is so groundbreaking that the words themselves have driven research in this field. In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the idea in depression inventories, the terms suitable for your particular paper, focusing on Prevention Programs Essay, the underlying issue rather than the way one author expressed it. Be careful with arguments about grammar If you are going to criticize the grammar or spelling of an inventories, author in writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to Drug Programs for Juveniles Essay verify that you are correct. Depression? Reading a long rant from an American about how a person of British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful. There is Drug Programs no need to mention explicitly reading the paper A lot of depression, students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . and In this paper the authors . Medusa Painting? . Try to depression inventories avoid this redundancy. If you use the word author you need not also use paper, and vice versa.
Similarly, it is clear that whatever you discovered about the paper, you discovered while reading the paper; we do not need to be reminded of this. Academic writing is medieval ear always about depression, papers and authors, and medieval ear, thus those topics should only depression, be discussed when they are relevant. Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an existing piece of research, whether it is your own or someone else's, there is a standard way of doing it properly. Medusa Painting? First you say what the depression, research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and opposite, then you say how your own work is going to overcome those limitations. I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and how you are going to depression inventories do some of what has not been done. If you are doing a literature review rather than an original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to do. Unless you want to make an enemy, you should always mention something positive about existing work before exploring the medusa painting, limitations, and depression inventories, you should always assume that the person you are discussing will read what you wrote. Of course, sometimes there is opposite of tame a good reason to make an enemy, e.g. to draw attention to depression inventories yourself by attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to choose your enemies wisely.
Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is never acceptable to announce only medusa painting, that you are planning to study topic X. In the context of research, studying is a vague and unbounded task, with no criterion for inventories, success and no way to tell if you are getting anywhere. Studying is medusa painting something you do in a course, where someone can tell you what to focus on and can test you to see if you got the right answer; research is not like that. In research, you need to spell out the specific questions you are going to try to answer, the specific phenomena that need explanations, and depression, so on -- it's up to racism today you to define the question and the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the discussion sections of a research paper, be sure to depression inventories discuss all topics that the audience expected to see in the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to be relevant. Medieval Ear? The reader is inventories more likely to assume that you have been sloppy about your literature review than to assume you knew about the work but believed it not to be relevant. Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for omitting topics that you do not believe to be relevant. In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to address the issue and explicitly state why the topic is not relevant despite the common belief that it is.
Bibliographies Students often seem to think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to understand or remember. Racism Today? Although there is a vast array of different bibliographic formats, the depression, underlying principles are actually not complicated at all. Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of information in order to fulfill their function of allowing people to vs taoism locate the depression inventories, specific item of reference material you cite. Fetal? In particular, every bibliography entry needs an author, date, and title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and page numbers, and depression, every conference paper must have the title of the conference proceedings, the racism today, page numbers, and some indication of who published it. Without having every bit of this basic information, there is inventories no way to be sure that readers can find the one specific article that you are discussing. Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for locating the article, such as the cost of reprints. As long as the correct information is included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in all cases each entry ends in medieval ear, a period. Citations The bibliography or reference list in an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and without omitting any.
Each citation must provide enough information for depression inventories, the reader to find the opposite of tame, correct source in the bibliography; beyond that, any number of citation formats will do unless there is some specific standard you are told to follow. Depression Inventories? One common approach is to use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine. If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the first bracket, as in Prevention Programs, . known , ( not . known). If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in inventories, parentheses does not exist , as far as the grammar of the sentence is concerned, and thus it cannot be used as part of the sentence. Thus the rule is simply to put the parentheses around the part that would be acceptable to omit when reading aloud, as in Carlin (1972) showed that. or . Opposite? as seen in rats (Carlin 1972). ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. and inventories, not . Racism Today? as seen in rats Carlin (1972).). It is usually best to have only inventories, a single level of parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to distract from the main text. Drug Prevention Programs Essay? Thus I would prefer has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson (1905)).
I and we Writing standards disagree about whether to use I and we (and their various forms) in academic work. Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from what should be objective and scientifically valid without recourse to depression inventories any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific. Of Tame? Others argue that omitting I and we results in inventories, awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences. Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is being reported was an arbitrary and specific choice made by a human being, or for opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in the work. Drug Prevention Programs For Juveniles? When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and thus there is no need to depression emphasize the role of the authors. Thus, personally, I believe that I and we have their place in academic writing, i.e., to Prevention Programs for Juveniles Essay emphasize the human element where appropriate; in other circumstances I would discourage their use. Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the inventories, rules commonly accepted for English text, and in the text on this page I happily use my own rules instead. Medieval Ear? You might wish to follow the accepted usage in depression inventories, such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below. Racism Today? If you do agree to join my one-man campaign to fix the English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for depression, points deducted by less enlightened folks. :-)
Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in some cases for opposite of tame, British English), punctuation following a bit of quoted text is traditionally placed inside the quotation. However, I consider that rule an egregious violation of the whole notion of quotation, i.e. an obvious bug in depression, the English language. For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is hard, I always put the comma outside the quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period). Accepted American usage is to write life is hard, but the computer programmer in opposite of tame, me just cannot be convinced to depression make such an obvious semantic error. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is medieval ear a long dash, longer than an en-dash and a hyphen.
The traditional formatting for depression, an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in life is hard---then you die. However, I myself much prefer to put a space before and after the dash. Without the spaces the dash appears to be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. Grammatically, the function of the dash is to vs taoism separate and connect phrases or clauses, not words, and I prefer to inventories make that visually clear by putting spaces around the medusa painting, dash. Depression Inventories? Again, in my opinion the accepted usage is a bug in the language. Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an error to end a sentence with a preposition, as in they arrived at the place they were heading to. Vs Taoism? However, in inventories, practice it is often very difficult and awkward to reword sentences to avoid dangling prepositions. Thus I consider this rule to pig respitory system be optional at best. Serial commas In Britain and some other less-enlightened countries, the comma is often omitted before an 'and' in a list.
For instance, they will write of inventories, ham, chips and eggs, rather than ham, chips, and medusa painting, eggs. I consider this an appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the last two items in the list together. Lists are generally meant to be collections of equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and eggs as between ham and chips. In many cases, omitting the serial comma is ambiguous. Moreover, in the very rare case where adding the comma is ambiguous, the sentence should be rewritten anyway. Oxford University Press, at least, agrees with me; see the depression, Wikipedia serial comma entry. Again, this insistence on using appropriate syntax is opposite of tame probably driven by the computer programmer in me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is omitted. Commas after i.e. and e.g. Many grammar books state that a comma is depression inventories always required after i.e. and e.g. used in medusa painting, a sentence, as in sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly.
The inspiration for this rule is that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to inventories the English translation of the Latin phrase for Drug Prevention Programs for Juveniles, which they stand (i.e. translating to that is, and e.g. translating to for example, which in itself is an important distinction to know). However, these terms come up very often in formal writing, and in many cases I consider it inappropriate to add symbolic pauses (i.e. Depression? commas) around them. Of Tame? Such pauses break up the flow of the sentence, and depression inventories, modern readers treat the abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to opposite Latin phrases and then English phrases. Thus in many cases I prefer to inventories omit the comma after the abbreviation, and sometimes also the one before it. Vs Taoism? Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree. This document is in inventories, the public domain.
You are free to copy it, redistribute it, modify it, or use it for any other non-fraudulent purpose. Medieval Ear? If redistributing a complete copy or a lengthy excerpt, please (1) retain this notice, (2) clearly mark the depression, original author, and fetal, (3) clearly mark any changes that you make as your own and not those of the depression, original author.
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123 essay language Primitive people speak primitive languages. We know, from anthropological research, that there are no primitive people on Earth today; indeed, it may be that the Neandertals were the last truly primitive people. Depression? And, there are no primitive languages, either. All languages that we know about, including those that are no longer anyone#8217;s native language (Latin, Homeric Greek, etc.) have all the properties of the so-called modern languages (French, Spanish, Russian, etc.). Even languages that have been reconstructed, such as Proto-Indoeuropean (the parent language of opposite most European languages as well as Persian, Hindi, etc.), show no signs of primitiveness. They have all the characteristics of so-called modern languages (see below).
Some languages are harder than others. While languages differ from one another in just which parts are simple and inventories which are complex, all languages seem to opposite of tame, be about equally complex or difficult to learn in their totality. For example, if we compare English and Russian we find that English nouns are relatively simple, while verbs are rather complex; in Russian, the nouns are hard and verbs are relatively simple. Language is writing . If we ask a naive English speaker how many vowels English has, the inventories answer is usually five. This is because we tend to interpret any question about language as a question about the writing system. The English alphabet has 5 symbols that are normally used for the representation of vowels. But the medieval ear English language has between 10 and 12 basic vowel sounds; this is the answer the linguist is interested in.
Language is first and foremost oral; speech as a means of communication has been around for perhaps 200,000 years or more, while writing has existed for only about 6,000 as far as we know. Many languages, including many Native American languages as well as most of the creole languages of the Caribbean, exist without a written tradition. This in no way diminishes their language-ness. Grammar is a set of depression inventories prescriptive rules . When we think of grammar, we tend to think of the Drug for Juveniles Essay sorts of rules drilled into us by our language arts and English teachers: Don#8217;t end sentences with prepositions! Don#8217;t use double negatives! When linguists work to discover the depression grammar of a language, they are looking for descriptive rules that model the linguistic patterns which people carry around inside their heads. We follow most of pig respitory system these rules unconsciously.
In most cases no-one ever teaches them to us (see below); and, in most cases, we cannot articulate them. We know how to use our language, but we don't typically know why. The interesting thing is that these rules of our descriptive grammar are frequently far more subtle and complex than anything the language arts teachers tell us about. Ne bith thær nænig ælo gebrowen mid Estum. not be there not-any beer brewed among Estonians. 'There is no beer brewed among the Estonians.' Furthermore, in some languages, like Spanish and Russian, so-called double negatives are the rule, rather than the exception. Note the Spanish and Russian expressions for I don't see anything. Spanish: Yo no veo nada. I no see nothing. Russian: Ya ne vizhu nichevo. Depression Inventories? These are the normal, indeed the only, way of expressing this in Spanish and Russian. If language worked like formal logic, Spanish and Russian speakers would be suffering from a permament case of illogic. Since speakers of Spanish and medusa painting Russian appear to be normal human beings, we have to conclude that language does not obey the rules of formal logic.
Thus, the rule against double negatives formulated by Bishop Lowth is not a grammar rule, but rather a social rule having to do with what he considered to be the acceptable use of depression English. Language is medieval ear pure and unchanging . As a conservative society heavily focused on written, rather than oral, forms of language, we tend to inventories, think that change, in medieval ear language as in many other things, is bad. A whole industry of language experts such as Edwin Newman and William Safire regularly rant and rave against inventories whatever shift in medusa painting meaning or usage is current. In fact, change in language is constant and the really fundamental changes usually go unnoticed. For example, between Middle and inventories Modern English many English vowels changed their pronunciation, so that words like house and wife, today pronounced [haws] and [wayf], were pronounced as [hu:s] and medusa painting [wi:f] by Chaucer. These sorts of changes, and others, are still going on in English even as we speak. Syntax . Speakers have to know how to combine their words into meaningful sentences that call attention to inventories, something and then provide information about it. Again using English as an example, English speakers know how to form yes-no questions from statements like She is in Drug Essay the kitchen (? Is she in the kitchen?) by inventories, appropriate movement of is . Semantics . Speakers must know the meaning of the racism today words they use. Pragmatics . Finally, speakers must know how to use their language appropriately to inventories, accomplish what they want in a given social situation. However, the knowledge native speakers have is mostly unconscious knowledge; they know how to say it, but they (usually) can#8217;t tell you how or why they say it that way. Language as both biology culture.
All normal human children, everywhere, acquire the language of medusa painting their social setting at about the same pace and in the same way. They do so without formal training, and they do so in inventories social and medieval ear cultural contexts which differ in terms of what kinds of inventories linguistic interactions are supposed to be appropriate between parents/caregivers and infants. Programs? These differences do not seem to affect the rate or quality of children's acquisition of language; in a sense, children acquire language in depression inventories much the same way as they acquire the skill of walking. However, children who are isolated, for some reason, from all forms of linguistic interaction do not acquire language, and if they reach puberty without exposure to language they may never be able to acquire more than a very rudimentary linguistic ability. By the medieval ear time they are around 3-4 years of age, children have mastered some of the most complex and subtle rules of their language, rules which no teacher of language could ever teach them.
Of course, they still have lots of vocabulary to learn, as well as some of the pragmatic rules of language use in inventories different social situations, and medieval ear they have to learn to read and write. While the depression underlying shape of language is biological, any given language itself is a cultural artifact. Prevention For Juveniles Essay? The best way to illustrate this is to take the words for the domesticated animal which English speakers refer to inventories, as a dog. All languages have a word for this animal; no language has a word for half-a-dog. This seems to result from a property of the human brain that guides our perception and representation of natural objects in the world, like dogs, which come to us in whole packages (other candidates might be rocks, trees, birds, and so on). At the same time, though, the words we find in different languages. are as different as dog (English); perro (Spanish); anu (Aymara); kelb (Arabic); sobaka (Russian). None of these words has a privileged connection to the animal itself. Each is an pig respitory system arbitrary but conventional answer to the problem of naming these familiar domesticated animals. Infinite use of finite media . Although languages are complex, they are not infinitely complex. The number of rules that anyone needs to know to create sentences in their language is inventories relatively small, and the number of different kinds of sentences is quite small.
Still, the number of sentences that can be produced by any speaker of a language is potentially infinite. Multiple patterning . Language is medieval ear patterned at a number of levels of organization: sounds are patterned into phonemes, phonemes into words, words into phrases, phrases into depression inventories sentences, sentences into larger units of discourse. This is system what makes the depression infinite use mentioned above possible. Predication . Medieval Ear? All languages make it possible for their speakers to name something and then make some kind of assertion about whatever was named. In other words, all languages allow for sentences that contain a subject and a predicate . Depression Inventories? We#8217;ll explore this further in the unit on syntax. Medieval Ear? Learnability . A central fact about all known languages is that they are all learnable by human beings. All normal human children acquire the language of their social group, and many (perhaps most!) go on to acquire more than one. Traditional transmission . While all humans appear to have a built-in, genetically provided capacity for language acquisition, the actual acquisition of language must take place in a social context.
The social context determines whether the language acquired is English, Russian, or Inuit, etc. Displacement . Unlike most animal vocalization systems, which require that a stimulus be physically present for the vocalization to take place, human language allows us to talk about inventories, things that are absent in either space or time, or both. Without this feature, humans would not be able to opposite of tame, talk about depression inventories, dinosaurs, or Cleopatra. We can add that this feature also allows us to talk about things that never existed, such as Klingons. Without it, we could have neither history or fiction. Openness . Fetal? Also unlike other animals, which typically have a fixed set of vocalizations, humans can increase the number of expressions at their disposal by inventing words. This feature allows us to depression inventories, add new words to our vocabulary such as hard drive , internet , and gigabyte . Opposite? The analytic model of language includes the depression notion of linguistic relativism , which suggests that there is no point in trying to rank languages on racism today any kind of scale. All human languages that we have any direct information about appear to depression inventories, contain all the medieval ear characteristics necessary for language. In this view, there is no qualitative difference between a language and a dialect; the reasons why a particular variety of speech gets labeled as a dialect instead of as a language must be sought elsewhere. In particular, the reasons are to be found in the political, social, and economic value placed on the speakers of the language variety in question.
The people who wield political, economic, and social control speak the language; those who do not speak the dialect. The realization that languages and dialects are not qualitatively different, and that attitudes toward them really reflect social prejudices, has led some linguists to say that a language is a dialect with an army and a navy. For linguists, then, what counts as a language, as opposed to inventories, a dialect, is socially and culturally negotiated; not determined by some objective linguistic truth. Sometimes the negotiation is spectacularly unsuccessful, as when the Prevention Programs for Juveniles Essay Oakland (California) school board attempted to declare African American Vernacular English (Ebonics) a language. There was a great public outcry against depression this, but almost nobody understood the medieval ear real reason: African Americans in depression the US do not have an army and a navy; therefore, they are not entitled to have a language. Of Tame? I tend to avoid the difficulty of the word dialect by depression, using variety instead. It seems easier and less judgmental to racism today, speak of depression inventories varieties of racism today English such as British, Australian, North American, or West Indian. We can even talk about varieties of creole English, such as Jamaican, Trinadadian, Barbadian, Belizean, and so on.
Or, we can go in inventories the other direction, and discuss varieties of Romance such as Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian; varieties of Indo-European such as Germanic and Balto-Slavic; or even varieties of human language such as Indo-European, Austronesian, and so on. It all depends on opposite what level of abstraction we are interested in. Although from an analytic viewpoint they know a language as well as anyone, speakers of depression non-standard varieties of medieval ear language are often assumed by the folk model to be language-deficient. In the Caribbean, this manifests itself especially when creole-speaking children get to school and come up against the standard language in an intense way for the first time. Teachers, who through no fault of their own very often have only inventories minimal training, are aware only of the folk model for language. Racism Today? They assume that deviation from standard language forms is evidence for a lack of language , and that children have no grammar.
The analytic model of language tells us that all normal human children have grammar but that grammar is depression inventories their own knowledge of their native language, not the rules written down in school books.
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essay on nature A subtle chain of countless rings. The next unto the depression inventories farthest brings; The eye reads omens where it goes, And speaks all languages the rose; And, striving to Drug Essay, be man, the worm. Mounts through all the spires of form. Introduction Our age is retrospective. It builds the sepulchres of the fathers. It writes biographies, histories, and criticism. The foregoing generations beheld God and nature face to face; we, through their eyes.
Why should not we also enjoy an depression original relation to the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and not of tradition, and a religion by Drug Prevention revelation to us, and not the history of theirs? Embosomed for a season in nature, whose floods of life stream around and through us, and invite us by depression the powers they supply, to action proportioned to nature, why should we grope among the dry bones of the past, or put the Drug Prevention Programs Essay living generation into masquerade out of its faded wardrobe? The sun shines to-day also. There is more wool and flax in the fields.
There are new lands, new men, new thoughts. Let us demand our own works and laws and worship. Undoubtedly we have no questions to ask which are unanswerable. We must trust the perfection of the inventories creation so far, as to believe that whatever curiosity the order of things has awakened in our minds, the order of things can satisfy. Every man's condition is a solution in hieroglyphic to those inquiries he would put. He acts it as life, before he apprehends it as truth.
In like manner, nature is already, in its forms and tendencies, describing its own design. Let us interrogate the great apparition, that shines so peacefully around us. Let us inquire, to what end is nature? All science has one aim, namely, to find a theory of nature. We have theories of opposite, races and of functions, but scarcely yet a remote approach to an idea of creation. We are now so far from the road to depression, truth, that religious teachers dispute and hate each other, and speculative men are esteemed unsound and frivolous.
But to a sound judgment, the most abstract truth is the most practical. Pig Respitory System. Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is, that it will explain all phenomena. Now many are thought not only inventories unexplained but inexplicable; as language, sleep, madness, dreams, beasts, sex. Philosophically considered, the universe is composed of medieval ear, Nature and the Soul. Strictly speaking, therefore, all that is separate from us, all which Philosophy distinguishes as the NOT ME, that is, both nature and art, all other men andmy own body, must be ranked under this name, NATURE. In enumerating the values of depression inventories, nature and casting up their sum, I shall use the medusa painting word in both senses; -- in its common and in its philosophical import. In inquiries so general as our present one, the inaccuracy is not material; no confusion of thought will occur. Nature, in the common sense, refers to essences unchanged by depression man; space, the air, the river, the leaf. Art is applied to the mixture of his will with the of tame same things, as in a house, a canal, a statue, a picture. But his operations taken together are so insignificant, a little chipping, baking, patching, and washing, that in an impression so grand as that of the world on the human mind, they do not vary the result.
Chapter I NATURE To go into solitude, a man needs to retire as much from his chamber as from society. I am not solitary whilst I read and write, though nobody is with me. But if a man would be alone, let him look at the stars. The rays that come from those heavenly worlds, will separate between him and what he touches. One might think the atmosphere was made transparent with this design, to give man, in the heavenly bodies, the perpetual presence of the sublime. Seen in the streets of cities, how great they are! If the depression stars should appear one night in racism today a thousand years, how would men believe and adore; and preserve for many generations the remembrance of the city of inventories, God which had been shown! But every night come out these envoys of beauty, and light the universe with their admonishing smile. The stars awaken a certain reverence, because though always present, they are inaccessible; but all natural objects make a kindred impression, when the mind is open to their influence. Nature never wears a mean appearance. Neither does the wisest man extort her secret, and lose his curiosity by finding out all her perfection.
Nature never became a toy to a wise spirit. The flowers, the animals, the buddhism vs taoism mountains, reflected the wisdom of his best hour, as much as they had delighted the simplicity of depression, his childhood. When we speak of nature in this manner, we have a distinct but most poetical sense in the mind. We mean the integrity of medusa painting, impression made by depression inventories manifold natural objects. It is this which distinguishes the stick of timber of the wood-cutter, from the tree of the poet. The charming landscape which I saw this morning, is indubitably made up of some twenty or thirty farms. Miller owns this field, Locke that, and Manning the woodland beyond. But none of them owns the landscape. There is a property in the horizon which no man has but he whose eye can integrate all the parts, that is, the poet. This is the best part of these men's farms, yet to racism today, this their warranty-deeds give no title.
To speak truly, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing. The sun illuminates only the eye of the man, but shines into the eye and the heart of the child. The lover of nature is he whose inward and outward senses are still truly adjusted to each other; who has retained the spirit of infancy even into the era of manhood. His intercourse with heaven and earth, becomes part of his daily food. In the presence of nature, a wild delight runs through the man, in spite of real sorrows. Nature says, -- he is my creature, and maugre all his impertinent griefs, he shall be glad with me.
Not the sun or the summer alone, but every hour and season yields its tribute of delight; for depression inventories, every hour and change corresponds to and authorizes a different state of the mind, from breathless noon to grimmest midnight. Nature is a setting that fits equally well a comic or a mourning piece. Buddhism Vs Taoism. In good health, the air is inventories a cordial of vs taoism, incredible virtue. Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at inventories twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. Essay. I am glad to the brink of fear. In the woods too, a man casts off his years, as the snake his slough, and at what period soever of life, is always a child. In the woods, is perpetual youth.
Within these plantations of God, a decorum and sanctity reign, a perennial festival is dressed, and the guest sees not how he should tire of them in a thousand years. In the depression inventories woods, we return to reason and faith. There I feel that nothing can befall me in opposite life, -- no disgrace, no calamity, (leaving me my eyes,) which nature cannot repair. Standing on inventories, the bare ground, -- my head bathed by the blithe air, and racism today, uplifted into infinite space, -- all mean egotism vanishes. Inventories. I become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of God. Racism Today. The name of the nearest friend sounds then foreign and accidental: to be brothers, to be acquaintances, -- master or servant, is then a trifle and a disturbance. Depression Inventories. I am the lover of uncontained and immortal beauty. In the wilderness, I find something more dear and of tame, connate than in streets or villages. In the tranquil landscape, and especially in the distant line of the horizon, man beholds somewhat as beautiful as his own nature. The greatest delight which the fields and woods minister, is the suggestion of an occult relation between man and the vegetable. I am not alone and unacknowledged.
They nod to me, and I to them. The waving of the boughs in the storm, is new to me and old. It takes me by surprise, and yet is not unknown. Inventories. Its effect is like that of a higher thought or a better emotion coming over me, when I deemed I was thinking justly or doing right. Yet it is certain that the power to produce this delight, does not reside in nature, but in man, or in a harmony of both. It is necessary to use these pleasures with great temperance. For, nature is not always tricked in holiday attire, but the buddhism vs taoism same scene which yesterday breathed perfume and glittered as for the frolic of the nymphs, is overspread with melancholy today.
Nature always wears the colors of the spirit. To a man laboring under calamity, the depression inventories heat of his own fire hath sadness in of tame it. Then, there is a kind of contempt of the inventories landscape felt by him who has just lost by death a dear friend. The sky is less grand as it shuts down over less worth in of tame the population. Inventories. Chapter II COMMODITY Whoever considers the final cause of the world, will discern a multitude of usesthat result. They all admit of being thrown into one of the following classes; Commodity; Beauty; Language; and Discipline. Under the general name of Commodity, I rank all those advantages which our senses owe to nature.
This, of course, is a benefit which is temporary and mediate, not ultimate, like its service to the soul. Yet although low, it is buddhism vs taoism perfect in its kind, and is the only use of nature which all men apprehend. Inventories. The misery of man appears like childish petulance, when we explore the steady and prodigal provision that has been made for his support and delight on this green ball which floats him through the fetal pig respitory heavens. What angels invented these splendid ornaments, these rich conveniences, this ocean of air above, this ocean of depression inventories, water beneath, this firmament of earth between? this zodiac of lights, this tent of dropping clouds, this striped coat of climates, this fourfold year? Beasts, fire, water, stones, and vs taoism, corn serve him. The field is at once his floor, his work-yard, his play-ground, his garden, and his bed. More servants wait on man. Than he 'll take notice of. ------ Nature, in its ministry to man, is not only the material, but is also the process and the result. All the parts incessantly work into each other's hands for the profit of man.
The wind sows the seed; the sun evaporates the sea; the wind blows the vapor to the field; the depression inventories ice, on the other side of the planet, condenses rain on this; the rain feeds the plant; the plant feeds the animal; and thus the endless circulations of the divine charity nourish man. The useful arts are reproductions or new combinations by buddhism vs taoism the wit of man, of the same natural benefactors. He no longer waits for depression inventories, favoring gales, but by means of steam, he realizes the fable of Aeolus's bag, and carries the two and thirty winds in medusa painting the boiler of his boat. To diminish friction, he paves the road with iron bars, and, mounting a coach with a ship-load of men, animals, and inventories, merchandise behind him, he darts through the country, from town to Drug Programs for Juveniles, town, like an eagle or a swallow through the air. By the aggregate of depression, these aids, how is the face of the world changed, from the era of opposite, Noah to inventories, that of Napoleon!
The private poor man hath cities, ships, canals, bridges, built for him. He goes to the post-office, and the human race run on medieval ear, his errands; to the book-shop, and the human race read and write of all that happens, for him; to the court-house, and nations repair his wrongs. He sets his house upon the road, and the human race go forth every morning, and shovel out the snow, and cut a path for him. But there is no need of specifying particulars in this class of uses. The catalogue is endless, and the examples so obvious, that I shall leave them to the reader's reflection, with the general remark, that this mercenary benefit is depression inventories one which has respect to a farther good. A man is fed, not that he may be fed, but that he may work. Chapter III BEAUTY A nobler want of man is buddhism served by nature, namely, the love of Beauty. The ancient Greeks called the world , beauty. Such is the constitution of all things, or such the plastic power of the human eye, that the primary forms, as the sky, the mountain, the tree, the animal, give us a delight in and for themselves; a pleasure arising from depression outline, color, motion, and grouping.
This seems partly owing to the eye itself. The eye is the best of artists. By the mutual action of its structure and of the laws of light, perspective is produced, which integrates every mass of fetal pig respitory, objects, of what character soever, into a well colored and shaded globe, so that where the particular objects are mean and unaffecting, the landscape which they compose, is round and symmetrical. And as the eye is the best composer, so light is the first of painters. There is no object so foul that intense light will not make beautiful. And the stimulus it affords to the sense, and a sort of infinitude which it hath, like space and time, make all matter gay. Even the corpse has its own beauty.
But besides this general grace diffused over nature, almost all the individual forms are agreeable to the eye, as is proved by depression inventories our endless imitations of some of them, as the acorn, the grape, the pine-cone, the wheat-ear, the egg, the wings and buddhism, forms of most birds, the lion's claw, the serpent, the butterfly, sea-shells, flames, clouds, buds, leaves, and the forms of many trees, as the palm. For better consideration, we may distribute the aspects of Beauty in a threefold manner. 1. First, the simple perception of natural forms is depression inventories a delight. The influence of the forms and actions in nature, is pig respitory so needful to man, that, in its lowest functions, it seems to lie on depression inventories, the confines of commodity and beauty. To the Drug Prevention body and mind which have been cramped by noxious work or company, nature is inventories medicinal and restores their tone.
The tradesman, the Drug Prevention Programs for Juveniles attorney comes out depression inventories of the buddhism vs taoism din and craft of the depression street, and sees the sky and the woods, and is a man again. In their eternal calm, he finds himself. The health of the eye seems to system, demand a horizon. We are never tired, so long as we can see far enough. But in other hours, Nature satisfies by its loveliness, and without any mixture of depression inventories, corporeal benefit. I see the spectacle of morning from the hill-top over against my house, from day-break to sun-rise, with emotions which an angel might share.
The long slender bars of cloud float like fishes in the sea of crimson light. From the medusa painting earth, as a shore, I look out into that silent sea. I seem to partake its rapid transformations: the active enchantment reaches my dust, and I dilate and conspire with the morning wind. How does Nature deify us with a few and cheap elements! Give me health and depression inventories, a day, and I will make the pomp of emperors ridiculous. The dawn is my Assyria; the sun-set and moon-rise my Paphos, and unimaginable realms of faerie; broad noon shall be my England of the senses and the understanding; the night shall be my Germany of mystic philosophy and dreams. Not less excellent, except for our less susceptibility in the afternoon, was the racism today charm, last evening, of a January sunset. The western clouds divided and subdivided themselves into pink flakes modulated with tints of depression, unspeakable softness; and the air had so much life and sweetness, that it was a pain to pig respitory system, come within doors. What was it that nature would say? Was there no meaning in the live repose of the valley behind the mill, and which Homer or Shakspeare could not reform for me in words?
The leafless trees become spires of flame in the sunset, with the blue east for their back-ground, and the stars of the dead calices of flowers, and every withered stem and stubble rimed with frost, contribute something to the mute music. The inhabitants of cities suppose that the country landscape is pleasant only half the year. I please myself with the graces of the winter scenery, and believe that we are as much touched by it as by the genial influences of summer. To the attentive eye, each moment of the year has its own beauty, and in the same field, it beholds, every hour, a picture which was never seen before, and which shall never be seen again. The heavens change every moment, and reflect their glory or gloom on the plains beneath. Depression. The state of the crop in the surrounding farms alters the expression of the earth from week to week. The succession of native plants in the pastures and roadsides, which makes the silent clock by which time tells the racism today summer hours, will make even the divisions of the day sensible to a keen observer. The tribes of birds and insects, like the plants punctual to their time, follow each other, and the year has room for all. By water-courses, the depression variety is opposite of tame greater. In July, the blue pontederia or pickerel-weed blooms in large beds in the shallow parts of inventories, our pleasant river, and swarms with yellow butterflies in continual motion.
Art cannot rival this pomp of opposite of tame, purple and gold. Inventories. Indeed the river is medusa painting a perpetual gala, and boasts each month a new ornament. But this beauty of Nature which is seen and felt as beauty, is the least part. Depression. The shows of day, the dewy morning, the rainbow, mountains, orchards in blossom, stars, moonlight, shadows in still water, and the like, if too eagerly hunted, become shows merely, and mock us with their unreality. Go out of the house to see the moon, and 't is mere tinsel; it will not please as when its light shines upon your necessary journey.
The beauty that shimmers in the yellow afternoons of medusa painting, October, who ever could clutch it? Go forth to find it, and it is gone: 't is only a mirage as you look from the windows of diligence. 2. The presence of a higher, namely, of the depression spiritual element is essential to its perfection. Vs Taoism. The high and divine beauty which can be loved without effeminacy, is that which is found in combination with the human will. Beauty is the mark God sets upon virtue. Every natural action is graceful. Every heroic act is also decent, and causes the place and the bystanders to shine.
We are taught by great actions that the universe is the property of every individual in it. Every rational creature has all nature for his dowry and estate. It is his, if he will. He may divest himself of it; he may creep into a corner, and abdicate his kingdom, as most men do, but he is entitled to the world by depression his constitution. In proportion to the energy of fetal system, his thought and will, he takes up the world into himself.
All those things for which men plough, build, or sail, obey virtue; said Sallust. The winds and inventories, waves, said Gibbon, are always on the side of the ablest navigators. So are the sun and medieval ear, moon and all the stars of heaven. When a noble act is done, -- perchance in a scene of great natural beauty; when Leonidas and his three hundred martyrs consume one day in dying, and the sun and moon come each and look at them once in the steep defile of Thermopylae; when Arnold Winkelried, in the high Alps, under the depression inventories shadow of the avalanche, gathers in his side a sheaf of Austrian spears to break the line for his comrades; are not these heroes entitled to vs taoism, add the beauty of the scene to the beauty of the deed? When the depression inventories bark of Columbus nears the shore of America; -- before it, the beach lined with savages, fleeing out of medusa painting, all their huts of cane; the sea behind; and the purple mountains of the Indian Archipelago around, can we separate the man from the living picture?
Does not the New World clothe his form with her palm-groves and savannahs as fit drapery? Ever does natural beauty steal in like air, and envelope great actions. When Sir Harry Vane was dragged up the Tower-hill, sitting on a sled, to suffer death, as the champion of the English laws, one of the multitude cried out to him, You never sate on so glorious a seat. Charles II., to depression, intimidate the citizens of London, caused the medusa painting patriot Lord Russel to be drawn in an open coach, through the principal streets of the inventories city, on his way to the scaffold. But, his biographer says, the multitude imagined they saw liberty and virtue sitting by his side. In private places, among sordid objects, an act of truth or heroism seems at once to draw to itself the sky as its temple, the sun as its candle. Nature stretcheth out her arms to embrace man, only let his thoughts be of opposite of tame, equal greatness. Willingly does she follow his steps with the rose and the violet, and bend her lines of grandeur and grace to the decoration of her darling child. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope, and the frame will suit the picture. A virtuous man is in unison with her works, and makes the central figure of the visible sphere. Homer, Pindar, Socrates, Phocion, associate themselves fitly in our memory with the geography and climate of Greece.
The visible heavens and earth sympathize with Jesus. And in common life, whosoever has seen a person of powerful character and depression inventories, happy genius, will have remarked how easily he took all things along with him, -- the persons, the opinions, and the day, and nature became ancillary to a man. 3. There is still another aspect under which the beauty of the world may be viewed, namely, as it become s an object of the intellect. Beside the relation of medieval ear, things to virtue, they have a relation to thought. The intellect searches out the inventories absolute order of things as they stand in the mind of God, and without the colors of affection.
The intellectual and the active powers seem to succeed each other, and the exclusive activity of the one, generates the exclusive activity of the other. Racism Today. There is something unfriendly in each to the other, but they are like the alternate periods of feeding and working in animals; each prepares and will be followed by the other. Therefore does beauty, which, in relation to actions, as we have seen, comes unsought, and depression inventories, comes because it is unsought, remain for medieval ear, the apprehension and pursuit of the intellect; and then again, in inventories its turn, of the active power. Nothing divine dies. All good is eternally reproductive. The beauty of nature reforms itself in the mind, and not for barren contemplation, but for new creation. All men are in some degree impressed by the face of the world; some men even to delight. System. This love of beauty is Taste. Others have the same love in such excess, that, not content with admiring, they seek to embody it in new forms.
The creation of beauty is depression inventories Art. The production of a work of art throws a light upon the mystery of humanity. A work of art is an abstract or epitome of the world. It is the result or expression of nature, in miniature. For, although the works of nature are innumerable and all different, the result or the expression of them all is similar and single. Nature is a sea of forms radically alike and even unique. A leaf, a sun-beam, a landscape, the ocean, make an analogous impression on the mind. What is common to them all, -- that perfectness and harmony, is beauty. The standard of beauty is the entire circuit of natural forms, -- the medieval ear totality of nature; which the Italians expressed by defining beauty il piu nell' uno.
Nothing is quite beautiful alone: nothing but is beautiful in the whole. A single object is only so far beautiful as it suggests this universal grace. Depression. The poet, the painter, the sculptor, the musician, the architect, seek each to concentrate this radiance of the world on system, one point, and each in his several work to satisfy the love of beauty which stimulates him to produce. Thus is depression inventories Art, a nature passed through the alembic of man. Thus in art, does nature work through the racism today will of a man filled with the beauty of her first works. The world thus exists to the soul to satisfy the desire of beauty.
This element I call an ultimate end. No reason can be asked or given why the soul seeks beauty. Beauty, in its largest and depression, profoundest sense, is one expression for the universe. God is the all-fair. Medusa Painting. Truth, and goodness, and beauty, are but different faces of the inventories same All. Prevention Programs. But beauty in nature is not ultimate.
It is the depression inventories herald of medieval ear, inward and eternal beauty, and is not alone a solid and satisfactory good. It must stand as a part, and not as yet the last or highest expression of the depression inventories final cause of Nature. Chapter IV LANGUAGE Language is a third use which Nature subserves to man. Nature is the opposite vehble, and threefold degree. 1. Words are signs of natural facts. 2. Particular natural facts are symbols of particular spiritual facts. 3. Nature is the symbol of spirit. 1. Words are signs of natural facts. The use of natural history is to give us aid in supernatural history: the inventories use of the outer creation, to give us language for the beings and buddhism vs taoism, changes of the inward creation. Every word which is used to depression, express a moral or intellectual fact, if traced to its root, is found to be borrowed from some material appearance.
Right means straight ; wrong means twisted . Spirit primarily means wind ; transgression , the crossing of a line ; supercilious , the raising of the eyebrow . We say the heart to express emotion, the head to denote thought; and fetal, thought and inventories, emotion a re words borrowed from sensible things, and opposite of tame, now appropriated to spiritual nature. Most of the process by inventories which this transformation is made, is hidden from medieval ear us in the remote time when language was framed; but the same tendency may be daily observed in children. Children and savages use only nouns or names of things, which they convert into depression verbs, and apply to medieval ear, analogous mental acts. 2. But this origin of all words that convey a spiritual import, -- so conspicuous a fact in inventories the history of language, -- is our least debt to nature. It is not words only that are emblematic; it is things which are emblematic. Every natural fact is a symbol of some spiritual fact. Every appearance in nature corresponds to some state of the mind, and that state of the mind can only be described by presenting that natural appearance as its picture. An enraged man is a lion, a cunning man is a fox, a firm man is a rock, a learned man is a torch.
A lamb is innocence; a snake is subtle spite; flowers express to us the Drug Essay delicate affections. Light and darkness are our familiar expression for knowledge and ignorance; and heat for depression, love. Visible distance behind and before us, is respectively our image of memory and hope. Who looks upon a river in a meditative hour, and is not reminded of the opposite flux of depression, all things? Throw a stone into the stream, and the circles that propagate themselves are the beautiful type of all influence. Man is conscious of a universal soul within or behind his individual life, wherein, as in a firmament, the natures of Justice, Truth, Love, Freedom, arise and medieval ear, shine. This universal soul, he calls Reason: it is not mine, or thine, or his, but we are its; we are its property and men. Depression. And the blue sky in which the private earth is buried, the sky with its eternal calm, and full of everlasting orbs, is the type of medieval ear, Reason. That which, intellectually considered, we call Reason, considered in inventories relation to nature, we call Spirit. Spirit is the Creator.
Spirit hath life in itself. And man in all ages and racism today, countries, embodies it in inventories his language, as the FATHER. It is medieval ear easily seen that there is nothing lucky or capricious in these analogies, but that they are constant, and depression, pervade nature. These are not the medusa painting dreams of a few poets, here and there, but man is an analogist, and studies relations in all objects. He is placed in depression inventories the centre of beings, and a ray of relation passes from every other being to him. And neither can man be understood without these objects, nor these objects without man. All the pig respitory facts in natural history taken by themselves, have no value, but are barren, like a single sex.
But marry it to human history, and depression inventories, it is full of life. Whole Floras, all Linnaeus' and Buffon's volumes, are dry catalogues of facts; but the most trivial of these facts, the habit of a plant, the system organs, or work, or noise of an insect, applied to the illustration of a fact in intellectual philosophy, or, in any way associated to human nature, affects us in the most lively and depression, agreeable manner. The seed of a plant, -- to what affecting analogies in the nature of man, is racism today that little fruit made use of, in all discourse, up to the voice of Paul, who calls the inventories human corpse a seed, -- It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body. The motion of the earth round its axis, and Drug Programs Essay, round the depression inventories sun, makes the day, and the year. These are certain amounts of Drug Prevention Programs Essay, brute light and heat. But is there no intent of an analogy between man's life and the seasons? And do the seasons gain no grandeur or pathos from that analogy? The instincts of the ant are very unimportant, considered as the ant's; but the moment a ray of relation is seen to extend from it to man, and the little drudge is seen to be a monitor, a little body with a mighty heart, then all its habits, even that said to be recently observed, that it never sleeps, become sublime.
Because of this radical correspondence between visible things and human thoughts, savages, who have only what is necessary, converse in figures. As we go back in history, language becomes more picturesque, until its infancy, when it is all poetry; or all spiritual facts are represented by natural symbols. The same symbols are found to make the original elements of all languages. It has moreover been observed, that the idioms of all languages approach each other in passages of the greatest eloquence and power. And as this is the first language, so is it the last. This immediate dependence of language upon nature, this conversion of an outward phenomenon into a type of somewhat in human life, never loses its power to affect us. It is inventories this which gives that piquancy to the conversation of a strong-natured farmer or back-woodsman, which all men relish. A man's power to connect his thought with its proper symbol, and so to utter it, depends on the simplicity of his character, that is, upon his love of truth, and his desire to communicate it without loss. The corruption of man is followed by the corruption of language.
When simplicity of character and medusa painting, the sovereignty of ideas is broken up by the prevalence of secondary desires, the desire of riches, of pleasure, of power, and of praise, -- and duplicity and falsehood take place of simplicity and inventories, truth, the power over nature as an interpreter of the will, is in a degree lost; new imagery ceases to be created, and old words are perverted to stand for things which are not; a paper currency is employed, when there is no bullion in the vaults. In due time, the fraud is manifest, and words lose all power to stimulate the understanding or the affections. Vs Taoism. Hundreds of writers may be found in inventories every long-civilized nation, who for a short time believe, and of tame, make others believe, that they see and inventories, utter truths, who do not of themselves clothe one thought in its natural garment, but who feed unconsciously on the language created by the primary writers of the country, those, namely, who hold primarily on nature. But wise men pierce this rotten diction and fasten words again to visible things; so that picturesque language is at once a commanding certificate that he who employs it, is a man in alliance with truth and God. The moment our discourse rises above the ground line of buddhism, familiar facts, and is inflamed with passion or exalted by thought, it clothes itself in depression images. A man conversing in earnest, if he watch his intellectual processes, will find that a material image, more or less luminous, arises in his mind, cotemporaneous with every thought, which furnishes the vestment of the thought. Hence, good writing and racism today, brilliant discourse are perpetual allegories. This imagery is spontaneous. It is the blending of experience with the present action of the mind. It is proper creation.
It is the working of the Original Cause through the instruments he has already made. These facts may suggest the advantage which the country-life possesses for depression, a powerful mind, over the artificial and curtailed life of cities. We know more from nature than we can at will communicate. Its light flows into the mind evermore, and we forget its presence. Medieval Ear. The poet, the orator, bred in the woods, whose senses have been nourished by their fair and appeasing changes, year after year, without design and without heed, -- shall not lose their lesson altogether, in depression inventories the roar of cities or the broil of politics.
Long hereafter, amidst agitation and terror in national councils, -- in the hour of revolution, -- these solemn images shall reappear in their morning lustre, as fit symbols and words of the thoughts which the fetal system passing events shall awaken. At the call of a noble sentiment, again the woods wave, the pines murmur, the river rolls and shines, and the cattle low upon the mountains, as he saw and heard them in his infancy. And with these forms, the spells of persuasion, the keys of power are put into his hands. 3. We are thus assisted by natural objects in the expression of particular meanings. But how great a language to convey such pepper-corn informations! Did it need such noble races of creatures, this profusion of forms, this host of orbs in heaven, to furnish man with the depression inventories dictionary and grammar of his municipal speech? Whilst we use this grand cipher to medieval ear, expedite the affairs of our pot and kettle, we feel that we have not yet put it to its use, neither are able.
We are like travellers using the cinders of a volcano to roast their eggs. Inventories. Whilst we see that it always stands ready to clothe what we would say, we cannot avoid the question, whether the characters are not significant of themselves. Have mountains, and system, waves, and skies, no significance but what we consciously give them, when we employ them as emblems of our thoughts? The world is emblematic. Parts of depression inventories, speech are metaphors, because the whole of nature is a metaphor of the human mind. The laws of moral nature answer to those of matter as face to face in a glass. The visible world and the relation of its parts, is the dial plate of the invisible. The axioms of Prevention for Juveniles, physics translate the laws of ethics. Thus, the whole is greater than its part; reaction is inventories equal to action; the smallest weight may be made to lift the greatest, the medieval ear difference of weight being compensated by time; and depression, many the like propositions, which have an ethical as well as physical sense. These propositions have a much more extensive and universal sense when applied to human life, than when confined to Programs for Juveniles, technical use.
In like manner, the memorable words of history, and the proverbs of nations, consist usually of a natural fact, selected as a picture or parable of depression, a moral truth. Prevention Programs Essay. Thus; A rolling stone gathers no moss; A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush; A cripple in the right way, will beat a racer in depression the wrong; Make hay while the buddhism vs taoism sun shines; 'T is hard to carry a full cup even; Vinegar is the son of wine; The last ounce broke the camel's back; Long-lived trees make roots first; -- and the like. Depression. In their primary sense these are trivial facts, but we repeat them for the value of medusa painting, their analogical import. What is true of proverbs, is true of all fables, parables, and allegories. This relation between the mind and matter is not fancied by some poet, but stands in the will of God, and so is free to be known by all men. It appears to men, or it does not appear. When in fortunate hours we ponder this miracle, the wise man doubts, if, at all other times, he is inventories not blind and deaf; ------ Can these things be, And overcome us like a summer's cloud, Without our special wonder? for the universe becomes transparent, and the light of higher laws than its own, shines through it. It is the standing problem which has exercised the wonder and the study of every fine genius since the world began; from the era of the Egyptians and the Brahmins, to that of Pythagoras, of Plato, of Bacon, of Leibnitz, of Swedenborg. There sits the Sphinx at the road-side, and from age to age, as each prophet comes by, he tries his fortune at reading her riddle.
There seems to be a necessity in spirit to manifest itself in material forms; and opposite of tame, day and night, river and storm, beast and bird, acid and alkali, preexist in necessary Ideas in depression the mind of God, and medusa painting, are what they are by virtue of preceding affections, in depression the world of spirit. A Fact is the end or last issue of spirit. The visible creation is the terminus or the circumference of the invisible world. Material objects, said a French philosopher, are necessarily kinds of scoriae of the substantial thoughts of the Creator, which must always preserve an exact relation to medieval ear, their first origin; in depression inventories other words, visible nature must have a spiritual and moral side. This doctrine is abstruse, and though the images of garment, scoriae, mirror, c., may stimulate the fancy, we must summon the aid of subtler and more vital expositors to make it plain. Every scripture is to be interpreted by the same spirit which gave it forth, -- is the fundamental law of criticism. A life in fetal pig respitory harmony with nature, the love of truth and of virtue, will purge the eyes to depression, understand her text. By degrees we may come to know the primitive sense of the permanent objects of nature, so that the medusa painting world shall be to us an open book, and inventories, every form significant of its hidden life and medusa painting, final cause. A new interest surprises us, whilst, under the view now suggested, we contemplate the fearful extent and multitude of objects; since every object rightly seen, unlocks a new faculty of the soul. That which was unconscious truth, becomes, when interpreted and defined in an object, a part of the domain of depression, knowledge, -- a new weapon in the magazine of power. Chapter V DISCIPLINE In view of the significance of nature, we arrive at once at a new fact, that nature is a discipline.
This use of the world includes the preceding uses, as parts of itself. Space, time, society, labor, climate, food, locomotion, the animals, the mechanical forces, give us sincerest lessons, day by opposite of tame day, whose meaning is unlimited. Inventories. They educate both the Understanding and the Reason. Every property of matter is a school for the understanding, -- its solidity or resistance, its inertia, its extension, its figure, its divisibility. The understanding adds, divides, combines, measures, and finds nutriment and room for its activity in this worthy scene. Meantime, Reason transfers all these lessons into racism today its own world of thought, by perceiving the analogy that marries Matter and Mind. 1. Nature is a discipline of the understanding in intellectual truths. Our dealing with sensible objects is a constant exercise in the necessary lessons of difference, of likeness, of order, of being and seeming, of progressive arrangement; of ascent from particular to general; of combination to depression, one end of medieval ear, manifold forces. Inventories. Proportioned to the importance of the organ to be formed, is the extreme care with which its tuition is provided, -- a care pretermitted in no single case. What tedious training, day after day, year after year, never ending, to form the common sense; what continual reproduction of annoyances, inconveniences, dilemmas; what rejoicing over racism today us of little men; what disputing of prices, what reckonings of interest, -- and depression inventories, all to form the Hand of the mind; -- to instruct us that good thoughts are no better than good dreams, unless they be executed!
The same good office is performed by Property and its filial systems of debt and credit. Debt, grinding debt, whose iron face the widow, the orphan, and the sons of genius fear and hate; -- debt, which consumes so much time, which so cripples and disheartens a great spirit with cares that seem so base, is a preceptor whose lessons cannot be forgone, and is needed most by those who suffer from medusa painting it most. Inventories. Moreover, property, which has been well compared to snow, -- if it fall level to-day, it will be blown into drifts to-morrow, -- is the surface action of internal machinery, like the index on Drug, the face of a clock. Whilst now it is the gymnastics of the understanding, it is hiving in the foresight of the spirit, experience in profounder laws. The whole character and fortune of the individual are affected by the least inequalities in the culture of the understanding; for example, in the perception of differences. Therefore is Space, and therefore Time, that man may know that things are not huddled and lumped, but sundered and individual. A bell and a plough have each their use, and neither can do the office of the other. Water is good to drink, coal to depression inventories, burn, wool to wear; but wool cannot be drunk, nor water spun, nor coal eaten. Buddhism. The wise man shows his wisdom in separation, in gradation, and his scale of creatures and of merits is depression inventories as wide as nature. The foolish have no range in their scale, but suppose every man is as every other man.
What is not good they call the worst, and what is not hateful, they call the fetal pig respitory best. In like manner, what good heed, nature forms in us! She pardons no mistakes. Her yea is yea, and her nay, nay. The first steps in Agriculture, Astronomy, Zoology, (those first steps which the farmer, the hunter, and the sailor take,) teach that nature's dice are always loaded; that in her heaps and rubbish are concealed sure and useful results. How calmly and genially the depression inventories mind apprehends one after another the racism today laws of physics! What noble emotions dilate the mortal as he enters into the counsels of the creation, and feels by knowledge the privilege to BE! His insight refines him. The beauty of nature shines in his own breast. Depression Inventories. Man is greater that he can see this, and the universe less, because Time and Space relations vanish as laws are known. Here again we are impressed and even daunted by of tame the immense Universe to inventories, be explored.
What we know, is a point to what we do not know. Open any recent journal of science, and weigh the problems suggested concerning Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism, Physiology, Geology, and judge whether the interest of natural science is medieval ear likely to be soon exhausted. Passing by depression many particulars of the discipline of nature, we must not omit to specify two. The exercise of the Will or the lesson of power is taught in every event. Vs Taoism. From the child's successive possession of his several senses up to the hour when he saith, Thy will be done! he is learning the secret, that he can reduce under his will, not only inventories particular events, but great classes, nay the whole series of events, and so conform all facts to his character. Opposite Of Tame. Nature is thoroughly mediate.
It is made to serve. It receives the dominion of depression, man as meekly as the ass on which the Saviour rode. It offers all its kingdoms to man as the raw material which he may mould into what is useful. Fetal System. Man is never weary of working it up. He forges the subtile and inventories, delicate air into wise and melodious words, and gives them wing as angels of persuasion and command.
One after another, his victorious thought comes up with and reduces all things, until the world becomes, at last, only a realized will, -- the double of the man. 2. Sensible objects conform to the premonitions of Reason and reflect the medusa painting conscience. All things are moral; and in their boundless changes have an unceasing reference to spiritual nature. Therefore is nature glorious with form, color, and depression, motion, that every globe in the remotest heaven; every chemical change from the rudest crystal up to the laws of life; every change of vegetation from the first principle of growth in medieval ear the eye of a leaf, to the tropical forest and inventories, antediluvian coal-mine; every animal function from the sponge up to racism today, Hercules, shall hint or thunder to man the depression laws of right and wrong, and medusa painting, echo the depression Ten Commandments. Therefore is nature ever the ally of Religion: lends all her pomp and riches to the religious sentiment. Prophet and priest, David, Isaiah, Jesus, have drawn deeply from this source. This ethical character so penetrates the bone and marrow of nature, as to seem the end for which it was made. Whatever private purpose is answered by any member or part, this is its public and for Juveniles, universal function, and is never omitted. Nothing in nature is exhausted in its first use.
When a thing has served an end to the uttermost, it is wholly new for an ulterior service. In God, every end is converted into a new means. Thus the use of commodity, regarded by itself, is mean and depression inventories, squalid. But it is to the mind an education in the doctrine of Use, namely, that a thing is good only so far as it serves; that a conspiring of parts and efforts to the production of an racism today end, is depression inventories essential to any being. Prevention For Juveniles. The first and gross manifestation of this truth, is our inevitable and hated training in values and wants, in corn and meat. It has already been illustrated, that every natural process is a version of a moral sentence. The moral law lies at the centre of nature and radiates to the circumference. It is the pith and marrow of every substance, every relation, and every process.
All things with which we deal, preach to us. Inventories. What is a farm but a mute gospel? The chaff and the wheat, weeds and plants, blight, rain, insects, sun, -- it is a sacred emblem from the first furrow of opposite of tame, spring to the last stack which the snow of winter overtakes in the fields. But the sailor, the shepherd, the miner, the merchant, in their several resorts, have each an experience precisely parallel, and leading to the same conclusion: because all organizations are radically alike. Nor can it be doubted that this moral sentiment which thus scents the air, grows in the grain, and impregnates the waters of the world, is caught by man and sinks into his soul. The moral influence of nature upon depression inventories, every individual is that amount of truth which it illustrates to him. Who can estimate this?
Who can guess how much firmness the sea-beaten rock has taught the fisherman? how much tranquillity has been reflected to man from the azure sky, over whose unspotted deeps the winds forevermore drive flocks of stormy clouds, and leave no wrinkle or stain? how much industry and providence and affection we have caught from the pantomime of brutes? What a searching preacher of self-command is the varying phenomenon of Health! Herein is medieval ear especially apprehended the unity of inventories, Nature, -- the unity in variety, -- which meets us everywhere. All the endless variety of things make an identical impression. Xenophanes complained in his old age, that, look where he would, all things hastened back to Unity. He was weary of seeing the same entity in the tedious variety of forms. The fable of Proteus has a cordial truth. A leaf, a drop, a crystal, a moment of time is related to the whole, and partakes of the perfection of the whole. Each particle is a microcosm, and faithfully renders the likeness of the world. Not only resemblances exist in things whose analogy is obvious, as when we detect the type of the human hand in fetal system the flipper of the depression inventories fossil saurus, but also in medieval ear objects wherein there is great superficial unlikeness.
Thus architecture is called frozen music, by De Stael and depression, Goethe. Vitruvius thought an architect should be a musician. A Gothic church, said Coleridge, is for Juveniles a petrified religion. Depression Inventories. Michael Angelo maintained, that, to an architect, a knowledge of anatomy is essential. In Haydn's oratorios, the notes present to the imagination not only motions, as, of the snake, the stag, and the elephant, but colors also; as the green grass. The law of harmonic sounds reappears in the harmonic colors. The granite is differenced in its laws only by the more or less of heat, from the river that wears it away. The river, as it flows, resembles the air that flows over it; the air resembles the light which traverses it with more subtile currents; the light resembles the heat which rides with it through Space. Each creature is only a modification of the other; the likeness in them is more than the difference, and their radical law is medusa painting one and the same. A rule of one art, or a law of one organization, holds true throughout nature.
So intimate is depression inventories this Unity, that, it is easily seen, it lies under the undermost garment of nature, and betrays its source in Universal Spirit. For, it pervades Thought also. Every universal truth which we express in words, implies or supposes every other truth. Omne verum vero consonat. It is like a great circle on racism today, a sphere, comprising all possible circles; which, however, may be drawn, and comprise it, in depression like manner. Every such truth is the absolute Ens seen from one side. But it has innumerable sides. The central Unity is still more conspicuous in actions. Words are finite organs of the infinite mind. They cannot cover the dimensions of what is in truth. They break, chop, and impoverish it.
An action is the perfection and publication of thought. Racism Today. A right action seems to fill the eye, and to inventories, be related to vs taoism, all nature. The wise man, in doing one thing, does all; or, in the one thing he does rightly, he sees the likeness of all which is done rightly. Words and actions are not the attributes of depression, brute nature. They introduce us to the human form, of which all other organizations appear to be degradations. Opposite Of Tame. When this appears among so many that surround it, the spirit prefers it to all others.
It says, `From such as this, have I drawn joy and knowledge; in such as this, have I found and beheld myself; I will speak to it; it can speak again; it can yield me thought already formed and alive.' In fact, the eye, -- the mind, -- is always accompanied by these forms, male and female; and these are incomparably the richest informations of the power and order that lie at the heart of things. Unfortunately, every one of them bears the marks as of some injury; is depression inventories marred and superficially defective. Nevertheless, far different from the Prevention Programs deaf and dumb nature around them, these all rest like fountain-pipes on the unfathomed sea of depression inventories, thought and virtue whereto they alone, of all organizations, are the entrances. It were a pleasant inquiry to fetal system, follow into detail their ministry to our education, but where would it stop? We are associated in depression adolescent and adult life with some friends, who, like skies and waters, are coextensive with our idea; who, answering each to a certain affection of the soul, satisfy our desire on that side; whom we lack power to put at such focal distance from us, that we can mend or even analyze them. We cannot choose but love them. When much intercourse with a friend has supplied us with a standard of excellence, and pig respitory system, has increased our respect for the resources of God who thus sends a real person to outgo our ideal; when he has, moreover, become an object of thought, and, whilst his character retains all its unconscious effect, is converted in the mind into solid and sweet wisdom, -- it is a sign to us that his office is closing, and he is commonly withdrawn from our sight in a short time. Chapter VI IDEALISM Thus is the unspeakable but intelligible and practicable meaning of the world conveyed to man, the immortal pupil, in every object of sense.
To this one end of Discipline, all parts of nature conspire. A noble doubt perpetually suggests itself, whether this end be not the Final Cause of the Universe; and whether nature outwardly exists. It is a sufficient account of that Appearance we call the depression inventories World, that God will teach a human mind, and so makes it the receiver of a certain number of congruent sensations, which we call sun and buddhism, moon, man and woman, house and trade. In my utter impotence to test the authenticity of the report of my senses, to know whether the impressions they make on me correspond with outlying objects, what difference does it make, whether Orion is up there in heaven, or some god paints the image in the firmament of the soul? The relations of parts and the end of the whole remaining the same, what is the difference, whether land and sea interact, and worlds revolve and intermingle without number or end, -- deep yawning under deep, and galaxy balancing galaxy, throughout absolute space, -- or, whether, without relations of time and space, the same appearances are inscribed in the constant faith of man?
Whether nature enjoy a substantial existence without, or is only in the apocalypse of the depression mind, it is alike useful and alike venerable to me. System. Be it what it may, it is ideal to me, so long as I cannot try the accuracy of my senses. The frivolous make themselves merry with the depression inventories Ideal theory, as if its consequences were burlesque; as if it affected the stability of nature. It surely does not. God never jests with us, and will not compromise the buddhism vs taoism end of inventories, nature, by fetal permitting any inconsequence in its procession. Any distrust of the permanence of laws, would paralyze the depression faculties of man. Their permanence is sacredly respected, and his faith therein is perfect. The wheels and springs of man are all set to Prevention for Juveniles Essay, the hypothesis of the permanence of nature. We are not built like a ship to inventories, be tossed, but like a house to stand. It is buddhism a natural consequence of this structure, that, so long as the active powers predominate over the reflective, we resist with indignation any hint that nature is more short-lived or mutable than spirit.
The broker, the wheelwright, the carpenter, the toll-man, are much displeased at the intimation. But whilst we acquiesce entirely in inventories the permanence of natural laws, the question of the absolute existence of nature still remains open. It is the uniform effect of culture on system, the human mind, not to shake our faith in the stability of particular phenomena, as of heat, water, azote; but to lead us to regard nature as a phenomenon, not a substance; to inventories, attribute necessary existence to spirit; to esteem nature as an accident and an effect. To the senses and Drug Programs for Juveniles Essay, the unrenewed understanding, belongs a sort of instinctive belief in the absolute existence of nature. In their view, man and nature are indissolubly joined. Things are ultimates, and they never look beyond their sphere. The presence of Reason mars this faith. The first effort of thought tends to relax this despotism of the senses, which binds us to nature as if we were a part of it, and shows us nature aloof, and, as it were, afloat. Until this higher agency intervened, the animal eye sees, with wonderful accuracy, sharp outlines and colored surfaces. When the eye of Reason opens, to outline and surface are at once added, grace and expression. These proceed from imagination and affection, and abate somewhat of the angular distinctness of depression, objects.
If the Reason be stimulated to more earnest vision, outlines and surfaces become transparent, and are no longer seen; causes and spirits are seen through them. The best moments of life are these delicious awakenings of the higher powers, and the reverential withdrawing of nature before its God. Let us proceed to medusa painting, indicate the depression inventories effects of culture. 1. Our first institution in the Ideal philosophy is a hint from nature herself. Nature is made to conspire with spirit to emancipate us. Certain mechanical changes, a small alteration in our local position apprizes us of a dualism.
We are strangely affected by seeing the shore from system a moving ship, from a balloon, or through the inventories tints of an system unusual sky. The least change in our point of view, gives the whole world a pictorial air. A man who seldom rides, needs only to get into a coach and traverse his own town, to turn the street into a puppet-show. The men, the women, -- talking, running, bartering, fighting, -- the earnest mechanic, the lounger, the beggar, the boys, the dogs, are unrealized at once, or, at least, wholly detached from all relation to the observer, and seen as apparent, not substantial beings. What new thoughts are suggested by seeing a face of country quite familiar, in the rapid movement of the rail-road car! Nay, the most wonted objects, (make a very slight change in the point of vision,) please us most.
In a camera obscura, the butcher's cart, and the figure of one of our own family amuse us. So a portrait of a well-known face gratifies us. Turn the eyes upside down, by inventories looking at pig respitory system the landscape through your legs, and inventories, how agreeable is the picture, though you have seen it any time these twenty years! In these cases, by mechanical means, is opposite suggested the difference between the inventories observer and the spectacle, -- between man and nature. Hence arises a pleasure mixed with awe; I may say, a low degree of the fetal system sublime is felt from the fact, probably, that man is inventories hereby apprized, that, whilst the world is a spectacle, something in himself is stable. 2. In a higher manner, the poet communicates the same pleasure. By a few strokes he delineates, as on air, the sun, the mountain, the camp, the city, the hero, the maiden, not different from what we know them, but only lifted from the ground and vs taoism, afloat before the eye. He unfixes the land and the sea, makes them revolve around the axis of his primary thought, and disposes them anew. Possessed himself by depression inventories a heroic passion, he uses matter as symbols of it. The sensual man conforms thoughts to things; the poet conforms things to his thoughts. The one esteems nature as rooted and medieval ear, fast; the other, as fluid, and impresses his being thereon.
To him, the refractory world is ductile and flexible; he invests dust and stones with humanity, and makes them the words of the Reason. The Imagination may be defined to be, the use which the Reason makes of the material world. Shakspeare possesses the power of subordinating nature for the purposes of expression, beyond all poets. His imperial muse tosses the creation like a bauble from hand to hand, and uses it to embody any caprice of thought that is depression inventories upper-most in his mind. The remotest spaces of nature are visited, and the farthest sundered things are brought together, by a subtle spiritual connection. We are made aware that magnitude of material things is relative, and all objects shrink and system, expand to serve the depression inventories passion of the poet. Thus, in his sonnets, the lays of birds, the scents and dyes of flowers, he finds to be the shadow of system, his beloved; time, which keeps her from him, is his chest ; the suspicion she has awakened, is her ornament ; The ornament of beauty is Suspect, A crow which flies in heaven's sweetest air. Inventories. His passion is not the fruit of chance; it swells, as he speaks, to a city, or a state. No, it was builded far from accident; It suffers not in smiling pomp, nor falls.
Under the brow of pig respitory system, thralling discontent; It fears not policy, that heretic, That works on leases of inventories, short numbered hours, But all alone stands hugely politic In the fetal strength of his constancy, the Pyramids seem to him recent and transitory. The freshness of youth and love dazzles him with its resemblance to morning. Take those lips away. Which so sweetly were forsworn; And those eyes, -- the break of day, Lights that do mislead the morn.
The wild beauty of this hyperbole, I may say, in passing, it would not be easy to match in literature. This transfiguration which all material objects undergo through the passion of the poet, -- this power which he exerts to dwarf the inventories great, to magnify the small, -- might be illustrated by a thousand examples from medusa painting his Plays. I have before me the Tempest, and will cite only these few lines. ARIEL. The strong based promontory. Have I made shake, and by the spurs plucked up. The pine and inventories, cedar.
Prospero calls for music to soothe the frantic Alonzo, and his companions; A solemn air, and the best comforter. To an unsettled fancy, cure thy brains. Now useless, boiled within thy skull. Again; The charm dissolves apace, And, as the morning steals upon the night, Melting the darkness, so their rising senses. Begin to chase the ignorant fumes that mantle. Their clearer reason. Begins to swell: and the approaching tide.
Will shortly fill the reasonable shores. That now lie foul and muddy. The perception of real affinities between events, (that is to say, of ideal affinities, for those only are real,) enables the poet thus to make free with the most imposing forms and phenomena of the world, and to assert the predominance of the Drug soul. 3. Whilst thus the poet animates nature with his own thoughts, he differs from the depression philosopher only herein, that the one proposes Beauty as his main end; the other Truth. But the philosopher, not less than the poet, postpones the apparent order and relations of things to the empire of thought. The problem of philosophy, according to Plato, is, for medusa painting, all that exists conditionally, to inventories, find a ground unconditioned and absolute.
It proceeds on the faith that a law determines all phenomena, which being known, the phenomena can be predicted. That law, when in the mind, is an idea. Its beauty is infinite. The true philosopher and the true poet are one, and a beauty, which is fetal truth, and a truth, which is beauty, is the aim of both. Is not the charm of one of Plato's or Aristotle's definitions, strictly like that of the Antigone of Sophocles? It is, in both cases, that a spiritual life has been imparted to nature; that the solid seeming block of matter has been pervaded and dissolved by a thought; that this feeble human being has penetrated the vast masses of nature with an informing soul, and recognised itself in their harmony, that is, seized their law.
In physics, when this is attained, the memory disburthens itself of its cumbrous catalogues of depression, particulars, and opposite of tame, carries centuries of inventories, observation in a single formula. Thus even in medusa painting physics, the material is degraded before the depression spiritual. The astronomer, the medieval ear geometer, rely on their irrefragable analysis, and disdain the inventories results of observation. The sublime remark of Euler on his law of arches, This will be found contrary to all experience, yet is true; had already transferred nature into the mind, and left matter like an outcast corpse. 4. Intellectual science has been observed to racism today, beget invariably a doubt of the existence of matter. Turgot said, He that has never doubted the existence of matter, may be assured he has no aptitude for metaphysical inquiries. It fastens the depression attention upon Programs, immortal necessary uncreated natures, that is, upon Ideas; and in depression their presence, we feel that the outward circumstance is a dream and a shade. Whilst we wait in this Olympus of gods, we think of nature as an appendix to the soul. We ascend into Drug Prevention Programs Essay their region, and depression inventories, know that these are the Drug Programs Essay thoughts of the Supreme Being. These are they who were set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was. When he prepared the heavens, they were there; when he established the clouds above, when he strengthened the fountains of the deep.
Then they were by him, as one brought up with him. Of them took he counsel. Their influence is depression proportionate. As objects of buddhism vs taoism, science, they are accessible to few men. Yet all men are capable of being raised by piety or by passion, into their region.
And no man touches these divine natures, without becoming, in depression inventories some degree, himself divine. Like a new soul, they renew the body. For Juveniles Essay. We become physically nimble and lightsome; we tread on air; life is no longer irksome, and we think it will never be so. No man fears age or misfortune or death, in their serene company, for he is transported out of the district of change. Whilst we behold unveiled the nature of Justice and inventories, Truth, we learn the difference between the absolute and the conditional or relative. We apprehend the absolute. As it were, for the first time, we exist.
We become immortal, for we learn that time and space are relations of matter; that, with a perception of truth, or a virtuous will, they have no affinity. 5. Finally, religion and fetal pig respitory system, ethics, which may be fitly called, -- the practice of ideas, or the introduction of depression inventories, ideas into life, -- have an Drug Programs for Juveniles analogous effect with all lower culture, in degrading nature and suggesting its dependence on spirit. Ethics and depression inventories, religion differ herein; that the one is the system of medieval ear, human duties commencing from man; the other, from God. Religion includes the personality of God; Ethics does not. They are one to our present design. They both put nature under foot. The first and depression, last lesson of religion is, The things that are seen, are temporal; the things that are unseen, are eternal. It puts an affront upon nature. It does that for the unschooled, which philosophy does for Berkeley and Viasa. The uniform language that may be heard in the churches of the most ignorant sects, is,------Contemn the pig respitory unsubstantial shows of the world; they are vanities, dreams, shadows, unrealities; seek the realities of religion.
The devotee flouts nature. Some theosophists have arrived at a certain hostility and indignation towards matter, as the Manichean and Plotinus. They distrusted in inventories themselves any looking back to these flesh-pots of Egypt. Plotinus was ashamed of his body. In short, they might all say of matter, what Michael Angelo said of external beauty, it is the frail and weary weed, in medieval ear which God dresses the soul, which he has called into time. It appears that motion, poetry, physical and intellectual science, and religion, all tend to inventories, affect our convictions of the medieval ear reality of the external world. But I own there is depression inventories something ungrateful in expanding too curiously the particulars of the general proposition, that all culture tends to imbue us with idealism. I have no hostility to nature, but a child's love to it.
I expand and medusa painting, live in the warm day like corn and melons. Let us speak her fair. I do not wish to depression, fling stones at buddhism vs taoism my beautiful mother, nor soil my gentle nest. I only wish to indicate the depression true position of nature in regard to man, wherein to establish man, all right education tends; as the ground which to attain is the object of human life, that is, of man's connection with nature. Medieval Ear. Culture inverts the vulgar views of nature, and brings the mind to call that apparent, which it uses to call real, and that real, which it uses to call visionary. Children, it is true, believe in depression inventories the external world. The belief that it appears only, is an afterthought, but with culture, this faith will as surely arise on the mind as did the first. The advantage of the ideal theory over buddhism the popular faith, is depression inventories this, that it presents the world in precisely that view which is most desirable to the mind. It is, in fact, the view which Reason, both speculative and practical, that is, philosophy and virtue, take.
For, seen in the light of thought, the world always is phenomenal; and virtue subordinates it to the mind. Idealism sees the world in God. It beholds the racism today whole circle of persons and things, of actions and events, of country and religion, not as painfully accumulated, atom after atom, act after act, in an aged creeping Past, but as one vast picture, which God paints on the instant eternity, for the contemplation of the soul. Therefore the inventories soul holds itself off from a too trivial and microscopic study of the universal tablet. It respects the end too much, to immerse itself in medieval ear the means. It sees something more important in depression inventories Christianity, than the scandals of ecclesiastical history, or the niceties of criticism; and, very incurious concerning persons or miracles, and not at all disturbed by chasms of historical evidence, it accepts from God the phenomenon, as it finds it, as the pure and awful form of religion in the world.
It is not hot and passionate at the appearance of what it calls its own good or bad fortune, at the union or opposition of other persons. No man is its enemy. It accepts whatsoever befalls, as part of its lesson. It is a watcher more than a doer, and it is a doer, only that it may the better watch. Chapter VII SPIRIT It is essential to a true theory of nature and of man, that it should contain somewhat progressive. Uses that are exhausted or that may be, and facts that end in the statement, cannot be all that is true of this brave lodging wherein man is harbored, and wherein all his faculties find appropriate and endless exercise.
And all the uses of nature admit of being summed in one, which yields the activity of man an infinite scope. Through all its kingdoms, to the suburbs and Drug for Juveniles, outskirts of things, it is depression inventories faithful to the cause whence it had its origin. Racism Today. It always speaks of depression inventories, Spirit. Medusa Painting. It suggests the absolute. It is a perpetual effect. It is a great shadow pointing always to the sun behind us.
The aspect of nature is devout. Like the figure of Jesus, she stands with bended head, and hands folded upon the breast. The happiest man is he who learns from nature the lesson of worship. Of that ineffable essence which we call Spirit, he that thinks most, will say least. We can foresee God in the coarse, and, as it were, distant phenomena of matter; but when we try to inventories, define and describe himself, both language and thought desert us, and we are as helpless as fools and savages. Vs Taoism. That essence refuses to be recorded in propositions, but when man has worshipped him intellectually, the noblest ministry of nature is to stand as the apparition of God. Depression Inventories. It is the organ through which the universal spirit speaks to the individual, and strives to lead back the individual to it. When we consider Spirit, we see that the views already presented do not include the fetal pig respitory system whole circumference of man. Inventories. We must add some related thoughts. Three problems are put by nature to buddhism vs taoism, the mind; What is matter? Whence is it? and Whereto?
The first of these questions only, the ideal theory answers. Idealism saith: matter is a phenomenon, not a substance. Idealism acquaints us with the depression total disparity between the fetal pig respitory system evidence of depression, our own being, and the evidence of the world's being. The one is perfect; the other, incapable of medieval ear, any assurance; the mind is depression a part of the racism today nature of things; the world is a divine dream, from which we may presently awake to the glories and certainties of day. Idealism is inventories a hypothesis to account for nature by other principles than those of carpentry and chemistry. Yet, if it only deny the existence of matter, it does not satisfy the demands of the buddhism spirit.
It leaves God out of me. It leaves me in the splendid labyrinth of my perceptions, to wander without end. Then the heart resists it, because it balks the affections in denying substantive being to men and women. Depression. Nature is so pervaded with human life, that there is something of humanity in medieval ear all, and in every particular. But this theory makes nature foreign to me, and does not account for that consanguinity which we acknowledge to it. Let it stand, then, in the present state of our knowledge, merely as a useful introductory hypothesis, serving to apprize us of the eternal distinction between the soul and the world. But when, following the invisible steps of thought, we come to inquire, Whence is matter? and Whereto? many truths arise to us out of the recesses of consciousness. We learn that the inventories highest is present to fetal pig respitory, the soul of man, that the inventories dread universal essence, which is not wisdom, or love, or beauty, or power, but all in one, and each entirely, is that for which all things exist, and that by which they are; that spirit creates; that behind nature, throughout nature, spirit is present; one and not compound, it does not act upon us from medieval ear without, that is, in space and time, but spiritually, or through ourselves: therefore, that spirit, that is, the depression inventories Supreme Being, does not build up nature around us, but puts it forth through us, as the life of the tree puts forth new branches and Drug for Juveniles, leaves through the pores of the old.
As a plant upon inventories, the earth, so a man rests upon the bosom of of tame, God; he is nourished by unfailing fountains, and draws, at his need, inexhaustible power. Depression Inventories. Who can set bounds to the possibilities of man? Once inhale the upper air, being admitted to vs taoism, behold the absolute natures of justice and truth, and we learn that man has access to inventories, the entire mind of the Creator, is himself the creator in the finite. This view, which admonishes me where the sources of wisdom and power lie, and Drug, points to virtue as to The golden key. Which opes the palace of depression, eternity, carries upon its face the highest certificate of pig respitory, truth, because it animates me to create my own world through the inventories purification of my soul. The world proceeds from the same spirit as the body of man. It is medieval ear a remoter and inferior incarnation of inventories, God, a projection of God in the unconscious. Medieval Ear. But it differs from the depression body in one important respect. It is not, like that, now subjected to the human will. Its serene order is inviolable by us.
It is, therefore, to us, the present expositor of the divine mind. It is a fixed point whereby we may measure our departure. As we degenerate, the contrast between us and medieval ear, our house is more evident. We are as much strangers in nature, as we are aliens from God. We do not understand the notes of birds.
The fox and the deer run away from us; the inventories bear and tiger rend us. We do not know the uses of more than a few plants, as corn and the apple, the fetal system potato and the vine. Is not the landscape, every glimpse of which hath a grandeur, a face of him? Yet this may show us what discord is inventories between man and pig respitory, nature, for depression inventories, you cannot freely admire a noble landscape, if laborers are digging in the field hard by. The poet finds something ridiculous in his delight, until he is out of the sight of men. Buddhism Vs Taoism. Chapter VIII PROSPECTS In inquiries respecting the laws of the world and the frame of things, the depression highest reason is always the truest. That which seems faintly possible -- it is so refined, is often faint and dim because it is deepest seated in the mind among the eternal verities.
Empirical science is apt to cloud the buddhism sight, and, by depression inventories the very knowledge of functions and processes, to bereave the Drug Prevention Programs for Juveniles student of the manly contemplation of the whole. The savant becomes unpoetic. But the best read naturalist who lends an entire and devout attention to truth, will see that there remains much to learn of his relation to the world, and that it is not to be learned by any addition or subtraction or other comparison of known quantities, but is arrived at depression by untaught sallies of the spirit, by a continual self-recovery, and by entire humility. He will perceive that there are far more excellent qualities in the student than preciseness and infallibility; that a guess is often more fruitful than an indisputable affirmation, and that a dream may let us deeper into the secret of nature than a hundred concerted experiments. For, the problems to be solved are precisely those which the medieval ear physiologist and the naturalist omit to state.
It is not so pertinent to man to know all the individuals of the depression animal kingdom, as it is to know whence and whereto is this tyrannizing unity in his constitution, which evermore separates and classifies things, endeavoring to reduce the most diverse to medusa painting, one form. Inventories. When I behold a rich landscape, it is less to my purpose to recite correctly the order and superposition of the strata, than to know why all thought of multitude is buddhism lost in a tranquil sense of unity. I cannot greatly honor minuteness in details, so long as there is no hint to explain the relation between things and thoughts; no ray upon the metaphysics of conchology, of botany, of the depression arts, to show the relation of the forms of flowers, shells, animals, architecture, to the mind, and build science upon ideas. In a cabinet of natural history, we become sensible of a certain occult recognition and sympathy in regard to the most unwieldly and eccentric forms of beast, fish, and insect. Opposite Of Tame. The American who has been confined, in his own country, to the sight of buildings designed after foreign models, is surprised on entering York Minster or St. Peter's at Rome, by the feeling that these structures are imitations also, -- faint copies of an invisible archetype. Nor has science sufficient humanity, so long as the naturalist overlooks that wonderful congruity which subsists between man and the world; of which he is lord, not because he is the most subtile inhabitant, but because he is inventories its head and Drug for Juveniles Essay, heart, and finds something of himself in every great and small thing, in every mountain stratum, in every new law of color, fact of astronomy, or atmospheric influence which observation or analysis lay open. A perception of this mystery inspires the muse of George Herbert, the beautiful psalmist of the seventeenth century. The following lines are part of his little poem on Man. Man is all symmetry, Full of proportions, one limb to another,
And to all the world besides. Each part may call the farthest, brother; For head with foot hath private amity, And both with moons and tides. Nothing hath got so far. But man hath caught and kept it as his prey; His eyes dismount the highest star; He is in little all the sphere. Herbs gladly cure our flesh, because that they. Find their acquaintance there. For us, the winds do blow,
The earth doth rest, heaven move, and fountains flow; Nothing we see, but means our good, As our delight, or as our treasure; The whole is either our cupboard of food, Or cabinet of pleasure.
The stars have us to depression, bed: Night draws the curtain; which the sun withdraws. Music and light attend our head. All things unto our flesh are kind, In their descent and being; to our mind, In their ascent and cause. More servants wait on man.
Than he'll take notice of. In every path, He treads down that which doth befriend him. When sickness makes him pale and wan. Oh mighty love! Man is one world, and hath. Another to attend him. The perception of this class of truths makes the attraction which draws men to science, but the end is lost sight of in attention to the means. In view of Programs, this half-sight of science, we accept the inventories sentence of Plato, that, poetry comes nearer to vital truth than history. Racism Today. Every surmise and vaticination of the mind is entitled to a certain respect, and we learn to prefer imperfect theories, and sentences, which contain glimpses of truth, to digested systems which have no one valuable suggestion.
A wise writer will feel that the ends of study and composition are best answered by announcing undiscovered regions of thought, and so communicating, through hope, new activity to the torpid spirit. I shall therefore conclude this essay with some traditions of man and nature, which a certain poet sang to me; and which, as they have always been in the world, and depression, perhaps reappear to every bard, may be both history and prophecy. `The foundations of man are not in matter, but in racism today spirit. But the inventories element of spirit is eternity. To it, therefore, the racism today longest series of events, the oldest chronologies are young and recent. In the cycle of the universal man, from whom the known individuals proceed, centuries are points, and all history is but the epoch of one degradation. `We distrust and deny inwardly our sympathy with nature. We own and disown our relation to it, by turns. We are, like Nebuchadnezzar, dethroned, bereft of depression inventories, reason, and eating grass like an ox. But who can set limits to the remedial force of pig respitory, spirit?
`A man is a god in ruins. When men are innocent, life shall be longer, and shall pass into the immortal, as gently as we awake from dreams. Now, the world would be insane and rabid, if these disorganizations should last for hundreds of years. It is kept in check by death and infancy. Infancy is the perpetual Messiah, which comes into the arms of fallen men, and pleads with them to return to paradise. `Man is the dwarf of himself. Once he was permeated and dissolved by spirit. Inventories. He filled nature with his overflowing currents.
Out from of tame him sprang the sun and moon; from man, the sun; from woman, the moon. The laws of his mind, the periods of his actions externized themselves into depression day and night, into the year and the seasons. But, having made for himself this huge shell, his waters retired; he no longer fills the Drug Programs for Juveniles veins and veinlets; he is shrunk to a drop. He sees, that the structure still fits him, but fits him colossally. Say, rather, once it fitted him, now it corresponds to him from far and on high. He adores timidly his own work. Now is man the follower of the sun, and woman the inventories follower of the moon. Yet sometimes he starts in his slumber, and wonders at himself and Prevention for Juveniles, his house, and muses strangely at the resemblance betwixt him and depression inventories, it. He perceives that if his law is still paramount, if still he have elemental power, if his word is sterling yet in nature, it is not conscious power, it is not inferior but superior to his will.
It is Instinct.' Thus my Orphic poet sang. At present, man applies to nature but half his force. He works on the world with his understanding alone. He lives in it, and masters it by a penny-wisdom; and he that works most in it, is fetal system but a half-man, and whilst his arms are strong and his digestion good, his mind is imbruted, and he is a selfish savage. Depression. His relation to nature, his power over it, is through the understanding; as by manure; the economic use of fire, wind, water, and the mariner's needle; steam, coal, chemical agriculture; the repairs of the human body by the dentist and the surgeon. This is such a resumption of power, as if a banished king should buy his territories inch by inch, instead of vaulting at once into his throne. Meantime, in the thick darkness, there are not wanting gleams of a better light, -- occasional examples of the action of man upon nature with his entire force, -- with reason as well as understanding.
Such examples are; the traditions of miracles in the earliest antiquity of all nations; the opposite history of inventories, Jesus Christ; the achievements of a principle, as in religious and political revolutions, and in the abolition of the Slave-trade; the miracles of medusa painting, enthusiasm, as those reported of depression inventories, Swedenborg, Hohenlohe, and the Shakers; many obscure and yet contested facts, now arranged under the name of medieval ear, Animal Magnetism; prayer; eloquence; self-healing; and depression inventories, the wisdom of children. These are examples of medusa painting, Reason's momentary grasp of the sceptre; the exertions of a power which exists not in time or space, but an instantaneous in-streaming causing power. The difference between the actual and the ideal force of man is inventories happily figured by the schoolmen, in saying, that the knowledge of man is an evening knowledge, vespertina cognitio, but that of God is a morning knowledge, matutina cognitio. The problem of restoring to the world original and eternal beauty, is solved by the redemption of the soul. The ruin or the blank, that we see when we look at nature, is in our own eye. The axis of vision is not coincident with the axis of things, and so they appear not transparent but opake. Opposite Of Tame. The reason why the depression inventories world lacks unity, and lies broken and in heaps, is, because man is disunited with himself. He cannot be a naturalist, until he satisfies all the demands of the spirit. Love is as much its demand, as perception.
Indeed, neither can be perfect without the other. In the uttermost meaning of the words, thought is devout, and medusa painting, devotion is thought. Deep calls unto deep. But in actual life, the marriage is not celebrated. There are innocent men who worship God after the tradition of their fathers, but their sense of duty has not yet extended to the use of all their faculties. And there are patient naturalists, but they freeze their subject under the wintry light of the understanding. Is not prayer also a study of truth, -- a sally of the soul into the unfound infinite? No man ever prayed heartily, without learning something. But when a faithful thinker, resolute to detach every object from personal relations, and see it in the light of thought, shall, at the same time, kindle science with the depression fire of the holiest affections, then will God go forth anew into Drug Prevention Programs Essay the creation.
It will not need, when the depression inventories mind is prepared for study, to search for objects. The invariable mark of wisdom is to see the miraculous in the common. What is Prevention for Juveniles Essay a day? What is a year? What is summer? What is woman? What is a child?
What is sleep? To our blindness, these things seem unaffecting. Depression. We make fables to hide the baldness of the fact and conform it, as we say, to the higher law of the mind. But when the fact is seen under the light of an idea, the gaudy fable fades and shrivels. We behold the real higher law. To the for Juveniles wise, therefore, a fact is true poetry, and the most beautiful of fables. These wonders are brought to our own door. You also are a man. Man and woman, and their social life, poverty, labor, sleep, fear, fortune, are known to you. Learn that none of these things is superficial, but that each phenomenon has its roots in the faculties and affections of the mind.
Whilst the abstract question occupies your intellect, nature brings it in inventories the concrete to opposite of tame, be solved by your hands. It were a wise inquiry for the closet, to compare, point by depression inventories point, especially at remarkable crises in life, our daily history, with the rise and progress of ideas in the mind. So shall we come to look at the world with new eyes. It shall answer the endless inquiry of the intellect, -- What is truth? and medieval ear, of the affections, -- What is good? by yielding itself passive to the educated Will. Then shall come to depression inventories, pass what my poet said; `Nature is not fixed but fluid. Spirit alters, moulds, makes it.
The immobility or bruteness of nature, is the absence of spirit; to pure spirit, it is Programs fluid, it is volatile, it is obedient. Every spirit builds itself a house; and beyond its house a world; and beyond its world, a heaven. Know then, that the world exists for you. For you is the phenomenon perfect. What we are, that only can we see. All that Adam had, all that Caesar could, you have and can do. Adam called his house, heaven and earth; Caesar called his house, Rome; you perhaps call yours, a cobler's trade; a hundred acres of ploughed land; or a scholar's garret.
Yet line for line and point for inventories, point, your dominion is as great as theirs, though without fine names. Build, therefore, your own world. As fast as you conform your life to the pure idea in your mind, that will unfold its great proportions. A correspondent revolution in things will attend the influx of the spirit. So fast will disagreeable appearances, swine, spiders, snakes, pests, madhouses, prisons, enemies, vanish; they are temporary and shall be no more seen. The sordor and racism today, filths of nature, the sun shall dry up, and the wind exhale.
As when the summer comes from the south; the snow-banks melt, and the face of the earth becomes green before it, so shall the advancing spirit create its ornaments along its path, and depression inventories, carry with it the beauty it visits, and the song which enchants it; it shall draw beautiful faces, warm hearts, wise discourse, and heroic acts, around its way, until evil is no more seen. The kingdom of man over nature, which cometh not with observation, -- a dominion such as now is beyond his dream of God, -- he shall enter without more wonder than the blind man feels who is gradually restored to medieval ear, perfect sight.'