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beginners resume Crafting Your Work. The Writing Business. The Writing Life. Define? The Writing Life. CEO Strategies? Fiction Writing - General. Fiction Writing - Genres. POD Subsidy Publishing. General Promotion Tips.

This free script provided by. Do you know what a writer's resume looks like? I have a regular full-time job but also work as a freelance writer from home. Recently I saw two ads for desperation, writing jobs, requiring a resume along with clips and a query leter. Should I include only my writing credits and education?

Or should I include my whole employment history even though many of those jobs had nothing to do with writing? Here's a dilemma freelance writers often face: How do you go about getting a day job in Gay Speak Essay, the writing or publishing business? If you're a freelancer, chances are that (a) you work from home, and define desperation (b) your job history (current or former) may have little relationship to your writing skills. You know that you have the skills to handle a regular writing or editorial position, but how do you convince an the negative, employer? Don't despair: There is an alternative. Instead of using a traditional work history resume, consider developing a skills resume instead. Desperation? This type of resume is a perfectly acceptable alternative to Essay the chronological resume, and enables you to define desperation focus on the history of tom, the skills and define experience that are directly relevant to the negative effects the job for which you're applying. A skills resume differs from a job-history resume in that it lists your skills and qualifications in a separate section, rather than as a subset of desperation your work history.

The basic framework for such a resume might look something like this: Section 1: Name, address, telephone, fax, e-mail, URL. If you're using a print resume, center these in helen a wallflower, a larger, attractive (but not too fancy) font, as follows: Ima Great Writer. 123 Quill Pen Rd. #183 Hometown, CA 94000. (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail. Great Writings Page #183 Optional. If you choose to list your objectives, use no more than two lines here. Section 3: Qualifications.

This is the critical part of define desperation your resume. You may want to the history of tom give this section a more definitive title, such as Writing and Editing Experience . Here, you'll want to define list each type of skill that is Gay Speak Essay, relevant to the job you're applying for. Desperation? For example, if the job listing asks for Successful CEO Strategies Essay, demonstrated writing and editing skills, plus familiarity with Internet publishing and HTML, your qualifications section might look something like this: Writing: Professional writer for XX years, with experience in magazine, newspaper, and business writing. Define? Author of XXX articles in XX national publications; co-author of Gay Speak Essay two books; author of define desperation three book chapters. Winner of the 1998 best article award from the the negative Good Authors' Association. (See attached publications list for define, details.) Even if your work history has nothing to do with your writing skills, you should include it. A history of jones employment indicates to define desperation a potential employer that you are, in fact, employable.

If your history indicates several periods of steady employment with a single company, this indicates that you are considered a reliable worker (i.e., one who was retained) rather than someone who either flits from job to job or gets fired frequently. If you've been promoted within your company (past or present), list this as well, as this is another good indication of your ability to function well as an employee. Unlike the job-history listings in toast for a, a regular chronological resume, however, you'll want to desperation keep these sections short. List your job title, dates, the name of the CEO Strategies Essay company and desperation its location, and a contact name and number if you wish. Use no more than two or three lines to summarize your duties and major achievements.

Be selective: List promotions, and highlights such as number of people supervised, whether you were responsible for a budget, whether you handled major projects, etc. If you have been self-employed as a freelance writer for The Positive of High Quality Cognitive Development, a period of time, list this as your most recent job. This will help explain any otherwise awkward gaps in your employment history. For example: Freelance Writer - June 1997 to present City, state Brief description of define desperation your primary writing activities, including the names of any major clients or publications for Successful Essay, which you have provided material or services. Define? Don't bother to recap the skills you've already listed above. Gay Speak Essay? Needless to say, if you can find any duties in define desperation, your work history that relate to writing or the job you're trying to obtain, list them -- even if it's something as obscure as contributed to the company newsletter. Do not, however, list your reasons for leaving previous jobs (whether voluntary or otherwise), and Gay Speak Essay never include negative information about your previous employers. Every resume should include your educational history, starting with the most recent degrees and working backwards.

If you have a college education, omit information about high school. This section should also include any other relevant education you may have, such as vocational training, on-the-job training, or even online courses that are relevant to the job you're seeking. (Keep in mind, however, that adult education courses, which generally don't involve grades or certification, generally won't impress an employer.) Many writing and editorial jobs ask for a degree in writing (e.g., journalism, English, etc.). Don't panic if you have no such degree; most companies are more than happy to accept experience in desperation, lieu of formal education. Section 6: Awards and Memberships. This is the the negative of alcohol section to list any awards you've received, especially relating to define desperation writing and editing. Of Alcohol? (Don't include awards your website has received, unless they are truly meaningful.) If you are a member of define any writing or editorial societies or organizations, list those as well (if you have room). Section 7: Personal Information. It was once fashionable to list personal interests and hobbies on a resume. Now, however, that is considered inappropriate. If you have specific hobby skills that somehow relate to Effect Quality Cognitive the job in define desperation, question, try to find a way to list those under skills instead. (For example, if you're applying for a job at an archaeology magazine and you've participated in several digs during your summer vacations, list those under skills and experience.). Here's what your resume might look like when you're finished: 123 Quill Pen Rd. #183 Hometown, CA 94000. (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail.

Great Writings Page #183 Objectives: An editorial position that will enable me to effects contribute to the creative development of a publication and expansion of its circulation. Writing and desperation Editorial Background. Of Alcohol? Writing: Professional writer for XX years, with experience in magazine, newspaper, and business writing. Author of XXX articles in XX national publications; co-author of two books; author of three book chapters. Winner of the 1998 best article award from the Good Authors' Association. (See attached publications list for define desperation, details.) Freelance Writer - June 1997 to present. City, state Brief description of Successful Essay your primary writing activities, including the names of any major clients or publications for which you have provided material or services. Define? Don't bother to recap the skills you've already listed above.

City, state; contact name and phone number if desired. Brief summary of your duties and responsibilities; list major achievements and promotions. Company Name Brief summary of your duties and responsibilities; list major achievements and the history of tom promotions. Define? M.A., University of Somewhere, 1989 - Journalism. B.A., University of Somewhere Else, 1985 - English.

Certification in effects of alcohol, Editorial Excellence, 1992; Certification in HTML, Online School of HTML, 1997. Desperation? Awards and Memberships. Cat Writers' Association, Best Article, 1998. Speakers' Bureau Certificate of Excellence, 1997. Member, Authors' Guild. Member, Mystery Writers' Association of America. Member, Mytown Writers' Consortium; Vice-President 1997-1998. In addition to your resume (which you should try to keep to one page, unless you've had truly extensive relevant experience), you'll also want to aunt helen a wallflower provide a publications list.

This should also be kept to a single page. Give it the desperation same header (name, address, etc) as your resume, and use it to Quality list your most significant publications or those that are most relevant to the position. Double-space the define list, which should include the title of each article or story, the publication in which it appeared, and the date of publication. If it appeared online (and is Successful CEO Strategies, still available), you may wish to include the URL as well. You may also be asked for clips. Choose your best; if your publications include quality photos, consider springing for define desperation, color copies.

It should go without saying that these should be published clips -- but I have been amazed at Gay Speak Essay, the range of samples offered by job applicants. One individual who was applying to define desperation a job I was about to vacate offered the first three pages of two unfinished short stories as samples of her writing ability (need I say that she wasn't hired?). If you haven't assembled a portfolio of your best work, this is a good time to The Positive Effect of High Childcare do so. Find a nice leather binder at an office supply store, and insert your best clips into plastic sheet-protectors (the kind that are large enough to hold an 8.5x11 page without the need to actually hole-punch your clips themselves). Don't use those ancient, awful plastic protectors with the black paper insert; besides being as obsolete as dinosaurs, those can actually damage your clips. If you write in several different fields, consider dividing your portfolio into sections. Include color copies of any awards you've received, along with a copy of your publications list.

This resume advice may seem all very well if you actually have something to desperation put in your skills and experience section -- but what if you don't? The short answer is toast for a wedding, that you're not likely to get the job of desperation your dreams. The long answer is: If you know you'd like to be able to apply for a job in the writing, editing, or publishing business in CEO Strategies Essay, the future, start preparing now . If you have dreams of becoming an editor, and you're now a freelance writer, look around for editing possibilities. Today, you can find a host of define part-time, telecommuting editorial jobs online; check our Jobs for Writers section for a list of links to job boards. The Negative Of Alcohol? For many of define these jobs, all you need is skill and a modem. Build a relationship with a company that can give you a good recommendation. While it's often easy to find volunteer jobs, be aware that a magazine publisher may not be impressed by the fact that you edited your church newsletter or Neighborhood Watch bulletin. A history of aunt helen perks a wallflower paid positions, even part-time contract jobs, will serve far better (and put food on define, your table at the same time). Such jobs can also bring you a regular paycheck during those gaps when freelancing checks are slow to arrive.

A good skills resume may be all you need to get your foot in the door. After that, it's up to you. If that sounds intimidating, why not think of yourself in the same terms as one of your queries or manuscripts? With the proper presentation -- the right envelope, a professional approach, and appropriate credentials -- you'll be well on your way to the job of your dreams. Copyright 2001 Moira Allen.

Moira Allen is the editor of, and has written nearly 400 articles, serving as a columnist and regular contributor for such publications as The Writer, Entrepreneur, Writer's Digest , and Byline . An award-winning writer, Allen is the author of eight books, including Starting Your Career as a Freelance Writer, The Writer's Guide to Queries, Pitches and Proposals, and Writing to Successful CEO Strategies Essay Win: The Colossal Guide to Writing Contests. In addition to, Allen hosts, a growing archive of articles from Victorian periodicals, and define The Pet Loss Support Page, a resource for grieving pet owners. Effect Quality Childcare? She lives in Maryland with her husband and define the obligatory writer's cat. She can be contacted at editors at Copyright 2017 by Moira Allen. All rights reserved.

All materials on aunt helen perks a wallflower, this site are the desperation property of their authors and may not be reprinted. Gay Speak Essay? without the author's written permission, unless otherwise indicated.

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Legal Issues in Academic Research (2003) Legal Issues in Higher Education. 13th Annual Conference. Donna Euben, Staff Counsel. A variety of policy and legal concerns are triggered as industry becomes ever more involved in academic research. Federal government regulation of academic research is also an define, issue, including how such laws apply post-September 11. In addition, there are concerns about the scope of institutional review boards (IRBs), and conflict-of-interest policies. I. Corporations and Academic Research. The involvement of corporations in higher education has led to threats to academic freedom in the negative effects of alcohol research when corporate interests clash with the unfettered pursuit of define desperation truth. Helen! As Johns Hopkins University general counsel Estelle Fishbein predicted in define desperation 1985: During the next twenty-five years, the lure of the corporate dollar may just as insidiously lead to the surrender of important academic freedoms to big business. . For A Wedding! . Define Desperation! [and] there may be no satisfactory mechanism to obtain relief from provisions of contracts with industrial giants which prove destructive to academic freedom.

Strings on the Ivory Tower: The Growth of Accountability in Colleges and Universities, 12 J.C. U.L. 381, 398 (1985). As AAUP declared in 1915, The distinctive social function of the Gay Speak Essay scholar's trade cannot be fulfilled if those who pay the piper are permitted to call the tune. AAUP, 1915 Declaration of Principles on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure , Policy Documents Reports (hereafter Redbook) 291 (2001). Desperation! See generally Donna R. Euben, Corporate Interference in Research, Academe (Nov.-Dec. 2000). A. Some Background on Successful CEO Strategies Essay Corporate Funding Issues. Some administrations and faculty have raised concerns about the increased reliance of higher education institutions on corporate sources of funding. There is concern that research will focus more on the commercial benefits to the sponsoring companies than on the advancement of knowledge and the pursuit of truth. There is also escalating concern about the suppression of research results with which corporate funders are displeased.

As one scholar noted, these outside funds often come with strings attached, and such externally funded academic research can threaten academic values by define distorting the viewpoints, claims, and research agendas of scholars and by insisting that research results be kept secret. Rebecca S. Eisenberg, Academic Freedom and Academic Values, 66 Tex. The History Of Tom! L. Rev. 1363 (1988) (hereafter Academic Freedom and Academic Values). The American Council on Education and the National Alliance of Business, in a 1998 report, estimated that corporate funding of university research was nearly 9 percent (nearly $2 billion). Seventy percent of funding for clinical drug trials now comes from industry.

Virginia Ashby Sharpe, Oversight, Disclosure, and Integrity in Science, in AAAS Science And Technology Policy Year Book 2003. . The need for industry funding must be considered within the context of the define desperation mission of a college and university. One researcher summarizes some of the institutional considerations: In seeking support from industrial and corporate sponsors, the institution needs to be aware of the for a range of significant issues that must be addressed relative to such sponsorship. For example, support from industrial sources is generally of define desperation shorter duration and Childcare on Children's Cognitive, less stable for define desperation, long-term basic (or fundamental) research projects than from federal sponsors. The work tends to aunt helen of being a wallflower be more directed than funding via grants and cooperative agreements from the federal government (although not much different than the restrictions placed on desperation some contract activities supported by the government) and there tend to be more deliverables required (including more frequent progress reports). The Negative Effects Of Alcohol! Although there are fewer cited regulations than in federal awards, certain terms and conditions (notably related to ownership and management of intellectual property and to restrictions on publication) are far more difficult to negotiate and often cause extensive delays in finalizing research agreements.

Julie T. Norris, Research and Sponsored Programs (hereafter Research and Sponsored Programs) at 18-10 . The outgoing editor of the New England Journal of Medicine , Dr. Marcia Angell, recently called for reforms to mitigate the effect of the Faustian bargain that medical schools have had with the drug industry: When the boundaries between industry and academic medicine become as blurred as they are now, the desperation business goals of industry influence the mission of medical schools in multiple ways. She wrote: Why shouldn't clinical researchers have close ties to industry? One obvious concern is that these ties will bias research, both the kind of work that is done and the way it is reported. Researchers might undertake studies on the basis of whether they can get industry funding, not whether the toast wedding studies are scientifically important. . Desperation! . Toast Wedding! . Of even greater concern is the possibility that financial ties may influence the outcome of research studies. . . Define! . [C]ooperation [between industry and academia] should be at arm's length, with both sides maintaining their own standards and ethical norms. The incentives of the The Positive Childcare Cognitive Development marketplace should not become woven into the fabric of desperation academic medicine. We need to remember that for-profit businesses are pledged to increase the value of their investors' stock. That is a very different goal from the of being a wallflower mission of medical schools. See generally David Bollier, The Enclosure of the Academic Commons, Academe: Bulletin of the American Association of University Professors (hereafter Academe ) (Jul.-Aug. Define! 2002).

AAUP's Statement on Corporate Funding of Academic Research provides some guidance to Childcare Cognitive institutions generally, and to faculty in particular, on how to ensure that conflict-of-interest policies are properly developed and define, implemented. Suggestions include: faculty should have a major role in developing and implementing the institution's policy with respect to aunt helen perks a wallflower research undertaken in collaboration with industry; faculty should work to ensure that the source and purpose of all corporate-funded research contracts . . . can be publicly disclosed and that research results are not subject to the sponsor's permission for publication; faculty should participate in the periodic review of the impact of industrially sponsored research on the education of students, and on desperation the recruitment and evaluations of Essay researchers . . . and postdoctoral fellows; and define, faculty should regularly review conflict-of-interest policies and the instruments for conducting the assessment of such policies to ensure that they are responsive to changing needs. C. Corporate Funding of Academic Research: Confidentiality Provisions in Contracts. Issues that arise in terms of the types of contracts entered into between universities and industry include: who owns the intellectual property created by the funding? what kind of pre-approval, advance review, or preliminary review is sought by the funder? who owns the equipment purchased under the project? Negotiations on these points are generally time consuming and may be acrimonious. Toast Wedding! Research and desperation, Sponsored Programs at 18-17. A 1998 working group of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) reported to the director that contracts received by universities from industry present just about every type of clause that universities cite as problematic. . A 2000 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that only 12 percent of Gay Speak Essay university conflict-of-interest policies tried to limit delays on the publication of research demanded by define corporations. Often contracts for wedding, academic research funded by industry include confidentiality clauses. Define Desperation! While delays in publication of research for limited amounts of time to secure patent rights30-60 dayshas been the practice, significant time delays and blanket gag rules are uncommon. University of Toronto : Dr.

Nancy Olivieri, a professor of medicine and Effect Quality Cognitive Development, pediatrics, had her research funds cut, was removed as director of the department of haemoglobinopathy, and was threatened with a lawsuit by Apotex, a corporate sponsor of her clinical drug trials, after she attempted to define desperation reveal her findings about unexpected risks to her patients. She was later reinstated after an international outcry from Quality on Children's, academics. After a two-year investigation a faculty committee of the Canadian Association of University Professors (CAUT) concluded that the hospital and the university should have defended vigorously the right of clinical researchers to disclose risks to research subjects and patients. They had a responsibility to protect the public interest and academic freedom from inappropriate actions by Apotex. The CAUT committee's recommendations included that [c]ontracts involving industrial sponsorship of clinical trials should never prevent researchers from informing patients or the scientific community of any risks. Olivieri noted that the nondisclosure agreement she signed was permissible under the guidelines of the hospital where she practices, but not under those of the university, where she teaches.

A Drug Company's Effort to Silence a Researcher: The Case of Nancy Olivieri, Academe (Nov.-Dec. 1999). University of California at San Francisco: In 2001 Immune Response Corp. dropped its demand that the define desperation university pay it up to $10 million in damages after university researchers published in the Journal of the The Positive of High on Children's Cognitive Development American Medical Association their findings that the company's drug was ineffective in treating HIV. The company initially insisted on the right to approve the desperation proposed paper before its publication and demanded that an additional set of data, prepared by the negative of alcohol the company, be included in the analysis. Martin Van Der Werf, University Prevails in Dispute with Pharmaceutical Company Over HIV Drug, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Sept.

13, 2001). University of California at San Francisco : Dr. Define! Betty J. Dong, a pharmacologist, discovered that her work called into question the effectiveness of a thyroid medication taken by millions of patients. She had signed a nondisclosure agreement with the of being drug manufacturer which prohibited her from revealing the results of her $250,000 study. Desperation! In 1997, seven years after her discovery, Dr. Dong presented her research in an article in The Positive Effect on Children's Cognitive Development the Journal of the American Medical Association . She was quoted in define the Los Angeles Times as saying that she was not aware that University of effects of alcohol California guidelines would have prohibited the nondisclosure agreement she signed. Robert Lee Hotz, Secrecy Is Often the Price of Medical Research Funding, L.A. Times (May 18, 1999). Brown University: In 1998, David Kern, an associate professor at Brown University, was dismissed as director of the university's occupational health clinic. The hospital affiliated with the university released him after he presented a paper at the American Thoracic Society, over the objections of the hospital and Microfibres, Inc., a Rhode Island textile manufacturer, about desperation, a lung disease he claimed to have discovered in the company's workers. The university also ended its occupational health program.

Kern had signed a nondisclosure agreement with the manufacturer and the hospital in 1994, but he contended that it did not govern subsequent consulting work that resulted in the controversial findings. A university committee report observed that the public health concerns raised by Kern's research must be addressed and may, in fact, override the terms of the confidentiality agreement and other legalities associated with this situation. Helen Perks Of Being A Wallflower! The president of Brown University stated that the school chose not to intervene in the matter because the university was not a party to define the breached confidentiality agreement. See Jon Marcus, How Researchers Are Silenced by 'Pact with the Devil,' The Times Higher Education Supplement (June 11, 1999). See generally Selected Troublesome/Unacceptable Clause Related to Information Release and Effect on Children's, Foreign Nationals, Office of Sponsored Programs, MIT. . For another perspective on this issue, see Shirley Ann Jackson, Corporate Funding of define Research Brings More Benefits Than Pitfalls, Trustee Magazine 5 (Sept./Oct. 2001). Some institutions have established policies that prohibit such gag clauses in contracts between corporate sponsors and the researcher or the academic institution. A 1985 study of 39 universities found that all but 6 had some policy against accepting sponsor-imposed restrictions on publication of research results beyond short time delays. Academic Freedom and Values . University of Maryland : The University of Maryland does not enter into agreements to carry out research if the perks of being a wallflower grant, contract or other award instrument restrains the freedom of the University and desperation, its faculty to disclose the existence of the grant or contract, the general nature of the inquiry to be conducted, and Quality Childcare on Children's Cognitive Development, the identity of the sponsor. The University reserves for its faculty the right to publish the results of the research without the define prior approval of the sponsor.

Harvard University : Agreements may permit industrial sponsors thirty days to examine manuscripts for potentially patentable material or to Gay Speak Essay ensure that the sponsors' confidential or background information is not being disclosed, and allow an additional thirty days to desperation undertake patent protection. However, agreements may not allow further publication delay, nor give sponsors the authority to prevent or to alter reports of research conducted at Gay Speak Essay, the University. To ensure appropriate financial relationships between industry and academe, institutional policies should not only cover full-time faculty, but contingent faculty as well. University of Minnesota Academic Medical Health Center : Warner-Lambert apparently paid an adjunct professor, Dr. Ilo Leppik, close to $50,000 between 1994 through 1998 to promote the drug Neurontin. The company also reportedly paid a textbook publisher over $300,000 to print Dr. Leppik's epilepsy textbook, which is provided to all medical students at the school for free. Dr.

Leppik serves in an unpaid position on campus. The administration is now reviewing the personnel files of all its adjuncts. Define! Part of the effects of alcohol controversy arose because [a]djunct professors are not required to submit annual forms that list their outside sources of income, the define way full-time faculty members are, and some university officials believe that should change. Katherine S. Mangan, Drug Company's Payments to Adjunct Prompt Review at U. of Minnesota, The Chronicle of Higher Education (June 10, 2003). In addition, as David Korn has written, institutions must make greater efforts to educate their faculty and be certain that the faculty understand all applicable institutional research policies. Conflicts of Interest in Clinical Research, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Colloquy Live) (July 25, 2003) . D. Institutional Restrictions on Corporate Support.

At the same time, restricting sources of funding for academic researchby faculty senates and administrationsshould be avoided. University of California : Faculty senates at the San Francisco and San Diego campuses of the University of wedding California recently voted to reject money from manufacturers of tobacco products or their subsidiaries. Apparently no current researchers at this time receive tobacco funds for their research on either campus. The faculty votes do not constitute official policy because the UC Office of the define President has not issued a mandate to the campus's Contracts and Grants office to refrain from of High Quality on Children's Cognitive Development, accepting funds from the tobacco industry. The issue has been raised because the American Legacy Foundation awards approximately $25 million a year in research grants, but only to those researchers at institutions not in current receipt of any grant monies or in-kind contribution from any tobacco manufacturer, distributor, or other tobacco-related entity. In addition, the foundation expects that a grantee will not accept any grant monies or in-kind contribution . . . over the duration of the grant. Desperation! The foundation reports that about 15 universities have debated its funding restrictions. Rex Dalton, Academics Fume as University Refuses to Reject Tobacco Dollars, Nature 361 (Mar. CEO Strategies! 27, 2003); UCSF Faculty Vote to Refuse Tobacco Industry Funding (Feb. 27, 2003), . AAUP Advisory Statement: In June 2003 AAUP's Committee A on Academic Freedom and Tenure considered the desperation issue of academic freedom and the rejection of research funds from tobacco corporations. The Positive Of High Quality Childcare On Children's Cognitive Development! It first observed, based on a 1992 advisory opinion, that numerous legitimate reasons may exist for administrations to disapprove funding sources: for example, because the external agency was insisting on too large a commitment of the university's own resources to the research project; or because there was a history of the agency's failure to honor its commitments; or because the agency was imposing preconditions on the research that violated academic freedom. . . Define Desperation! . At the same time, the AAUP concluded that.

[a] very different situation obtains . . . The Positive Effect! when a university objects to a funding agency because of its corporate behavior. The distinction between degrees of corporate misdeeds is too uncertain to sustain a clear, consistent, and desperation, principled policy for determining which research funds to Gay Speak Essay accept and which to reject. An institution which seeks to desperation distinguish between and among different kinds of offensive corporate behavior presumes that it is jones, competent to distinguish permissible corporate wrongdoing from wrongful behavior that is acceptable. A university which starts down this path will find it difficult to define resist demands that research bans should be imposed on other funding agencies that are seen as reckless or supportive of Gay Speak Essay repellant programs. AAUP, Academic Freedom and Rejection of Research Funds From Tobacco Corporations (2003); see also An Issue of Academic Freedom in define Refusing Outside Funding for Faculty Research, Academe 49 (Sept.-Oct. 1992) (in response to CEO Strategies Essay a University of Delaware prohibition on the receipt of define funding from the a wallflower Pioneer Fund, which one faculty member described as an organization with a long and continuous history of supporting racism, anti-Semitism, and other discriminatory practices).

E. Industry Efforts to Gain Access to Confidential Academic Research. Companies that do not necessarily fund academic research sometimes try to gain access to researchwhich can have the impact of a different kind of gag rulethrough subpoenas. See generally Court Ordered Disclosure of Academic Research: A Clash of Values of Science and Law, 59 Law Contemp. Desperation! Probs. Successful Essay! 1 (1996) (a series of articles on the topic). Beverly Enterprises v. Dr. Kate Bronfenbrenner (Cornell University) : Beverly Enterprises, a national nursing home chain, sued Professor Bronfenbrenner for desperation, defamation allegedly caused by her testimony at a town hall meeting called by legislators. Dr. Bronfenbrenner had stated that, based on her research, the corporation was one of the nation's most notorious labor law violators. In pre-trial discovery, Beverly sought Dr.

Bronfenbrenner's confidential research data, including notes of personal interviews. AAUP filed an amicus brief, arguing that the corporation's suit violated Dr. Bronfenbrenner's First Amendment right of Gay Speak Essay academic freedom. Cornell University's associate counsel stated, The Beverly lawsuit was an attack on academic freedom that sought to punish Dr. Bronfenbrenner for presenting the results of her research in a public forum. The court dismissed the define desperation suit on the grounds of legislative immunity. Perks! Beverly appealed but then withdrew its appeal. Cornell University Says Dropped Lawsuit Against Labor Professor Was Attack on define desperation Academic Freedom and Without Merit, Cornell University News Service (Aug. The Positive On Children's Development! 4, 1998); see Julianne Basinger, Judge Dismisses Suit Against Scholar Accused of Libeling Nursing-Home Chain, The Chronicle of Higher Education (May 28, 1998).

United States v. Microsoft (Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology): Two professors successfully defeated efforts by Microsoft Corporation to compel disclosure of their confidential research. The company, in defending itself against an antitrust action, sought to desperation force the professors to turn over their research materials, including taped interviews with employees of Netscape, a Microsoft competitor. David Yoffie of Harvard University and Michael Cusumano of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology planned to use the interviews in the negative effects of alcohol a book that had yet to be published. Both Harvard and MIT represented the professors in an effort to quash the subpoena. They argued, in part, that forcing [the professors] to disclose the [research] would endanger the values of academic freedom safeguarded by the First Amendment and jeopardize the future information-gathering activities of academic researchers.

The First Circuit ruled that the district court properly quashed the Microsoft subpoena. The court opined: Just as a journalist, stripped of sources, would write fewer, less incisive articles, an academician, stripped of sources, would be able to provide fewer, less cogent analyses. Accordingly, allowing Microsoft to obtain the notes, tapes, and transcripts it covets would hamstring not only the [professors'] future research efforts but also those of other similarly situated scholars. 162 F.3d 708 (1st Cir. 1998). Dow Chemical v. Allen (University of define Wisconsin): University researchers were studying the effects of a certain chemical on monkeys. In the middle of the research, the CEO Strategies Environmental Protection Agency cancelled its contract with Dow Chemical to produce the pesticide containing this chemical.

In challenging the define desperation EPA's decision, Dow Chemical sought preliminary data from the researchers' study. The district court denied the company's subpoena request: To force production of all information . . Toast For A Wedding! . is likely to jeopardize the study by exposing it to the criticism of those whose interests it may ultimately adversely affect, before there has been an opportunity of the researchers themselves to define make sure the study is the The Positive Effect Quality Childcare Cognitive result of their best efforts. . . . Putting this study in jeopardy would be a heavy burden not only on those involved in desperation the research, but also on the public which has helped to fund it through tax money and which ultimately stands to gain from CEO Strategies, knowledge of the final results. Desperation! The Seventh Circuit affirmed the lower court, observing that inadvertent disclosure of subpoenaed data could jeopardize both the studies and [the researchers'] careers. Clearly, enforcement of the subpoena carries the potential for chilling the exercise of First Amendment rights. The court acknowledged that peer review and publication of the studies [were] crucial to the researchers' credibility and the history of tom, career and define, would be precluded by whole or partial public disclosure of the information.

494 F. Supp. 107 (E.D. Wis. 1980), aff'd , 672 F.2d 1262 (7th Cir. Wedding! 1982). The tobacco industry has been particularly aggressive in desperation wielding the subpoena tool to seek access to confidential academic research.

Johns Hopkins University and Others : Tobacco companies recently subpoenaed ten universities to Gay Speak Essay turn over desperation, all documents concerning tobacco-related government-funded research since the 1940s. Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, New York University, North Carolina State University, four University of California campuses, the University of Arizona, and the University of Kentucky have received subpoenas. Jones! Greg Winter, Tobacco Industry in Fight to define Get Universities' Data, New York Times A16 (Jan. The Negative Of Alcohol! 20, 2002). Nine of the 10 institutions reportedly filed objections to the very broad discovery requests. Define Desperation! See Beth Currie, Tobacco Companies Seek Documents From 10 Universities on Research Dating Back to the '40s, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Jan. 21, 2002). R.J. Successful CEO Strategies! Reynolds Tobacco Company v. Define Desperation! Fischer (The Medical College of Georgia): In 1992, R.J.

Reynolds subpoenaed the the negative effects materials of a number of academic researchers, including Dr. Paul Fischer, a professor at the Medical College of Georgia. The company demanded that he turn over define desperation, his research, including the names and telephone numbers of for a wedding all the children that participated in a study of the Joe Camel advertising campaign and define desperation, its effect on the negative effects children. A state trial court quashed the subpoena and the tobacco company appealed. The state appellate court upheld the lower court, finding Dr. Define Desperation! Fischer's deposition and the history of tom, materials irrelevant because the tobacco company's suit, which was in California, was not based on a contention that the Joe Camel advertising campaign influences young children, but on an allegation that the omission of the federal warning from the logo is an unfair business practice. 207 Ga. App. 292 (Fulton County, 1993). Later, the company sought Dr. Fischer's records under the state public records act, and joined in the suit the college and the attorney general.

The medical college then turned over to the company all of Fischer's materials in its possession. In 1994 a state judge turned over all of Fischer's materials to the company. For a discussion of the case from Dr. Fischer's perspective, see Paul M. Fischer, Fischer v. Define Desperation! The Medical College of Georgia and the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company : A Case Study of Constraints on Research, in New Directions For Higher Education, No. 88, at 33 (Winter 1994) (reviewing chronology of the effects of alcohol legal case and finding unfortunate changes that have taken place in the nature of American universities and their relationship to the political and corporate world); Paul M. Define! Fischer, Science and Subpoenas: When Do the Courts Become Instruments of Manipulation?, 59 Law Contemp. The History Of Tom Jones! Probs. Define! 159 (Summer 1996). II.

The Government and Academic Research. The federal government provides about 59 percent of financial support for for a, academic research, according to desperation the National Science Foundation. For A Wedding! . In addition, many colleges and universities receive substantial state funding. A. Concerns About National Security. Federal lawsenacted before and after September 11, 2001also affect academic research. Desperation! This section relies extensively on the history AAUP's new report, Academic Freedom and National Security in define desperation a Time of Crisis (forthcoming, 2003) (hereafter Academic Freedom and National Security ). For a well constructed, albeit dated, discussion of CEO Strategies Essay national security and academic freedom, see M. Christina Ramirez, The Balance of Interests Between National Security Controls and First Amendment Interests in Academic Freedom, 13 J.C. U.L. 179 (Fall 1986). Academic research that is funded by define the government can, under specified conditions, be classified. An issue that has long vexed universities and jones, researchers is whether, and define, if so how, they can carry out classified research without impairing freedom of research and scientific progress. Classified research is generally developed in secret. To enforce secrecy, institutions often create stand-alone facilities for Effect Quality, such research, separate from other on-campus laboratories and buildings.

The AAUP recommends that fewer restrictions [on academic research] are not only better than more, but restrictions on research, to the extent that any are required, must be precise, narrowly defined, and applied only in exceptional circumstances: these seem to be the lessons the academic community has drawn from its experiences with classified research. George Mason University : Sean Gorman, a graduate student at the university's National Center for Technology and Law, has written a dissertation that maps the fiber-optic network that connects businesses in the United States. The federal government has suggested his work should be classified. Gorman has stated, They're worried about national security. I'm worried about desperation, getting my degree. The Positive Of High Quality On Children's Cognitive! He continued, Academics make their name as an expert in define something . . . . If I can't talk about the history of tom jones, it, it's hard to define get hired.

It's hard to put 'classified' on your list of publications on your resume. As one reporter cleverly observed, For academics, there always has been the imperative to publish or perish. In Gorman's case, there's a new concern: publish and Gay Speak Essay, perish. GMU has decided that he will publish only the most general aspects of his work. Laura Blumenfield, Could Be Security Threat; Student's Maps Illustrate Concerns About Public Information, Wash. Post A1 (July 8, 2003). Generally the federal government has taken the position that any research not classified as secret can be published freely. Since the terrorist attacks on desperation September 11, 2001, however, some federal agencies have sought, albeit unsuccessfully, to review published reports before they are distributed to the academic community.

U.S. Of Alcohol! Department of Defense : Shortly after September 11, 2001, the DOD proposed that scientists whose research was funded by define desperation the federal government would have to Gay Speak Essay obtain prior approval from the desperation government before publishing their work or discussing it at scientific conferences. The DOD ultimately withdrew the proposal after scientists both inside and outside the government criticized the suggestion. In so doing, the government reaffirmed its commitment to a 1985 National Security Decision Directive (NDSS) that, to the maximum extent possible, the products of fundamental research remain unrestricted. NSDD 189 (Sept. 21, 1985). The 1985 directive defines fundamental research as basic and applied research in perks of being science and engineering, the results of which ordinarily are published and shared broadly within the define desperation scientific community, as distinguished from proprietary research and from industrial development, design, production, and product utilization, the perks of being a wallflower results of which ordinarily are restricted for proprietary or national security reasons. 2. Sensitive But Unclassified Information. Sensitive but unclassified information refers to information that does not warrant classification, but that cannot be released to the public without authorization. Such information includes personnel information about government employees, law enforcement information, and information exempt from disclosure under the federal Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

As AAUP observes in its report, Academic Freedom and National Security : Well before September 11, the government invoked the term sensitive but unclassified in behalf of national security as a rationale for not releasing government information or academic research funded by the government. Nevertheless, soon after September 11, federal agencies cut off public access to thousands of documents on the Internet, ordered information in government-deposit libraries to be withheld or destroyed, and stopped providing information that had been routinely made available to the public. In March 2002, the White House instructed federal agency and department heads to undertake an immediate reexamination of define desperation current measures for identifying and protecting information concerning weapons of mass destruction as well as other information that could be misused to Successful Essay harm the security of define our nation and the safety of our people. . Federal agencies, given 90 days to conduct this review and report to Gay Speak Essay the Office of Homeland Security, moved quickly into define, compliance. The Homeland Security Act of 2002 followed suit by requiring federal agencies to identify and safeguard homeland security information that is sensitive but unclassified. Sec. CEO Strategies Essay! 892 (a)(1)(B). As the AAUP report explains, the argument for desperation, more restrictions on CEO Strategies Essay the dissemination of academic research includes the define desperation concern that we may have contributed to Gay Speak Essay terrorist attacks against our own citizens through the unfettered flow of scientific ideas and information across national borders and in our colleges and universities, and through the openness of our borders. The challenge is to restrain the dissemination of only that research which, if disclosed, could harm the national security.

Institutions have responded in a number of desperation ways. So, for example, an the negative effects of alcohol, MIT faculty report provides: Increasingly, of late, MIT has seen the attempt by government contracting officials to include a requirement that research results be reviewed, prior to define desperation publication, for the potential disclosure of Gay Speak Essay sensitive information. Such a request implies potential restrictions on the manner in define which research results are handled and disseminated, and may also restrict the Gay Speak Essay personnel who have access to this material. The difficulty with this approach is that the define desperation term sensitive has not been defined, and the obligations of the Institute and the individuals involved have not been clarified nor bounded. This situation opens the Institute and its faculty, students, and CEO Strategies, staff to potential arbitrary dictates from individual government contracting agentshowever well intended. We are aware that many universities have had similar experiences. To date, MIT has refused, in define all cases, to accept this restriction in any of its government contracts.

We applaud this approach and believe that a bright-line policy is appropriate in this area. MIT has chosen to engage in classified research at Lincoln Laboratory under well-defined obligations but does not, and should not, accept arbitrary restrictions on its research environment. Massachusetts Institute of for a wedding Technology, Report of the Ad Hoc Committee On Access To and Disclosure Of Scientific Information 12, Report of June 12, 2002. . The AAUP report, Academic Freedom and National Security , reviews export control laws and concerns about their application to post-September 11 academic research. Two regulatory regimes unconnected to federal funding affect teaching, research, and the dissemination of research results involving foreign nationals: the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), administered by the Department of State, and the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), administered by the Department of Commerce. Both of these federal statutory schemes were established before September 11, 2001; how they are applied under current conditions will be of concern to faculty and administration. In addition, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, which was enacted in 1998, poses additional challenges for courts in balancing national security, copyright law, and academic freedom. The Export Control Act, 22 U.S.C. 2571-2594, requires that licenses be obtained before any defense articles and defense services and technical data related to them are exported. Export is defined to define desperation include disclosure (including oral or visual disclosure) or transferring technical data to a foreign person whether in the United States or abroad. As the AAUP report states, Classroom discussion or collaborative research with a foreign national, the presentation of a paper to an audience that includes a foreign national, inside or outside the United States, or even informal conversations, may be subject to the Act (which can include criminal sanctions), depending on what has been disclosed (or learned).

The Act exempts information concerning general scientific, mathematical or engineering principles commonly taught in schools, colleges and universities or information in the public domain. Successful! . . . Public domain is defined as information which is generally available to the public, including, as the define desperation report observes, unlimited distribution at a conference, meeting, seminar, trade show or exhibition, generally accessible to the public, in Gay Speak Essay the United States, and information accessible or available, as the define law provides, [t]hrough fundamental research in science and Successful, engineering at accredited institutions of higher learning in the U.S. where the resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly in the scientific community. Fundamental research is defined to define desperation mean basic and effects of alcohol, applied research in science and engineering where the resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly within the scientific community, as distinguished from research the results of define desperation which are restricted for proprietary reasons or specific U.S. Government access and dissemination controls. University research will not be considered fundamental research if: (i) The university or its researchers accept other restrictions on publication of scientific and technical information resulting from the project or activity, or. (ii) The research is funded by the U.S. Government and specific access and dissemination controls protecting information resulting from the research are applicable. 22 C.F.R. 120.11 (2002). EAR covers the export of items, which are commodities, software, and technology. Export is a transmission out of the of tom United States, or release of technology or software to a foreign national inside the desperation U.S.

Such release may occur by verbal exchange in the U.S. or abroad. However, EAR exempts release (or publication) of fundamental research, and fundamental research is defined more broadly than under ITAR: University based research . (1) Research conducted by scientists, engineers, or students at a university normally will be considered fundamental research . The History Of Tom! . . (University means any accredited institution of higher education located in the United States.) Id. Define Desperation! 734.8(b). But, as the toast for a wedding AAUP report notes, there is a caveat under the law: University based research is not considered fundamental research if the university or its researchers accept (at the request, for example, of an industrial sponsor) other restrictions on publication of scientific and technical information resulting from the project or activity.

Scientific and technical information resulting from the research will nonetheless qualify as fundamental research once all such restrictions have expired or have been removed. Information is published when it becomes generally accessible to the interested public, including: (1) Publication in define desperation periodicals, books, print, electronic, or any other media available for general distribution to Gay Speak Essay any member of the public or to a community of define desperation persons interested in the subject matter, such as those in helen a scientific or engineering discipline, either free or at define desperation, a price that does not exceed the of alcohol cost of reproduction and distribution. . . . (4) Release at define desperation, an open conference, meeting, seminar, trade show, or other open gathering. (i) A conference or gathering is the negative, open if all technically qualified members of the public are eligible to attend and define, attendees are permitted to take notes or otherwise make a personal record (not necessarily a recording) of the proceedings and presentations. (ii) All technically qualified members of the public may be considered eligible to attend a conference or other gathering notwithstanding a registration fee reasonably related to cost and reflecting an intention that all interested and technically qualified persons be able to attend, or a limitation on actual attendance, as long as attendees either are the first who have applied or are selected on the basis of relevant scientific or technical competence, experience, or responsibility. . . Gay Speak Essay! . (iii) Publication includes submission of papers to domestic or foreign editors or reviewers of journals, or to define organizers of open conferences or other open gatherings, with the effects understanding that the papers will be made publicly available if favorably received. . . . Id . 734.7. EAR further exempts the release of educational information, which is defined as instruction in catalogue courses and associated teaching laboratories of academic institutions. Research for a dissertation is subsumed under the define treatment accorded all university based research discussed above. The AAUP report observes: Department of Commerce guidance provides that EAR does not cover publication (or submission for publication) in a foreign journal, presentations at foreign conferences so long as they are open under EAR's regulations, or teaching students from countries for which an the history, export license would otherwise be required. Define! The regulations also make clear that some apparent restrictions, for example, on the circulation of a copy of a dissertation not otherwise published or the sharing of unpublished research data with a visiting foreign national, do not in fact apply if the Gay Speak Essay contents meet the definition of define fundamental research. EAR includes a separate provision for Successful CEO Strategies Essay, encryption commodities and software (15 C.F.R. 740.17). (Earlier regulations had subjected encryption source codes to licensing review.) Bernstein v. U.S.

Department of Justice (University of Illinois at desperation, Chicago): Daniel J. Bernstein, a research assistant professor of mathematics at the University of Illinois at Chicago, sought to use the Internet to show other scientists the source code for an encryption program called Snuffle, which he created as a graduate student. In 1995 he sued the U.S. Successful CEO Strategies Essay! Department of Justice, contending that the define desperation federal encryption regulations that control the export of toast wedding domestic cryptographic research violates the First Amendment. The district court ruled in 1997, and a three-judge panel affirmed in 1999, that the same governmental encryption restrictions at issue in Junger (below) violated the define First Amendment's guarantee of The Positive of High Quality on Children's Development freedom of speech because they constitute an impermissible prior restraint on speech. When the desperation Clinton administration revised the EAR regulations, the parties agreed to aunt a wallflower have the case sent back to the district court. 974 F. Supp. 1288 (N.D. Cal.

1997), aff'd , 176 F.3d 1132 (9th Cir.), rehearing en banc granted and desperation, opinion withdrawn , 192 F.3d 1308 (9th Cir. 1999). Effects Of Alcohol! In January 2002 Professor Bernstein resurrected his challenge to the revised encryption regulations, but we are aware of no further developments. Bernstein v. Define! United States Department of Commerce , CV-95-00582 (Plaintiff's Second Supplemental Complaint) (Jan. 7, 2002).

Junger v. Daley (Case Western Reserve University): This case involved a faculty member's right to post his own encryption programs on the Internet. Peter D. Junger is helen of being, a law professor at Case Western Reserve University who teaches a course called Computers and the Law. He submitted requests to the Commerce Department to publish encrypted software programs as required under the prior EAR regulations. The Commerce Department found that some of the codes Junger sought to publish were subject to desperation EAR and could not be published. Asserting his First Amendment rights, he sued the Department of Commerce, challenging federal regulations under EAR that prohibited him from posting to his website various encryption programs that he had written to show his students how computers work. In 2000 the Sixth Circuit, in a unanimous decision, ruled that the First Amendment protects computer source code. 209 F.3d 481 (6th Cir.

2000). The court observed, however, that national security interests should overrule the interests in allowing the free exchange of encryption source code. c. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act. In addition to Gay Speak Essay EAR and ITAR, courts are struggling to apply national security, academic freedom, and copyright principles in areas of academic research under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). In 1998 Congress enacted the DMCA in define an attempt to balance the interests of creators and users of intellectual property in the history jones relation to emerging technologies.

The DMCA includes an anticircumvention provision that makes it a crime for an individual to distribute decryption technology, which can circumvent the define desperation encryption technology used to bar access to copyrighted works. The DMCA also provides an The Positive Effect Quality Cognitive, exception from its coverage for certain kinds of legitimate research, the scope of which is sufficiently unclear that litigation has ensued. Felten v. Recording Industry Association of America (Princeton University): In 2001 Edward W. Felten, an desperation, associate professor of computer science, sued the Recording Industry Association of wedding America (RIAA) and the Verance Corporation. Felten's research had demonstrated that the digital watermark designed by Verance was not secure. The defendants took the position that Felten and his team violated the DMCA. The plaintiffs asked the court to grant the researchers immunity from prosecution under the DMCA and to desperation declare the law unconstitutional. The DMCA includes a provision that makes it a crime for an individual to distribute decryption technology that can circumvent access controls on copyrighted works. The researchers contended that the breaking of the watermark code was not an end unto itself but a crucial step, either in attempting to improve the technology or in attempting to prove that the technology cannot be made to do what it is supposed to do. The RIAA alleged that allowing Dr. Felten to The Positive of High Quality on Children's Cognitive Development publish or present his research would contribute to define copying of electronic music and effects, violate copyright law. Later that year the district court dismissed Dr.

Felten's lawsuit, stating no real controversy existed because no injury had occurred and, therefore, any ruling would be premature and speculative. The judge opined from the bench that the computer scientists liken themselves to Galileo, but they are really modern-day Don Quixotes threatened by windmills that they mistake for giants. Case No. 01-CV-2669 (N.J. Dist. Define! Ct., Nov. 30, 2001); Andrea L. Toast For A Wedding! Foster, Computer Scientists Back Scholar's Challenge to Music Industry, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Sept. 7, 2001); Andrea Foster, Judge Dismisses Digital-Copyright Lawsuit by Princeton Professor, The Chronicle of define Higher Education (Dec. 14, 2001); see Donna R. Euben, Talkin' 'Bout a Revolution: Technology and the Law, Academe (May-June 2002).

The professor decided not to appeal the district court opinion, reportedly relying on the assurances of industry and government officials that they will never again threaten publishers of scientific research that exposes vulnerabilities in security systems for copyrighted works. Pavlovich v. Of Tom! DVD Copy Control Association (Purdue University): Matthew Pavlovich, a former student at Purdue University, was sued along with others by the movie industry for publishing on define desperation the Internet a code that unscrambles encrypted DVDs. In August 2001, the state court ruled the state had jurisdiction because Pavlovich's web posting could harm the movie industry in California. Toast! The California Supreme Court ruled that the court had no such jurisdiction, and the Supreme Court, which had initially issued a stay, rescinded it in January 2003. Desperation! 29 Cal. Of Tom Jones! App. 4th 262 (App.

Div. 2002); Andrea L. Define Desperation! Foster, Free Speech Group Backs Former Purdue U. Toast For A! Student Accused in DVD-Decoding Case, The Chronicle of Higher Education (May 2, 2002). Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Corley : While this case did not involve faculty, it demonstrates the limitations on professors who wish to publish research on computer source code. The Second Circuit ruled that Eric C. Corley and his company, 2600 Enterprises, Inc., violated the copyright protections of eight motion picture studios under the DMCA when Corley published a computer program on the Internet that is able to circumvent the recording industry's technology devised to define block the copying of DVD movies. Essay! In so doing, the court ruled that the DMCA does not violate the define First Amendment. Successful Essay! The court reasoned that, while computer source code is protected by the First Amendment, the desperation scope of that protection is limited, because the DMCA provisions on of being posting such code constitute a content-neutral restriction.

In this case, First Amendment and copyright professors aligned themselves on both sides of the litigation. The counsel for Corley was Stanford University Law School Dean Kathleen Sullivan, and define, amicus briefs included one filed by Professor Julie E. Essay! Cohen, Georgetown University Law Center, on behalf of a group of intellectual property law professors. The movie studios were represented by David E. Kendall, and amicus briefs included one filed by Professor Rodney Smolla, University of define desperation Richmond. 273 F.3d 429 (2d Cir. 2001); 2600 Magazine Seeks Another Opinion in NY DeCSS Case . In the end, the academic community must closely monitor legal challenges to the DMCA to ensure that the judiciary strikes a proper balance between and among support of copyright protections and national security on the one hand, and, promotion of the principles of free speech, academic freedom, and reasonable access to information, on the other. B. Government Interference in Academic Research. Few cases directly address the limits of government interference with academic research. Generally, courts have adopted the view that research should remain an aunt helen perks a wallflower, activity with significant protections from define, government interference.

Bryon V. Olsen, Note: Rust in the Laboratory: When Science is Censored, 58 Alb. Of Alcohol! L. Rev. 299 (1994). 1. Regulating Access to Research Data. American Historical Association v. The National Archives: In December 2001 a number of academic disciplinary associations sued the federal government for define desperation, enforcing an executive order (E.O. 13,233, issued November 1, 2001) that gave former presidents and vice presidents, as well as the Gay Speak Essay incumbent president, broader discretion to define limit the helen perks of being a wallflower release of records under executive privilege. The executive order sought to modify the Presidential Records Act of 1978, which requires the desperation disclosure of most sensitive records 12 years after a president has left office. As a result 68,000 pages of documents that should have been released were blocked. On July 19, 2002, before the case went to trial, the White House released all but 1,654 pages about which President Bush's representatives have expressed concerns. While the Bush executive order still exists, the government believes that the lawsuit should be dismissed because the Reagan documents have been released.

H.R. 1493, a bill introduced in the 108th Congress, orders the revocation of Bush Executive Order 13,233. Successful CEO Strategies Essay! For a copy of the complaint, see . See Richard Morgan, Lawsuit Challenges Bush Executive Order on Presidential Records, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Nov. 29, 2001). 2. Define! Regulating Research Through Government Funding. Board of effects Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University v. Define Desperation! Sullivan : In 1989 the NIH issued notice of aunt helen of being its intent to award contracts for a five-year research project on an artificial heart device. Dr. Phillip Pyer, a professor of cardiovascular surgery at Stanford Medical School, submit a proposal in response.

However, the university would not agree to define sign the, Confidentiality of Information Clause, and the government withdrew its contract from Stanford and awarded it to another university. Stanford argued that the confidentiality clause in the government contract constituted an illegal prior restraint and an unconstitutional condition on a government benefit under the First Amendment. The court described the clause as requiring researchers to give the the history of tom government advance notice of desperation their intent to publish preliminary findings, and [] allow[ing] the government's contracting officer to Gay Speak Essay block such publication. The information included findings . . Define! . which have the possibility of adverse affects on the public or the Federal agency. The court stated that the First Amendment protects scientific expression and debate just as it protects political and artistic expression. The court found the regulation to violate the First Amendment because it broadly forbids the recipients of the funds from engaging in publishing activity related to artificial heart research at any time, under any auspices, and wholly apart from the Gay Speak Essay particular program that is being aided. The court also found that the regulation was impermissibly vague and overly broad, and that it created a chilling effect. The court opined that [e]ven in define desperation the Soviet Union, where Joseph Stalin at one time decided what could be published and by whom, the dead hand of government control of scientific research and publication is apparently no more. In the aunt helen perks of being end, the court ordered that the government contract be awarded to desperation the disappointed party without an additional round of procurement proceedings, but without the Development illegal confidentiality clause. 773 F. Supp. 472 (D.D.C.

1991). See generally the desperation Winter 1993 issue of The Journal of College and the negative, University Law , which focuses on secrecy and university research, including analysis of this Stanford University case. 3. Define! Controlling Academic Research Agendas. AIDS Research : In spring 2003 officials at federal agencies have reportedly warned AIDS researchers to avoid using potentially offensive works and phrases, such as sex workers, men who sleep with men, anal sex, and needle exchange, in their grant applications. The warnings, which were conveyed confidentially by a number of researchers, were meant to Gay Speak Essay shield grant applications from being singled out for extra scrutiny by Bush administration officials and members of define desperation Congress. Spokespeople for the government agencies in jones question, including the National Institutes of Health, deny that applications are being subjected to extra scrutiny and that researchers have been advised to expunge specific words. Jeffrey Brainard, Some NIH Officials Advise Researchers to define Avoid Certain Words in Applications for AIDS Projects, Reports Say, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Apr. 21, 2003). California Agrarian Action Project, Inc. v. Regents of the University of California : In 1987 a public interest group, California Rural Legal Assistance, filed a lawsuit against the University of California, arguing that under the federal Hatch Act of helen perks of being a wallflower 1887 the University of California was required to revise its agricultural research to provide greater benefits to a number of constituencies, including small farmers and define, farm workers. A trial court judge agreed with the group, ruling that federal law required land-grant institutions to give small farmers primary consideration in federally financed research. The court directed the administration to Successful CEO Strategies establish a process to ensure that federal money benefited that constituency.

Two years later a state appellate three-judge panel overturned that decision, finding that nothing in federal law required the administration to refocus its research projects to support small-farm enterprises. Stanford University had argued that research projects should be selected solely on the basis of scientific merit; and that if it is define desperation, required to design research projects to benefit small farmers or other special interest groups, academic freedom would be paralyzed. 210 Cal. App. 3d 1245 (Cal. App. 1989); see also Herbert London, Ruling by California Judge Casts a Cloud Over All University Agricultural Research, The Chronicle of Higher Education (March 16, 1988) (op-ed). Henley v. Wise : A three-judge district court panel considered the CEO Strategies constitutionality of an Indiana statute prohibiting the possession of all obscene materials, even materials where there is define desperation, no intent to sell, lend or give away. The court ruled that [w]hen Indiana acts against one who merely possesses obscene material without the aunt helen intent to distribute it, the state has unconstitutionally intruded itself into a number of define protected activities, including the right of Gay Speak Essay scholars to do research and advance the state of man's knowledge.

While an exception existed under the statute for define, teaching in regularly chartered medical colleges, or the publication of standard medical books, the exception was too narrow. The court observed that the knowing possession of obscene matter without intent to distribute it is prohibited to professors and researchers in psychology, law, anthropology, art, sociology, history, literature and related areas. This prohibition is so sweeping as to put in violation of the law the famous Kinsey Institute at Indiana University. Effect Of High Quality On Children's! The chilling effect on define desperation research, development, and exchange of scholarly ideas is repugnant to the First Amendment. 303 F. Supp.

62 (N. Ind. 1969). Urofsky v. Gilmore : The Commonwealth of toast for a wedding Virginia enacted a statute that restricts the ability of state employees to gain access to desperation sexually explicit material on state-owned or -leased computers. Wedding! Several Virginia public college and university professors challenged the law, alleging that it interfered with their academic freedom to conduct research. Define! In 2000 the en banc court, in an 8-4 decision, ruled that the regulation of state employees' access to sexually explicit material, in their capacity as employees, on computers owned or leased by the state is consistent with the First Amendment. 216 F.3d 401 (4th Cir.

2000) (en banc), cert. denied , 531 U.S. 1070 (2001). Federal law requires that institutional review boards oversee all research involving human subjects which is funded by the government. Many institutions require such IRB review even if a professor's work is not financed with federal money. IRBs determine whether a faculty member's work constitutes research, whether there are human subjects involved, and Successful CEO Strategies, whether informed consent is define, needed from Gay Speak Essay, such research subjects. A recent study for the NIH indicated that while few proposals are rejected outright by IRBs, fewer than 20 percent are approved as submitted.

The study further revealed that 37 percent of IRBs had used their authority to suspend or terminate approved research. Evaluation of NIH Implementation of Section 491 of the Public Health Service Act, Mandating a Program for Protection of Research Subjects V-10 (1998). As of 2000, approximately 4,000 IRBs were operating in the United States. Id . at II-8. Desperation! In 1995 approximately 40,000 investigators carried out human subject research under the auspices of IRBs. C.K.

Gunsalus, An Examination of Issues Presented by Proposals to Unify and Expand Federal Oversight of Human Subject Research (National Bioethics Advisory Commission , 1998). AAUP, in collaboration with a number of disciplinary associations, including the American Anthropological Association and the Oral History Association, issued a report that considers the effects experiences of social scientists and scholars in other academic disciplines whose research is subject to desperation the government's rules for protecting human beings. The report, Protecting Human Beings: Institutional Review Boards and Social Science Research (2001), includes a number of recommendations on how better to CEO Strategies accommodate social science research in IRB review procedures, including: increase the representation of social scientists on IRBs. Define! provide for some kind of appeal of Effect of High Quality Childcare on Children's IRB decisions so that both institutional integrity and the rights of the desperation researcher may be preserved. Successful! promote the option of expedited review and exemption to define desperation better meet the needs of social science research. Explore the Development possibility of a blanket exemption for certain kinds of define social science research (such as survey research or oral history research). The Positive On Children's Cognitive Development! improve campus understanding of IRBs by organizing campus-based seminars or symposia to which would be invited past and define, current IRB members, social science researchers who have gone through an IRB review, and researchers likely to face one. be vigilant in ensuring that IRBs do not threaten freedom of research. University of perks of being Missouri at Columbia : A journalism graduate student, Michael Carney, challenged a university policy that required all research projects to define be approved by an IRB. The History Of Tom Jones! In January 2001 the desperation IRB rejected Carney's proposal, which was an toast, examination of the relationship between the media and public opinion polling.

Student Press Law Center, Graduate Student Contests Review Board's Authority to desperation Approve Journalism Research, SPLC Report 23 (Fall 2001). The board directed Carney to cease his research on the topic, a directive that Carney asserted violated his First Amendment rights. In the end, Carney did not file a legal claim. In response to this incident, the effects journalism department changed its requirements for master's degrees by no longer requiring scientific research projects for candidates. U. of desperation Missouri Amends Research Paper Policy, SPLC Report 17 (Spring 2002). Northwestern University : Two transsexual women have filed a complaint against J. Michael Bailey, the author of a recently published book entitled The Man Who Would be Queen: The Science of Gender-Bending and Transsexualism . The women allege that the book includes numerous interviews with them and that they were neither given nor asked to sign informed consent forms. Robin Wilson, Transsexual Subjects Complain About Professor's Research Methods, The Chronicle of Higher Education (July 25, 2003). AAUP's Statement on Conflicts of Interest offers five considerations to guide the formulation of institutional policies in this area: disclosure requirements should be carefully focused on legitimate areas of concern and not improperly interfere with the privacy rights of Gay Speak Essay faculty members and define desperation, their families; external interests should not be allowed to of High Childcare on Children's Development shift the balance of academic priorities in a university without faculty debate and review; cooperative ventures with outside entities should respect[] the primacy of the university's principal mission, with regard to the choice of subjects of research and the . Define! . . publication of results; administrations should be fair in allocating resources between departments able to attract outside money, and The Positive Childcare Development, those departments less able to do so. promotion and tenure decisions based on an individual faculty member's ability to procure private or government funding should be kept in proper proportion and be consistent with criteria established by the faculty.

Few published cases exist that directly address the permissible bounds of university conflict-of-interest policies as applied to faculty. A few cases, however, touch on the issue and make clear that such policies are not allowed to infringe on the constitutional rights of faculty members. Hoover v. Morales (Texas AM University System): Robert Hoover, a marketing professor, had been hired as an expert witness for define desperation, the defense in effects the state's lawsuit against various tobacco companies. The university policy prohibited employees from serving as expert witnesses when doing so would create a conflict with the interests of the State. A state appropriations bill would have prohibited compensation to any state employees who served as expert witnesses against the state. These policies were challenged by the Texas Faculty Association and several individual faculty members, including a law professor who volunteered his services to a neighborhood association opposing a state permit for a nearby incinerator.

A federal appellate court found these restrictions to define be antithetical to the First Amendment, under which public employees may speak about matters of public concern so long as their speech does not interfere with the perks a wallflower efficient operations of their employers. Acknowledging that the specific testimony to define desperation be offered by the faculty member-plaintiffs may be highly esoteric and of little interest to the public, the court nevertheless found that such testimony can bear on important matters of public concern, such as the addictive nature of nicotine, its health consequences, and resulting public costs. The court went on to say that the state failed to demonstrate an adverse impact on the delivery of educational services by the institutions in Successful CEO Strategies which these faculty members served. It also concluded that the rules drew impermissible distinctions based on the content of speech, because employees who provided testimony in favor of the state would be protected. In sum, the desperation state's amorphous interest in of tom jones preventing state employees from speaking in a manner contrary to state's interests was not compelling enough to define outweigh faculty members' First Amendment rights. 164 F.3d 221 (5th Cir. 1998). Medical University of South Carolina : In 1996 Mary Faith Marshall, an assistant professor and director of the university hospital's program in bioethics, was retained by the Center for Reproductive Rights to the negative of alcohol be an expert witness in a case challenging MUSC's hospital policy, which tested pregnant women suspected of abusing illegal drugs under the threat of define desperation criminal sanctions. As a bioethicist, she testified that the program ignored the patients' rights to informed consent and confidentiality. In 1997 Dr. Marshall was up for promotion from assistant to associate professor.

Her promotion was stalled, according to a letter by the college president, because of her involvement in the recent lawsuit known locally as the 'cocaine baby case', which had displeased the college trustees. Marshall was prepared to initiate litigation. The board of trustees soon afterwards approved her promotion. Medical University of South Carolina Backs Down, Academe (Jul.-Aug. 1999). (The U.S. Supreme Court eventually ruled in the case in which Marshall served as an expert witness, Ferguson v. City of Charleston , 532 U.S. 67 (2001), holding that the public hospital policy constituted an unconstitutional police search.) Adamsons v. Wharton (Downstate Medical Center College of Gay Speak Essay Medicine of SUNY): The federal appellate court ruled that a state medical school can reasonably restrict the income earned by its full-time faculty in define private practice. Successful CEO Strategies Essay! A doctor and full-time professor, Ronald J. Adamsons, sued his medical college, alleging that the school policy, which limited the extent of professors' income from desperation, private practice, would result in an unconstitutional taking of his outside income, violate his right to equal protection, and infringe upon his associational rights. The appellate court, upholding the lower court, rejected the Gay Speak Essay professor's claims as farfetched at best. Define! It ruled that the state's policy was rationally related to the state's legitimate interest in promoting devotion to teaching.

771 F.2d 41 (2d Cir. 1985).

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10 Business Books Every Savvy Entrepreneur Should Read [+ GIVEAWAY] Below we#8217;ve compiled a list of books that you#8217;ll find particularly helpful if you#8217;re starting a business. That said, even if you#8217;re already in define, business or not planning to get into business anytime soon, these are all excellent reads that will teach you how to do things better, faster, and more efficiently , and they#8217;ve all been handpicked by our team. This reading list has been created in conjunction with our #8220;How to Start a Business in a Month#8221; guide. While you may not be able to read all 10 books in a month (we#8217;d seriously be impressed), you might pick one that will inspire you and keep you on track . The choice is of course yours! You are also welcome to join Palo Alto Software in reading the Gay Speak Essay book we#8217;ve picked for define, our next in-house book club: Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman#8217;s, Thinking Fast and Slow. If you do read it, let us know what you think. And of course, if you have any recommendations of your own, perhaps something we really should add to this list or read for our next book club, share them with us on Twitter @bplans.

Pages of the history jones Wisdom to define desperation Guide You to Success. The Positive Effect Quality Childcare On Children's? The $100 Startup: Reinvent the Way You Make a Living, Do What You Love, and Create a New Future. Define? In this New York Times bestseller, Chris Guillebeau presents case studies of aunt of being a wallflower 50 successful businesses that got started on $100 or less. He covers exactly how much money each business required to get started, and what each entrepreneur did in their first weeks and months of business. This is an interesting read if you learn best through the medium of stories. This book was part of the Palo Alto Software Book Club. The Lean Startup: How Today#8217;s Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses. In this New York Times bestseller, Eric Ries explains how to desperation get started with just your minimum viable product (MVP), to test your business idea and innovate as needed before you invest too much time and money on The Positive of High Quality Childcare on Children's your first draft of the business plan. Define? The 4-Hour Workweek: Escape 9-5, Live Anywhere, and Join the New Rich. This book will dispel the toast wedding notion that you cant have a life and run a business. Tim Ferris will show you exactly how this is done by sharing his own experience and a step-by-step guide for desperation, how you can do it too.

Tim is great at setting himself challenges that you can join and learn from. I also recommend listening to his podcast if you#8217;re an audio learner. Authors: Jason Fried David Heinemeer Hansson. Aunt Helen Perks Of Being A Wallflower? A very light, enjoyable read. Full of helpful tips that often go against the grain. #8220;Rework#8221; aims to show you a better, faster way to desperation succeed in business. For A Wedding? You can dip in and out of this playbook as you see fit. And, if you want to know what the founders of Basecamp did to make it big, start here! This book was part of the Palo Alto Software Book Club.

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The truth is it#8217;s as applicable to toast for a wedding employees as it is managers because it will give you insight into those forces that are driving your company to succeed, or dooming it to failure. It#8217;s the story of Pixar and the man behind it, but it#8217;s also an define desperation, ode to creativity and to protecting creativity, the of tom jones creative process and the environment that fosters it. I highly recommend it! Authors: Jay Conrad Levinson and Al Lautenslager. Define? This is the the negative effects no-frills guide to marketing your company.

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Looks interesting! The book #8220;where good ideas come from#8221; is really interesting. Does anyone knows well written books about leadership ? I have been reading consumer behavior for the history jones, dummie. The books mentioned above just got added to my reading #8220;to-do#8221; list. BPlans has turned into my go to lead for define desperation, everything business/start-up related. My company, Sweet Potato Baby which is a Catering Baked Goods Company, is still in our infantile stage. We#8217;ve been in business for roughly 7 months and have no plans of Effect Childcare Development slowing down. That#8217;s great to hear! Let us know if there#8217;s a particular type of resource you#8217;re looking for in addition to what we#8217;ve got and we#8217;ll see what we can do about putting something together. Define Desperation? Art of the start!

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I love the monthly updates and inspiration! Am reading Secret#8230; Would like to be a business owner in jan 2015. Thanks Candice, Pivot seems interesting. I am actually more looking for a step by define step manual i.e. step 1, sort out the Gay Speak Essay financials, step 2, how to define fix productivity, step 3, processes and documents required i.e. The History? production list and so on to name but a few. A business plan is #8230;.. a plan.

On the ground you need step by define desperation step organized structure to fix an the history jones, existing business that is not performing well. Trust I am making sense #128578; Chris Guillebeau#8217;s $100 Startup is define fabulous. I also thought Rework was a great book. I#8217;ve never been a lover of Tim Ferriss#8217; work, however he does a few insightful moments. Currently reading Creativity, Inc. .. pretty good so far. The Positive Quality Childcare On Children's Cognitive? I#8217;m reading Start, Run, Grow Your Business by Tim Berry. It#8217;s always inspiring to read articles on this website. You guys should keep up the define desperation good work. Thumbs up. Of High On Children's? Click here to join the conversation ( ) Have something to say about desperation, this article? Share it with us on: Bplans is owned and operated by of alcohol Palo Alto Software, Inc., as a free resource to help entrepreneurs start and run better businesses.

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Desperation definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionary

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Derniers Avis sur Le Parfum : histoire d'un meurtrier. Suivre son activite 100 abonnes Lire ses 2 519 critiques. Un scenario tres original, une mise en scene soignee, un casting reussi et de bonnes prestations, tous les ingredients de qualite sont la pour offrir un joli produit final. Desperation? Le parfum : histoire d'un meurtrier relate l'evolution d'une personne au don unique, en veritable tueur en serie obsede par une quete de savoir sans limites. The Positive Effect Of High Childcare On Children's? S'il y a bien un film emblematique sur le sens olfactif, ce sera bien Le parfum : histoire d'un meurtrier qui s'imposera sans conteste. Define? La fin du film proposera cependant un ton destabilisant, nous faisant hesiter l'espace d'un instant entre reve et realite. Successful CEO Strategies Essay? Malheureusement, le film optera pour le mauvais choix (le film etant une adaptation, ce n'est donc pas a lui que l'on pourra en vouloir), au profit de la belle metaphore finale poetique certainement plus judicieuse que l'on aurait pu avoir, transformant le jusqu'a present thriller, en dorenavant conte fantastique.

Suivre son activite 2 abonnes Lire ses 180 critiques. Excellente adaptation du roman eponyme ! Le roman au depart est genial, et le film reflete bien le tout. Define Desperation? Le pari ici etait de representer les odeurs, et c'est reussi. Wedding? Un beau film macabre. Suivre son activite 62 abonnes Lire ses 2 423 critiques. Un film qui ressemble a une experience qui a mal tourne. Define Desperation? J'ai vraiment ete emballe dans le debut du film avec cette reconstitution peu flatteuse de Paris au 18eme qui correspond bien a ce qu'on peut en imaginer; une ville crasse ou la misere la plus totale cotoie de pres un luxe indecent.

Au milieu de cela l'horrible naissance du personnage principal au milieu du marche au poisson plonge dans un univers aussi repoussant qu'interessant. Essay? Puis on desperation suit la vie de Grenouille et sa quete de la creation d'un parfum et en parallele de ses premiers meurtres. Effects? Mais alors que la premiere partie du film m'a passionne, mon interet s'est etiole au fur et a mesure pour arriver a du grand n'importe quoi au moment du final. Define? Un film qui montre une belle sortie de route apres un debut plein de promesses. The Negative Effects Of Alcohol? Dommage. Suivre son activite 61 abonnes Lire ses 384 critiques. Le film est d'une ambiance speciale et rend clairement curieux. Desperation? Le paysage, la photographie et la bande son confortent cet environnement particulier. Toast Wedding? On est donc envoute par cette histoire particuliere, a la recherche de la captation d'une odeur ou l'on se retrouve etrangement empathique d'un tueur sans scrupule. Define? Le jeu d'acteur frole la perfection ! Mais, au moment de lever le voile et finir l'histoire, c'est decevant.

Je sais bien que le film suit parfaitement le livre et l'honore totalement, mais non ! Une fin comme ca, trop irreelle, fantaisiste, ne me plait pas. The Positive Quality Cognitive Development? Ca ne me convient pas, et ca gache meme tout le plaisir que j'ai eu pendant les deux premieres heures. Desperation? Dommage, car toute l'histoire avant ce finish est un delice intense. Suivre son activite 9 abonnes Lire ses 1 189 critiques. Le Parfum : L'Histoire d'un meurtrier est un film tres etrange (tout comme le livre dont il est inspire). Gay Speak Essay? Ben Whishaw est pas mal du tout en meurtrier bizarre aux capacites qui defient toutes explications rationnelles. Desperation? Les autres acteurs (Dustin Hoffman, Alan Rickman) sont plutot bons, meme s'ils sont dans des roles tres secondaires. Toast For A? L'histoire est tres etrange, mais dans le bon sens du terme. Define Desperation? On est tres intrigue par ce personnage central, qu'on arrive toujours pas a comprendre a la fin du film. Aunt Helen A Wallflower? Un bon film. Suivre son activite 0 abonne Lire ses 2 critiques.

troublant, envoutant comme le titre. Define Desperation? il plane un parfum de meurtres qui colle au heros. Effects Of Alcohol? Le film reste dans l'esprit du roman. Define? excellent casting. Suivre son activite 4 abonnes Lire ses 4 critiques. Je n'ai pas lue le livre et apprecie encore moins les polars et autres histoires de criminels, ce monde souille par les humains et leur insatiable cupidite n'apportant partout rien que misere et malheurs etant suffisamment ec?urant pour ne pas avoir besoin d'autres arguments en sa defaveur. The History Jones? Ce recit n'en demeure pas moins un pur chef d'oeuvre, digne d'etre compare aux magistraux Les fantomes de Goya de Milos Forman, Blade Runner de Ridley Scott, Brazil de Terry Gilliam, Apres la pluie de Takashi Koizumi, Waking Life de Richard Linklater ou encore a Le Roi et le Clown de Lee Jun-ik. Define? Le simple fait de lire parmi les mauvaises critiques faites a son sujet que l'histoire se deroulerait au moyen-age, c'est a dire quelques annees avant 1968 :) (devrais-je rappeler que le hero du film est ne en 1738 ?) en disant long sur le niveau de ces lumieres de l'intellect contemporain, ce soit disant avenir de l'humanite, totalement incapables de dater correctement le contexte historique d'une oeuvre autant que d'en saisir le ou les messages, sans parler du sens de toute metaphore ou de sa portee philosophique. Of Tom Jones? Alors certes, certaines images peuvent effectivement choquer les culs-pinces et autres moralisateurs a la cervelle etriquee, non seulement parce qu'elles osent montrer un bout de chair denudee mais aussi et surtout parce que commettant le crime de lese-majeste, de s'adresser a l'intelligence des spectateurs au lieu de tenter de les abrutir a l'instar de toute production digne de ce nom, avant tout destinee a la masse des decerebres. Suivre son activite 1 abonne Lire ses 94 critiques. Il est tellement rare de voir un realisateur qui sait faire un film. Define? Tom Tykwer est un genie qui ne s'est pas encore devoile.

Une bande son qui comprend son sens dans se film: un parfum. Toast? Je me demandais quel autre realisateur pouvait etre capable d'avoir ce talent, regardez bien les plans du film. Define? Ne serait-ce pas la, l'oeuvre d'un homme qui a compris le cinema ? Suivre son activite 21 abonnes Lire ses 1 240 critiques. Dans l'exercice difficile du passage a l'ecran, cette adaptation ne s'en tire qu'a moitie. Successful? Le canevas global est bien respecte, les differents points de passage principaux du livre sont empruntes par le scenario, jusqu'au final.

De ce cote-la, rien a redire. Define Desperation? Niveau interpretation, Ben Whishaw livre une performance faite tout entiere de retenue et de regards sombres, une sobriete qui sied assez bien au personnage mais ne colle pas parfaitement avec l'image que l'on s'en faisait a la lecture du livre. The Negative Effects? Les autres acteurs font le metier, sans plus. Desperation? Le film reste assez captivant, mais la ou le bat blesse franchement c'est dans la facon dont le final est aborde, tres theatralise et romantise, la ou le surrealisme cotoyait le grotesque et le merveilleux dans un delire orgiaque. Gay Speak Essay? Un bel exercice de style, mais qui passe un peu trop a cote de la dimension de l?uvre. Define? Interessant a voir toutefois.

Suivre son activite 24 abonnes Lire ses 1 116 critiques. C'etait un projet ambitieux de vouloir adapter le roman de Patrick Suskind. Of High Childcare Cognitive Development? Je dois dire que Tom Tykwer s'en sort plus que bien. Define Desperation? Linteret du film c'est bien sur son sujet, qu'on n'a pas lhabitude de voir tout les jours. Aunt Helen Perks A Wallflower? Pour cela il faut admettre que Dustin Hoffman, et surtout Ben Whishaw n'y sont pas etranger. Desperation? Hoffman nous captive et le jeune Ben Whishaw, fait preuve d'une tendresse de psychopathe tout bonnement etourdissante. Toast? Ensuite le defaut du film, c'est que le film dans sa seconde moitie devient repetitif, meme si Tykwer trouve des procedes intelligent pour qu'elle ne le soit pas trop. Desperation? La premiere partie etait captivante, et l'introduction du personnage de Ben Whishaw etait tres interessante, bien qu'un poil long. Successful Essay? Mais c'est surtout les 25 dernieres minutes qui font de ce film un petit monument.

Certains lui ont reproche son manque de realisme, mais je ne suis pas d'accord avec cet avis. Define Desperation? Parce que premierement ce n'est pas un manque de realisme, ce n'est pas parce que on aunt perks arriverait jamais a Spoiler: produire un parfum qui sente aussi bon que ca manque de realisme. Desperation? Car si c'etait le cas, ca se passerait tres bien ainsi. The Positive Effect Cognitive? Et pour ce qui est de la derniere scene du film, c'est vraiment oser, mais la encore ca pourrait tres bien se derouler comme ca. Define? Et deuxiemement, meme si ces deux scenes n'etaient pas realistes, elles pourraient etre vu d'un point de vue metaphorique. CEO Strategies? Elles arrivent a nous faire percevoir par notre coeur las sensation d'un parfum et ca c'est juste prodigieux. Define? 25 dernieres minutes donc de pur moment de magie. Effect On Children's Development? Dommage que le film soit parfois tr'op repetitif, ca donne un cote trop academique au film. Suivre son activite 9 abonnes Lire ses 6 critiques.

Film surprenant moi qui d'habitude n'aime pas trop les thriller. Define Desperation? l'ambiance mise en place par notre protagoniste psychotique est tres bien rendu et Allan Rickman est geniale comme d'habitude. Suivre son activite 0 abonne Lire ses 17 critiques. J'ai adore, malgre quelques scenes un peu longues ! Ce film degage quelque chose de special, je le conseille. Suivre son activite 99 abonnes Lire ses 2 687 critiques. J'ai rarement vu une histoire aussi ridicule que celle du Parfum: histoire d'un meurtrier. Gay Speak Essay? Le roman est peut etre mieux tourne mais cette adaptation cinematographique est franchement mauvaise. Define? Passons donc ce scenario bidon pour se pencher sur le reste.

Mais, la aussi, le desastre est complet. Aunt Perks Of Being A Wallflower? Ce thriller ne dispose d'aucune profondeur psychologique a l'image du personnage principal, fade et peu credible. Define? Seuls les costumes et les decors rattrapent tant bien que mal ce film mediocre. Suivre son activite 115 abonnes Lire ses 867 critiques. En 1985, parut une veritable pepite de la litterature, Le parfum, sous-titre Histoire dun meurtrier. The Negative? Loriginalite de lintrigue propulsa cette ?uvre au rang de best-seller avec ses 15 millions dexemplaires vendus a travers le monde. Desperation? Cette originalite ninteressa pas que les lecteurs puisque le producteur Bernd Eichinger voulut obtenir les droits de ce roman des sa parution. Effects? Quinze annees passerent avant que lauteur ne finisse par ceder.

De grands noms de la realisation se sont penches sur le projet (Stanley Kubrick, Milos Forman, Martin Scorsese, Tim Burton, Ridley Scott), mais ce dernier echoua finalement dans les mains de Tom Tykwer. Define Desperation? En effet, lhistoire unique en son genre ne pouvait quaccrocher les lecteurs, mais aussi les amateurs de defis. Successful CEO Strategies? Car ladaptation sest revelee etre un veritable defi. Desperation? Et le pari est reussi. Of High Childcare Cognitive? Lambiance particuliere y est bien retranscrite, avec cette histoire originale digne des grands thrillers, aussi fascinante qu'epouvantable. Define? Dapres mes sources, ladaptation cinematographique respecte a la lettre (ou pas loin) la trame du livre. For A? Et je dois admettre que pour un film dont je navais jamais entendu parler jusqua ce que ma fille me le revele, jai ete captive des les premieres images avec cette parturiente qui accouche sous un etal de poisson en plein marche, et ce avec la plus grande indifference. Define? Debuts difficiles donc pour celui qui se fera appeler Jean-Baptiste Grenouille, homme qui possede un don exceptionnel : celui de lodorat, capable de detecter tout arome, aussi insignifiant soit-il, ce qui va devenir une veritable obsession, laquelle va devenir meurtriere. The History Of Tom Jones? Ce qui fait de ce personnage principal un homme a la fois attirant et meprisant. Define Desperation? Evidemment, on toast for a wedding ne peut que louer la qualite de la prestation de Ben Whishaw pourtant dans son tout premier role en tant que tete daffiche.

Il faut dire quil semble avoir totalement integre la psychologie de ce personnage qui se distingue par ses specificites animales. Define? Nul doute quil a recu les conseils avises du roi des roles de composition, jai nomme Dustin Hoffman, veritable saltimbanque puisquil nous a offert des roles inoubliables comme Tootsie ou Rain man pour ne citer que ceux-la. For A? A eux deux, ils reussissent a nous plonger dans lunivers olfactif des parfumeurs, veritable monde a part pour Jean-Baptiste qui le mettra definitivement sur la route du sang dans la quete de la fragrance parfaite. Define Desperation? Alan Rickman est parfait dans le role du pere prevenant, doue dune intelligence rare, ce qui en fait naturellement un serieux rival a Grenouille. The Positive Effect Quality? Meme les differentes filles victimes du parfumeur sont parfaites. Define Desperation? La France du XVIIIeme siecle est tres bien representee, que ce soit pour la capitale ou le pays profond, et ce jusque dans les costumes.

De par cette epoque, et de par lintrigue, il en resulte une esthetique soignee, sombre qui finit de faire adherer le spectateur a lhistoire. Effects? Tout est parfait durant 1h50/55, jusqua lexecution de Jean-Baptiste Grenouille sur la place publique. Define Desperation? Spoiler: Une execution qui naura pas lieu suite a un retournement de situation pas du tout credible, et qui amene une dose de fantastique a lintrigue. The Positive Of High Quality Cognitive? Pour moi donc, la derniere demi-heure na pas de sens et gache ce qui semblait etre un veritable chef-d?uvre. Define Desperation? Pour autant, on Effect of High Cognitive ne peut incriminer les scenaristes, puisquils ont suivi la mouture du livre. Define? Autant lhistoire parait folle, apres tout les faits divers relatent des choses totalement inconcevables, autant jaurais aime un finish plus terre a terre. Gay Speak Essay? Ceci dit, Le parfum : histoire dun meurtrier offre un beau divertissement avec son histoire peu banale. Suivre son activite 0 abonne Lire ses 67 critiques. ok. Define Desperation? ce film est au niveau decor ou meme costume parfait avec un bon jeu de la part de dustin hoffman. Toast? l histoire est special mais alors la scene de fin est totalement WTF et innatendu. Les meilleurs films de tous les temps selon les spectateurs Les meilleurs films de tous les temps selon la presse. de Christian Carion.

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