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article cited essay NOTE: Although you should use these citation formats in this and other biology courses, specific formats vary considerably for max papers, individual journals. War End! If you are trying to publish a paper in max papers, a specific journal, you will be required to follow the format of that journal. Some journals,e.g., Science , use a number system to give the text reference. That system will not be presented here, but you should expect to encounter it in your reading of the literature. Troy Characters! A complete listing of citation formats for max papers, published materials may be found in Huth et al (1994). Citing References in the Body (Intro and in the central, Discussion) of the Paper. Throughout the body of your paper (primarily the Intro and Discussion), whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information. The simplest way to do this is to parenthetically give the author's last name and the year of publication, e.g., (Clarke 2001). When citing information from another's publication, be sure to report the relevant aspects of the work clearly and succinctly, IN YOUR OWN WORDS. Provide a reference to the work as soon as possible after giving the information.
Standard Text Citation Formats. There are exceptions among the various journals, but generally, in biological journals, the most frequent types of citations are shown in the following examples (in red): It has been found that male mice react to estrogen treatment by max papers a reduction in phase three of courtship behavior (Gumwad 1952:209; Bugjuice 1970) . Click and Clack (1974) demonstrated that mice treated with synthetic estrogen analogs react similarly. 3/4D Technology Essay! The reduction in max papers, phase three courtship behavior may also be linked to nutritional status (Anon. 1996; Bruhahauser et al 1973) . Note the following: Typically, only the last name of the author(s) and the year of troy characters publication are given,e.g., Bugjuice 1970 . Your Literature Cited section will contain the complete reference, and the reader can look it up there. Notice that the reference to the book has a page number (Gumwad 1952: 209 ) . This is to facilitate a reader's finding the max papers, reference in a long publication such as a book (not done for journal articles).
The paper by Bugjuice (1970) is short, and if readers want to find the referenced information, they would not have as much trouble. For two author papers , give both authors' last names (e.g., Click and ferrous material, Clack 1974 ). Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed and max papers, others or et al., and then the year. When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author , cite it as Anon. Year, e.g., (Anon. 1996) (Anon. is the abbreviation for anonymous). See Full Citation. If you want reference a paper found in another article , do so as follows: ( Driblick 1923, in Oobleck 1978 ). A string of citations should be separated by semicolons, e.g., (Gumwad 1952:209; Bugjuice 1970; Bruhahauser et al 1973) . Finally, you should note the placement of the period AFTER the parenthetical citation - the citation, too, is part of a sentence,e.g., . courtship behavior (Gumwad 1952:209; Bugjuice 1970) . Thesis: Theses and dissertatons should be cited as follows: Mortimer, R. 1975. How Did! A study of hormonal regulation of body temperature and max papers, consequences for reproductive success in the common house mouse ( Mus musculus ) in 3/4D Ultrasound, Nome, Alaska. Masters Thesis, University of Alaska, Anchorage. 83 p. World Wide Web/Internet source citations : WWW citation should be done with caution since so much is posted without peer review.
When necessary, report the complete URL in the text including the site author's name: Ohio State University Library has a good webpage for citing web sources: Internet sources should be included in your Literature Cited section. For unusual reference citations such a government documents, technical reports, etc, refer to max papers Huth et al (1994) for a complete listing of citation formats. A copy of this reference should be available in the Ladd Library and a copy is available in the Biology Department. Lotf Jack! Suppose some of the information cited above was not gained from the max papers, Gumwad and Bugjuice publications, but rather in a personal conversation with or letter from an definition expert on max papers the subject, Dr. Cynthia Mousse. When you have talked with, or written to someone, and gained some information or data that are not published, you should give credit to that person in the following way: It has been found that male mice . phase three of courtship behavior (C. Mousse, pers. comm.). No date is entered for a personal communication, nor will it be entered in your Literature Cited section. However, the source is usually thanked in your Acknowledgments for their contribution.
DO NOT USE FOOTNOTES : Footnoting, although commonly done in books and other literary writing, is only rarely done in journal style papers. Cite references in the flow of the text as shown above. DO NOT USE DIRECT QUOTES From Published Material : In 99.99% of the cases, the information you want from a research article is an Technology Essay objective result or interpretation. How the author stated this information, i.e., their prose , is of little importance compared to the results or interpretations themselves. Take the information and put it into your own words ; avoid paraphrasing since this can potentially lead to plagiarism. Formats for max papers, Complete Citations used in the Literature Cited.
In the troy characters, Literature Cited you must provide complete citations for each of the published sources cited in your paper. The format for max papers, entries in the Literature Cited section differs for books and for journal papers because different kinds of lotf jack information must be provided. The formats provided here are typical, but may vary in different publications depending on their particular needs and practices. Some basic rules applicable to all formats indexed by author name(s) : All citation entries are listed in max papers, alphabetical order based the first author's last name ; If the elitism definition, same author(s) are cited for more than one paper having the same order of authors' names , the papers should be listed in chronological sequence by year of publication. Authors' names MUST be listed in the citation in the same order as in the article. Bugjuice, B., Timm, T. and R. Max Papers! Cratchet. 1990.
The role of estrogen in mouse. Lotf Jack! xxxx courtship behavior changes as mice age. J Physiol 62(6):1130-1142. Cratchet, R., Bugjuice, B.and T. Timm. 1994. Max Papers! Estrogen, schmestrogen!: Mouse. xxxx ( Mus musculus ) as a dietary alternative for humans. J Nutrition 33(6):113 -114. If the same author(s) are cited for two or more papers published within the same year, place a small case letter after the year to denote the sequence in which you referred to them. For example: Bugjuice, B. 1970a . In The Powers! Physiological effects of max papers estrogen on mouse courtship behavior. . In The Central! x. J Physiol 40(2):140-145. Bugjuice, B. 1970b . Physiological effects of estrogen analogs: Insincere courtship. xxxx behavior in female mice. J Physiol 40(8):1240-1247. If no author is listed, use the word Anonymous in max papers, place of the author name(s).
Anonymous. 1992. . Elitism! give rest of citation using appropriate format. Specific Format Models. Max Papers! Each model is troy characters, shown as the full citation plus the max papers, in-text citation format. Journal Article: Single author. Bugjuice (1970) OR. In the citation of Bugjuice's paper, note the following:
abbreviation of her first name; no comma (if full name is given, then use a comma); if multiple authors, use commas between; capitalization of the words in the title is just as though it were a sentence; abbreviation of the journal name ; usually the how did american war end, header on max papers the article will list the appropriate abbreviation for the journal; no periods in abbreviated form of journal name; 40 is the volume number (2) is the number of the issue ; if no issue is given, the who was in the, colon follows the max papers, volume number; 140-145 is the troy characters, inclusive page numbers of the article; placement of periods is standard; indentation of the second line (and all subsequent lines) in max papers, the citation. This applies to all citations. Journal: Two authors. Who Was In The Central Powers! Timm and max papers, Bugjuice (1989) OR. (Timm and Bugjuice 1989) Journal: Multiple authors. Bugjuice et al . Lotf Jack! (1990) OR. Bugjuice and others (1990) OR. (Bugjuice and others 1990) Author(s) Unknown or Not Named. If the authorship of a paper or other document is not provided, cite the max papers, author using the word Anonymous in how did, the place of the authors name(s).
Anonymous (1979) OR. Book: single author. Gumwad (1952:224) OR (Gumwad 1952:224) Book: multiple authors. Huth et al. (1994:625) OR. Max Papers! Huth and others (1994:625) OR (Huth and others 1994:625) Book: authors contributing a specific chapter. Kuret and how did the spanish, Murad (1990:1334-60) OR. (Kuret and Murad 1990:1334-60) In the books citation, note the following:
abbreviation of authors first name (one or both initials ok); capitalize title as if it was a sentence; the title is not underlined (contrary to literary format) 2nd ed. means second edition; if the book is a first edition; no entry is made, here, but if 2nd, 3rd, etc., then the notation is made; give city of publication, and the name of the max papers, publisher; year of publication follows authors' names; placement of periods is standard; indentation of all lines after the first. Elitism! Department of Biology, Bates College, Lewiston, ME 04240.
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How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. A summary is telling the main ideas of the article in your own words. These are the steps to writing a great summary: Read the article, one paragraph at a time. For each paragraph, underline the max papers main idea sentence (topic sentence). If you can't underline the book, write that sentence on your computer or a piece of paper. When you finish the article, read all the Essay underlined sentences. In your own words, write down one sentence that conveys the main idea. Start the sentence using the name of the max papers author and title of the article (see format below).
Continue writing your summary by writing the other underlined sentences in your own words. Lotf Jack. Remember that you need to change both the words of the sentence and the word order. For more information, see video below. Don't forget to use transition words to link your sentences together. See my list of transition words below to help you write your summary more effectively and make it more interesting to read. Make sure you include the name of the author and max papers, article and how did american, use author tags (see list below) to let the reader know you are talking about max papers, what the author said and not your own ideas. Essay. Re-read your piece. Max Papers. Does it flow well? Are there too many details?
Not enough? Your summary should be as short and concise as possible. Author Tag : You need to material start your summary by telling the name of the article and the author. Here are three examples of how to do that (pay close attention to the punctuation): In “How the Civil War Began, historian John Jones explains. John Jones, in his article “How the Civil War Began, says that the real reason. How the max papers Civil War Began, by historian John Jones, describes.
First Sentence: Along with including the article's title and author's name, the first sentence should be the ferrous material main point of the article. Max Papers. It should answer the 2D and 3/4D Technology question: What is this essay about? (thesis). Example: In How the Civil War Began by John Jones, the author argues that the real reason for the start of the Civil War was not slavery, as many believe, but was instead the max papers clash of war end, cultures and greed for cash. Rest of Summary: The rest of your essay is going to give the reasons and evidence for that main statement. Max Papers. In other words, what is the main point the writer is trying to make and 2D and 3/4D Ultrasound Technology, what are the max papers supporting ideas he or she uses to prove it? Does the author bring up any opposing ideas, and if so, what does he or she do to refute them? Here is a sample sort of troy characters, sentence: ___________ is the issue addressed in “( article's title) ” by max papers, ( author's name) . Powers. The thesis of this essay is ___________ . The author’s main claim is ___________ and his/her sub claim is ___________ . The author argues ___________ . Other people argue ___________ . The author refutes these ideas by saying ___________ . His/her conclusion is ___________ . How Often Do You Mention the Author? While you don't have to use an author tag in every sentence, you need to be clear when you are giving ideas that are taken from the article, and max papers, when you are saying your own ideas. In general, you want to be sure that you always use the author's name and the article title when you start summarizing, and Ultrasound Essay, that you use the author's last name in max papers the last sentence as well to make it clear you are still talking about the author's ideas.
In a research paper, you would then put a parenthetical citation or footnote, which tells the reader you are finished using that source. Men and 3/4D Technology, Women in max papers Conversation: Example response essay to material Deborah Tannen's article about how divorce can be prevented if people learn the communication signals of max papers, the opposite gender. Response Essay about Getting a Tattoo: Responds to a personal experience article from the lotf jack New York Times about a man who gets a dragon tattoo. The Year that Changed Everything: Sample paper written by a college English class about an max papers article by Lance Morrow suggesting that three lesser-known events of 1948 had a great impact on history. How is this written?
Who is the audience? Is it effectively written for 2D and Technology Essay, that audience? If you've done a literary analysis, you can apply what you know about max papers, analyzing literature to analyzing other texts. You will want to consider what is effective and ineffective. 3/4D Ultrasound Technology. You will analyze what the author does that works and max papers, what doesn't work to support the author's point and persuade the audience to agree. Sometimes, especially when you're just getting started writing, the lotf jack task of max papers, fitting a huge topic into an essay may feel daunting and you may not know where to start. It may help you to use a thing called TRACE when talking about the rhetorical situation. TRACE stands for Text, Reader, Author, Context, and Exigence: Text , Reader , and Author are easy to understand.
When writing the analysis, you need to think about ferrous, what kind of max papers, text it is and what the author wanted to have the audience think, do, or believe. The main question your analysis will answer is, How effective was the author at convincing that particular audience? Context means several things: how the article fits into the history of central powers, discussion of that issue, the historical moment in max papers time when the article is written, and the moment in lotf jack time when a person reads the article. In this context, Exigence is synonymous with assumptions, bias, or worldview. Breaking the large idea down into these five parts may help you get started and organize your ideas. In your paper, you'll probably want to address from three to all five of these elements. Each of the following elements can be one paragraph of max papers, your analysis. Powers. You can answer the questions to help you generate ideas for each paragraph. To make it easier, I've included the last two TRACE elements (Context and max papers, Exigence) as part of Author and Reader. How is the essay organized? What is effective or ineffective about the material organization of the essay?
How does the author try to interest the reader? How well does the author explain the main claims? Are these arguments logical? Do the support and max papers, evidence seem adequate? Is the support convincing to troy characters the reader? Does the evidence actually prove the max papers point the author is trying to make?
Who is the author? What does he or she know about who was, this subject? What is the author's bias? Is the bias openly admitted? Does that make his or her argument more or less believable? Does the max papers author's knowledge and background make her or him reliable for this audience? How does the author try to relate to the audience and establish common ground? Is it effective?
How does the author interest the ferrous material audience? Does she or he make the max papers reader want to know more? Does the material author explain enough about the history of this argument? Is anything left out? Who is the max papers reader? How would they react to these arguments? How is lotf jack this essay effective or ineffective for this audience? What constraints (prejudices or perspectives) would make this reader able to max papers hear or not hear certain arguments? What is the exigence (events in 3/4D Technology this moment in max papers time which affect the need for this conversation) that makes the audience interested in this issue?
Michael Critchton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves argues that we are overdoing caution and fear. See my Sample Reading Response to this essay and also check out 2D and Essay, Lisa Rayner and Don Fraizier's response. Text : Analyzing the text is very much like doing literary analysis, which many students have done before. Use all of your tools of literary analysis, including looking at the metaphors, rhythm of sentences, construction of arguments, tone, style, and use of language. Max Papers. Example:
The organization of essay title is 2D and 3/4D effective/ineffective because ___________ . The essay's opening causes the reader to ___________ . The essay's style is ___________ and the tone is shown by ___________ . The language used is___________ . Max Papers. The essay's argument is constructed logically/illogically by ___________. The essay is organized by lotf jack, ___________ ( give a very brief description of the structure of the essay, perhaps telling where the description of the max papers problem is, where claims are made, and war end, where support is located—in which paragraphs—and why this is effective or ineffective in proving the max papers point ). Author: You’ve probably also analyzed how the author’s life affects his or her writing. You can do the same for this sort of analysis. For example, in my sample reading the response about Michael Crichton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves article, students noted that the 3/4D Technology fact that Crichton is the max papers author of doomsday thrillers like Andromeda Strain and Jurassic Park makes his argument that we shouldn't pay much attention to current doomsday scenarios like global warming rather ironic. If you don't know anything about the author, you can always do a quick Google Search to find out.
Sample format: The author establishes his/her authority by ___________ . The author's bias is shown in 3/4D Ultrasound Technology ___________ . The author assumes an max papers audience who ___________ . He/She establishes common ground with the 2D and 3/4D Essay audience by ___________ . Reader: You can write this section by inferring who the intended reader is, as well as looking at the text from the viewpoint of max papers, other sorts of readers. Ferrous Material. For example, Readers are interested in this issue because of the max papers exigence of ___________. Constraints on the reader's reaction are ___________. I think the reader would react to this argument by ___________. I think that the author's ___________ is effective. Troy Characters. ___________ is max papers less effective because ___________ includes ___________. The support is adequate/inadequate and is relevant/irrelevant to the author’s claim.
What do you think? Does this article persuade you? Generally, your response will be the 2D and Ultrasound Technology Essay end of your essay, but you may include your response throughout the paper as you select what to summarize and max papers, analyze. Your response will also be evident to ferrous material the reader by the tone that you use and the words you select to talk about the max papers article and writer. However, your response in the conclusion will be more direct and specific. It will use the information you have already provided in your summary and analysis to explain how you feel about this article. 2D And Ultrasound Essay. Most of the max papers time, your response will fall into one of the following categories: You will agree with the author and back your agreement up with logic or personal experience.
You will disagree with the author because of lotf jack, your experience or knowledge (although you may have sympathy with the author's position). Max Papers. You will agree with part of the author's points and disagree with others. You will agree or disagree with the author but feel that there is a more important or different point which needs to be discussed in addition to what is in the article. How will this article fit into your own paper? How will you be able to troy characters use it? Here are some questions you can answer to help you think about max papers, your response: What is 3/4D Ultrasound Technology your personal reaction to max papers the essay?
What common ground do you have with the author? How are your experiences the american war end same or different from the author's and how has your experience influenced your view? What in the essay is new to you? Do you know of any information the article left out that is relevant to the topic? What in this essay made you re-think your own view? What does this essay make you think about? What other writing, life experience, or information would help you think about this article? What do you like or dislike about the max papers essay and/or the ideas in the essay? How much of your response is related to your personal experience? How much is material related to your own worldview? How is this feeling related to the information you know?
How will this information be useful for you in writing your own essay? What position does this essay support? Or where might you use this article in your essay? You can use your answers to the questions above to help you formulate your response. Here is a sample of max papers, how you can put this together into your own essay (for more sample essays, see the in the links above): Before reading this article, my understanding of this topic was ___________. In my own experience, I have found ___________ and because of this, my reaction to max papers this essay is ___________. Interestingly, I have ___________ as common ground with the author/audience . What was new to me is ___________. 2D And Essay. This essay makes me think ___________.
I like/dislike ___________ in the essay. I will use this article in my research essay for ___________. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example. by Virginia Kearney 0. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Summary Analysis Response to Men and Women in Conversation. by Virginia Kearney 7. How to Write the Introduction of an Essay. by wayseeker 18. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers.
by Virginia Kearney 109. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 123. How to max papers Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Cathy, I tell my students that you want to include the examples you need to make your point clear, but you don't want to summarize everything. Hello, Thank you so much for your guide. Is it necessary to include the author's examples in an analytical argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 6 weeks ago from United States. Rodsy, I'm so glad that this has helped you.
I hope you will continue to use my other guides and sample papers to complete your other projects. Rodsy Karim Taseen 6 weeks ago. Thank you so much for ferrous material, making it easy. Now I along with my group members can complete our assignment on writing summary on different research papers, based on the filed of International Business. Thank you so much! I really appreciate the effort put into your work. :) this will really help me now and in future. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Chloe! It would depend in part what sort of assignment you've been given.
Generally, in doing a summary, you do not need to put the max papers information exactly in the same order as the original paper. The important thing in summarizing is that you actually understand the information clearly enough that you can put it into your own words. I'm guessing that with the ferrous material title, the article has a number of max papers, reasons why we should allow the drugs. If the reasons can be grouped, into 3-4 types of powers, reasons, that would be your best organization technique. Max Papers. For example, I can image that the reasons to allow performance enhancing drugs are probably: We can't prevent athletes from getting around the rules. We have better athletic contests if we allow drugs. We don't have the right to tell athletes what they are doing with their own bodies.
I'm not sure what your article says, but I'm guessing that you could group the reasons around a few themes and organize your summary that way. hi there, i am doing a science report on Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in sport and the article has 12 subheadings and i am supposed to summarize all of them. 2D And 3/4D Ultrasound Essay. What structure would i put the paragraphs in so it isn't just random information summarizing the subsections, and i have an actual format to follow? Thank you :) Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Brad!
You are probably needing one of my other articles if you are doing an argumentative essay. When you do an argument, you actually need to have a main claim that you want to persuade your audience to believe. The analysis part of that sort of essay means that you evaluate the pros and max papers, cons of other ideas about that claim. I don't use the term analytical argumentative essay in my class but I do teach this same idea. Technology. I call it persuasive essay, or argument essay and I have several articles that tell you how to write that sort of essay. Look at the links to the side or search for them on Letterpile using my name. Would this be considered an max papers outline for an analytical Argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States.
Hi--If you are doing a summary, analysis, and response, then you do it the same as we've described here except that you would summarize the story and then analyze whether it was told effectively and material, finally give a response. If you are actually talking about max papers, writing a narrative paper about 3/4D, something that happened to you, you need to see my article on How to max papers Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. Search for who was central powers, it on Letterpile or on my profile page. cletusoe12 @gmail.com 5 months ago. How can I write a story of a personal encounter in an accident. Max Papers. In narrative essay. Elitism Definition. Please can you give me example? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Hi Mimi--In the max papers response section, you can explain how you are going to lotf jack use that article in your research paper. You might want to see my article on How to do an Annotated Bibliography, which also includes a sample. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States.
Glad this is helpful to you Flor. I am not currently doing online tutoring but it is interesting for you to max papers ask this because I've been considering setting up a website with videos and some live instruction help. what a great way to explain you have used here. Are you interested in doing tutoring online? I would love to have the 3/4D Ultrasound Technology opportunity to be tutor by you. Hello, I am actually working on three articles and my supervisor asked to make a summary including analysis.But what I would like to know how can I show that these three articles are related to my future research paper?how can I analyze them?can you please help me? I love the way this website gives steps and examples. Max Papers. I love how you can distinguish all of this into your on understanding. All of ferrous, this explaining is a great source for max papers, anything. You have to how did the spanish american war end love everything about this site. This is the best.
Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Brianna--If you are doing a summary of an max papers article, then I would do that first. If you are not responding to a particular article, then you should give a summary of the situation around this law and the different sides of the argument. Lotf Jack. Then pose a question which is interesting to you. Your response will be more interesting if you go beyond just the idea of whether this is good or bad. Here are some ideas: Is this an effective strategy for pro-life groups to use? Does just raising the issue of burial change the conversation about max papers, abortion? Should women considering abortion have to think about burying their baby? How can I come up with a theme for my response paper.
I am responding to the Texas new law that requires burial for aborted fetuses. Any ideas? Virginia Kearney 10 months ago from material United States. Thanks for letting me know Seza! This type of essay is max papers not very well explained in many textbooks and that is what led me to write these instructions and ask my students to material post examples. Since I've been using these instructions, I've found my students do a much better job at writing these kinds of essays, which is important because the thinking you do while writing these essays is what prepares you for doing good research. This post has been of great help for max papers, me and lotf jack, my friends. Thank you very much. Excellent lesson. It helped me with reviewing summarizing with some of my students who were still having difficulty. I especially liked the max papers chart.
However, please change adjective to adverbs. Thanks for the information. Very good insight on 3/4D Technology Essay analysis description. I want to thank you for your time and effort in helping people be all they can be. Keep up the max papers great work.
Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from how did the spanish war end United States. Thanks Singapore! I love the fact that what I write and use to teach has helped people all over the world. I'm approaching 8 million views now! Thanks from Singapore! It's for literature :) Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Simon! I've done a lot of writing over max papers the years and I enjoy experimenting with different styles. I like the troy characters style of your post writing.
It's very rare to find something like this. This my second semester in max papers the university and I have to elitism write. Analysis essay I find your site very helpful for max papers, me. Really thank you. Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from United States.
Hi Ercan! Since I started writing online in 2008, I've been amazed to see people from all over the world reading my work and being helped by powers, the information I've developed for my students at college here in the United States. Having had students from many other countries in my own classroom, I know that sometimes they have not gotten much instruction from native English speakers. I am glad to be able to provide help for free to improve student's written English. Ercan Oztoktay 16 months ago.
Thanks so much from turkey. My first time to write a summary of a 4-page research paper, this useful article really helped me, thanks :) I don't know why I should go to school. This is the right place. It's helping me in my English composition 2 class.thank you. Virginia Kearney 22 months ago from United States. Hi Ed, I'm not sure what your instructor means by writing with authority. They may mean they want you to max papers quote reliable, authoritative sources.
In speech, we show authority by using declarative sentences which tell people what to do, such as, Be sure you write clear sentences using concrete adjectives and who was, vivid adverbs. Max Papers. I suggest you ask your instructor for some examples of what they want you to do. Hello Professor Lynne. I have to write an essay with authority, can you advise me why type of lotf jack, words I can use to show my point? By the way the topic is dealing Information Technology.
Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Thanks yakul for max papers, your comment. As a writer, I know I am always learning and improving too! Matty Fernandez 2 years ago from Passaic, NJ. I have to turn in a summary page for Critical Thinking. You've helped me lots! Please follow me. Christy Maria 2 years ago. I am a student in University right now and how did the spanish war end, I have to write response papers so often.
This article is extremely useful for me so im going to make sure to save it and look back on it when I have my next paper due! Thankyou. Najat 2 years ago from Rottherdam - NL. i like your hub, great sharing, i love the instructions. greeting from max papers Hijama. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Aesta--glad to know this helped you. My class is structured so that my students have to plan before they write, and then get feedback from peers before re-writing. Many of them don't like that process because they want to get it all done in one sitting, but after they have gone through this process for a semester, they begin to realize that stopping to organize their thoughts first often means that the writing goes much more quickly. In the definition end, it takes less time!
Mary Norton 2 years ago from Ontario, Canada. Enjoyed reading your hub as it is really well written and max papers, very substantial. I need to digest this information and start applying this in my work. Ferrous Material. I often just write spontaneously, no outline, and I organize this after. Armed with these questions to ask as I write, maybe I can really put substance into my random thoughts. Lloyd Jenkins 3 years ago.
This was great information, it will help me in my English class this semester. Organization is key in writing a good summary and response. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Organised Kaos--do you really live in Tasmania? That seems like a fairy tale place to me.
Of course, as I write that, I realize that the places I've lived, Southern California, Texas and Florida may seem like fairy tale places to people in other parts of the world! Good luck on max papers your college career. I went back to graduate school after 10 years of working and found that I enjoyed going to school so very much more than I had when I was younger. I actually enjoyed the chance to learn things. As a professor, I really enjoy having students like yourself because their life experiences make their writing much more interesting.
Actually, that reminds me that last semester I had a student from Australia who was older because he had been a professional Rugby player for several years before coming to the U.S. to go to college and play American football. The whole class enjoyed all of his experiences and elitism definition, I'm sure your classmates will enjoy yours too. Anne 3 years ago from max papers Hobart, Tasmania. Australia.(The little bit broken off the bottom of elitism definition, AUS) Thanks for a great hub. Max Papers. Just about to go back to troy characters college after 20 years and am a little nervous about having forgotten this kinda stuff.
Will be following you too as I want to be able to refer at a later date, back to your instruction. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. How interesting Maddie--thanks for letting me know. My husband is a scientist and max papers, I love doing technology and science papers with my class in the second semester. Lotf Jack. I will have to max papers think about doing some more topic ideas for science classes. I'm doing this for science. Anarkali Suits 4 years ago. “Words can be like X-rays if you use them properly -- they’ll go through anything.
You read and you’re pierced.” This page is a great method to connect to ferrous others. Congratulations on a job well achieved. I am anticipating your next. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. B. Leekley--absolutely! I'm so glad that you recognized that responsive reading doesn't just have to be to texts. Anything that provides us something to think about can be put into max papers, a responsive reading. You've reminded me that I need to ferrous material add my own Hub which responded to a Harvard Study on the effect of max papers, going to 4th of July celebrations to my links.
Brian Leekley 5 years ago from Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. Thank you for 3/4D Ultrasound Technology, this interesting and helpful hub. I have bookmarked it. I can foresee myself writing hubs that are responses to hubs that argue for a philosophical or political position. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. I'm glad! I'm just now grading my student's Summary, Analysis and max papers, Response essays and I'm so pleased that they have really understood how to do this paper. I'm hoping my directions this semester have been clearer. We did two days of how did war end, peer editing, which I think helped.
This paper is similar to the Reading Response paper, and both of these Hubs are are the max papers very top in number of hits, so I think that many people have trouble on these essays and the textbooks don't always describe them well. Many thanks Virginia..you made things a lot simpler for me! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from troy characters United States. johnsdfd--good question. Yes--I should add that to the hub.
You do a bibliographic entry in either mla or apa style at the top, then the summary/analysis/response is below. htodd 5 years ago from United States. Great post virginialynne..Thanks. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from max papers United States. Glad I helped you nico!
My class is just starting on this essay now and who was powers, so I was looking at my Hubviews and very surprised to find this one had over 3,000! I really published it for my own classes, but the class I'm teaching now is the first one that will use it. Max Papers. Guess there are a lot of other people out there needing help! Virginia Kearney 6 years ago from United States. Thanks!
I think that a lot of the instructions given for essays really don't help you know how to organize them. I've actually learned a lot about writing by trying to figure out how to teach other people! Rose Clearfield 6 years ago from Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Well written. I like how you break everything down. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is troy characters a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. Max Papers. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and troy characters, advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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Simple Software for Better Interview Skills. Learn how to land the job with Big Interview’s powerful video tutorials and virtual interview practice software. 13 Resume Mistakes That Make You Look Dumb. Before you get invited in for an interview, employers and recruiters look at your resume to see if you’re a good enough candidate for the job to be worth their time. If your resume doesn’t look good, you don’t look good. Even if you’re qualified, a silly mistake on your resume can kill your chances. Think of your resume as your 60 second audition in max papers front of a judge on one of in the central powers, those reality TV talent shows.
The person reviewing your resume (Britney, Simon, Xtina) will quickly decide whether to give you a shot at the big time or send you packing. Max Papers! So the golden rule is: Make a good first impression, and elitism definition, don’t look dumb! You can do this by avoiding common mistakes on your resume — the max papers kind that we see even great candidates making. Remember, you only have a few seconds to either make a good first impression or to lotf jack, make a really bad one. 1. Spelling mistakes and grammatical errors. A grammar error or misspelling can stand out like a sore thumb and tell the employer that you’re careless. Luckily, these mistakes are easily avoidable.
Spell check, but don’t rely on max papers spell check to elitism definition, do all of the work for you. I have seen plenty of resumes with embarrassing mistakes that spell check didn’t catch — it was a real word, just not the max papers one that the Ultrasound Technology Essay candidate wanted to use in his resume (be careful to max papers, never, ever leave that first “L” out of “public relations” in 2D and your resume). Your eyes see what you meant to type instead of what’s really there. An objective reader can make a big difference in max papers helping you catch spelling and how did the spanish, grammar problems as well as many of the max papers other mistakes listed in this post. It is in the powers, particularly important to max papers, proofread carefully if you are applying for jobs that require writing skills and/or attention to detail. For a potential future boss, your resume is 2D and Technology Essay, your first work sample and should reflect your ability to write, edit, and proofread if hired. If you’re not sure about a grammar, word usage, capitalization or punctuation issue, just look it up. Grammar Girl is max papers, just one great resource for practical application of 3/4D Ultrasound Technology, grammar rules. You want your resume to stand out, but there is such a thing as standing out in a bad way. You may think it’s creative to max papers, use 6 different fonts and colors, but that kind of creativity tends to just look clumsy.
Avoid too many font types and steer clear of font sizes that are too big or too small. Big fonts make you look like you are SHOUTING (and can also indicate that you don’t have enough good content to fill a resume with normal-size text). Small fonts may help you keep your resume to troy characters, one page, but it’s not worth it if the reader has to squint. You should also avoid long paragraphs and max papers, long blocks of text. Troy Characters! Most people scan resumes very quickly and max papers, often skip over long paragraphs and miss key information.
Use white space and bullets to 2D and 3/4D Ultrasound Essay, make your resume format easy on the eye. Use of bullets can also ensure better reader comprehension when visually scanned. Leave comfortable margins on the page and make sure that everything is neatly aligned. Look neat. Look smart. Also, keep in mind that there’s a good chance you resume will be scanned electronically as more and max papers, more companies use special software to index resumes. If you’re using wacky fonts, the software may not pick up important keywords and how did the spanish american, your resume could get tossed undeservedly. Your resume is meant to be a marketing document — an introduction that will get you in the door for an interview. This isn’t the time to max papers, “think outside the box” and design a glossy, hot pink, legal-sized resume with clip art and glitter.
There are better ways to demonstrate your creativity. Save the the spanish arts and crafts for Pinterest. Also, avoid using weird colors, weird formats or weird paper stock. Your resume should be simple and elegant. Go minimalist and let the words speak for themselves.
If you’re presenting a hard copy of your resume in person, make sure it doesn’t look like it was just pulled out of the trash can (or it’s very likely to max papers, end up back in lotf jack the circular file). After all, you wouldn’t go to an interview wearing a dingy shirt or a hideous tie so don’t hand out a wrinkled, smudged, or coffee-stained resume. When you bring your resume to max papers, an interview, carry it in a folder to keep it crisp and fresh. In general, try to keep your resume to 1-2 pages in how did the spanish length. Recent graduates should aim to max papers, stick to one page while more experienced candidates can get away with using more space. If you’re still short on elitism work experience and are having difficulty filling a page, think about listing relevant school coursework and extracurricular activities. Max Papers! Include volunteer work and the contributions you’ve made in that arena.
You’ll also have space to list pertinent skills — including your prowess with different software programs and 2D and Technology Essay, other tactical skills that apply to max papers, the job (review the troy characters job description and use the max papers employer’s language). As you develop in your career and material, add more jobs to your resume, you won’t have space for these “extras.” However, during the early days of your career, this information can help a potential employer see your potential. Remember to use common sense here: No need to mention your collection of Twilight memorabilia or that you were runner-up in the 2010 SpongeBob look-alike competition. Even if you’ve been working for many years, you should try to keep your resume to 2 pages if possible. There are exceptions — CVs for max papers, academic positions and some other roles tend to definition, be longer and more detailed. (I know this first-hand since I just reviewed a 79-page resume from very accomplished academic client). However, keep in mind that employers are always going to be most interested in the jobs that you’ve held recently. Use your space wisely to share more details about your most current and relevant work experience and edit down the descriptions of your earlier jobs to the bare necessities. As your resume gets longer, you may even be able to drop early positions that have little to do with your current career path.
Formatting can also help you reduce your page count — just don’t get too creative (see Mistake 2 above). If you lie on your resume, you’re taking a big risk. First of max papers, all, you’re very likely to get busted during the background and reference checks. Even if you get lucky and make it through the hiring process, dishonesty on how did the spanish your resume can get you fired down the road — even if you’ve been doing a great job. Just ask former Yahoo! CEO Scott Thompson. If you haven’t yet graduated from college, for max papers, example, put down the the spanish american name of the school you’re attending and max papers, state your expected graduation date. Material! Don’t say you’ve graduated if you haven’t. Another common fib is with languages. Many people list under “skills” that they can speak a foreign language (or two…or four), when in fact they can only string a few sentences together. Max Papers! Don’t think you won’t eventually be found out – you will.
And trust me, it’s tough to learn Japanese in ferrous a weekend. One of the main things that employers focus on is how long you worked at your previous jobs. They are going to max papers, be scanning for dates and 3/4D, zeroing in on short tenures and max papers, long gaps between positions. Make sure to troy characters, put down, for each job, the max papers date that you started working and the date that you left (month and year is sufficient). You’re not fooling anybody by leaving these out if they don’t make you look good. A lack of who was central, dates will read as an attempt to hide something. If you have gaps in your resume, you can read our article on dealing with resume gaps. Proof the dates carefully. It’s easy to overlook mistakes when it comes to numbers.
You don’t want your resume to max papers, say “May 2020” instead of troy characters, “May 2010.” This may sound silly, but it happens more often you might think: people forget to max papers, update their resumes to include their most recent contact information. If you’ve moved or changed phone numbers, make sure that your phone number, address and troy characters, e-mail information is up to date. If you don’t, you could be waiting for a call or a message that you’ll never receive. Also, make sure you have a professional sounding email address. If your name is John Smith, using the max papers address “firstname.lastname@example.org” (which you hilariously created in in the 2005) is not a good idea. It’s always better to create a new email address that’s somewhat professional. Even if you can’t get [yourname] @gmail.com – at least get something neutral sounding (like jsmith92 or smithjohn11 ). Also, don’t get an address that’s too long and weird (like john34A5mith2@gmail.com) . It’s too easy for a typo to happen when someone is emailing you – and max papers, it’ll drive people crazy. If you want to include an objective in your resume, make sure that it’s as tailored as possible to the job that you’re applying for. Avoid vague statements like: Looking to apply my skills and how did the spanish, experience in a fast-paced, challenging environment.
It will catch your reader’s eye much more if your objective clearly matches the job description. For example, [Looking for a mid-level marketing position at a premiere/reputable/growing fashion/advertising firm.] You should also think about whether including an objective statement is really the best use of that prime real estate at the top of your resume. In most cases, we recommend using a Professional Summary instead of an Objective. However, an objective statement can be useful for max papers, some candidates — new grads with resumes that don’t otherwise convey career goals in lotf jack a clear way and career changers who are seeking a position that’s not an obvious next step. Your resume should be focused, concise and emphasize achievements and skills that fit the job you’re applying for. If you are applying for a sales position, for example, you should emphasize targets that you’ve met in prior jobs. Including percentages and max papers, numbers can be useful.
For example, [“Increased _______ by elitism, 25% in Store XYZ” or “Reduced operations backlog by 50% for the fiscal year in 2009.”] Think about how best to max papers, present your experience and skills in a way that would impress your potential employer. This probably means customizing your resume for definition, each position, especially if you are considering more than one type of opportunity. Carefully review the job description and then take the time to tailor your resume to max papers, emphasize the strengths and experience that are most relevant for 2D and 3/4D Technology, the position. 11. Max Papers! Including “red flag” information. Your goal is to land an interview by definition, giving the employer a compelling overview of the job skills and experience that make you a good candidate. Don’t sabotage your chances by including information that could raise concerns. Don’t list things like “left previous role because of internal political issues” or “I took this job because it was close to home.” There will be time to max papers, discuss your reasons for leaving and taking positions in the interview.
By then, you will have used Big Interview to prepare and in the central, practice so that you can discuss your reasons in a positive and professional way. You want your employer to max papers, know what you did in your previous jobs, but you don’t need to include the kitchen sink. Describe your job duties in enough detail to give the employer a good idea of your general responsibilities. Leave out unnecessary or minute details that won’t lift you up as a candidate. More importantly: Highlight your job achievements. Use bullet-points to help the reader focus in on your accomplishments. Too many candidates make the mistake of including a detailed job description instead of the spanish war end, emphasizing individual contributions. Rather than just listing your job duties, which can be passive and boring, use action verbs that imply you actively got things done. Here are some good examples: Led, Created, Delivered, Managed, Implemented, Increased, Achieved, Organized, etc.
The thesaurus can be your friend if you find you are overusing certain words on your resume. Just don’t get too crazy trying to impress them with your awesome vocabulary — you want them to actually understand what you did (skip “confabulate” and “propagage” and other Word-of-the Day entries). Your resume is your first face forward to the employer, so it’s very important that you take the time to max papers, to make sure it looks great and is an accurate and how did the spanish war end, powerful representation of your qualifications. Common mistakes (even the seemingly little ones) can kill your chances of getting an interview. When it comes to your resume, you really can’t be too perfect. Humor: If you’re in the mood, here’s Resume Richard offering you his “solid” advice on making your resume stick out. Pamela Skillings is max papers, co-founder of Big Interview. Troy Characters! As an interview coach, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and max papers, JP Morgan Chase.
She also has more than 15 years of experience training and advising managers at who was in the central, organizations from max papers American Express to material, the City of max papers, New York. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association. 55 Comment to 13 Resume Mistakes That Make You Look Dumb. Can I put smart art in my resume? Great advice, thank you! Thanks, this was helpful!
What is better one column format or two column format in resume? Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Big Interview. As one of the country's top interview coaches, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at troy characters, companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of experience training and advising managers at max papers, organizations from American Express to the City of New York. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at lotf jack, the American Management Association. Continue reading. Copyright © 2017 Big Interview – Job Interview Training - All Rights Reserved.
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7 Steps To Selling Your Small Business. Selling a small business is a complex venture that involves several considerations. It can require that you enlist a broker, accountant and an attorney as you proceed. Whether you profit will depend on the reason for the sale, the timing of the sale, the strength of the business's operation and its structure. The business sale will also require much of your time and, once the business is sold, you'll need to determine some smart ways to handle the profit. Reviewing these seven considerations can help you build a solid plan and make negotiations a success. You've decided to sell your business.
Why? That's one of the first questions a potential buyer will ask. Owners commonly sell their businesses for any of the following reasons: Retirement Partnership disputes Illness and death Becoming overworked Boredom. Max Papers. Some owners consider selling the business when it is not profitable, but this can make it harder to attract buyers. Consider the business's ability to sell, its readiness and your timing. 3/4D Essay. There are many attributes that can make your business appear more attractive, including: Increasing profits Consistent income figures A strong customer base A major contract that spans several years. Prepare for the sale as early as possible, preferably a year or two ahead of time. The preparation will help you to improve your financial records, business structure and max papers customer base to make the business more profitable. These improvements will also ease the transition for lotf jack the buyer and keep the business running smoothly. (See also: How To Create A Business Succession Plan ) Next, you'll want to max papers determine the worth of your business to make sure you don't price it too high or too low. Locate a business appraiser to get a valuation. The appraiser will draw up a detailed explanation of the business's worth.
The document will bring credibility to elitism the asking price and max papers can serve as a gauge for your listing price. 4. Selling on troy characters Your Own vs. Max Papers. Using a Broker. American War End. Selling the business yourself allows you to save money and avoid paying a broker's commission. It's also the best route when the sale is to a trusted family member or current employee. In other circumstances, a broker can help free up time for you to keep the business up and running, keep the sale quiet and get the max papers, highest price (because the the spanish war end, broker will want to maximize his or her commission). Discuss expectations and max papers advertisements with the broker and maintain constant communication. Gather your financial statements and tax returns dating back three to four years and the spanish american review them with an accountant.
In addition, develop a list of equipment that's being sold with the business. Also, create a list of max papers, contacts related to sales transactions and supplies, and dig up any relevant paperwork such as your current lease. Create copies of these documents to distribute to financially qualified potential buyers. Your information packet should also provide a summary describing how the business is conducted and/or an who was central, up-to-date operating manual. Max Papers. You'll also want to make sure the business is lotf jack, presentable.
Any areas of the business or equipment that are broken or run down should be fixed or replaced prior to the sale. (See also: Prepare To Sell Your Business ) A business sale may take between six months and max papers two years according to SCORE, a nonprofit association for entrepreneurs and partner of the U.S. 2D And 3/4D Ultrasound Technology. Small Business Administration. Finding the right buyer can be a challenge. Try not to limit your advertising, and max papers you'll attract more potential buyers. (See also: Finding The Best Buyer For Your Small Business ) Once you have prospective buyers, keep the process moving along: Get two to three potential buyers just in case the who was in the central, initial deal falters. Stay in max papers contact with the potential buyers. Who Was. Find out max papers whether the potential buyer prequalifies for financing before giving out information about your business. If you plan to finance the sale, work out the details with an accountant or lawyer so you can reach an agreement with the buyer. Allow some room to negotiate, but stand firm on the price that is reasonable and who was in the powers considers the company's future worth. Put any agreements in writing. The potential buyers should sign a nondisclosure/confidentiality agreement to protect your information. Max Papers. Try to get the signed purchase agreement into the spanish war end, escrow. (See also: Understanding The Escrow Process ) You may encounter the following documents after the sale: The bill of the sale, which transfers the business assets to the buyer An assignment of a lease A security agreement, which has a seller retain a lien on the business.
In addition, the buyer may have you sign a non-compete agreement, in max papers which you would agree to not start a new, competing business and woo away customers. Take some time, at least few months, before spending the profits from the sale. Create a plan outlining your financial goals, and learn about any tax consequences associated with the sudden wealth. Lotf Jack. Speak with a financial professional to determine how you want to invest the money and focus on long-term benefits, such as getting out of debt and saving for retirement. (See also: Advice For Finding The Best Advisor ) Selling a business is time-consuming and for max papers many, an emotional venture. A good reason to sell or the existence of a hot market can ease the burden, as can the help of professionals.
It may also be possible to receive free counseling from organizations such as SCORE, and your local chamber of who was central powers, commerce may offer relevant seminars and workshops. When all is said and done, the large sum of money in your bank account and max papers your newfound free time will make the grueling process seem worthwhile.
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ESSAY on Stalinism - WAR COMMUNISM AND THE NEP YEARS. Robert C. Tucker (born 29 May 1918) is an American historian, with great contributions in the field of Sovietology. Born in Kansas City , Missouri , he was a prominent Sovietologist at Princeton University . Max Papers? He served as an attach at the American Embassy in Moscow from 1944–1953. He received his PhD from Harvard University in 1958; his doctoral dissertation was later revised and published as the book Philosophy and Myth in Karl Marx. In The? His biographies of Joseph Stalin are cited by the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies as his greatest contribution.
Robert Tucker is also responsible for the coining of 'military communism' to distinguish communist regimes which militarize the max papers party. At Princeton he started the Russian Studies Program, and he still holds the position of Professor of Politics Emeritus and IBM Professor of International Studies Emeritus at the school. Robert C. Tucker approach – Stalinist phenomenon interpreted as a historical stage in the development of the Russian other Communist revolutions and of Communism as a culture. Troy Characters? Culturalist interpretation of the Russian Revolutionary process. The Cultural approach treats Communism as a form of max papers political culture or socio-cultural system which also implies the systems of power that derive.
Steaming from the implication that if cultures change over time, so can and did Communism, the main advantage of definition such an approach over the Totalitarian approach, is that it doesn’t treat Communism as a monolithic, ossified structure but as a fluid phenomenon, and as such can better explain the max papers veering and changes Communism underwent from its inception to its death. Furthermore, as cultures are anything but homogenous, this approach also provides a better understanding of the particular forms Communism took in elitism, various countries – a degree of “nationalisation” in communist pol. culture and systems that create a diverse variety of forms. The main ideas of Tucker’s essay derive from the refutation of what we can name the “continuity thesis”. According to it, Stalinism was a logical, inevitable and max papers rightful continuation of Bolshevism. Elitism? However, there are completely different aspects of max papers Stalinism that stand in sharp contrast with the former NEP and Bolshevik ones. As such, Stalin’s new policies of 1929-33, the “Great Change”, were a great departure from the Bolshevik programmatic thinking.
(1) Stalinism was a revolutionary phenomenon in troy characters, essence (despite the max papers counter-revolutionary and conservative elements ) . (2) Stalinist Revolution from Above was an the spanish american war end integral phase of the Russian revolutionary process as a whole , and by max papers, such Tucker strongly asserts that it was not the only possibility, nor was it “inevitable”. (3) Heritage of the Bolshevik revolutionary ideas, the who was in the central powers heritage of old Russia and, possibly more important even, the mind and personality of Stalin were notable causal factors that can explain the Stalinist phase. WAR COMMUNISM AND THE NEP YEARS. As we have mentioned before, adopting a cultural approach permits a better understanding of the max papers dynamics of troy characters change between the different phases of max papers Communism and even communism itself. Right from the start, Tucker makes an important division between what he calls Palace Revolution and a full scale socio-political revolution. While in a Palace Revolution, the who was central powers change of a society’s political leadership is implied, a change which can be carried by violent or non-violent procedures ( through a coup d’etat) and has little far-reaching inroads into the society itself, a full scale socio-political revolution implies a complete break with the past and max papers may take years or even decades to unfold completely . As such, a socio-political revolution is lotf jack, “from above” as well as “from below”.
If we apply the terms coined by Anthony Wallace , than by looking at the Russian Revolution, Stalinism defines itself mainly by a change of the “ transfer culture ” (meaning the advanced methods for “transformation“ of the society). In the case of the Russian Revolution, Tucker advances the idea that, the New Economic Policy (NEP) was an interval between two revolutionary phases. It spawned because, as Lenin stated, Russia was not “ civilised enough for max papers, socialism ”. And quite true, Russia was at that time the troy characters battle ground of two coexisting cultures: (1) The Dominant Soviet culture – the Revolution’s ideology, governmental structure, political procedures. (2) Scarcely sovietised Russian culture - living well before 1917, it survived in max papers, the small-scale rural and urban enterprises that flourished under NEP. Lotf Jack? It was mainly comprised of old pastimes, old values, old outlooks, patriarchal peasant family and illiteracy. War communism included the following policies: 1. All industry was nationalized and strict centralized management was introduced. 2. State monopoly on foreign trade was introduced. 3. Discipline for workers was strict, and strikers could be shot. 4. Obligatory labour duty was imposed onto 'non-working classes'. 5. Max Papers? Prodrazvyorstka – requisition of agricultural surpluses from peasants in excess of absolute minimum for troy characters, centralized distribution among the remaining population.
6. Food and most commodities were rationed and distributed in max papers, a centralized way. 7. Private enterprise became illegal. 8. Military-like control of railroads was introduced. War communism aggravated many hardships experienced by the population as a result of the war. Peasants refused to co-operate in troy characters, producing food, as the government took away far too much of it.
Workers began migrating from the cities to the countryside, where the max papers chances to feed oneself were higher, thus further decreasing the possibility of the fair trade of who was in the powers industrial goods for food and worsening the plight of the remaining urban population. Between 1918 and 1920, Petrograd lost 75% of its population. Moscow lost 50%. A black market emerged in max papers, Russia , despite the threat of the martial law against profiteering. The ruble collapsed and troy characters was replaced by a system of bartering and, by1921, heavy industry had fallen to output levels of 20% of those in 1913 . 90% of all wages were 'paid with goods' (payment in form of goods, rather than money). Max Papers? 70% of locomotives were in need of repair and the food requisitioning, combined with the effects of 7 years of troy characters war and a severe drought, contributed to max papers, a famine that caused between 3 and 10 million deaths. ( Sheldon L. Richman, 'War Communism to NEP: The Road From Serfdom' , Journal of Libertarian Studies , Winter 1981, 5(1), pp. 89-97. ) Therefore NEP signalled a reformist approach, having a social engineering role: to remodel the popular mentality and ethos by educative norms. How Did War End? Overcoming illiteracy, Russia could then pass to max papers, socialism, backed by the “voluntary acceptance of cooperative socialism”. By contrast, Stalinism abandoned the gradualist, reformist approach, marking its entrance with a “revolution from above”. Instead of transcending the NEP evolutionary, Stalinism abolished it revolutionary, by decree and by ferrous material, force.
Furthermore it finally crystallized in the extreme centralization of max papers state power. For example, 25 million farm stead were made into ferrous material, one as peasants were organised into max papers, some 200.000 collective farms or were employed as hired workers. In answering to why such procedures took place, and why Stalinism was employed, some authors have proposed the idea that it was a matter of context and that Stalin was no more no less than a charismatic political figure, but with no innovative views, left to handle the troy characters destructive consequences at the end of the NEP period. This vision dubbed as the “circumstantial explanation” draws part of max papers its inspiration from Tortsky’s thinking which in return achieved wide influence through Isaac Deutscher. To give but a brief account, it was proposed that the crisis of January 1928, when the government grain fell short of 2 million tons provided the 3/4D Ultrasound background of the rural collectivisation.
Small farms produced sufficient grain to max papers, supply their needs, but the big farms, which produced in Technology, excess, demanding a transition to capitalism, put the prices so high so the urban population couldn’t permit to buy grain. Furthermore, the fear of max papers a “grain strike” as well as the argument of national security and the main objective of making Russia achieve a comparable level of industrialisation as the who was Western Countries are cited as arguments for why Stalinism revolved around coercive means to achieve a revolution from above. Robert C. Tucker refutes this circumstantial explanation , saying that there is no conclusive evidence to max papers, support the thesis of an imminent “grain strike”, nor was it that the elitism definition national security of Russia at stake. Citing John P. Sontag, the American Sovietologist concludes that this argument of the max papers war scare while it was more than a mere sham was actually a way of exaggerating and manipulating the population by the Soviet politicians in 2D and 3/4D Ultrasound, 1927. Even more, the Bukharinist non-revolutionary alternative for Soviet industrialization policy, inspired by the Leninist thinking of 1921-1923, could provide better results and were more fluid as they continued in the frame of NEP.
To provide the max papers answer to in the powers, why history took the path it took, Tucker, by adopting the cultural approach to Communism, traces its cultural roots back to max papers, Leninism and 2D and 3/4D Ultrasound Essay War Communism. Quite true, in the first years after the October Revolution, Lenin provided the idea of using the state apparatus to abolish the internal bourgeoisie. The Princeton professor, traces such ideas In The State and Revolution and more subsequent works such as “ The Proletarian Revolution and the Renegade Kautsky”. Even more, such ideas are central to Marxism – proletarian dictatorship – the revolution does not end when the revolutionary party takes political power. However, in max papers, time, Lenin’s views changed, and how did american war end took the path of promoting a gradual, reformist approach as was NEP.
Nonetheless, Stalin, as well as other soviet political figures were greatly influenced by max papers, the years of War Communism. Tucker goes even further in saying that Stalinist Leninism was not particularly linked to Stalin. There were other men who became Bolsheviks when Bolshevism was still an anti-regime revolutionary movement and the spanish that came to an age during the era of War Communism. Stalinism-Leninism policy of Kto- Kogo ? – 1926 – “ overcoming our own Soviet bourgeoise by our own forces in a struggle “ + five years plan. Important to note, here, Tucker does not define this special type of culture as revolving around general ideas or about Leninism as a system of political belief. For him, this culture had also something to do with integrated habits, memories, styles of action, and ways of defining and acting to solve a problem. War Communism had given way to NEP in 1921 – as the official party policy. This NEP culture comprised a many-sided new way for Soviet life: · Expression in max papers, institutions, ideas, habits of mind and conduct; · Restored monetary economy. · Emergent system to Soviet legality; · The new stress on in the powers, a voluntary smychka between workers and peasantry.
· Gradualist Leninist revolution as the transfer culture. · A general atmosphere of relative social normalcy. This so-called new NEP culture found its persuasive proponents not only in Lenin , but also in Bukharin , Rykov and numerous others. Bucharin – socialism in one country – 1925. – idea adopted as state policy by max papers, Stalin in 1926. Fredrich Engels – Principles of communism ( 1847 ) – the revolution cannot take place only in one country . Lenin – supporter of this idea.
Even though the idea of “Socialism in one country” was not Stalin’s own – having found its expression in Bukharin too, Stalin was driven by his reminiscent nationalistic Russocentric ideas in his decisions. [Foundations of ferrous material Leninism , 1924] = Stalin supports the idea that socialism must be an international phenomenon and max papers the revolution cannot happen just in one country, however – by the end of 1924 he changes this position. Lotf Jack? - 'proletariat can and must build the max papers socialist society in one country.” Stalinist definition in terms of class war to the problem of grain crisis – with the elitism definition kulaks held responsible translated itself in the form of “Uralo-Siberian method” of max papers forcible grain requisitioning and then mass collectivization. This method held much appeal to those that sympathized with War Communism. The great struggle overt party policy that took place in 1928-1929 was a struggle between Stalinism and material Bukharinism . A battle between the max papers policies conceived in the War Communism against the evolutionary NEP Culture. Bukharin opposed the collectivisation procedure, stating that it would lead either to revolt, either to a low productivity. [ He envisioned a continuation of the NEP as the right path Russia should take ]. Accused of conspiring with Kamenev and ferrous material Zinoviev, he was thrown away from a party position. THE SURVIVING SPIRIT OF WAR COMMUNISM. The spirit of War Communism influenced the max papers collectivization and industrialization of the Stalinist period. However, it is material, asserted that Stalinism revolution did not repeat the max papers revolution processes of how did the spanish american war end 1917-1921. Max Papers? Therefore, Tucker warns us, should not be seen as a continuation.
Stalinism actually differed in many regards from the lotf jack pre-NEP predecessor: · Emergence of anti-egalitarian tendencies =/= in contrast to the egalitarianism of the Civil War period. · The rise of new elites and loss of the relatively independent political role of the lesser leadership ranks; · Kolkoz system – bore small resemblance with the agricultural communes initiated during the Civil War. · Police terror used in a different way the Red terror sponsored by Lenin , via the max papers original Cheka. · Inter-relationship between internal and external policy. Leninist revolution from the spanish american, above - destructive process, a tearing down of the old order and solve the class conflicts by the means of max papers state power.
Stalinist revolution from above went beyond the Leninist roots - it was both a destructive and a constructive process. CONSTRUCTIVE PROCESS – evident through its slogans or ideological banner - constructing a socialist society . It was a revolution from above that functioned as a state-building process. = Construction of a highly centralized, powerful, bureaucratic, military-industrial Soviet Russian state. Although proclaimed socialist, it differed highly for what most socialist thinkers - Marx, Engels and Lenin among them – understood as socialism to mean (Stalinism - socialism of mass poverty rather than plenitude, sharp social stratification rather than equality, constant fear through repression rather than deliberate decision and emancipation). Tucker suggests that some implementations have strong ties with tsarism. Comparing the state of Russia at the spanish american war end, the beginning of the 20 th century with the position it held in max papers, the 18 th and 19 th century – when the state took the job to remodel the social structure in troy characters, order to prevail economic and technological backwardness, he concludes that the strong emphasis on a industrial-military state was not unique in Russian history, and that Stalinism actually revitalised dormant ideas that manifested themselves in a different context. The Stalnist rural revolution from above, for example was seen as, in essence, an accelerated repetition of the max papers tsarist developmental pattern. Mainly, it was characterized by in the central, binding all social groups, from the lowest serf to the highest noble in compulsory state service.
Petrine Revolution – made nobility a matter of max papers rank rather than vice-versa. “ liquidation of the who was in the kulak” – was actually a slogan that masked the real procedure of using force labour ( the term “kulak” had very large extensionality), a PRETEXT. Deportations in Siberia , the Urals or far North – were actually used in max papers, order to gather forced labour force. Although this ethnic catastrophe was without precedent , Tucker again draws parallels to the precedent in Petrine Russia. [ revival of lotf jack tsarist patterns of revolution from above ). 1928 ,1929 – 1933 – first phase; 1934 – pause; 1934 – The Great Purge - Sergei Kirov assassinated in Leningrad as a central power decision.
First Phase (1929-33) – binding the peasantry and working class to max papers, an every more centralised, bureaucratized, police-dominated Stalinist state. The Second Phase (1934-39) – bounded the inteligenzia ( in the Soviet sense – encompassing managers, officials, specialists, technicians and professors ) and the party itself as a serving class. Completing the process ideologically - 1941 party conference – “ We are all servants of the state” = Soviet Russian statist. EXAMPLE: S ocialist realism became state policy in 1932 when Stalin promulgated the decree ' On the Reconstruction of elitism definition Literary and Art Organizations '. The Union of Soviet Writers was founded to control the output of max papers authors, and the new policy was rubber-stamped at the Congress of how did the spanish war end Socialist Writers in 1934. The Great Purge – destroyed the Old Bolsheviks veterans of the anti-tsarist struggle. Max Papers? Return to the norms and values in art, law and education on the patterns of the material 19 th century. SAMZIDAT – clandestine copying and distribution of material that was censored by the Soviet state = dual culture. An underground Russian culture spawn . Decisive in the second phase of the Revolution – Stalinism – was Stalin’s personality . The Tsarist policy of max papers revolution from above was reinstalled - patterns remerged. But the tsarist policy was the sworn enemy of the Blosheviks. Internalising patterns of the 2D and 3/4D Ultrasound Technology past, as dictated by psychological needs or predispositions, formative years and as such form the personality. Tucker advances the idea that even in a culturalist approach of the Russian Revolution, and max papers more so on Stalinism, the emphasis on the personality of Stalin must play the biggest part in any study.
· Stalin’s compulsive psychological need , born of troy characters neurosis, to prove himself a revolutionary hero of Lenin-like proportions, to match and even surpass what all Boslheviks considered Lenin’s supreme historical exploit – October 1917, Lenin’s leadership; · the great revolutionary drive to change Russia in the early 1930s was intended as Stalin’s October. Second world war - Great Fatherland War - intensified some aspects of Stalinism: · military strain - central aspect in max papers, Stalinism since the time of ferrous War Communism. · Strengthened the hierarchical structure of Stalinist Soviet society. · Augumented the already far-reaching Stalinist hypertrophy of the state machine. POSTWAR period - after 1945 - policy dominated by conservatism in terms of internal policies. However, in the War-time and post-war externalized form, the Stalinist revolution from above comprised both the takeover of a given country, normally – via military occupation, AND the max papers restructuring of that country according to socialist ideals via the means of friendly Soviet-orientated parochial Communist parties there. 1946-1953 – marked a return to the emphasis on heavy industry and, ( Stalin’s speech -1946) preparing the elitism country for a new war.
The plan was to return the clock to the 30s.
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Linux Core Power Management User's Guide (v3.14) Power management is a wide reaching topic and reducing the power a system uses is max papers, handled by a number of drivers and troy characters techniques. Power Management can broadly be classified into two categories: Dynamic/Active Power management and Idle Power Management. This page covers power topics for the v3.14 kernel. The most recent version of this guide can be found at Linux Core Power Management User's Guide, and a full history of this guide can be found at max papers, Linux Core Power Management User's Guide History.
Dynamic Power Management Techniques. Dynamic or active Power management techniques reduce the active power consumption by an SoC when the system is active and performing tasks. Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling(MPU aka CPUFREQ) Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling, or DVFS as it is commonly known, is the ability of a part to american war end modify both the voltage and frequency it operates at max papers, based on need, user preference, or other factors. MPU DVFS is ferrous, supported in the kernel by the cpufreq driver. All supported SoCs use the generic cpufreq-cpu0 driver. Design: OPP is max papers, a pair of voltage frequency value.
When scaling from High OPP to Low OPP Frequency is reduced first and then the voltage. When scaling from a lower OPP to central Higher OPP we scale the voltage first and then the frequency. Latest release this documentation applies to is Kernel v3.14. Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling, or DVFS as it is commonly known, is the ability of a part to modify both the voltage and frequency it operates at based on max papers need, user preference, or other factors. MPU DVFS is supported in the kernel by the cpufreq driver. All supported SoCs use the ferrous generic cpufreq-cpu0 driver. The frequency at which the MPU operates is selected by a driver called a governor. Each governor has a different strategy for max papers, selecting the ferrous most appropriate frequency. The following governors are available within the kernel: ondemand : This governor samples the load of the cpu and scales it up aggressively in order to provide the proper amount of processing power. Max Papers? conservative : This governor is similar to ondemand but uses a less aggressive method of increasing the the OPP of the MPU. Troy Characters? performance : This governor statically sets the OPP of the MPU to the highest possible frequency. powersave : This governor statically sets the OPP of the MPU to the lowest possible frequency. userspace : This governor allows the user to set the desired OPP using any value found within scaling_available_frequencies by echoing it into scaling_setspeed.
More in depth documentation about each governor can be found in the linux kernel documentation here: https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/cpu-freq/governors.txt. By default, cpufreq, the cpufreq-cpu0 driver, and all of the standard governors are enabled with the ondemand governor selected as the default governor. Max Papers? To make changes, follow the instructions below. The driver can be built into the kernel as a static module, dynamic module, or both. Select CPU Power Management from the main menu. Select CPU Frequency Scaling as shown here: All relevant options are listed below: The clock information and the operating-points table need to be added as given in who was powers the example below.
The voltage source needs to be hooked to max papers the cpu0 node. As given below cpu0-supply needs to be mapped to the right regulator node by looking at the schematics. Only the frequency entries must be the same. To implement Dynamic Frequency Scaling (DFS), the voltages in war end the table can be changed to the same fixed value to max papers avoid any voltage scaling from taking place if the system has been designed to use a single voltage. For AM335x and AM437x it is also important to make sure that every frequency has a corresponding entry in the opp-modifier table found in troy characters the same device tree file. More information can be found in the OPP Modifier section of this page. All of the standard governors are built-in to the kernel, and by default the ondemand governor is selected. To view available governors, To view current governor,
To set a governor, To view current OPP (frequency in kHz) To view supported OPP's (frequency in kHz), To change OPP (can be done only for userspace governor. If governors like ondemand is used, OPP change happens automatically based on the system load) The cpuidle framework consists of two key components: A governor that decides the target C-state of the system. A driver that implements the functions to transition to target C-state.
The idle loop is max papers, executed when the Linux scheduler has no thread to run. When the idle loop is executed, current 'governor' is called to 2D and Essay decide the target C-state. Governor decides whether to continue in current state/ transition to a different state. Current 'driver' is max papers, called to transition to definition the selected state. Latest release this documentation applies to is Kernel v3.12. AM335x supports two different C-states. AM437x supports different C-states. The driver can be built into the kernel as a static module. Select CPU Power Management from the max papers main menu. Select CPU Idle as shown here: All relevant options are listed below:
There is no configuration required within the device tree for CPUIdle to function properly. CPUIdle requires no intervention by the user for it to work, it just works transparently in the background. By default the ladder governor is selected. It is who was central powers, possible to get statistics about the different C-states during runtime, such as how long each state is occupied. In other words Adaptive Voltage Scaling(AVS) is an active PM Technique and is based on the silicon type. Strong or weak devices. Hot devices are devices which can run at a particular frequency at max papers, a voltage lesser than the nominal voltage. Weak ones require higher voltage. There are various classes of AVS. This ensures the system is drawing minimum power when in lotf jack idle state i.e no use-case is running.
This is accomplished by turning off as many peripherals as that are not in use. The user can deliberately force the max papers system to low power state. There are various levels: Suspend to memory(RAM), Suspend to disk, etc. 2D And Essay? Certains parts support different levels of idle, such as DeepSleep0 or standby, which allow additional wake-up sources to be used with less wake latency at max papers, the expense of less power savings. Latest release this documentation applies to is Kernel v3.14. This is dependent on which device is in use.
More information can be found in the device specific usage sections below. The files that provide suspend/resume differ from part to part however they generally reside in arch/arm/mach-omap2/pm****.c for the higher-level code and arch/arm/mach-omap2/sleep****.S for the lower-level code. Suspend/resume can be enable or disabled within the in the central powers kernel using the max papers same method for all parts. Elitism Definition? To configure suspend/resume, enter the kernel configuration tool using: Select Power management options from the main menu. Select Suspend to RAM and standby to toggle the power management support. And then build the kernel as usual. Although the techniques and concepts involved with power management are common across many platforms, the actual implementation and usage of each differ from part to part. The following sections cover the specifics of using the aforementioned power management techniques for each part that is supported by this release. In order to optimize power on max papers the I/O supply rails, each pin can be given a sleep configuration in addition to it's run-time configuration.
This can be handled with the pinctrl states defined in the board device tree for each peripheral. These values are used to configure the PAD_CONF registers found in the control module of the definition device which allow for selection of the MUXMODE of the pin and the operation of the internal pull resistor. Typically a device defines it's pinctrl state for normal operation: In order to define a sleep state for the same device, another pinctrl state can be defined: The driver then defines the sleep state in addition to the default state: Although the driver core handles selection of the default state during the initial probe of the driver, some extra work may be needed within the driver to make sure the sleep state is selected during suspend and the default state is re-selected at max papers, resume time. This is accomplished by placing calls to pinctrl_pm_select_sleep_state at the end of the suspend handler of the driver and pinctrl_pm_select_default_state at the start of the resume handler. These functions will not cause failure if the driver cannot find a sleep state so even with them added the sleep state is still default. Some drivers rely on the default configuration of the pins without any need for a default pinctrl entry to be set but if a sleep state is added a default state must be added as well in order for the resume path to be able to properly reconfigure the pins. Most TI drivers included with the elitism definition 3.12 release already have this done. The required pinctrl states will differ from board to board; configuration of max papers each pin is dependent on the specific use of the pin and what it is connected to.
Generally the most desirable configuration is to lotf jack have an internal pull-down and GPIO mode set which gives minimal leakage. However, in a case where there are external pull-ups connected to the line (like for I2C lines) it makes more sense to disable the pull on the pin. The pins are supplied by several different rails which are described in the data manual for the part in max papers use. The Spanish American? By measuring current draw on each of these rails during suspend it may be possible to fine tune the pin configuration for maximum power savings. Max Papers? The AM335x EVM has pinctrl sleep states defined for 2D and 3/4D, its peripheral and serves as a good example. Even pins that are not in use and not connected to anything can still leak some power so it is important to consider these pins as well when implementing the pad configuration. This can be accomplished by defining a pinctrl state for unused pins and then assigning it directly the the pinctrl node itself in the board device tree so the state is max papers, configured during boot even though there is no specific driver for these pins: Power Management on AM335 and AM437.
Because of the high level of overlap of material power management techniques between the two parts, AM335 and AM437 are covered in the same section. The power management features enabled on AM335x are as follows: Suspend/Resume DeepSleep0 is supported with mem power state Standby is supported with standby power state MPU DVFS CPU-Idle. A small ARM Cortex-M3 co-processor is present on these parts that helps the SoC to get to the lowest power mode. This processor requires firmware to max papers be loaded from the elitism kernel at run-time for all low-power features of the SoC to be enabled. The name of the binary file containing this firmware is am335x-pm-firmware.elf for both SoCs. The git repository containing the source and precompiled binaries of this file can be found here: https://git.ti.com/ti-cm3-pm-firmware/amx3-cm3/commits/ti-v3.14.y . There are two options for loading the CM3 firmware. Max Papers? If using the CoreSDK, the firmware will be included in /lib/firmware and the root filesystem should handle loading it automatically. Definition? Placing any version of am335x-pm-firmware.elf at max papers, this location will cause it to load automatically during boot. It is also possible to 2D and 3/4D Essay manually load the firmware by following the max papers instructions below: The final option is to ferrous material build the binary directly into the kernel.
Note that if the max papers firmware binary is built into troy characters, the kernel it cannot be loaded using the methods above and max papers will be automatically loaded during boot. To accomplish this, first make sure you have placed am335x-pm-firmware.elf under KERNEL SOURCE/firmware . Then enter the elitism definition kernel configuration by typing: Select Device Drivers from the main menu. Select Generic Driver Options. Configure the name of the PM firmware and the location as shown below.
The CM3 firmware is max papers, needed for all idle low power modes on am335x and am437x and for cpuidle on am335x. During boot, if the CM3 firmware has been properly loaded, the following message will be displayed: The LCPD release supports mem sleep and standby sleep. On both AM335 and material AM437 mem sleep corresponds to DeepSleep0. The following wake sources are supported from DeepSleep0. To enter DeepSleep0 enter the max papers following at who was central powers, the command line:
From here, the system will enter DeepSleep0. At any point, triggering one of the aforementioned wake-up sources will cause the kernel to resume and max papers the board to exit DeepSleep0. A successful suspend/resume cycle should look like this: It is also possible to enter standby sleep with the possibility to 2D and Essay use additional wake sources and have a faster resume time while using slightly more power. To enter standby sleep, enter the following at the command line: A successful cycle through standby sleep should look the same as DeepSleep0.
In the event that a cycle fails, the following message will be present in the log: This is usually due to clocks that have not properly been shut off within the PER powerdomain. Make sure that all clocks within CM_PER are properly shut off and try again. The LCPD release also supports two RTC modes depending on what the specific hardware in use supports. RTC+DDR Mode is similar to the Suspend/Resume above but only max papers supports wake by the Power Button present on the board or from an RTC ALARM2 Event.
RTC-Only mode supports the same wake sources, however DDR context is not maintained so a wake event causes a cold boot. RTC-Only mode is powers, supported on: RTC+DDR mode is supported on: The first step in using either of the max papers RTC modes is to enable off mode by typing the following at the command line: With off-mode enabled, a command to enter DeepSleep0 will now enter RTC-Only mode: this method of entry only supports Power button as the elitism wake source. To use the rtc as a wake source, after enabling off mode use the max papers following command:
Whether or not your board enters RTC-Only mode or RTC+DDR mode depends on the regulator configuration and lotf jack whether or not the regulator that supplies the DDR is configured to remain on during suspend. This is max papers, supported by the TPS65218 in use of the AM437x boards but not the TPS65217 or TPS65910 present on AM335x boards. By default, the AM437x boards are configured for RTC+DDR mode. Ferrous Material? This is enabled by the regulator-suspend-enable flag present in arch/arm/mach-omap2/am437x-gp-evm.dts inside the max papers dcdc3 sub-node of the central tps65218 pmic node, which is the dcdc regulator that supplies the DDR: Without this flag the board will enter RTC-Only mode with off-mode enabled, leading the max papers RTC or push-button wake source to act like a cold boot.
One more important thing to make sure of is that you are using the proper u-boot. A certain u-boot is required in order to how did american support RTC+DDR mode otherwise the following message appears during boot of the max papers kernel: PM: bootloader does not support rtc-only! When building u-boot, rather than using am43xx_evm_config you must use am43xx_evm_rtconly_config to support either RTC mode. Some boards using DDR3 have a VTT Regulator that must be shut off during suspend to elitism definition further conserve power. An example of a board with this regulator is the AM335X EVM SK. On AM335x, GPIO0 remains powered during DS0 so it is possible to use this to toggle a pin to control the VTT regulator. This is handled by the wakeup M3 processor and gets defined inside the device node within the board device tree file. ti,needs-vtt-toggle is used to max papers indicate that the vtt regulator must be toggled and elitism definition ti,vtt-gpio-pin indicates which pin within GPIO0 is connected to the VTT regulator to control it. The power management features enabled on DRA7 are as follows:
On J6 we use On-Demand governor which is load based DVFS. Max Papers? Based on the load, say if the load is more we opearate a particular VDD at the highest OPP and based on the decrease in the load we lower the OPPs. J6 VDD_MPU supports only 2 Opps for now. Who Was Central? OPP_TURBO is max papers, not yet enabled. Troy Characters? J6 VDD_CORE has only one OPP which removes the possibility of DVFS on VDD_CORE.
J6 GPU DVFS is TBD. J6 uses Class 0. Max Papers? It is how did the spanish war end, a very simple class of max papers AVS. The SR compensated voltages for different OPPs of various Voltage domains are burnt in the EFUSE registers. So whenever a new OPP is set the SR compensate voltage value for that particular OPP is read from the EFUSE registers and set. Software Support: AVS class 0 is supported on K3.12 Integration tree kernel. Lotf Jack? Regulator chaining approach is used. A dummy SR-Class0 regulator is created per Voltage Domain along with the real regulator. On entering an OPP, the max papers voltage value to be selected is no longer the traditional nominal voltage, but the voltage meant from the efuse offset encoded in 3/4D Ultrasound millivolts. Each device will have it's own unique voltage for given OPP. Therefore, it is not possible to encode a range of voltage representing an OPP voltage.
DRA processors may be powered using various PMICs - I2C based ones such as TPS659039 or SPI / GPIO controlled ones as well. In case of Vayu as of now only Suspend to RAM is supported. Max Papers? USB has issues in Ultrasound Essay waking up when is suspended hence suspend/resume feature only suspends the max papers MPU subsystem alone and does not transistion the Core Domain. Ferrous Material? Core domain will idle only when USB idles which will mean USB will not be able to wake up. Max Papers? Hence only MPU is suspended and resumed currently. Steps to Suspend:
To use UART as wake up source from suspend please sure that no_console_suspend is given in lotf jack bootargs. This is because UART module wake up is max papers, broken and IO-Daisy wake up is not yet supported. uart resume needs multiple things: Cpuidle, RTC only mode and Suspend to disk are TBD.