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Best Resume Examples for a Variety of Jobs. Do you need to write a resume? Knowing how to start can be the biggest challenge and looking at examples can be very helpful. The following samples are among the virtual banking best resumes and the hp way, you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. They vary greatly in virtual banking skill level, profession and format and are filled with inspiration. Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and which elements you want to the hp way, include when you begin writing your own. The first step to writing a great resume is to choose the virtual best type of resume for your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Browse these examples to get a sense of your options before choosing the right format for the hp way, you.

Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and lists previous jobs in banking order. Anorexia Memoir. Functional Resume - Focus on your skills and expertise with a minor emphasis on virtual, the companies you worked for. Combination Resume - Combine the elements of chronological and functional resumes to highlight both your skills and previous employment. Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to the specific position you#39;re applying for. Mini Resume - Everyone in your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the example to specsavers, write one that#39;s brief and to the point. Nontraditional Resume - From a video to an online portfolio, discover how to create and banking, use a resume that is of Creativity Essay unique. Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Every job seeker#39;s experience and goals are different and it#39;s important to add sections to your resume that highlight what makes you the best candidate.

In these resumes, you will find examples of specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is virtual banking most important. Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and action pros, specific overview of virtual banking, your skills. Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of your resume to show off your biggest achievements. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and Robotics in Construction Industry: Roles, Challenges and Uses., your skills. Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to bring attention to your value as a candidate. Resume with Summary of banking, Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of your work experience and specsavers glasses prices, skills. Banking. Resumes for Executive and Management Positions. The following resumes are good examples for individuals in management and vendetta film, executive positions. They can be used when applying for virtual, other office and business jobs as well. The highlights of these resumes are the supervisory experience and business management.

These are skills that employers are looking for when hiring business professionals and it is best to include concrete facts and examples of your achievements. Anorexia Memoir. The world of business is virtual vast and there is a great variety of anorexia memoir, positions available in it. The examples below are a sampling of great resumes used by business professionals. Banking. No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. They include various skill sets and experience, which will help you along the way. Robotics And Automation. Positions in the tech industry are particularly competitive and it is extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition. You need to be specific about your skills, the banking programs you#39;re proficient with, and it#39;s good if you can give examples of end results as well.

Many resumes in the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in action pros which you list every program, language, etc. you know. It gives your prospective employer the chance to virtual banking, quickly understand where your skills lie. Resumes for action pros, Education and Human Services Positions. If your career is in education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and virtual, certifications. Be sure to glasses prices, include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of these sample resumes feature volunteer experience.

What you do outside the workplace can have an impact in virtual landing a great job in these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do. Careers in healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and both should be highlighted in your resume. Nurses, therapists and medical specialists should include any certifications and action pros, licenses you hold as well as details of your work experience. Volunteer experience is also a nice addition to healthcare resumes because it shows the hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. Banking. If possible, include how you went above the call of the hp way, duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of skills that are required on the job and it is important that you highlight your technical training in your resume. Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to your field. Notice how the example resumes are very specific when it comes to technical skills. Many also include supervisory and virtual banking, management experience as well as the adherence to Place of Creativity Essay, codes and the ability to troubleshoot technical problems.

Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers. Virtual Banking. Freelancers, writers, and other professionals in creative fields may have the Industry: Roles, Challenges most difficult time writing a resume. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and skills vast, and it can be difficult getting it all on paper. There are many ways to approach these types of resumes and the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you. You are a creative, so you need to put some of that ingenuity into writing the most effective resume you can.

You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs. Customer service is a key element in many jobs and it is virtual banking important that you focus on that in your resume. Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Some of these resume examples also include specific skills required for the position. For instance, a chef may choose to highlight the presentation and speed involved in serving meals to film, customers. A stylist will want to focus on special treatments they have learned and a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise. Also, be sure to include any special honors or achievements you have received. Were you the employee of the month?

Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of your limited work history. You will need to banking, supplement your resume with other achievements. Include volunteer work and accomplishments at Essay school in your resume and use these examples to learn how to feature them. Employers understand that you are young and looking to add to your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.

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Green Marketing Plan Nandos Essay. The purpose of this plan is to analyse the environmental efforts of the Nandos Carnegie branch, and to virtual banking develop strategies that propels them a step closer towards a more eco-friendly and specsavers prices, sustainable future. Nandos was established in banking, 1987 in Johannesburg, South Africa. It has approximately 300 stores in Australia since the brand arrived here in 1990. Nandos has already taken action to be more environmentally responsible, with better packaging designs and partnering with organizations that are tackling the specsavers glasses prices worlds social problems. The sources of information for this marketing plan include websites, articles and the management at virtual, the Carnegie branch of The Kitchen as a of Creativity and Imagination, Nandos. Since some data is virtual unavailable to us (e.g. the annual costs of the business), certain assumptions will have to be made. Nandos already has a clear focus on reducing its packaging, but energy and water usage have not been addressed as effectively. To reduce their usage of energy, they will have to The Kitchen of Creativity and Imagination Essay consider their lighting, and the equipment that is used in the kitchen. Solar panels will also be installed to reduce their electricity use. Water usage will also be reduced by switching to more efficient equipment in virtual banking, the kitchen and toilets.

By employing the strategies that have been outlined, Nandos will be able to target their triple bottom line by specsavers glasses prices, reducing cost, lightening their carbon footprint and virtual banking, consequently improving the lives of the people. Nandos is not the common type of fast food joint, but is action pros more of a casual dining place. Nandos first began trading in 1987, in banking, Johannesburg, South Africa. It arrived in Australia in action pros, 1990, with its first store opening in Perth. Since then, its popularity has grown in every state in Australia, with new stores opening all the time. There are approximately 300 stores operating nationally, with plans to expand further.

Nandos is famous for its unique Peri-Peri marinade that is used for all the chicken items on virtual, the menu (Nandos, 2012). This green marketing plan is for Nandos Carnegie and how they can incorporate sustainability into their operations. Nandos Environmental strategies. Nandos does not advertise their sustainability efforts much, but protecting the environment and doing the right thing has always been a part of their business strategy. They are already raising awareness for an organisation called United Against Malaria, which is a charity that raises awareness of malaria, and aims to put an end to it (Mumbrella, 2012). Nandos Carnegie has been selling United Against Malaria bracelets to raise funds for the charity. All Nandos restaurants also use recyclable packaging for their products (they signed the Australian Packaging Covenant in anorexia memoir, 2010, which means they must adhere to their guidelines).

They have also begun selling water. bottles which use 35% less plastic than the previous bottles that were used. Recycle logos and information are also printed onto the packaging to educate consumers (Nandos, 2010). Nandos also makes use of recycling services, which are available at virtual, every branch, including Carnegie. Nandos have implemented a system of having its suppliers of oil provide oil to each store in large quantities so as to reduce the amount of The Kitchen of Creativity, trips that they need to make. This system also reduces the virtual use of steel drums for containing the oil.

Spent oil is then sent to recyclers to produce biodiesel, which Nandos then uses to the hp way run its trucks (Nandos, 2010). Analysis of virtual, environmental performance. Even though Nandos does undertake all of the above- mentioned activities in their business processes, they are still not realizing their full potential in terms of sustainability. Even though Nandos does try to buy recycled products, they do not have an action pros, explicit policy that states that they should buy recycled. Nandos also does not have a policy to virtual banking encourage their overseas suppliers to Robotics in Construction Challenges improve design to reduce the virtual banking environmental impact of their packaging (Nandos, 2010). Just by implementing these guidelines, Nandos could improve their environmental performance substantially. However, Nandos does print environmental logos on all its primary and secondary packaging to encourage recycling throughout its value chain all the way to consumers.

Nandos also discourages consumers to take away the action pros food, and this helps to reduce the virtual banking use of extra packaging. All Nandos restaurants have a relaxed atmosphere and glasses, a homely feel that urges consumers to eat there rather than take the food home (Nandos, 2012) The fast-food chain also uses renewable resources i.e. sugar cane material, for most of virtual banking, its packaging. Also, they try to make sure that the the hp way packaging is made using no small parts so littering is minimized (Nandos, 2010). A few inefficient business methods that are specific to the Carnegie branch include the washing of virtual banking, dishes and the use of disposable gloves. The bulky dishwasher is action pros used even when there are just a few dishes, which results in wastage of water. Also, workers use disposable gloves which are not made of renewable resources, and are replaced quite often due to overuse. Evidently, Nandos has integrated sustainability into virtual its organizational plans. However, with a more concentrated focus on the environment, Nandos will be able to reduce their impact further, and could position themselves as the industry standard in terms of environmental impact.

Current marketing strategies. Nandos main message in its advertising campaigns is the fact that they use fresh chicken that is action pros flame-grilled, not fried. They use this as a point of differentiation to gain an banking, advantage over other fast-food chains, like McDonalds or KFC (Baker, 2010). With its creative and occasionally controversial marketing campaigns and catchy taglines such as Portugasm, Nandos targets an educated, younger demographic market. The organization has successfully used social media to connect with their customers, and its website to communicate any new plans, or to inform the public of any events taking place at Nandos. Nandos also uses its store design to complete the brand experience for customers. Wooden tables, soft,fluid lighting and specsavers prices, posters showing the history of its unique flavours convey an image of relaxation and banking, a natural, friendly appeal to the brand (Nandos, 2012). Even though the target market may be a young demographic, consumers of all ages and backgrounds visit Nandos, presumably because of its uniquely cooked chicken. The Australian fast food industry has flourished in the last decade, with industry revenue rising by 4.3% to reach $16,007,400,000 per glasses annum.

There were approximately 36,730 fast food establishments in virtual banking, Australia in 2010 (RAPS, 2011). With such a large number of fast food organisations, they definitely have a significant impact on the Australian environment and could make a massive difference if they incorporated sustainability into their business practices. The current macro-environment factors will further examine the current situation and trends in the fast food industry. All businesses involved in specsavers glasses, the production and sale of domestic food products must abide by banking, the guidelines set in Robotics and Automation in Construction Industry: Roles, Challenges and Uses., the Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (RAPS, 2011). This ensures that all businesses follow at least the minimum requirements for banking, sustainability. The introduction of the carbon tax has resulted in prices of products like fruits, vegetables, bread and meat will rise (Sebo, 2012), this means all fast food chains including Nandos will have to raise their prices. Consumers nowadays place more importance on preservation of the action pros environment and healthy eating, so businesses must ensure they must deal with these issues (Price Lawson, 1992) Fast food continues to virtual be seen as unhealthy and pollutants of the environment (Price Lawson, 1992). Fast food businesses are also perceived as litterers by a majority of consumers (Price Lawson, 1992).

A new kind of method of the hp way, utilizing solar power, referred to as solar thermal, means that power can be stored for a longer period of time as the technology does not rely on direct sunlight (Sorly, n.d.) Advances in packaging designs so they use less material mean that costs for companies are decreased and they decrease their environmental impact (Joy, 2011). Progress in the development of water efficient fittings result in reduced water usage for all businesses. Water is a major factor influencing all businesses in Australia, as Australia is the driest inhabited continent in the world (White, 2009). Growing population means more demand for food, which places more pressure on the sources of fast food businesses (White, 2009). Depleting sources of fossil fuels, which are the virtual banking main source of energy in Australia, will result in increased energy prices (White, 2009). There has been a significant increase of anorexia memoir, fast food consumption in Australia, with traffic to banking fast food joints increasing by roughly 7% in 2010 (Markey Watson, 2011). People of all walks of life come to Nandos, but a majority of them consist of younger people.

Majority of and Automation in Construction Challenges and Uses., consumers who purchase fast food do so for convenience (TheTelegraph, 2007). Therefore, they probably do not consider environmental factors in their purchase decision. However, with the banking green consumer group growing within Australia, opportunities for going green for businesses are becoming more appealing. In Australia, there are certain trends that define consumers today. As A Of Creativity And Imagination! Consumers can be divided into certain groups. These include the banking Value Consumer, the Busy Consumer and the Green Consumer to name a few (ACRS, 2010) The Value Consumer. These are consumers who spend their money more wisely, and mostly consider only what they need.

This is mainly a consequence of the Global Financial Crisis as consumers have become more cautious in their spending habits. This can be evidenced by the fact that consumer spending in Australia has been decreasing steadily, and this trend looks set to continue (Schwarten, 2012). These customers then force businesses to action pros create value, so as to attract them to their brand. The Busy Consumer. These are consumers who are becoming increasingly time-poor and convenience has a major effect on virtual banking, their purchase decisions. They place more emphasis on speed, simplicity and convenience (ACRS, 2010).

Time is very valuable to v for review them, so fast food is the ideal choice for these types of consumers. The Green Consumer. This has become a growing niche in the market, and identifies those consumers who are more concerned about the environment than other people. They are willing to spend more for products if they know it will help to virtual conserve the environment. They will actively seek out green products or even organic products, and they take into the hp way account the environmental practices of the business before choosing to virtual banking purchase. This consumer market is continuously growing, with an The Kitchen Place and Imagination, estimated buying power of US$500 billion in 2007 globally (ACRS, 2010). In Australia, consumers spent around AU$12 billion on environmentally-friendly goods in 2009, and the market reached AU$21 billion by 2010. Australians attitude towards environmental issues.

Australians are undoubtedly concerned about the environment, but the high costs of going green are stopping them from being very eco-friendly. This is confirmed by banking, the fact that 100% of anorexia memoir, Gen Y and 91% of Gen X believe in the effects of climate change, according to McCrindle Research (n.d.). However, 65% do not want to pay more than 10% for green products, while only 10% are willing to pay any price. Consumers also feel that environmentally friendly products should cost less than other products so as to encourage people to virtual banking buy them (McCrindle, n.d.) Consumers nowadays expect business to be transparent with their activities and to be accountable at every level of business (Davis, 2007). Organizations are also expected to provide accurate information regarding the environmental impact of their products, and to minimize the impact through the use of innovative designs and manufacturing techniques (Savita, 2011). This means a restaurant like Nandos is expected to provide the information about their environmental impact to customers, and do all they can to protect the environment, and provide safe products to customers. The purpose of this marketing plan is to target the growing Green Consumer market, and to inform the Value Customer of the high level of environmentally friendly business practices taking place at Nandos Carnegie so as to give them another reason to eat there. Direct competitors of the hp way, Nandos Carnegie include Grilld, McDonalds, KFC, Subway and other various dining restaurants due to their geographic proximity to the Nandos branch. 1. Participate in the governments Energies Efficiencies Opportunities Program. 2. Engage in countrywide water saving programs.

3. McDonalds has full control over its supply chain, which allows it to incorporate sustainability into virtual its operations easily. 4. Conduct extensive research into reducing the the hp way impact of their packaging, and are a member of the virtual banking Australian Packaging Covenant. (McDonalds, 2012) 1. The strategies they are undertaking have not changed their greedy, corporate brand image (Barriaux, M. 2007) 2. McDonalds does have a slight perception of going green in the minds of consumers, but its actual green performance is much lower (Streeter, 2011) 3. As A Of Creativity! McDonalds customers alone produce 6.35 kgs of trash during peak hour. 4. McDonalds, due to its large size, is susceptible to being sued by banking, individuals or organisations that see any weakness in their sustainability efforts e.g. the 1986 court case (Archives, 2007) 5. Specsavers! Damage the environment extensively from their production techniques (EthicalFootprint,2010) 1. Litter Control program helps keep the restaurant grounds clean. 2. Banking! Restaurant includes rain water tanks, dual flush toilets and glasses, water restrictors on taps.

3. Virtual! Use scorecard method for sustainability targets for anorexia memoir, its suppliers to make sure the goals are being met throughout the supply chain. 4. Use recyclable material for packaging, and continuous research is put into finding new ways to reduce packaging. material. (McDonalds, 2012) 1. Benefit from alliance with Carbon Trust, as they provide them with ideas of green technologies. 2. Yum! Brands, (KFCs parent company) are always looking for new ways for environment sustainability (Yum!

Brands, 2010). KFC benefits from this as they have access to virtual banking all of the Robotics and Automation green technologies that Yum! Brands develops. 1. KFC has been linked with deforestation activities in banking, several parts of the world (Halladay, 2012). 2. In Construction Industry: Challenges! KFC has experienced problems with animal rights groups, hygiene problems at virtual, certain restaurants, and poor working conditions for workers. This has had an adverse effect on their brand image. 1. Switched to recyclable material for packaging in as a of Creativity and Imagination, 2009 (EnvironmentalLeader, 2009). 2. All wrappers for chips, burgers, and cups are put through a dual waste stream bin, which is then sorted and sent out to recycle (KFC, 2012).

3. Dual flush system and waterless urinals in the restaurant help to conserve water. 4. Increased insulation for floor, walls, and ceiling (KFC, 2012) 1. Work with International Purchasing Companies Ltd to virtual banking generate ideas for action pros, environment sustainability (Subway, 2012). 2. Subways brand motto, Eat Fresh complements its sustainability goals (Fitzgerald, Brown Stewart, 2009). 3. Member of the Australian Packaging Covenant, which provides Subway with clear goals for reducing environmental impact (Subway, 2012)

1. Subway received some bad press for virtual, an incident involving animal cruelty, which may have damaged their brand image in the minds of action pros, a few consumers (Reale, 2011) 1. Switched to more energy saving lighting and virtual banking, low flow water faucets. 2. Furniture and cleaning materials are made from and Automation more sustainable materials. 3. Majority of the paper packaging used is completely recyclable. (Subway, 2012) Grilld is also a competitor of the Nandos Carnegie branch. They have a brand image that promotes healthy living and virtual, their supply consists of only Robotics in Construction and Uses., fresh ingredients.

Their Local Matters initiative, which is virtual banking used to support local charities, is a fundamental part of their corporate social responsibility program (Grilld, 2012) The management at Nandos Carnegie has had experience with Nandos for quite some time, so they know how to implement any new operations into the business effectively. Also, this Carnegie branch is family-owned so they would be enthusiastic about any positive innovations or advancements. Nandos uses several mediums to reach its consumers. It uses social media such as its own Facebook page and Twitter account. The Kitchen As A And Imagination Essay! They also re-designed their website to give it a more informal, fun look.

Nandos also advertises in-store with a variety of posters and brochures. Nandos also utilises TV advertising but not as intensely as the other fast food franchises. Nandos is virtual known for its somewhat cheeky advertising, and this has improved brand awareness since it first moved to Australia (Squidoo,n.d). Average revenue daily for the Nandos Carnegie branch is approximately. $2,200. So average annual revenue is approximately $791,720. To incorporate sustainability into Nandos accounting framework, the Triple Bottom Line will be used. This means that objectives will be formed so as to address business, society and environmental factors. The TBL framework considers people, planet and profit at the core of the business.

Objective 1: Reduce overall environmental impact by intensifying focus on water usage, energy usage and packaging material. By doing this, Nandos Carnegie will aim to achieve a 50% reduction in costs. Objective 2: Increase awareness of Nandos Carnegies environmental efforts by 50% among consumers by December 2014. Green Marketing Strategy. Objective 1: Reduce overall environmental impact by intensifying focus on water usage, energy usage and packaging material. By doing this, Nandos Carnegie will aim to anorexia memoir achieve a 50% reduction in costs. Reduce water usage by. 50% by December 2014. Reduce energy use by 50% by December 2014.

1. Replace existing dish washer with dishwasher that has 4 Star Water Efficiency. 2. Ensure all employees use the virtual banking dishwasher only for a full load. 3. Install time flow taps and and Imagination Essay, dual flush toilets. 1. Replace fryer with energy-efficient fryer that has earned the ENERGY STAR. 2. Virtual Banking! Install ENERGY STAR convection oven. 3. Add strip curtains and automatic door closers to specsavers prices the walk-in refrigerator to keep inside temperature low. 4. Install CFL bulbs in virtual, every part of the restaurant. 5. Install demand based exhaust control. This regulates the exhaust fan speed in the kitchen to action pros meet ventilation needs. 6. Install energy efficient Reverse Cycle Air Conditioner.

7. Install 7 solar panels on roof of building. Time flow taps- $300 each. Dual flush toilets- $500. $5 per bulb. (Times approximately 25. bulbs for virtual, the restaurant = $125) Through the implementation of these strategies, Nandos will be able to reduce their overall operating cost. Robotics And Automation In Construction Industry: Roles,! The investment in green technology might have a high initial investment, but will definitely be profitable in the future. For example:

Energy-efficient fryers can save up to $100 for electricity or $470 for gas annually. ENERGY STAR electric ovens can save up to banking $190 annually. CFL bulbs can reduce energy consumption by Robotics in Construction Industry: Challenges, 75% Cutting down on idle time for virtual banking, the combination oven can save up to $800 annually. Anorexia Memoir! By turning down the central cooling by 3 F, air conditioning costs can be reduced by 12-15 percent. The solar panels could help save up to $400 in virtual banking, electricity costs. (Energy Star, 2012) Clearly, these cost savings are quite significant, and a 50% reduction in costs is therefore perfectly realistic. Strategy 4: Nandos is the hp way already committed to eco-friendly packaging practices, as they follow the strict guidelines under the virtual Australian Packaging Covenant. However, Nandos does not currently work with third-party organizations to action pros improve design and recycling of packaging, they must begin doing so in order to benefit from specialist knowledge that those firms (e.g.

The Cardboard Pallet Company) have acquired. Objective 2: Increase awareness by 50% of Nandos Carnegies environmental efforts among consumers by December 2014. Increase communication efforts of eco-friendly changes taking place through a range of mediums and creative tactics. 1. Change in-store poster design to a green theme to emphasize the changes taking place. 2. Virtual Banking! Advertise in local Caulfield Glen Eira Leader newspaper and The Daily Green website about the restaurants green efforts. 3. Use outdoor banners to Robotics and Automation Industry: Roles, advertise sustainability. 4. Distribute brochures inside store to raise awareness of the shift to sustainability at virtual banking, Nandos. $300 ($150 for each banner) Other strategies that Nandos could undertake involve:

Using their food waste and turn it into compost to use it to grow plants. They could do this by having their own compost recycling operation or send their food waste to a compost facility. Encouraging more eat-ins by providing facts about the Place of Creativity environmental impact of packaging to consumers. Using the strategies listed, Nandos will be able to affect its Triple Bottom Line positively. Virtual! Through the action pros implementation of the strategies, they will be able to minimise their environmental impact, reduce their costs significantly and improve the store environment for the people who visit the virtual banking store (i.e. through improved design and having more decorative plants in action pros, the store). The achievement of these objectives will show Nandos devotion to sustainability. Archives (2007, April 11). McDonalds, Environmental McNasty? Retrieved 27 September, 2012 from http://theconcordian.com/ Baker, R. (2010, June 30). Nandos has lipsmackin giveaway plan.

Marketing Week. Retrieved from http://www.marketingweek.co.uk/nandos-has-lipsmackin-giveawayplan/3015217.art. icle Barriaux, M. (2007, July 05). McDonalds goes green, but not all customers are lovin it. The Guardian. Retrieved from banking http://www.guardian.co.uk/ Davis, P. (2007, November 13). Is your company naughty or nice? Consumers want to know before buying. Retrieved September 27, 2012 from.

Energy Star (2012). Energy Star Guide For Restaurants. Retrieved from http://www.energystar.gov/ia/partners/publications/pubdocs/restaurants_guide.pdf?04bb-ca54 Environmental Leader (2009, January 28). KFC Switches to Earth-Friendly Packaging. Of Creativity Essay! Retrieved September 28, 2012 from http://www.environmentalleader.com/ Ethical Footprint (2010, May 14). Virtual Banking! Unethical companies: McDonalds. Retrieved 27 September, 2012 from The Kitchen Place of Creativity Essay http://ethicalfootprint.wordpress.com/ Fitzgerald, T., Brown T. Stewart E. (2009, April 01). Cover Story: Subways Journey to Green.

Retrieved September 28, 2012 from banking http://www.chainalytics.com/wpcontent/uploads/2011/03/2009-04-Subways-Journey-to-Green.pdf Grilld (2012). Retrieved from http://www.grilld.com.au/ Halladay, J. Anorexia Memoir! (2012, June 25). Kentucky Fried Chicken Destroying the Rainforests. Retrieved 28 September, 2012 from http://www.the-platform.org.uk/2012/06/25/kentucky-friedchicken-destroying-the-rainforests/ Joy. Virtual Banking! (2011). 50+ Eco-friendly Recyclable Packaging Inspiration. The Hp Way! Retrieved from http://jayce-o.blogspot.com.au/ Markey A. Watson C. (2011, May 27).

News.com.au. Retrieved from http://www.news.com.au/ McCrindleResearch (n.d.). Banking! Australians on Climate Change: Attitudes and Behaviours. Retrieved from http://mccrindle.com.au/ResearchSummaries/Australians-on-ClimateChange-Attitudes-and-Behaviours.pdf McDonalds (2012).

Retrieved from v for vendetta film review http://mcdonalds.com.au/ Mumbrella. (2010, June 07). Nandos launches single with Disco Montego in lead up to World Cup. Retrieved September 25, 2012 from http://mumbrella.com.au/nandos-launchessingle-with-disco-montego-in-lead-up-to-world-cup-27672. Nandos. Virtual Banking! (2010). Action Plan: Implementing the Sustainable Packaging Guidelines 2010-2015 (Australian Packaging Covenant). Retrieved September 25, 2012 from http://www.nandos.com.au/sites/default/files/nandos-australia-apc-action-plan.pdf Nandos. (2012).

Retrieved September 24, 2012 from http://www.nandos.com.au/aboutus/nandos-australia Price, S. Lawson, J. (1992). Action Pros! Nutritional and virtual banking, Environmental Issues in Fast Food. Nutrition and Food Science. 92(2), 4-10. Reale, R. (2011, July 15). Nike and Subway, like NFL, Support Animal Cruelty and Torture. Retrieved September 28, 2012 from http://realetybytes.com/ Retail and personal services training council (2011, n.d).

Fast Food Environmental Scan 2011. Retrieved from http://rapstc.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Fast-Food-EnvironmentalScan-2011.pdf. Savita, H. (2011). Anorexia Memoir! EMERGING ISSUES IN CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: ISO GUIDANCE ON SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY TOWARD CONSUMERS: IMPLICATIONS FOR MARKETERS. AMA Summer Educators Conference Proceedings. 22, 109-116. Schwarten, E. (2012, September 20). Consumer Spending falls again, Commonwealth Bank of virtual, Australia says. As A Of Creativity And Imagination! Retrieved September 26, 2012 from virtual http://www.news.com.au/ Sebo, T. (2012, July 03).

Carbon Tax: The Great Unknown. V For! Gouldburn Post. Retrieved from http://www.goulburnpost.com.au/ Sorly, P. (n.d). The Top 5 Green Technology Breakthroughs. Retrieved September 25, 2012 from virtual banking http://greenopolis.com/ Squidoo (n.d.) Nandos Franchise. Retrieved from http://www.squidoo.com/nandos-franchise Streeter, A. (2011, August 10). Best Green Brands List Implies That Greenwash Works. Retrieved September. University/College: University of California.

Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 28 February 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Green Marketing Plan Nandos. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. 3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.

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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in virtual, writing custom essays, research and term papers in many fields. Place Essay? MLA essay format is banking, most widely used in the field of humanities and liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in 2009. The Hp Way? Among the new rules of virtual banking formatting, the the hp way Works Cited or References list is the requirement of indicating the banking medium of anorexia memoir publication for virtual banking every cited source. Specsavers Glasses Prices? It could be a Print source for banking books and articles or a Web source for on-line sources.

MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing. Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to anorexia memoir, use. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the more popular choice. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at the end of the virtual essay. However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements . You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one. The text in MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. This rule concerns the basic text of your essay, along with the formatting of in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 12-font size is v for vendetta film, preferable.

Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is virtual, used in the MLA format essay . Glasses Prices? One-inch margins are used on all sides of your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the headings in the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. According to the recommendations of the virtual Modern Language Association, the headings have to be italicized or typed in bold. The first line of each paragraph has to be indented a half inch from the left side. You should put page numbers at the top, and justify it to the right. It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the and Automation in Construction Roles, Challenges and Uses. paper is several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the editable fields and follow the virtual banking guidelines within the glasses prices text. Here you may find an example of proper MLA essay formatting. While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in an essay written in MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation. Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable. The same concerns indirect in-text references.

Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way. The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in MLA style. Short citations If a citation used in virtual banking, the text of a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in action pros, double quotation marks. At the end of the banking citation, you have to state the authors name and the page number where the MLA citations are from in Robotics Roles,, the text.

This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to virtual, quote from a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from 1916. It will look like this: There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman But there might be a Superwoman (Buchan 154). Note : there is no comma or full stop between the the hp way authors last name and page number. In cases when the author of a book has been already mentioned in the sentence , just indicate the page number in reference. Example: As Buchan wrote There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman But there might be a Superwoman (154). Long citations. When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is called a long citation and has to be placed separately from virtual banking, a new line. Quotation marks are not used in this case.

However, the the hp way authors name and the page number should still be indicated in round brackets. Example: One of the characters in Kiplings novel Kim describes the Mutiny in the following way: A madness ate into all the Army, and they turned against their officers. That was the first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands. But they chose to kill the Sahibs wives and virtual children. Then came the Sahibs from over the sea and called them to most strict account (Kipling 77).

Reducing of citation If the original citation in a MLA essay is reduced or you simply omit some words in v for review, the cited sentence, you should place three periods in place of those words. Virtual Banking? The omitting of words in MLA citations is used in cases when you are directly interested in only part of the statement of the author in the original source, which is located in the middle of the quoted sentence. In this situation, you can preserve the key information and omit the details that you do not need. Example: Lawrence was compared to a caliph . . . who had stepped out from the pages of The Arabian nights (Thomas 16) Adding information . In the vendetta MLA essay , it is allowable to add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in square brackets. Example: When discussing civil rights, it is banking, hard to not mention Martin Luther King Jr., who was a man who was passionate about the the hp way words of the Emancipation Proclamation: a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice (King 813).

More than one source of reference If you cite more than one book in a sentence of a MLA essay , then at the end of the sentence indicate in brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon. Example : David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as a legend of the banking British empire, to whom the Orient added its greatness, but at the same time as a man whose brain has dried out prices, under the hot sun of the desert (15; 47). Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of work, indicate the virtual banking title in italics and the page number in the parenthesis. Example: As stated by the presidential commission (Report 4) In-text citations in specsavers glasses, a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the reference and they have to correspond to the information indicated in the Works Cited list at the end of essay. To get detailed information about the formatting of Works Cited list in a MLA style read the banking paragraph devoted to MLA Works Cited List Format at P rof E ssays.com.

The formatting of your research or term paper may become rather difficult. In the MLA format essay, both the footnotes and in-text citations may be used. If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for professional help from P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to assist you in writing and formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week. P rof E ssays.com is just one click away when you want to order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements.

The process of gathering and formatting the information for your custom essay, research or term paper is quite exhausting. V For Film Review? Improper formatting of virtual banking citations may spoil the results of your hard work. Order you paper at P rof E ssays.com and be sure to get a custom essay, research or term paper that will correspond to the latest recommendations of formatting a MLA Style Essay P rof E ssays.com is a custom essay writing service provider that will guide you in writing your MLA format essay . Be sure that our custom essay will correspond to all requirements of The Kitchen as a and Imagination Essay formatting both in-text citations with the Works Cited List and footnotes. P rof E ssays.com is the best place to buy MLA format essays of the highest quality. The title page in the MLA essay format is not compulsory, so when there is no special requirement of writing it, never do it. However, there are specific requirements to the first page in MLA essay. Learn how to banking, format your MLA Title Page properly with us. Type your name, the name of your instructor, the title of the course and glasses prices the date in the upper left-hand corner of the banking first page. The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in the middle of the title page. Remember that the title of your MLA essay is anorexia memoir, never underlined, italicized or enclosed in quotation marks.

The text of your MLA essay comes next to the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of formatting the cover page in a MLA style. MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to virtual banking, Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is usually done and even submitted before writing an essay and vendetta film review a final outline that is virtual banking, submitted together with the essay. Needless to say that both can be done in MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a separate page. Robotics Roles, Challenges And Uses.? The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the page and virtual centered. Introduction and glasses prices conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline . If you want to reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the section of outline cant have only one sub-section. So, logic requires that at each level of the outline if you have sub-section A in virtual banking, your paper, you need to have a B; or if you have point 1, you need point 2, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to Enlarge)

The detailed information about the author, the title, the year of action pros publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in virtual, a book, periodical, etc. is provided at in Construction Industry: Roles, Challenges, the end of your research in virtual banking, the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the Woks Cited list. Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the author. In cases when there is no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by their title. When you do the references of this kind, you should put the Robotics Roles, Challenges authors last name in front of virtual banking his first name which shouldnt be shortened. The title of the book is listed after the authors name, and then the place of publication, the publishing house and the year of publication. Do not forget to italicize the title of a book.

Example: Buchan, John. Greenmantle. London: Abacus, 1916. Print. Note: According to Robotics and Automation in Construction and Uses., the update in 2009 for virtual banking the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the medium of publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources).

Referencing a publications of anorexia memoir several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and the third ones have to banking, be placed in the direct order. So be attentive to how you place the first name and then only the last name of the second author. In cases when there are more than three authors of the book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the action pros first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print.

Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. Virtual Banking? When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the The Kitchen of Creativity and Imagination Essay name of the corporate organization in virtual, the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. Vendetta Review? A Guide to the Herbert F. Banking? Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles.

The formatting of newspaper articles in a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books. Action Pros? The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the authors inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in banking, double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and year of publication, followed by anorexia memoir the number of pages. Additionally, the medium of the publication has to be indicated in the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in schools. The Times.

London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Virtual? Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to italicize the title of a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and The Kitchen as a Place not the title of the article. Virtual Banking? The month of The Kitchen as a Place and Imagination publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.). Only May, June and virtual July are never abbreviated. Prices? The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules. The general rules of formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and virtual banking periodicals.

The former requirement of representing the URL address of anorexia memoir cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the MLA format rules. However, if your instructor still wants to see the URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the authors name, article title, publishers name and year of edition. Banking? Some on-line sources may not provide all the above-mentioned information. In such cases, list the available information. Action Pros? When indicating the medium of virtual publishing, put Web for on-line sources. Example : MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. ProffEssays.com.. 2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . And Automation Challenges? Web.

Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in virtual banking, the choice of on-line sources is given to action pros, the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is indicated in angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and formatting MLA essays . Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and banking format MLA essay in accordance with the standard rules. Though the preferable format of a MLA essay includes the the hp way in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in banking, the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style.

Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in anorexia memoir, superscript. The footnotes are indicated at virtual banking, the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at the end of The Kitchen as a Place and Imagination your paper on virtual banking a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to action pros, format the MLA footnotes and endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with authors name is typed next to the page number at the top of each page. While heading refer to the title of your paper and virtual banking the the titles of its sections.

MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms: The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and and Automation Roles, and Uses. size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold. The title of the banking MLA paper should be centered. Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. All headings of the sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .

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5 Simple Tricks for Crafting a Compelling Cover Letter. Photo credit: Rostislav Sedlacek / Adobe Stock. Looking for a job? We know how tedious it feels. But don't be tempted to underestimate the virtual banking potential power of a great cover letter in your job search.

There are certain must-dos, as well as common mistakes to avoid once you understand the basics of how to write a great cover letter. Why You Should Write Your Own Cover Letter. We know there's a lot to and Automation Industry: Roles, Challenges and Uses., do and banking, it might be easy to overlook the cover letter or find a cover letter template and think you have crossed a to-do item off your list. The most common mistake might simply be to look online for cover letter templates and cover letter examples and copy and paste those right into your version. We understand the temptation to crib someone else's cover letter but unlike resume templates (which we're fond of), we think there's a good argument for writing your own. Of course, there is a checklist of things you feel like you should do instead. After all, first, you have to make sure you write a great resume.

This in itself takes a lot of work but is something you can use resume templates to start from an efficient place. Then, of course, comes browsing through countless job listings, sorting out which ones you're qualified for and trying to network with insiders who might help you land those jobs. The Importance of The Kitchen Place Essay, Writing A Cover Letter. So it's natural and tempting to think that on top of virtual, everything else, you do not need to anorexia memoir, write an effective cover letter. You might think it may not even be read, which begs the question of whether you actually need to write one.

However, according to Sam Williams, who is the head of banking, HR department of BestEssays , cover letters are still a must: “ Yes, your cover letter might not be read at all, but if you don't write one, it will be held against you, and you will come off as lazy. It doesn't seem fair, but that's the anorexia memoir way it is.” With that in mind, here are 5 tips on how you can write a compelling, well-written cover letter: Each company you approach will be different, so it makes sense to tweak your cover letter accordingly. So, apart from checking out the company's official website, find out as much as you can about the company culture and employees. Read their LinkedIn profiles and Twitter feeds, as well as articles in which the company has been covered in-depth. Once you know how they work, you will be able to get the tone of your letter just right. 2. Start with a Direct Opening. Instead going on about how you've read their job advertisement and posting on some website (Hint: they know you did since they're the virtual banking ones who put it there), start by explaining why you are interested in the job, and in Construction Industry: Roles, Challenges and Uses., what you can bring to the company if selected. Mention relevant experience, as well as your contacts inside the company, if you have them. Also, address the hiring managers by their names if possible. Virtual Banking! 3. Showcase Your Abilities.

Companies are always looking for people who are good at solving problems. Once you have found out more about the company, you might be able to anticipate what sort of challenges they'll face in the future. Provide a solution for Robotics and Automation in Construction Industry: Challenges, it, or better yet, mention how you've dealt with a similar issue in banking the past and solved it successfully. This will surely make your cover letter stand out from the rest. Robotics And Automation Industry: Challenges And Uses.! 4. Demonstrate Your Passion. One of the virtual banking things that tends to attract the Roles, and Uses. attention of the recruiters is your passion for the job. Why? Because if you are passionate about the job, that means you will need no additional motivation.

This is why you should always start by banking reaching out to the companies you are most interested in. If you don't convey enthusiasm right off the bat, what makes you think you'll be able to show the requisite level of passion during a subwequent phone interview or in-person job interview? Thinking through what aspects of the job or company motivate you will serve you well later, so it's worth the the hp way investment to banking, think through this aspect of in Construction and Uses., your cover letter. Banking! You will find plenty of advice online telling to keep your cover letter one page long, but it's better if you can make it even shorter. Keep in anorexia memoir mind that the recruiters sometimes need to go through hundreds of banking, letters. If yours is vendetta too long, it will be ignored.

In this day and virtual, age, many cover letter also should be placed in a body of an email rather than an anorexia memoir attachment which may be difficult to open (e.g. on banking, a mobile phone or because of action pros, file incompatibility). Plus, you're asking the email recipient to open yet one more thing. Virtual! Why make life harder for someone? Remember that just as important to think about when crafting a letter as what to put in it, is what to leave out. Don't make the mistake of specsavers glasses prices, creating a long cover letter that essentially mimics your resume at banking every turn.

Your resume includes dates, specific milestones and educadtional and professional accomplishments (as it should). However, that means that a lot of specsavers, personality and passion and your origin story will be left out, by definition. While you shouldn't try to tell your whole life story in a cover letter, it is a place with infinitely more freedom. So put on your creative hat and think about how to capture someone's attention if they are quickly scanning your resume to get a sense of who you are beyond a list of banking, neatly organized, resume bullet points. Other times, cover letters are separately requested attachments in an online career site job application process. There, you have no choice but to upload a document. In this case, make sure to action pros, use a PDF due to formatting issues that different versions of banking, Microsoft Word or Apple Pages can have when someone opens your document using different software or different versions of the same software application. Basic Components of A Good Cover Letter.

Cover letters (especially the kind that are physically delivered or attached (as opposed to in the body of an e-mail) should include a date, an of Creativity address field area, and a closing signature area with your full name. Your contact information, including your phone number and email should be readily apparent in virtual banking your letter though the location of this information will differ depending on whether you are writing an email cover letter or a traditional cover letter attachment to Robotics in Construction Roles, Challenges, be mailed or filed in virtual an prospective employer's applicant tracking system. Avoid generic salutations but make sure you include the specsavers person's name (do not guess gender if you do not know it - a Pat can be female or male) rather than To Whom It May Concern. Virtual! The body of your email should address your qualifications and interest in prices the position using the above 5 tips for writing a good cover letter. Last but definitely not least, its very important to edit and virtual banking, proofread your cover letter, regardless of as a of Creativity Essay, whether it is an attachment or e-mail message. Virtual! The reader will notice grammatical and spelling errors so be sure to the hp way, check your writing for careless errors! Follow these tips to increase your chances with recruiters, and virtual banking, hopefully, you'll land that job with the help of a well-written cover letter. Good luck! Joan Selby, a graduate of action pros, California Institute of the Arts, is a productivity coach and banking, a blogger, and a fancy-shoe lover.

A writer by day and reader by night, she gives a creative touch to everything. Of Creativity! Find her on Twitter and Facebook . Fairygodboss is committed to improving the workplace and lives of women. By Kelly Poulson. By Ellie Nieves. Most jobs reflected are in CA. I live near Memphis, TN. I have had a shaky 3 to virtual banking, 4 years of Industry: Roles, and Uses., work. My jobs have had lay offs and virtual banking, then I got into HR and v for film, went to another company for a director of management position.

However it was a horrible company and I found another job in admissions, this was a step down but with better pay. However the hours are 9 to 6 and 11-8 on 2 days out virtual banking, of the week and some Saturdays. I have 3 children and my dad just had a stroke and will have to come live with me and and Automation in Construction and Uses., I would need a job with better hours and great pay. I have my MBA but companies are not calling me back for interviews probably because I have job hopped. Banking! Any suggestions? Some male colleagues come across as fairly aggressive, and anorexia memoir, use their personality to intimidate others, directly and indirectly. How do I deal with this. Banking! Hi all, I am mid 50's with an AA, and anorexia memoir, 20+ years experience in tech support and virtual, customer service.

I have worked for large companies such as Starbucks corporate in Seattle and smaller businesses such as myself. I provide in home computer support - mostly setups, upgrades, virus elimination, etc. But I also provide tutoring to anorexia memoir, senior citizens on using electronic devices (home computers, printers, tablets, smartphones). I absolutely LOVE what I do and have been doing this for virtual, about 5 years, but I'm looking to get back into a corporate and structured setting. I feel as though the senior community is an enormous demographic of people that are being overlooked when it comes to technology and I want to reach as many seniors as possible to show them how they can use technology to and Imagination Essay, their advantage and how it can enhance their daily activities such as general communication with others via social media, video chat, texting, etc. Can anyone recommend a company (companies) that are investing their time and resources in banking enhancing the lives of seniors through technology? So many companies are so young and there are so many seniors that are going back to work either out of necessity or boredom and they don't have the technological skills needed, thus forcing them into positions in which may not be gratifying.

I am so passionate about teaching basic to intermediate computer skills to our seniors because the need and the desire is there. Any feedback is welcome. This is v for review my first post. Thank you! Hi all, I am mid 50's with an AA, and 20+ years experience in virtual banking tech support and customer service. I have worked for anorexia memoir, large companies such as Starbucks corporate in Seattle and virtual banking, smaller businesses such as myself. I provide in home computer support - mostly setups, upgrades, virus elimination, etc. But I also provide tutoring to senior citizens on using electronic devices (home computers, printers, tablets, smartphones). I absolutely LOVE what I do and have been doing this for action pros, about 5 years, but I'm looking to virtual, get back into a corporate and structured setting.

I feel as though the senior community is an specsavers glasses enormous demographic of people that are being overlooked when it comes to virtual, technology and I want to reach as many seniors as possible to show them how they can use technology to their advantage and how it can enhance their daily activities such as general communication with others via social media, video chat, texting, etc. Can anyone recommend a company (companies) that are investing their time and and Automation Industry: Roles, and Uses., resources in enhancing the lives of seniors through technology? So many companies are so young and there are so many seniors that are going back to work either out of necessity or boredom and they don't have the technological skills needed, thus forcing them into positions in which may not be gratifying. I am so passionate about teaching basic to intermediate computer skills to our seniors because the virtual banking need and the desire is there. Any feedback is welcome. Anorexia Memoir! This is my first post.

Thank you! What are women saying about your company? 32 W 39th Street, 4th fl. Virtual Banking! New York, NY 10018. 2017 Fairygodboss. All Rights Reserved.

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cmu thesis database Java(TM) - see bottom of page. Our valued sponsors who help make this site possible. Note that this page is very large. The tips on this page are categorized in other pages.

Use the tips index page to access smaller focused listings of tips. This page lists many other pages available on the web, together with a condensed list of tuning tips that each page includes. For the most part I've eliminated any tips that are wrong, but one or two may have slipped past me. Remember that the tuning tips listed are not necessarily good coding practice. They are performance optimizations that you probably should not use throughout your code. Virtual? Instead they apply to speeding up critical sections of code where performance has already been identified as a problem. The tips here include only those that are available online for free. Specsavers? I do not intend to summarize any offline resources (such as the various books available including mine, Java Performance Tuning). The tips here are of very variable quality and usefulness, some real gems but some dross and banking quite a bit of repetition. Comments in square brackets, [], have been added by me.

Use this page by using your browser's find or search option to identify particular tips you are interested in on the page, and follow up by reading the referenced web page if clarification is necessary. This page is currently 411KB. The Hp Way? This page is updated once a month. You can receive email notification of any changes by virtual banking, subscribing to the newsletter. Performance planning for managers (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). The Hp Way? Tips: Include budget for performance management. Create internal performance experts. Set performance requirements in the specifications.

Include a performance focus in the analysis. Require performance predictions from the design. Create a performance test environment. Virtual? Test a simulation or skeleton system for action pros validation. Integrate performance logging into the application layer boundaries. Performance test the system at multiple scales and tune using the resulting information Deploy the system with performance logging features. A long list of most of the tuning techniques covered in my Java Performance Tuning book (Page last updated August 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher O'Reilly). Tips: [Since the referred to page is already a summary list, I have not extracted it here. Especially since there are nearly 300 techniques listed. Check the page out directly]. Comparing the performance of virtual banking, LinkedLists and anorexia memoir ArrayLists (and Vectors) (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava).

Tips: ArrayList is faster than Vector except when there is virtual no lock acquisition required in HotSpot JVMs (when they have about the and Automation same performance). Vector and ArrayList implementations have excellent performance for indexed access and update of elements, since there is no overhead beyond range checking. Adding elements to, or deleting elements from the end of a Vector or ArrayList also gives excellent performance except when the capacity is exhausted and the internal array has to be expanded. Inserting and deleting elements to Vectors and ArrayLists always require an array copy (two copies when the internal array must be grown first). The number of elements to be copied is proportional to [size-index], i.e. to the distance between the banking insertion/deletion index and the last index in the hp way the collection. The array copying overhead grows significantly as the size of the collection increases, because the number of elements that need to be copied with each insertion increases. For insertions to Vectors and ArrayLists, inserting to the front of the virtual collection (index 0) gives the worst performance, inserting at the end of the anorexia memoir collection (after the last element) gives the best performance. LinkedLists have a performance overhead for indexed access and update of elements, since access to any index requires you to traverse multiple nodes. Virtual? LinkedList insertions/deletion overhead is dependent on the how far away the insertion/deletion index is from the closer end of the Place Essay collection. Synchronized wrappers (obtained from Collections.synchronizedList(List)) add a level of virtual, indirection which can have a high performance cost.

Only List and Map have efficient thread-safe implementations: the in Construction Challenges and Uses. Vector and Hashtable classes respectively. List insertion speed is critically dependent on the size of the virtual collection and v for review the position where the virtual element is to be inserted. For small collections ArrayList and LinkedList are close in performance, though ArrayList is The Kitchen as a of Creativity and Imagination Essay generally the faster of the two. Precise speed comparisons depend on the JVM and banking the index where the object is being added. Pre-sizing ArrayLists and Vectors improves performance significantly. LinkedLists cannot be pre-sized. ArrayLists can generate far fewer objects for specsavers prices the garbage collector to reclaim, compared to virtual LinkedLists.

For medium to large sized Lists, the location where elements are to inserted is critical to the performance of the list. ArrayLists have the edge for random access. A dedicated List implementation designed to anorexia memoir match data, collection types and data manipulation algorithms will always provide the best performance. ArrayList internal node traversal from the start to banking the end of the The Kitchen as a of Creativity and Imagination collection is significantly faster than LinkedList traversal. Consequently queries implemented in the class can be faster. Iterator traversal of all elements is faster for virtual banking ArrayList compared to Linkedlist.

Using the WeakHashMap class (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Tips: WeakHashMap can be used to reduce memory leaks. Action Pros? Keys that are no longer strongly referenced from the application will automatically make the corresponding value reclaimable. To use WeakHashMap as a cache, the virtual keys that evaluate as equal must be recreatable. Using WeakHashMap as a cache gives you less control over when cache elements are removed compared with other cache types. Clearing elements of a WeakHashMap is a two stage process: first the key is reclaimed, then the corresponding value is released from the WeakHashMap. String literals and other objects like Class which are held directly by the JVM are not useful as keys to the hp way a WeakHashMap, as they are not necessarily reclaimable when the virtual banking application no longer references them.

The WeakHashMap values are not released until the WeakHashMap is altered in some way. For predictable releasing of values, it may be necessary to add a dummy value to the WeakHashMap. If you do not call any mutator methods after populating the WeakHashMap, the values and internal WeakReference objects will never be dereferenced [no longer true from action pros 1.4, where most methods now allow values to be released]. WeakHashMap wraps an internal HashMap adding an extra level of indirection which can be a significant performance overhead. Virtual? [no longer true from 1.4]. Every call to get() creates a new WeakReference object. [no longer true from 1.4]. WeakHashMap.size() iterates through the keys, making it an operation that takes time proportional to the size of the WeakHashMap. [no longer true from the hp way 1.4].

WeakHashMap.isEmpty() iterates through the collection looking for a non-null key, so a WeakHashMap which is empty requires more time for virtual banking isEmpty() to return than a similar WeakHashMap which is not empty. Anorexia Memoir? [no longer true from 1.4, where isEmpty() is now slower than previous versions]. A high level overview of technical performance tuning, covering 5 levels of tuning competence. (Page last updated November 2000, Added 2000-12-20, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher O'Reilly). Tips: Start tuning by examining the virtual banking application architecture for potential bottlenecks. The Kitchen As A? Architecture bottlenecks are often easy to virtual banking spot: they are the connecting lines on the diagrams; the single threaded components; the components with many connecting lines attached; etc. Specsavers? Ensure that application performance is measureable for the given performance targets. Ensure that there is a test environment which represents the running system. Banking? This test-bed should support testing the specsavers glasses prices application at different loads, including a low load and a fully scaled load representing maximum expected usage. Virtual Banking? After targeting design and architecture, the biggest bang for your buck in terms of improving performance is choosing a better VM, and then choosing a better compiler.

Start code tuning with proof of concept bottleneck removal: this consists of using profilers to identify bottlenecks, then making simplified changes which may only improve the performance at the bottleneck for a specialized set of action pros, activities, and proceeding to the next bottleneck. After tuning competence is virtual banking gained, move to full tuning. Each multi-user performance test can typically take a full day to run and analyse. Even simple multi-user performance tuning can take several weeks. After the as a Place of Creativity and Imagination easily idenitified bottlenecks have been removed, the remaining performance improvements often come mainly from targeting loops, structures and algorithms. In running systems, performance should be continually monitored to ensure that any performance degradation can be promptly identified and addressed. Chapter 4 of Java Performance Tuning, Object Creation. (Page last updated September 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher O'Reilly). Tips: Establish whether you have a memory problem. Reduce the number of temporary objects being used, especially in loops. Banking? Avoid creating temporary objects within frequently called methods. Presize collection objects.

Reuse objects where possible. Empty collection objects before reusing them. (Do not shrink them unless they are very large.) Use custom conversion methods for converting between data types (especially strings and streams) to the hp way reduce the number of temporary objects. Virtual? Define methods that accept reusable objects to be filled in with data, rather than methods that return objects holding that data. (Or you can return immutable objects.) Canonicalize objects wherever possible. Compare canonicalized objects by identity. [Canonicalizing objects means having only a single reference of an object, with no copies possible]. Create only the number of objects a class logically needs (if that is a small number of objects). Action Pros? Replace strings and virtual banking other objects with integer constants. Compare these integers by identity. Use primitive data types instead of specsavers prices, objects as instance variables. Virtual Banking? Avoid creating an object that is only for accessing a method. Robotics And Automation In Construction Industry: Roles,? Flatten objects to reduce the number of nested objects. Preallocate storage for large collections of banking, objects by vendetta review, mapping the instance variables into virtual banking multiple arrays.

Use StringBuffer rather than the string concatenation operator (+). Use methods that alter objects directly without making copies. Create or use specific classes that handle primitive data types rather than wrapping the primitive data types. Consider using a ThreadLocal to specsavers prices provide threaded access to banking singletons with state. Use the final modifier on instance-variable definitions to action pros create immutable internally accessible objects. Use WeakReference s to hold elements in large canonical lookup tables. (Use SoftReference s for cache elements.) Reduce object-creation bottlenecks by targeting the object-creation process. Keep constructors simple and inheritance hierarchies shallow. Virtual Banking? Avoid initializing instance variables more than once. Use the clone() method to avoid calling any constructors. Clone arrays if that makes their creation faster. Create copies of simple arrays faster by initializing them; create copies of complex arrays faster by cloning them.

Eliminate object-creation bottlenecks by moving object creation to an alternative time. Create objects early, when there is spare time in the application, and the hp way hold those objects until required. Virtual Banking? Use lazy initialization when there are objects or variables that may never be used, or when you need to distribute the load of creating objects. Use lazy initialization only action pros when there is a defined merit in the design, or when identifying a bottleneck which is alleviated using lazy initialization. My article on basic optimizations for queries on collections (Page last updated September 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher O'Reilly). Tips: Use short-circuit boolean operators instead of the normal boolean operators. Eliminate any unnecessarily repeated method calls from loops. Eliminate unnecessary casts. Avoid synchronization where possible.

Avoid method calls by implementing queries in a subclass, allowing direct field access. Use temporary local variables to virtual manipulate data fields (instance/class variables). Use more precise object typing where possible. Before manual tuning, HotSpot VMs are often faster than JIT VMs. But JIT VMs tend to benefit more from manual tuning and can end up faster than HotSpot VMs. Article about action pros, optimizing queries on Maps. (Page last updated November 2000, Added 2000-12-20, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Avoid using synchronization in virtual read-only or single-threaded queries.

In the SDK, Enumerators are faster than Iterators due to review the specific implementations. Eliminate repeatedly called methods where alternatives are possible. Iterator.hasNext() and Enumerator.hasMoreElements() do not need to be repeatedly called when the size of the collection is known. Use collection.size() and a loop counter instead. Avoid accessing collection data through the banking data access methods by implementing a query in the collection class. Anorexia Memoir? Elminate repeated casts by casting once and virtual holding the cast item in a correctly typed variable. Reimplement the vendetta review collection class to specialize for the data being held in the collection. Reimplment the virtual banking Map class to use a hash function which is as a of Creativity and Imagination more efficient for the data being mapped. Optimizing hash functions: generating a perfect hash function (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Tips: perfect hash functions guarantee that every key maps to a separate entry in banking a hashtable, and so provide more efficient hastable implementations than generic hash functions. perfect hash functions are possible when the key data is restricted to Robotics Industry: Roles, a known set of elements. Optimize Map implementations by specializing the types of internal datastructures, and method parameter types and return types.

Optimize Map implementations by using a specialized hash function that is optimized for virtual the key type, rather than generic to the hp way all possible types of keys. Virtual? Generate a perfect hash function using some variable combination of simple arithmentic operators. Perfect hash functions may require excessive amounts of memory. The Kitchen As A Place And Imagination? Minimal perfect hash maps do not require any excess memory, but may impose significant overheads on the map. Microtuning (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Performance is dependent on data as well as code. Virtual Banking? Different data can make identical code perform very differently. The Kitchen As A Essay? Always start tuning with a baseline measurement.

The System.currentTimeMillis() method is the most basic measuring tool for tuning. You may need to repeatedly call a method in order to reliably measure its average execution time. Minimize the possibility that CPU time will be allocated to anything other than the banking test while it is running by vendetta review, ensuring no other processes are runing during the virtual banking test, and that the test remains in the foreground. Baseline measurements normally show some useful information, e.g. the average execution time for one call to a method. Multiplying the average time taken to execute a method or sequence of methods, by the number of times that sequence will be called in a time period, gives you an estimate of the fraction of the total time that the sequence takes.

There are three routes to tuning a method: Consider unexpected differences in different test runs; Analyze the algorithm; Profile the method. Place Of Creativity? Creating an exception is a costly procedure, because of filling in stack trace. A profiler should ideally be able to virtual banking take a snapshot of performance between two arbitrary points. Tuning is an iterative process: you normally find one bottleneck, make changes that improve performance, test those changes, and then start again. Algorithm changes usually provide the the hp way best speedup, but can be difficult to find. Examining the code for the causes of the differences in speed between two variations of test runs can be useful, but is restricted to those tests for which you can devise alternatives that show significant timing variations.

Profiling is always an option and almost always provides something that can be speeded up. But the law of diminishing returns kicks in after a while, leaving you with bottlenecks that are not worth speeding up, because the potential speedup is too small for the effort required. Generic integer parsing (as with the Integer constructors and banking methods) may be overkill for anorexia memoir converting simple integer formats. Simple static methods are probably best left to be inlined by virtual, the JIT compiler rather than by specsavers, hand. String.equals() is expensive if you are only virtual testing for an empty string. It is quicker to anorexia memoir test if the length of the string is 0. Set a target speedup to banking reach. With no target, tuning can carry on for much longer than is needed. A generic tuning procedure is: Identify the bottleneck; Set a performance target; Use representative data; Measure the baseline; Analyze the v for method; Test the change; Repeat. Efficiently formatting doubles (Page last updated December 2000, Added 2000-12-20, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava).

Tips: Double.toString(double) is slow. It needs to process more than you might think, and does more than you might need. Virtual Banking? Proprietary conversion algorithms can be significantly faster. One such algorithm is presented in the article. Converting integers to strings can also be faster than the SDK. An algorithm successively stripping off the highest is as a Place of Creativity Essay used in the article. Formatting numbers using java.text.DecimalFormat is always slower than Double.toString(double), because it first calls Double.toString(double) then parses and converts the result. Formatting using a proprietary conversion algorithm can be faster than any of the methods discussed so far, if the number of digits being printed is banking not large. The actual time taken depends on the number of digits being printed.

Multiprocess JVMs (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Using or implementing a multiprocess framework to glasses prices combine Java processes into one JVM can save on memory space overheads and reduce startup time. Measuring JDBC performance (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Banking? Tips: Effectively profiling distributed applications can be difficult. I/O can show up as significant in profiling, simply because of the nature of a distributed application. It can be unclear whether threads blocking on reads and the hp way writes are part of a significant bottleneck or simply a side issue. Virtual Banking? When profiling, it is usually worthwhile to have separate measurements available for the communication subsystems. Robotics And Automation Challenges And Uses.? Wrapping the JDBC classes provides an effective technique for measuring database calls. [Article discusses how to virtual banking create JDBC wrapers to Robotics and Automation in Construction Industry: Roles, Challenges and Uses. measure the performance of virtual banking, database calls]. If more than a few rows of anorexia memoir, a query are being read, then the ResultSet.next() method can spend a significant amount of time fetching rows from the database, and banking this time should be included in measurements of database access. JDBC wrappers are simple and The Kitchen as a of Creativity Essay robust, and require very little alteration to the application using them (i.e, are low maintenance), so they are suitable to be retained within a deployed application.

Catching OutOfMemoryErrors (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Virtual? Tips: -Xmx and -Xms (-mx and -ms) specify the action pros heap max and starting sizes. Banking? Runtime.totalMemory() gives the current process size, Runtime.maxMemory() (available from SDK 1.4) gives the -Xmx value. Repeatedly allocating memory by creating objects and holding onto action pros them will expand the process to its maximum possible size. This technique can also be used to flush memory. If a process gets too large, the operating system will start paging the process causing a severe decrease in performance. It is reasonable to virtual catch the OutOfMemoryError if you can restore your application to a known state that can proceed with processing. For example, daemon service threads can often do this. The RandomAccess interface. (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Tips: A java.util.List object which implements RandomAccess should be faster when using List.get() than when using Iterator.next(). Use instanceof RandomAccess to test whether to use List.get() or Iterator.next() to anorexia memoir traverse a List object. [Article describes how to guard the test to support all versions of Java].

Whoopee!! A non-blocking I/O library for Java. This is the single most important functionality missing from the SDK for scalable server applications. The important class is banking SelectSet which allows you to multiplex all your i/o streams. If you want a scalable server and the hp way can use this class then DO SO. NOTE THAT SDK 1.4 WILL INCLUDE NON_BLOCKING I/O (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-01-19, Author Matt Welsh, Publisher Welsh). Tips: [The system select(2)/poll(2) functions allow you to take any collection of i/o streams and ask the operating system to check whether any of them can execute read/write/accept without blocking. The system call will block if requested until any one of the virtual banking i/o streams is action pros ready to execute. Before Java, no self-respecting server would sit on multiple threads in blocked i/o mode, wasting thread resources: instead select/poll would have been used.] For years, Jonathan Hardwick's old but classic site was the only coherent Java performance tuning site on the web.

He built it while doing his PhD. It wasn't updated beyond March 1998, when he moved to virtual Microsoft, but most tips are still useful and valid. The URL is for in Construction the top page, there are another eight pages. Thanks Jonathan. Virtual? (Page last updated March 1998, Added 2000-10-23, Author Jonathan Hardwick, Publisher Hardwick). Tips: Don't optimize as you go. Write your program concentrating on clean, correct, and understandable code. Use profiling to find out where that 80% of execution time is going, so you know where to concentrate your effort. Always run before and after benchmarks.

Use the right algorithms and Essay data structures. Compile with optimization flag, javac -O. Use a JIT. Multithread for banking multi-processor machines. Use clipping to reduce the the hp way amount of work done in repaint() Use double buffering to improve perceived speed. Banking? Use image strips or compression to speed up downloading times.

Animation in Java Applets from JavaWorld and Performing Animation from Sun are two good tutorials. Use high-level primitives; it's much faster to call drawPolygon() on a bunch of v for review, points than looping with drawLine(). If you have to draw a single pixel drawLine (x,y,x,y) may be faster than fillRect (x,y,1,1). Use Buffered I/O classes. Virtual Banking? Avoid synchronized methods if you can. The Kitchen Of Creativity Essay? Synchronizing on methods rather than on code blocks is slightly faster. Use exceptions only where you really need them. Use StringBuffer instead of virtual, +. Use System.arraycopy() and any other optimized API's available from the SDK. Replace the generic standard classes with faster implementations specific to prices the application. Create subclasses to virtual banking override methods with faster versions.

Avoid expensive constructs and data structures, e.g. one-dimensional array is faster than a two-dimensional array. Use the faster switch bytecode. Use private and Robotics and Automation Industry: and Uses. static methods, and virtual final classes, to encourage inlining by the compiler. Reuse objects. Local variables are the faster than instance variables, which are in turn faster than array elements. The Kitchen? ints are the fastest data type. Banking? Compiler optimizations: loop invariant code motion; common subexpression elimination; strength reduction; variable allocation reassignment. Use java -prof or other profiler. Use a timing harness to run benchmarks. Use a memory measurement harness to run benchmarks.

Call system.gc() before every timing run to minimize inconsistent results due to garbage collection in The Kitchen and Imagination Essay the middle of a run. Virtual? Use JAR or zip files. Specsavers Glasses? If size is a constraint: use SDK classes wherever possible; inherit whatever possible; put common code in one place; initialize big arrays at virtual runtime by parsing a string; use short names; Balancing Network Load with Priority Queues (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2002-02-22, Author Frank Fabian, Publisher Dr. Dobb's).

Tips: Hardware traffic managers redirect user requests to a farm of servers based on server availability, IP address, or port number. All traffic is action pros routed to virtual the load balancer, then requests are fanned out to servers based on the balancing algorithm. Popular load-balancing algorithms include: server availability (find a server with available processing capability); IP address management (route to the nearest server by action pros, IP address); port number (locate different types of servers on different machines, and route by banking, port number); HTTP header checking (route by URI or cookie, etc). Web hits should cater for handling peak hit rate, not the average rate. You can model hit rates using gaussian distribution to determine the average hit rate per time unit (e.g. per second) at peak usage, then a poisson probability gives the probability of a given number of Robotics and Automation Industry: Roles, Challenges and Uses., users simulatneously hitting the banking server within that time unit. [Article gives an example with gaussian fitted to action pros peak traffic of 4000 users with a standard deviation of 20 minutes resulting in an average of 1.33 users per second at the peak, which in turn gives the probabilities that 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 users hitting the server within one second as 26%, 35%, 23%, 10%, 3%, 1%, 0.2%.

Service time was 53 milliseconds, which means that the server can service 19 hits per second without the service rate requiring requests being queued.] System throughput is the arrival rate divided by virtual, the service rate. Anorexia Memoir? If the ratio becomes greater than one, requests exceed the system capability and will be lost or need to be queued. Virtual? If requests are queued because capacity is exceeded, the throughput must drop sufficiently to action pros handle the queued requests or the system will fail (the service rate must increase or arrival rate decrease). If the average throughput exceeds 1, then the system will fail. Sort incoming requests into different priority queues, and service the virtual banking requests according to the priorities assigned to each queue. Specsavers Glasses Prices? [Article gives the example where combining user and automatic requests in one queue can result in a worst case user wait of 3.5 minutes, as opposed to banking less than 0.1 seconds if priority queues are used]. [Note that Java application servers often do not show a constant service time. Instead the Robotics and Automation in Construction Roles, Challenges service time often increases with higher concurrency due to non-linear effects of garbage collection].

Cutting Edge Java Game Programming. Oldish but still useful intro book to virtual banking games programming using Java. (Page last updated 1996, Added 2001-06-18, Author Neil Bartlett, Steve Simkin , Publisher Coriolis). Tips: AWT components are not useful as game actors (sprites) as they do not overlap well, nor are they good at Place and Imagination Essay being moved around the screen. Celled image files efficiently store an banking, animated image by dividing an image into a rectangular grid of cells, and allocating a different animation image to each cell. A sequence of similar images (as you would have for an animation) will be stored and transferred efficiently in The Kitchen and Imagination Essay most image formats.

Examining pixels using PixelGrabber is slow. drawImage() can throw away and virtual re-load images in response to memory requirements, which can make things slow. Pre-load and pre-scale images before using them to get a smoother and faster display. The more actors (sprites), the action pros more time it takes to virtual banking draw and the slower the game appears. The Kitchen As A Essay? Use double-buffering to move actors (sprites), by redrawing the actor and background for virtual the relevant area. Redraw speed depends on: how quickly each object is drawn; how many objects are drawn; how much of each object is drawn; the total number of The Kitchen as a of Creativity Essay, drawing operations. You need to reduce some or all of these until you get to about 30 redraws per second. Virtual? Don't draw actors or images that cannot be seen. Anorexia Memoir? If an actor is not moving then incorporate the actor as part of the background. Only redraw the area that has changed, e.g. the old area where an actor was, and the new area where it is.

Redrawing several small areas is frequently faster than drawing one large area. For the redraws, eliminate overlapping areas and merge adjacent (close) areas so that the number of redraws is kept to a minimum. Virtual? Put slow and Robotics Industry: Roles, and Uses. fast drawing requirements in separate threads. Bounding-box detection can use circles for the bounding box which requires a simple radii detection. Virtual? Load sounds in a background thread.

Make sure you have a throttle control that can make the Place Essay game run slower (or pause) when necessary. The optimal network topology for network games depends on the number of users. If the cumulative downloading of your applet exceeds the player?s patience, you?ve lost a customer. The user interface should always be responsive. A non-responsive window means you will lose your players. Give feedback on virtual, necessary delays. Provide distractions when unavoidable delays will be lengthy [more than a few seconds]. And Automation Industry:? Transmission time varies, and banking is always slow compared to operations on the hp way, the local hardware. You may need to decide the banking outcome of the action locally, then broadcast the result of the action.

This may require some synchronization resolution. Latency between networked players can easily lead to de-synchronized action and the hp way player frustration. Displays should locally simulate remote action as continuing current activities/motions, until the display is updated. On update, the actual current situation should be smoothly resolved with the simulated current situation. Sending activity updates more frequently ensures smoother play and better synchronization between networked players, but requires more CPU effort and so affects the local display. In order to avoid adversely affecting local displays, send actvity updates from a low priority thread. Discard any out-of-date updates: always use the latest dated update. A minimum broadcast delay of one-third the average network connection travel time is appropriate.

Once you exceed this limit, the additional traffic can cause more grief than benefit. Put class files into a (compressed) container for network downloading. Avoid repeatedly evaluating invariant expressions in a loop. Take advantage of inlining where possible (using final, private and virtual banking static keywords, and specsavers prices compiling with javac -O) Profile the code to virtual determine the expensive methods (e.g. using the -prof option) Use a dissassembler (e.g. like javap) to determine which of various alternative coding formulations produces smaller bytecode. To reduce the number of class files and and Automation in Construction Roles, and Uses. their sizes: use the SDK classes as much as possible; and implement common functionality in one place only.

To optimize speed: avoid synchronized methods; use buffered I/O; reuse objects; avoid unnecessary screen painting. Raycasting is banking faster than raytracing. Raycasting maps 2D data into v for vendetta film review a 3D world, drawing entire vertical lines using one ray. Use precalculated values for trignometric and other functions, based on banking, the angle increments chosen for your raycasting. The Kitchen Essay? In the absence of banking, a JIT, the polygon drawing routines fron the AWT are relatively efficient (compared to array manipulation) and may be faster than texture mapping. Without texture mapping, walls can be drawn faster with one call to fillPolygon (rather than line by line). An exponential jump search algorithm can be used to reduce ray casts - by quickly finding boundaries where walls end (like a binary search, but double increments until your overshoot, then halving increments from the The Kitchen Place of Creativity Essay last valid wall position). It is usually possible to increase performance at the expense of image quality and accuracy.

Techniques include reducing pixel depth or display resolution, field interlacing, aliasing. Virtual Banking? The key, however, is to degrade the specsavers prices image in a way that is likely to banking be undetectable or unnoticeable to the user. For example a moving player often pays less attention to image quality than a resting or static player. Use information gathered during the rendering of one frame to approximate the geometry of the next frame, speeding up its rendering. If the geometry and prices content is not too complicated, binary space partition trees map the view according to banking what the player can see, and can be faster than ray casting. Designing remote interfaces (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Remote object creation has overheads: several objects needed to support the remote object are also created and manipulated. The Hp Way? Remote method invocations involve a network round-trip and marshalling and unmarshaling of parameters. This adds together to impose a significant latency on remote method invocations.

Different object parameters can have very different marshalling and unmarshaling costs. A poorly designed remote interface can kill a program's performance. Excessive remote invocation network round-trips are a huge performance problem. Calling a remote method that returns multiple values contained in virtual banking a temporary object (such as a Point), rather than making multiple consecutive method calls to retrieve them individually, is likely to be more efficient. (Note that this is as a exactly the opposite of the advice offered for good performance of local objects.) Avoid unnecessary round-trips: retrieve several related items simultaneously in one remote invocation, if possible. Banking? Avoid returning remote objects when the caller may not need to hold a reference to the remote object. Avoid passing complex objects to remote methods when the remote object doesn't necessarily need to have a copy of the object.

If a common high-level operation requires many consecutive remote method calls, you need to revisit the anorexia memoir class's interface. A naively designed remote interface can lead to an application that has serious scalability and performance problems. [Article gives examples showing the banking effect of the hp way, applying the listed advice]. Glen McCluskey's paper with 30 tuning tips, now free. Virtual? (Page last updated October 1999, Added 2000-10-23, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher McCluskey). Tips: Faster algorithms are better. Different architectures can be functionally identical but perform very differently. Keep performance in mind at the design stage. Use the fastest available JVM.

Use static variables for specsavers glasses prices fields that only need to be assigned once. Reuse objects where reasonable, e.g. nodes of a linked list. Inline methods manually where appropriate. [Better to use a preprocessor]. Keep methods short and simple to virtual make them automatic inlining candidates. Action Pros? final classes can be faster. Virtual? Synchronized methods are slower than the identical non-synchronized one. Consider using non-synchronized classes and the hp way synchronized-wrappers. Access to private members of inner classes from the enclosing class goes by a method call even if not intended to. Use StringBuffer instead of the '+' String concatentation operator. Use char[] arrays directly to create Strings rather than StringBuffers. '==' is faster than equals(). intern() Strings to enable identity (==) comparisons. Convert strings to char[] arrays to process characters, rather than accessing characters one at a time using String.charAt().

Creating Doubles from strings is slow. Buffer i/o. Virtual? MessageFormat is slow. Reuse objects. File information such as File.length() requires a system call and can be slow.

Use System.arraycopy() to Roles, Challenges copy arrays. Banking? ArrayList is The Kitchen as a Essay faster than Vector. Banking? Preset array capacity to The Kitchen Place and Imagination as large as will be required. LinkedList is virtual faster than ArrayList for v for vendetta film review inserting elements to the front of the array, but slower at indexed lookup. Program using interfaces so that the actual structure can be easily swapped to virtual improve performance. Use the -g:none option to the javac compiler. Primitive data wrapper classes (e.g. Integer) are slower than using the primitive data directly. Null out references when they are no longer used so that garbage collection can reclaim their space. Use SoftReferences to v for recycle memory when required.

BitSets have deterministic memory requirements where boolean arrays do not (booleans are implemented as bytes rather than bits in virtual banking some JVMs). The Hp Way? Use sparse arrays to hold widely spaced indexable data. Performance tuning part of banking, a white paper about Java on Solaris 2.6. And Automation In Construction Roles, Challenges? (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher Sun). Tips: To profile I/O calls, use a profiler or use truss and look for virtual read() and write() system calls. Buffer I/O. Roles, Challenges? Tune the buffer size (bigger is banking usually better if memory is available). Use char arrays for all character processing in loops, rather than using the prices String or StringBuffer classes. Avoid character processing using methods (e.g. charAt(), setCharAt()) inside a loop.

Set the initial StringBuffer size to virtual the maximum string length, if it is known. StringTokenizer is prices very inefficient, and can be optimized by storing the banking string and delimiter in a character array instead of in String, or by and Automation in Construction, storing the virtual highest delimiter character to allow a quicker check. V For Vendetta Film? Accessing arrays is much faster than accessing vectors, String, and StringBuffer. Use System.arraycopy() to improve performance. Vector is convenient to virtual banking use, but inefficient. Ensure that elementAt() is not used inside a loop. Robotics And Automation In Construction Industry:? FastVector is faster than Vector by making the elementData field public, thus avoiding (synchronized) calls to banking elementAt().

Use double buffering and override update() to improve screen painting and drawing. Use custom LayoutManagers. Repaint only the damaged regions (use ClipRect). To improve image handling: use MediaTracker; use your own imageUpdate() method; pre-decode and Robotics and Automation in Construction Industry: Roles, Challenges and Uses. store the image in an array - image decoding time is greater than loading time. Pre-decoding using PixelGrabber and virtual banking MemoryImageSource should combine multiple images into glasses one file for maximum speed. Increase the initial heap size from the 1-MByte default with -ms and -mx [-Xms and -Xmx]. Use -verbosegc.

Take size into banking account when allocating arrays (for instance, if short is the hp way big enough, use it instead of virtual, int. Avoid allocating objects in loops (readLine() is a common example). Minimize synchronization. Polling is only acceptable when waiting for outside events and the hp way should be performed in a side thread. Banking? Use wait/notify instead. Move loop invariants outside the loop. Make tests as simple as possible. Specsavers Glasses Prices? Perform the loop backwards (this actually performs slightly faster than forward loops do). [Actually it is converting the test to compare against 0 that makes the banking difference]. Use only film review local variables inside a loop; assign class fields to local variables before the loop.

Move constant conditionals outside loops. Banking? Combine similar loops. Nest the busiest loop, if loops are interchangeable. Unroll the the hp way loop, as a last resort. Banking? Convert expressions to table Lookups. V For Review? Use caching. Pre-compute values or delay evaluation to shift calculation cost to another time. [Also gives information on using Solaris Trace Normal Format (TNF) utilities for profiling java applications].

Detailed article on load testing systems (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-01-19, Author Himanshu Bhatt, Publisher Java Report). Tips: Internet systems should be load-tested throughout development. Load testing can provide the basis for: Comparing varying architectural approaches; Performance tuning; Capacity planning. Initially you should identify the probable performance and scalability based on the requirements. You should be asking about: numbers of users/components; component interactions; throughput and transaction rates; performance requirements. Factor in batch requirements and performance characteristics of dependent (sub)systems. Virtual Banking? Note that additional layers, like security, add overheads to performance.

Logging and stateful EJB can degrade performance. After the vendetta initial identification phase, the target should be for a model architecture that can be load-tested to feedback information. Scalability hotspots are more likely to exist in the tiers that are shared across multiple client sessions. Performance measurements should be from presentation start to presentation completion, i.e. user clicks button (start) and information is virtual displayed (completion). Specsavers Glasses Prices? Use load-test suites and frameworks to perform repeatable load testing. Article on using syslog to track performance across distributed systems (Page last updated December 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Brian Maso, Publisher DevX). Tips: Use syslog to log distributed system performance. Make sure you instrument distributed systems so that you do get performance logging.

JDBC Performance Tips (targeted at banking AS/400, but generically applicable) (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Authors Richard Dettinger and Mark Megerian, Publisher IBM). The Hp Way? Tips: Move to the latest releases of virtual banking, Java as they become available. Use prepared statements (PreparedStatement class) [article provides coded example of using Statement vs. PreparedStatement]. Note that two database calls are made for each row in a ResultSet: one to describe the column, the second to tell the db where to put the data.

PreparedStatements make the description calls at construction time, Statements make them on every execution. Avoid retrieving unnecessary columns: don't use SELECT *. If you are not using stored procedures or triggers, turn off autocommit. All transaction levels operate faster with autocommit turned off, and doing this means you must code commits. Coding commits while leaving autocommit on will result in extra commits being done for every db operation. Use the appropriate transaction level. Increasing performance costs for transaction levels are: TRANSACTION_NONE; TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITTED; TRANSACTION_READ_COMMITTED; TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ; TRANSACTION_SERIALIZABLE. Note that TRANSACTION_NONE, with autocommit set to true gives access to triggers, stored procedures, and in Construction Industry: large object columns.

Store string and char data as Unicode (two-byte characters) in the database. Avoid expensive database query functions such as: getBestRowIdentifier; getColumns; getCrossReference; getExportedKeys; getImportedKeys; getPrimaryKeys; getTables; getVersionColumns. Banking? Use connection pooling, either explicitly with your own implementation, or implicitly via a product that supports connection pooling. Use blocked fetchs (fetching table data in blocks), and tailor the block size to reduce calls to the database, according to the amount of data required. Use batch updates (sending multiple rows to the database in one call). Use stored procedures where appropriate. These benefit by reducing JDBC complexity, are faster as they use static SQL, and move execution to and Imagination the server and potentially reduce network trips. Use the type-correct get() method, rather than getObject(). Patrick Killelea's Java performance tips. (Page last updated 1999, Added 2000-10-23, Author Patrick Killelea, Publisher Killelea). Virtual Banking? Tips: System.currentTimeMillis may take up to 0.5 milliseconds to anorexia memoir execute.

The architecture and algorithms of your program are much more important than any low-level optimizations you might perform. Tune at the highest level first. Make the common case fast (Amdahl's advice). Use what you know about the virtual runtime platform or usage patterns. The Hp Way? Look at a supposedly quiet system to see if it's wasting time even when there's no input. Virtual Banking? Keep small inheritance chains. Use stack (local) variables in preference to Place of Creativity and Imagination Essay class variables. Merge classes. drawPolygon() is faster than using drawLine() repeatedly. Don't create too may objects. Reuse objects if possible. Virtual Banking? Beware of object leaks (references to objects that are never nulled).

Accessor methods increase overhead. Compound operators such as n += 4; are faster than n = n + 4; because fewer bytecodes are generated. Shifting by powers of two is faster than multiplying. Multiplication is faster than exponentiation. int increments are faster than byte or short increments. Floating point increments are much slower than any integral increment. The Kitchen Place? Memory access from better to worse: local vars; supersuperclass instance variable; superclass instance var; class instance var; class static var; array elements. It can help to copy slower-access vars to fast local vars if you are going to virtual operate on them repeatedly, as in a loop. Use networking timeouts, TCP_NODELAY, SO_TIMEOUT, especially in case of specsavers glasses, dying DNS servers. Banking? Buffer network io. [or read explicitly in chunks]. Avoid reverse DNS where you can. Use UDP rather than TCP if speed is more important than accuracy.

Use threads. Prioritize threads. Use notify instead of notifyAll. Use synchronization sparingly. Glasses? Counting down is often faster than counting up. Virtual? [the loop test comparison to vendetta film review 0 is what matters]. Keep synchronized methods out of loops if you possibly can. Avoid excessive String manipulation. Virtual Banking? Use String Buffers or Arrays rather than String. byte arrays may be faster than StringBuffers for certain operations, especially if you use System.arraycopy(). Glasses Prices? Use StringBuffer rather than the + operator. Watch out for slow fonts, Fonts vary in speed of virtual, rendering. Keep the paint method small.

It will get called a lot. Double buffer where possible. Anorexia Memoir? For some applications that access the date a lot, it can help to set the local timezone to be GMT, so that no conversion has to virtual take place. Potential compiler optimizations: loop invariant code motion; common subexpression elimination; strength reduction; variable allocation. Don't turn off native threads. Use .jar files.

Rewrite Java library classes to make them smaller or instantiate fewer objects or eliminate synchronization. Install classes locally. Tutorial on the full screen capabilities in anorexia memoir the 1.4 release (5 pages plus example pages under the top page) (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Michael Martak, Publisher Sun). Tips: The full-screen exclusive mode provides maximum image display and drawing performance by allowing direct drawing to the screen. Use java.awt.GraphicsDevice.isFullScreenSupported() to determine if full-screen exclusive mode is available. If it is not available, full-screen drawing can still be used, but better performance will be obtained by using a fixed size window in normal screen mode. Full-screen exclusive applications should not be resizable. Turn off decoration using the setUndecorated() method. Change the virtual screen display mode (size, depth and refresh rate), to the best match for your image bit depth and display size so that scaling and other image alterations can be avoided or minimized.

Don't define the screen painting code in the paint() method called by the AWT thread. Action Pros? Define your own rendering loop for virtual screen drawing, to anorexia memoir be executed in any thread other than the AWT thread. Use the setIgnoreRepaint() method on your application window and components to turn off all paint events dispatched from the operating system completely, since these may be called during inappropriate times, or worse, end up calling paint, which can lead to virtual race conditions between the AWT event thread and your rendering loop. Do not rely on v for review, the update or repaint methods for delivering paint events. Do not use heavyweight components, since these will still incur the overhead of involving the AWT and the platform's windowing system. Use double buffering (drawing to an off-screen buffer, then copying the finished drawing to the screen). Use page-flipping (changing the virtual banking video pointer so that an and Automation Industry: and Uses., off-screen buffer becomes the on-screen buffer, with no image copying required). Use a flip chain (a sequence of off-screen buffers which the virtual video pointer successively points to one after the other). java.awt.image.BufferStrategy provides getDrawGraphics() (to get an off-screen buffer) and show() (to display the buffer on screen). Vendetta Film? Use java.awt.BufferCapabilities to customize the BufferStrategy for optimizing the performance of your application.

If you use a buffer strategy for double-buffering in a Swing application, you probably want to turn off double-buffering for banking your Swing components, Multi-buffering is only useful when the action pros drawing time exceeds the time spent to do a show. Don't make any assumptions about performance: profile your application and identify the bottlenecks first. HP Java tuning site, including optimizing Java and optimizing HPUX for Java. This is the top page, but several useful pages lie off it (tips extracted for inclusion below). Virtual? Includes a nice procedure list for tuning apps, and some useful forms for what you should record while tuning. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher HP). Tips: Have a performance target.

Consider architecture and the hp way components for banking bottlenecks. Third-party components may have options that cause bottlenecks. Having debugging turned on can cause performance problems. Having logging turned on the hp way, can cause performance problems. Is the banking underlying machine powerful enough. Carefully document any tests and changes.

Create a performance baseline. Make one change at a time. Be careful not to lose a winning tune because it's hidden by The Kitchen as a Place of Creativity and Imagination, a bad tune made at the same time. Record all aspects of the system (app/component/version/version date/dependent software/CPU/Numbers of virtual, CPUs/RAM/Disk space/patches/OS config/etc.) Give the JVMs top system priority. And Automation In Construction And Uses.? Tune the heap size (-mx, -ms options) and use -verbosegc to minimize garbage collection impact. Virtual Banking? A larger heap reduces the frequency of garbage collection but increases the length of time that any particular garbage collection takes.

Rules of film, thumbs are: 50% of free space available after a gc; set the maximum heap size to be 3-4 times the space required for the estimated maximum number of live objects; set the initial heap to banking size a little below the space required for the average data set, and the maximum value large enough to handle the anorexia memoir largest data set; increase -Xmn for applications that create many short-lived objects [is -Xmn a standard option?]. [These rules of virtual banking, thumb should only be considered as starting points. Ultimately you need to tune the VM heap empirically, i.e. by trial and error]. And Automation In Construction Roles,? You may need to add flags to third party products running in the JVM to eliminate explicit calls to garbage collect (VisiBroker has this known problem). Watch out for bottlenecks introduced from third party products. Make sure you know and use the options available, many of banking, which can affect performance (for better or worse). Document the changes you make so that you will be able to reproduce the performance. Glasses? computationally intensive applications should increase the number of CPUs to increase overall system performance and throughput. Be certain that the banking application's CPU usage is a factor limiting performance: often, highly contended locks and garbage collections that are too frequent will make the anorexia memoir system look busy, but little work is virtual done by the application. [Some nice detailed description on how to profile and vendetta film analyze application problems, from the HP system and virtual JVM level at http://www.devresource.hp.com/JavaATC/JavaPerfTune/symptoms_solutions.html.] J2EE Application server performance (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Misha Davidson, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Good performance has sub-second latency (response time) and anorexia memoir hundreds of (e-commerce) transactions per second.

Avoid n-way database joins: every join has a multiplicative effect on the amount of work the database has to do. Virtual Banking? The performance degradation may not be noticeable until large datasets are involved. Avoid bringing back thousands of glasses prices, rows of data: this can use a disproportionate amount of resources. Virtual? Cache data when reuse is likely. The Hp Way? Avoid unnecessary object creation. Minimize the virtual use of synchronization. Avoid using the SingleThreadModel interface for servlets: write thread-safe code instead. ServletRequest.getRemoteHost() is very inefficient, and can take seconds to complete the reverse DNS lookup it performs. OutputStream can be faster than PrintWriter. V For Vendetta? JSPs are only generally slower than servlets when returning binary data, since JSPs always use a PrintWriter, whereas servlets can take advantage of a faster OutputStream. Excessive use of custom tags may create unnecessary processing overhead.

Using multiple levels of BodyTags combined with iteration will likely slow down the processing of the page significantly. Use optimistic transactions: write to the database while checking that new data is not be overwritten by banking, using WHERE clauses containing the old data. However note that optimistic transactions can lead to worse performance if many transactions fail. Use lazy-loading of dependent objects. For read-only queries involving large amounts of data, avoid EJB objects and use JavaBeans as an intermediary to glasses prices access manipulate and store the data for banking JSP access. Use stateless session EJBs to The Kitchen and Imagination Essay cache and virtual banking manage infrequently changed data. Action Pros? Update the EJB occasionally.

Use a dedicated session bean to perform and cache all JNDI lookups in a minimum number of virtual, requests. Minimize interprocess communication. Use clustering (multiple servers) to increase scalability. Using the Syslog class for logging (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Nate Sammons, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use Syslog to log system performance. Logging should not take up a significant amount of the system's resources nor interfere with its operation. Use static final boolean s to wrap logging statements so that they can be easily turned off or eliminated.

Beware of anorexia memoir, logging to banking slow external channels. These will slow down logging, and hence the application too. Glen McCluskey's article on tuning Java I/O performance. Weak on serialization tuning. (Page last updated March 1999, Added 2000-10-23, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher Sun). Tips: Avoid accessing the the hp way disk. Avoid accessing the underlying operating system. Avoid method calls. Avoid processing bytes and virtual banking characters individually. Use buffering either at the class level or at the array level. Disable line buffering.

MessageFormat is slow. Reuse objects. Creating a buffered RandomAccessFile class can be faster than plain RandomAccessFile if you are seeking alot. Compression can help I/O, but only sometimes. Use caching to speed I/O. Your own tokenizer will be faster than using the available SDK tokenizer. Many java.io.File methods are system calls which can be slow. Designing Entity Beans for Improved Performance (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Beth Stearns, Publisher Sun). Tips: Remember that every call of an entity bean method is potentially a remote call.

Designing with one access method per Essay, data attribute should only be used where remote access will not occur, i.e. entities are guaranteed to banking be in the same container. Use a value object which encapsulates all of an entity's data attributes, and as a Place which transfers all the virtual data in one network transfer. This may result in large objects being transferred though. Group entity bean data attributes in subsets, and use multiple value objects to Robotics Industry: Challenges provide remote access to those subsets. Performance tuning report in German. Thanks to Peter Kofler for virtual extracting the tips. (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Sebastian Ritter, Publisher Ritter). Tips: Performance optimizations vary in effect on different platforms. Always test for your platforms. Reasons not to optimize: can lead to unreadable source code; can cause new errors; optimizations are often compiler/JVM/platform dependent; can lose object orientation. Reasons to optimize: application uses too much memory/processor/I/O; application is unnaceptably slow. Don't optimize before you have at least a functioning prototype and some identified bottlenecks.

Try to optimize the design first before targeting the vendetta review implementation. Profile applications. Use the 80/20 rull which suggests that 80% of the work is done in 20% of the code. Target loops in particular. Monitor running applications to maintain performance. Plan and budget for some resources to optimize the virtual banking application. Try to specsavers have or develop a couple of performance experts. Specify performance in the project requirements, and specify seperate performance requirements for virtual banking the various layers of the application. Consider the effects of performance at The Kitchen as a the analysis stage, and include testing of 3rd party tools. Use a benchmark harness to virtual banking make repeatable performance tests, varying the anorexia memoir number of users, data, etc.

Use profilers and logging to measure performance and identify performance problems. Optimize the runtime system if the optimization does not require alterations to the application design or implementation. Test various JVMs and choose the optimal JVM. Virtual Banking? JIT compilers are faster but require more memory than interpreter JVMs. HotSpot can provide better performance and a faster startup and maintain a relatively low memory requirement. Design in asynchronous operations so tasks are not waiting for others to finish when they don't need to. use the right VM use the right threading model (native vs. green) use native compilers give more ram to the VM give all ram to short-lived applications to completely avoid GC use alternate/optimizing compilers use the right database driver use direct JDBC drivers expand all JDK classes into specsavers the filesystem to increase access to classes use slot-local variables (1st 128 bit = 4 slots) (applies for interpreters only) use int use Arraylist instead of Vector use own Hashtable implementations for primitives (i.e. int) use caches use object pools avoid remote method calls use callbacks to avoid blocking remote method calls use batching for remote method calls use the virtual banking flyweight pattern to reduce object creation [The flyweight pattern uses a factory instead of 'new' to Robotics and Automation in Construction Industry: Challenges and Uses. reuse objects rather than always create new ones]. Virtual? use the right access modifier: static private final protected public use inlining use shallow hierarchies (to avoid long instantiation chains) use empty default constructors use direct variable access (not recommended, breaks OO) mix model with view (not recommended, breaks OO) use better algorithms remove redundant code optimize loops unroll loops use int as loop counter count/test loops towards 0 use Exception terminated loops for long loops use constants for expressions with known results, e.g. replace x = 3; . V For Vendetta Film? (x does not change) . Banking? ; x += 3; with x = 3; . (x does not change) . ; x = 6; move code outside loops how to optimize: 1st check for better algorithms, 2nd optimize loops use shift for *2 and action pros /2 do not initialize with default values (0, null) use char arrays for mutable Strings use arrays instead of collections use the private final modifier use System.arraycopy() to copy arrays use Hashtable keys with fast hashcode() do not use Strings as keys for Hashtables use new Hashtable() instaed of Hashtable.clear() for very large Hashtables inspect JDK source use methods in order: static final instance interface synchronized use own specialized methods instead of JDK's generalized ones avoid synchronization avoid new objects reuse objects use the original instead of overloaded constructors (give default parameters by banking, your own) avoid inner classes use + for concenating 2 Strings, use Stringbuffer for concenating more Strings use clone to The Kitchen Essay create new objects (instead of new) use instance.hashcode() to test for equality of intances use native JDK implemented methods (as System.arraycopy()) avoid Exceptions (use Exceptions only for cases with probability 50%, else use error flags) combine multiple small try-catchs to banking one larger block use Streams instead of Readers, use Reader and Writer only if you need internationalization use buffering for io use EOFException and ArrayOutOfBoundsException for terminating io reading loops use transient fields to speedup serialisation use externalization instead of serialisation use multiple threads to v for film increase perceived performance use awt instead of swing for speed use swing instead of virtual banking, awt for v for vendetta film less memory use super.paint() to banking initially draw something (i.e. Action Pros? background) to increase perceived performance use your own wrapper for primitives (with setter methods) use Graphics.drawPolygon() (native implemented) instead of virtual banking, several Graphics.drawlines(). use low priority threads to initialize graphic components in the background use synchronized blocks instead of synchronized methods cache (SQL) Statements for DB access use PreparedStatements for DB access.

Accelerating GUI apps (after 1.4) (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Dana Nourie, Publisher Sun). Tips: To add many items to a JComboBox, add them in one go using a Model on a vector, e.g. new JComboBox(new DefaultComboBoxModel(new Vector(allItemsInAnArray)));. Anorexia Memoir? This generates only one changed event. Perform GUI operations in bulk to minimize the events generated. When initializing or totally replacing the contents of virtual banking, a model, construct a new one instead of reusing the existing one to minimize generated events. Use threads other then the GUI handling thread for long, indeterminate, or repetitive tasks.

VolatileImage allows you to create a hardware-accelerated offscreen image and manage the contents of that image. From 1.4 Swing double-buffers using VolatileImage hardware acceleration to improve performance. Repaint small regions instead of prices, entire sections or screens. Virtual Banking? For instance, when using tables, repaint a single table cell as needed instead of repainting the entire screen or table. EventHandler provides support for dynamically generating event listeners that have a small footprint and can be saved automatically by the persistence scheme. MIDP tips (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Eric Giguere, Publisher Sun). Tips: Make HTTP requests in a background thread. Use an asynchronous messaging model. Use WBXML to compress XML messages.

Article about avoiding creating objects where possible. (Page last updated 1996, Added 2000-10-23, Author Chuck McManis, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: The mythology surrounding the action pros slowness of banking, garbage-collected systems is v for vendetta film review just that, myth. I can show that the number of instructions executed is the same whether I call malloc() and free() or I only call malloc() and some other code calls free(). Simple designs can easily run through many unnecessary objects, e.g. data wrapper objects like Integer. Reuse objects where possible. Virtual Banking? Use -verbosegc to check the impact of garbage collection on your application. The Eight Fallacies of action pros, Distributed Computing (Page last updated 2000, Added 2002-03-25, Author Peter Deutsch, Publisher Sun). Tips: The network can fail to banking deliver at any time. Latency is significant. Bandwidth is always limited. Article on designing for performance focusing on interfaces (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher JavaWorld).

Tips: Avoid excessive object creation: be wary of object creation inside of tight loops when executing performance-critical code. Performance-conscious programmers avoid excessive use of the hp way, String. Defining a utility class which is applied to data required by its constructor means that you must create a new object for virtual every piece of data to run it on. Instead, do not require data in the constructor. Do not force methods to specsavers prices provide arguments with input in the form that is convenient rather than efficient. For example, don't require that arguments be passed only as String objects if a byte array or char array would also be functionally equivalent (try to support all formats, especially the efficient ones). Defining a method signature in terms of an interchange type (the type of object passed from a caller method to the callee method as an argument) reduces the virtual banking interface's complexity while maintaining its flexibility, but sometimes this simplicity comes at the cost of performance. HotSpot FAQ (Page last updated August 2000, Added 2001-02-21, Author ?, Publisher Sun). Tips: HotSpot has a bunch of startup options that may help you configure your VM to go faster.

HotSpot garbage collection parameters can be tuned with -Xincgc, -XX:NewSize, -XX:MaxNewSize and the hp way -XX:SurvivorRatio(and heap size parameters). Sun recommends you no longer use objects pools [this is rather a sweeping and inappropriate statement. Object pools are still useful even with HotSpot, but presumably not as often as previously]. Undocumented option -Xconcurrentio may help performance when there are very many threads. It uses a lighter thread synchronization model. If using few threads, using -XX:+UseBoundThreads and the light weight process threads (LWP) library may improve performance. LWP threads are scheduled by the JVM, system threads have kernel scheduling.

Don't call System.gc(). Warming loops is no longer necessary from HotSpot 2.0 (SDK 1.3). HotSpot now supports on-stack-replacement. HotSpot supports -Xrunhprof options and also -Xaprof for object allocation statistics. Banking? Integer alignment of generated native code affects its speed [so it is conceivable that adding the odd bytecode could make code faster]. Specsavers Glasses? HotSpot can eliminate dead variables and virtual dead code, i.e. Action Pros? variables that are assigned to but never used [in isolated code segments]. The generational-GC per object costs varies depending on virtual banking, the length of life of the object. A different HP tip page on optimizing Java performance, from the HP-UX Programmer's Guide for Robotics and Automation in Construction Industry: Challenges and Uses. Java. Gives info on virtual banking, HP system performance monitoring too (Page last updated ?, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher HP).

Tips: Maximize thread lifetimes and Robotics in Construction Challenges and Uses. minimize thread creation/destruction cycles. Minimize contention for shared resources. Virtual? Minimize creation of short-lived objects. Use -verbosegc to anorexia memoir monitor garbage collection. Tune the applications to minimize the effects of garbage collections. Disk I/O should be minimized. Virtual? Don't do random I/O to read a file serially (RandomAccessFile class). You should use buffered I/O. Complex AWT graphics will slow down your performance. Use the most current version of Java.

Use -mx and -ms to tune the heap size [now -Xms and -Xmx]. Profile the code to find bottlenecks. Bill Venners on anorexia memoir, the right way to optimize (Page last updated May 1998, Added 2000-10-23, Author Bill Venners, Publisher Artima). Tips: Don't optimize until you know you have a problem. Virtual? Measure the program before and after your optimization efforts. Profile the program to isolate the specsavers code that really matters to virtual banking performance (10 to 20 percent), and just focus your optimization efforts there. Try to v for vendetta film devise a better algorithm Use APIs in a smarter way Use standard code optimization techniques such as strength reduction, common sub-expression elimination, code motion, and loop unrolling. Only as a last resort should you sacrifice good object-oriented, thread-safe design and maintainable code in the name of performance.

Make methods static wherever possible. Banking? Avoid creating lots of short-lived objects. Application performance tuning (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Baya Pavliashvili and Kevin Kline, Publisher informIT). The Kitchen Of Creativity And Imagination Essay? Tips: Application performance problems can be caused and mitigated with any combination of the following areas: Network topology and banking throughput; Server hardware configuration; client application code; middle-tier components; database communication code; database configuration settings; logical and physical database design; operating system settings; client hardware; overall application architecture. Monitor the application.

Primary statistics worth analyzing are: the anorexia memoir number of concurrent users; number of transactions per unit of time; duration of the longest and shortest transactions; and the average response time. Specify the performance targets. Consider using eye candy to banking distract attention during acceptable short waits. Identify which application tier contains the bottleneck and fix that. It might be hardware or software; low-level or architecture. Prioritize which problems to fix according to v for the resources available. Object management article (Page last updated November 1999, Added 2000-12-20, Author Dennis M. Sosnoski, Publisher JavaWorld). Virtual Banking? Tips: Objects have a space overhead in addition to the space taken by the data held by The Kitchen as a and Imagination, the object.

Objects have a space overhead in addition to the space taken by virtual banking, the data held by the object. The overhead is dependent on the particular JVM, but there is always some. Specsavers? The space overhead is virtual a per object value, so the percentage of overhead decreases with larger objects. If you work with large numbers of small objects, you can use a huge amount of memory simply for overhead. Different JVMs are optimized for short lived objects or for long lived objects. Object creation and garbage collection have significant overheads. Providing you're sensible about creating objects in as a Place Essay heavily used code, it's easy to virtual banking avoid the object churn cycle. The easiest way to reduce object creation in your programs is by using primitive types in v for film review place of objects.

Avoid using wrapper classes (for primitive data types, e.g. Integer) as they impose extra overheads. Virtual Banking? If you're working with a large number of primitive data types, you can avoid the excessive object overhead of wrappers by storing and passing values of the underlying primitive types, and only converting the values into the full objects when necessary for use with methods in the class libraries. Avoid convenience classes like Point if you can manage the vendetta film underlying data directly. Reuse objects where possible.

Use object pools where this is helpful in reusing objects, but be careful that the pool implementation does actually give a performance improvement (dedicated pools within the class can be significantly faster than abstract pool implementations). Implement pools so that the pool does not retain a reference to any allocated object, so that if the object is not returned to the pool, it can still be garbage collected when finished with (thus avoiding memory leaks). Website usability metrics (Page last updated May 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Sharon Gaudin, Publisher EarthWeb). Tips: A website must be easy to navigate and have a quick display and response time. Bad navigation metrics include: abandoned shopping carts; first time visitors look at one or two pages and disappear; dead ends require the back button; less than 5% buy something; any broken links. Virtual? Good navigation metrics include: three pages or less from wesbite entry to desired information; no streaming video or Flash introductions; multiple ways to reach the required information; up to date search engines; basic compancy and contact info one click away from the homepage. Common issues affecting Web performance (Page last updated June 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Drew Robb, Publisher EarthWeb).

Tips: Symptoms of network problems include slow response times, excessive database table scans, database deadlocks, pages not available, memory leaks and high CPU usage. Causes of performance problems can include the v for review application design, incorrect database tuning, internal and external network bottlenecks, undersized or non-performing hardware or Web and banking application server configuration errors. Root causes of performance problems come equally from four main areas: databases, Web servers, application servers and the network, with each area typically causing about a quarter of the problems. The most common database problems are insufficient indexing, fragmented databases, out-of-date statistics and faulty application design. Solutions include tuning the The Kitchen as a Place Essay index, compacting the database, updating the virtual database and rewriting the application so that the database server controls the v for vendetta query process. The most common network problems are undersized, misconfigured or incompatible routers, switches, firewalls and load balancers, and inadequate bandwidth somewhere along he communication route. The most common application server problems are poor cache management, unoptimized database queries, incorrect software configuration and poor concurrent handling of client requests. Banking? The most common web server problems are poor design algorithms, incorrect configurations, poorly written code, memory problems and vendetta review overloaded CPUs. Having a testing environment that mirrors the expected real-world environment is very important in virtual banking achieving good performance. The deployed system needs to be tested and Place and Imagination continually monitored.

The smallest Hello World (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Norman Richards, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: [Brilliantly amusing search to virtual make the smallest Hello World program.] Use the Robotics Industry: Roles, Challenges -g:none option to banking strip debugging bytes from classfiles. Most bytes in Java class files are from the constant pool, then the method declarations. In Construction Roles, Challenges? The constant pool includes class and method names as well as strings. The Java compiler will insert a default constructor if you don't specify one, but the constructor is only needed if you will create instances.

You can remove the constructor if you will not be creating instances. Banking? Most variables and action pros class references used by virtual banking, the code generate entries in the constant pool. Reusing already existing constant pool entries for class/method/variable names reduces the class file size. Article on using smart proxies. (Page last updated November 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author M. Action Pros? Jeff Wilson, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use smart proxies to virtual transparently cache data in and Automation Industry: Roles, Challenges the client, thus reducing the number of remote calls. Use smart proxies for caching frequently read, seldom-updated data of remote objects. Use smart proxies to monitor the performance of RMI calls. Use smart proxies to prevent returning multiple copies of the virtual same remote object to action pros client code. Paper detailing the Best Practices for Developing High Performance Web and Enterprise Applications using IBM's WebSphere. All the tips are generally applicable to servlet/EJB development, as well as other types of server development. (Page last updated September 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Harvey W. Gunther, Publisher IBM). Tips: Do not store large object graphs in javax.servlet.http.HttpSession.

Servlets may need to virtual banking serialize and vendetta film deserialize HttpSession objects for banking persistent sessions, and v for making them large produces a large serialization overhead. Use the tag %@ page session=false% to virtual avoid creating HttpSessions in JSPs. Minimize synchronization in Servlets to avoid multiple execution threads becoming effectively single-threaded. Do not use javax.servlet.SingleThreadModel. The Kitchen As A Place Of Creativity? Use JDBC connection pooling, release JDBC resources when done, and reuse datasources for JDBC connections. Use the virtual HttpServlet Init method to perform expensive operations that need only be done once. Minimize use of the hp way, System.out.println.

Avoid String concatenation +=. Access entity beans from session beans, not from client or servlet code. Reuse EJB homes. Use Read-Only methods where appropriate in virtual entity-beans to avoid unnecessary invocations to store. Use the lowest impact transaction level possible for each transaction. The EJB remote programming model always assumes EJB calls are remote, even where this is not so. The Hp Way? Where calls are actually local to banking the same JVM, try to action pros use calling mechanisms that avoid the remote call. Remove stateful session beans (and any other unneeded objects) when finished with, to avoid extra overheads in case the container needs to banking be passivated.

Beans.instantiate() incurs a filesystem check to create new bean instances. Use new to avoid this overhead. Tuning IBM's WebSphere product. White paper: Methodology for Production Performance Tuning. Only non-product specific Java tips have been extracted here. V For? (Page last updated September 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Gennaro (Jerry) Cuomo, Publisher IBM). Banking? Tips: A size restricted queue (closed queue) allows system resources to be more tightly managed than an open queue.

The network provides a front-end queue. A server should be configured to use the network queue as its bottleneck, i.e. only accept a request from the the hp way network when there are sufficient resources to process the request. Virtual Banking? This reduces the load on an app server. However, sufficient requests should be accepted to ensure that the and Automation Industry: app server is working at maximum capacity, i.e. try not to let a component sit idle while there are still requests that can be accepted even if other components are fully worked. Try to balance the virtual workload of the various components. [Paper shows a nice throughput curve giving recommended scaling behavior for an server] The desirable target bottleneck is the CPU, i.e. a server should be tuned until the Robotics in Construction Roles, CPU is the remaining bottleneck. Adding CPUs is a simple remedy to virtual banking this. Use connection pools and cached prepared statements for database access. Object memory management is as a Place of Creativity and Imagination Essay particularly important for server applications.

Typically garbage collection could take between 5% and 20% of the server execution time. Garbage collection statistics provide a useful monitor to determine the server's health. Use the verbosegc flag to collect basic GC statistics. GC statistcs to virtual monitor are: total time spent in GC (target less than 15% of glasses prices, execution time); average time per GC; average memory collected per GC; average objects collected per GC. For long lived server processes it is particularly important to eliminate memory leaks (references retained to objects and never released). Virtual? Use -ms and -mx to tune the the hp way JVM heap. Bigger means more space but GC takes longer. Use the GC statistics to banking determine the optimal setting, i.e the setting which provides the minimum average overhead from GC. The ability to glasses prices reload classes is typically achieved by testing a filesystem timestamp. This check should be done at virtual set intermediate periods, and not on every request as the action pros filesystem check is an expensive operation.

WebSphere V3 Performance Tuning Guide (Page last updated March 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Authors Ken Ueno, Tom Alcott, Jeff Carlson, Andrew Dunshea, Hajo Kitzh?fer, Yuko Hayakawa, Frank Mogus, Colin D. Wordsworth, Publisher IBM). Tips: [The Red book lists and virtual banking discusses tuning parameters available to and Automation in Construction Industry: Challenges and Uses. Websphere] Run an application server and any database servers on separate server machines. Banking? JVM heap size: -mx, -ms [-Xmx, -Xms]. As a starting point for a server based on a single JVM, consider setting the maximum heap size to as a Place of Creativity and Imagination Essay 1/4 the virtual total physical memory on the server and setting the minimum to 1/2 of the maximum heap. Sun recommends that ms be set to somewhere between 1/10 and the hp way 1/4 of the mx setting. They do not recommend setting ms and mx to banking be the same. Bigger is not always better for heap size. In general increasing the size of the Java heap improves throughput to the point where the heap no longer resides in physical memory. Once the heap begins swapping to disk, Java performance drastically suffers. Therefore, the anorexia memoir mx heap setting should be set small enough to banking contain the heap within physical memory. Anorexia Memoir? Also, large heaps can take several seconds to fill up, so garbage collection occurs less frequently which means that pause times due to virtual GC will increase.

Use verbosegc to help determine the optimum size that minimizes overall GC. In some cases turning off asynchronous garbage collection (-noasyncgc, not always available to the hp way all JVMs) can improve performance. Setting the JVM stack and native thread stack size (-oss and -ss) too large (e.g. greater than 2MB) can significantly degrade performance. When security is enabled (e.g. Virtual Banking? SSL, password authentication, security contexts and Robotics and Automation Roles, access lists, encryption, etc) performance is degraded by significant amounts. One of the most time-consuming procedures of banking, a database application is establishing a connection to the database. Use connection pooling to the hp way minimize this overhead. Using a ternary search tree for fast searches of partial text matches (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Wally Flint, Publisher JavaWorld).

Tips: [Article discusses several efficient algorthms for searching through ternary search trees which provide fast partial match searches of character array keys]. When synchronization is required (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher IBM). Tips: synchronization means mutual exclusion (if the same monitor is banking used), atomicity of the prices synchronized block (again with respect to other threads using the same monitor) and synchronization of thread memory to virtual banking main memory. Because synchronization synchronizes thread memory with main memory, there is a cost to anorexia memoir synchronization beyond simply acquiring a lock. Virtual? Too little synchronization can lead to film corrupt data; too much can lead to virtual banking reduced performance and deadlock. The costs of anorexia memoir, synchronization vary with JVMs, with more recent JVMs being more efficient. The costs of synchronization differs depending on banking, whether or not threads are actually contending for locks (more expensive, slower), or for anorexia memoir uncontended synchronization where the thread is basically acting in single-threaded mode (cheaper, faster). You need to synchronize or make volatile variables holding data that will be shared between threads. Composite operations may need synchronizing to make them atomic even if each individual operation is already synchronized. Reducing thread contention (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher IBM). Tips: Thread contention impairs scalability because it forces the scheduler to serialize operations, even if a free processor is available.

Analyze your program to determine where contention is virtual banking likely to the hp way occur. Make synchronized blocks as short as possible. Spread synchronizations over more than one lock. [Article provides a thread-safe hashed Map implementation with lower global contention than Hashtable.] If you will be acquiring and virtual releasing the same lock many times (such as in anorexia memoir a loop), acquire the lock before the banking loop: it is faster to acquire a lock that you already hold than one that nobody holds. J2EE worst practices (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Brett McLaughlin, Publisher OnJava). Tips: The choice of data store type (RDB, ODB, XML-DB, directory-server, etc) affects performance, and should not be made without performance considerations. Directory servers are optimized for vendetta film review frequent reads, with few writes. If you frequently add data to a directory server, performance degrades. Stateless session beans are soooo much faster. The hprof profiler (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Bill Pierce, Publisher JavaWorld). Banking? Tips: Use the anorexia memoir hprof profiler with the startup command java -Xrunhprof[:help][:suboption=value. Banking? ] MyMainClass. [Article describes using hprof and reading the resultant profile files to profile an application for memory leaks, cpu-bottlenecks and prices thread contention]. hprof can be used to profile object allocation (heap option), method bottlnecks (cpu option) and thread contention (monitor option). Weblogic tuning (generally applicable Java tips extracted) (Page last updated June 2000, Added 2001-03-21, Author BEA Systems, Publisher BEA).

Tips: Response time is affected by: contention and banking wait times, particularly for shared resources; and software and Robotics Challenges hardware component performance, i.e. the amount of time that resources are needed. A well-designed application can increase performance by simply adding more resources (for instance, an extra server). Use clustered or multi-processing machines; use a JIT-enabled JVM; use Java 2 rather than JDK 1.1; Use -noclassgc. Use the banking maximum possible heap size that also is small enough to avoid the JVM from swapping (e.g. 80% of RAM left over action pros, after other required processes). Consider starting with minimum initial heap size so that the garbage collector doesn't suddenly encounter a full heap with lots of garbage. Benchmarkers sometimes like to set the heap as high as possible to completely avoid GC for the duration of the benchmark. Distributing the application over several server JVMs means that GC impact will be spread in time, i.e. the virtual banking various JVMs will most likely GC at the hp way different times from each. On Java 1.1 the most effective heap size is virtual that which limits the Robotics in Construction Roles, Challenges and Uses. longest GC incurred pause to the longest acceptable pause in processing time.

This will typically require a reduction in the maximum heap size. Too many threads causes too much context switching. Too few threads may underutilize the system. If n=number of virtual, threads, k=number of CPUs, then: (n k) by a moderate amount of threads is practically ideal; (n k) by many threads can lead to significant performance degradation from context switching. Blocked threads count for less in the previous formulae. Symptoms of too few threads: CPU is The Kitchen as a Essay waiting to do work, but there is virtual banking work that could be done; Can not get 100% CPU; All threads are blocked [on i/o] and and Automation Challenges runnable when you do an execution snapshot. Symptoms of virtual, too many threads: An execution snapshot shows that there is a lot of in Construction Industry: Roles, and Uses., context switching going on in your JVM; Your performance increases as you decrease the number of virtual, threads. If many client connections are dropped or refused, the TCP listen queue may be too short.

Try to avoid excessive cycling (creation/deletion or activation/passivation) of beans. Weblogic JDBC tuning (Page last updated April 1999, Added 2001-03-21, Author BEA Systems, Publisher BEA). Tips: Use connection pools to the database and reuse connections rather than repeatedly opening and closing connections. Action Pros? Optimal pool size is when the connection pool is just large enough to service requests without waits. Cache frequently requested data in the JVM and avoid the unnecessary database requests. Banking? Speed up applet download and startup using zip/jar files containing just the classes needed for the applet. Specsavers Prices? Avoid accessing the virtual database wherever possible. Fetch rows in as a of Creativity batches rather than one at virtual a time, using the anorexia memoir batch as a read-ahead mechanism (i.e. pre-fetch rows in batches).

Tune the batch size and the number of rows pre-fetched. Avoid pre-fetching BLOBs. Avoid moving data unless absolutely necessary. Process the data and produce results as close to its source as possible. Use stored procedures.

Streamline data before the result crosses the network. Use stored procedures to avoid extra network transfers. Use built-in DBMS set-based processing to operate on multiple rows/tables in one request. Avoid row at a time processing, process multiple rows together wherever possible. Counting entries in a table (e.g. using SELECT count(*) from myTable, yourTable where . ) is resource intensive. Try first selecting into temporary tables, returning only the count, and then sending a refined second query to return only a subset of the rows in the temporary table.

Proper use of banking, SQL can reduce resource requirements. Use queries which return the minimum of data needed: avoid SELECT * queries. A complex query that returns a small subset of data is anorexia memoir more efficient than a simple query that returns more data than is virtual needed. Make your queries as smart as possible, i.e. as precise as possible to minimize the data transferred to just that subset that is required. Try to batch updates: collect statements together and execute them together in anorexia memoir one transaction. Use conditional logic and temporary variables if necessary to achieve statement batching. Never let a DBMS transaction span user input.

Consider using optimistic locking. Optimistic locking employs timestamps to verify that data has not been changed by another user, otherwise the transaction fails. Use in-place updates, i.e. change data in rows/tables that already exist rather than adding or deleting rows/tables. Try to avoid moving rows or changing their sizes. Store operational data and historic data separately (or more generally store frequently used data separately from infrequently used data).

Keep your operational data set as small as possible, to avoid having to read through data that is irrelevant. DBMSs work well with parallelism. Try to design the application to do other things while interacting with the virtual DBMS. Use pipelining and parallelism. Designing applications to support lots of the hp way, parallel processes working on easily distinguished subsets of the work makes the virtual banking application faster. If there are multiple steps to anorexia memoir processing, try to design your application so that subsequent steps can start working on the portion of virtual banking, data that any prior process has finished, instead of having to wait until the of Creativity Essay prior process is complete. Choose the right driver for your application, i.e. the fastest JDBC driver. JDBC optimizing for DB2 (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author John Goodson, Publisher WebSphere Developers Journal).

Tips: Use the same connection to execute multiple statements. Keep connection objects open, and reuse them, rather than repeatedly connecting and disconnecting. Turn off autocommit, but don't leave transactions open for banking too long. Avoid distributed transactions (transactions that span mutliple connections). And Automation Industry: Roles, And Uses.? Minimize the data retrieved from the database, both columns and virtual banking rows. Use setMaxRows, setMaxFieldSize, and SetFetchSize. Use the Robotics Roles, most efficiently handled data type: character strings are faster than integers, which are in virtual banking turn more efficient than floating-point and specsavers timestamps. Use programmatic updates: updateXXX() calls on updatable resultsets. The resultset is already postioned at a row, so eliminating the usual overhead of finding the row to be updated when using an UPDATE statement. Cache any required metadata and use metadata methods as rarely as possible as they are quite slow.

Avoid using null parameters in metadata queries. Use a dummy query to get the metadata for a column, rather than use the getcolumns() Use parameter markers with stored procedures, rather than embedding data literally in the statement, to minimize parsing overheads. Use prepared statements for virtual repeatedly executing SQL statements Choose the the hp way optimal cursor: forward-only for sequential reads; insensitive for two-way scrolling. Avoid insenstive cursors for queries that only virtual banking return one row. J2EE Performance tuning (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author James McGovern, Publisher Java Developers Journal).

Tips: Call HttpSession.invalidate() to clean up a session when you no longer need to use it. Action Pros? For Web pages that don't require session tracking, save resources by turning off automatic session creation using: %@ page session=false% Implement the HttpSessionBindingListener for all beans that are scoped as session interface and explicitly release resources implementing the method valueUnbound(). Timeout sessions more quickly by setting the virtual banking timeout or using session.setMaxInactiveInterval(). Keep-Alive may be extra overhead for Robotics in Construction Challenges dynamic sites. Banking? Use the include directive %@ include file=copyleft.html % where possible, as this is a compile-time directive (include action jsp:include page=copyleft.jsp / is a runtime directive). Use cache tagging where possible. Always access entity beans from session beans. If only using an entity bean for The Kitchen Place and Imagination data access, use JDBC directly instead. Use read-only in the deployment descriptor. Cache access to EJB homes. Use local entity beans when beans are co-located in banking the same JVM.

Proprietary stubs can be used for caching and batching data. Use a dedicated remote object to generate unique primary keys. And Automation Challenges? Follow standard JDBC optimizations: use connection pools; prefer stored procedures or direct SQL; use type 4 drivers; remove extra columns from the result set; use prepared statements when practical; have your DBA tune the query; choose the appropriate transaction levels. Consider storing all database character data in Unicode to virtual eliminate conversion overheads. But beware: this step will cause your database size to grow, as Unicode requires 2 bytes per character.

Use block fetches when the query will give a large ResultSet and all rows are needed. Use the Page-by-Page Iterator pattern when only some of the rows may be needed. Consider using an in-memory database (product) for data that doesn't need to be persisted. Use an algorithm to prune caches to stop them growing too large. Performance is sometimes in perception: try to provide immediate feedback. Optimizing code is one of the last things developers should consider [after optimizing configurations, hardware, etc]. Using nonblocking I/O and memory-mapped buffers in SDK 1.4. (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Michael T. The Kitchen As A Place And Imagination? Nygard, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Before SDK 1.4, servers had a number of performance problems: i/o could easily be blocked; garbage was easily generated when reading i/o; many threads are needed to virtual banking scale the server. Many threads each blocked on i/o is an inefficient architecture in comparison to glasses prices one thread blocked on many i/o calls (multiplexed i/o).

Truly high-performance applications must obsess about garbage collection. The more garbage generated, the lower the application throughput. A Buffer (java.nio.*Buffer) is a reusable portion of banking, memory. A MappedByteBuffer can map a portion of a file directly into Robotics Challenges memory. Direct Buffer objects can be read/written directly from virtual Channels, but nondirect Buffer objects have a data copy performed for read/writes to i/o (and so are slower and may generate garbage). Convert nondirect Buffers to direct Buffers if they will be used more than once.

Scatter/gather operations allow i/o to Robotics and Automation in Construction Roles, Challenges operate to and from several Buffers in virtual one operation, for The Kitchen of Creativity increased efficiency. Where possible, scatter/gather operation are passed to even more efficient operating system functions. Banking? Channels can be configured to operate blocking or non-blocking i/o. V For Film? Using a MappedByteBuffer is more efficient than using BufferedInputStreams. The operating system can page into memory more efficiently than BufferedInputStream can do a block read. Virtual? Use Selectors to multiplex i/o and as a and Imagination Essay avoid having to virtual banking block multiple threads waiting on i/o.

Combining apps in one JVM (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Kirk Pepperdine, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Industry: Roles, And Uses.? Tips: Loading multiple applications in the same JVM allows resource sharing and reduce system memory requirements. Classloaders allow multiple applications to run in virtual banking the same JVM without interfering with each other. [Article discusses the resource sharing problems of running multiple applications in Place of Creativity Essay the same JVM]. JDBC Drivers (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Barrie Sosinsky, Publisher DevX). Tips: Type 1 drivers are JDBC-ODBC bridges, plus an banking, ODBC driver. Recommended only for action pros prototyping, not for virtual production. Anorexia Memoir? Not suitable for high-transaction environments. Not well supported, and limited in functionality. Type 2 drivers use a native API, and are part-Java drivers.

Have a binary-code client loading overhead, and may not be fully-featured. Type 3 drivers are a pure Java driver which connects to database middleware. Can be server-based which is frequently faster than types 1 and 2. Virtual? Type 4 drivers are pure Java drivers for direct-to-database communications. This can minimize overheads, and generally provides the fastest driver. JDBC 3.0 has additional features to improve performance such as advancements in connection pooling, statement pooling, RowSet objects. Opening a connection is the most resource-expensive step in The Kitchen Place of Creativity Essay database transactions. Creating a connection requires multiple separate network roundtrips. However, once the connection object has been created, there is virtual little penalty in leaving the Place of Creativity Essay connection object in banking place and reusing it for future connections. Connection pooling, keeps open a cache of database connection objects, making them available for the hp way immediate use. Instead of performing expensive network roundtrips to the database server to virtual open a connection, a connection attempt results in the re-assignment of a connection from the local cache. The Hp Way? RowSet objects are similar to ResultSet objects, but can provide access to database data while being disconnected.

This allows data to banking be efficiently cached in its simplest form. Prepared statement pooling (available from JDBC 3.0) caches SQL queries that have been previously optimized and run so that, should they be needed again, they do not have to The Kitchen as a Place of Creativity go through optimization pre-processing again (avoiding optimization steps, such as checking syntax, validating addresses, and optimizing access paths and execution plans). Statement pooling can be a significant performance booster. Statement pooling and connection pooling in JDBC 3.0 can cooperate to virtual share statement pools, so that connections that can use a cached statement from the hp way another connection, thus incurring statement preparation overheads only virtual once on action pros, the first execution of some SQL by any connection. Database drivers developed by virtual banking, vendors other than the prices the database vendor can be better performing and more feature full. (Driver vendors concentrate on the driver, database vendors have many other things to banking consider). Type 3 and type 4 third-party drivers can provide better performance than the database vendor's native-API (type 2) driver. Try to use a driver that supports JDBC 3.0 as it includes support for performance enhancing features including DataSource objects, connection pooling, distributed transaction support, RowSets, and prepared statement pooling. Type 3 and Type 4 drivers are the drivers to use when performance is Place Essay important. Shortened version of chapter 2, I/O, from Early Adopter J2SE 1.4 (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author James Hart, Publisher Sun). Tips: Non-blocking I/O can improve performance by minimizing the banking amount of time spent in anorexia memoir I/O calls, though they may add complexity to the application. The old I/O classes can now be interrupted more reliably from 1.4.

FileChannel.transferFrom() is an efficient way to copy data between files. Shortened version of chapter 5, Utilities: The Logging Architecture, from Early Adopter J2SE 1.4 (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author James Hart, Publisher Sun). Tips: Logging can take place asynchronously: a call to virtual banking log can return before the Robotics and Automation in Construction Industry: Challenges log has been formatted and virtual written. The logging framework provides methods (in Logger) for glasses prices recording method activity, but this may have a large overhead to use. Coding standards with a small but interesting section (section 7.3) on optimizations (Page last updated January 2000, Added 2001-04-20, Author Scott Ambler, Publisher AmbySoft). Tips: Optimizing code is one of the virtual last things that programmers should be thinking about, not one of the Robotics in Construction Roles, and Uses. first. Don't optimize code that already runs fast enough. Prioritize where speed comes among the following factors, so that goals are better defined: speed, size, robustness, safety, testability, maintainability, simplicity, reusability, and portability.

The most important factors in virtual looking for code to optimize are fixed overhead and performance on large inputs: fixed overhead dominates speed for small inputs and the algorithm dominates for large inputs (a program that works well for both small and large inputs will likely work well for medium-sized inputs). Operations that take a particular amount of time, such as the way that memory and Industry: Challenges buffers are handled, often show substantial time variations between platforms. Users are sensitive to virtual particular delays: users will likely be happier with a screen that draws itself immediately and The Kitchen as a Place of Creativity and Imagination then takes eight seconds to load data than with a screen that draws itself after taking five seconds to load data. Give users immediate feedback: you do not always need to make your code run faster to virtual optimize it in the eyes of your users. And Automation In Construction Industry: Roles, Challenges? Slow software that works is almost always preferable to fast software that does not. Overview of virtual, common application servers. Specsavers Glasses Prices? (Announced at http://www.theserverside.com/home/thread.jsp?thread_id=9581). I've extracted the performance related features (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Pieter Van Gorp, Publisher Van Gorp). Tips: Load balancing: random; minimum load; round-robin; weighted round-robin; performance-based; load-based; dynamic algorithm based; dynamic registration. Clustering. Virtual Banking? Additionally: distributed transaction management; in-memory replication of session state information; no single point of failure. Connection pooling.

Caching. Anorexia Memoir? JNDI caching. Distributed caching with synchronization. Thread pooling. Configurable user Quality of banking, Service. Analysis tools. Low system/memory requirements. Optimized subsystems (RMI, JMS, JDBC drivers, JSP tags cacheable page fragments). Optimistic transaction support. Atomic File Transactions. Robotics And Automation In Construction Industry: Roles,? (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author Jonathan Amsterdam, Publisher OnJava). Tips: If you don't require powerful search capabilities, using flat files may be faster than dealing with a database.

Basic file operations (deletion, creation, renaming) are atomic. Banking? Other operations and combinations of action pros, operations are not atomic. Atomicity can be built but comes at a performance cost. You will have to determine whether the increase in robustness is worth the slowdown in your application. Virtual? Do the I/O in v for vendetta a background thread to mitigate the performance impact of adding atomicity to virtual banking file transactions. [Article discusses how to use a free package which provides atomicity for file transactions, and Place of Creativity and Imagination how the atomicity is provided]. Atomic File Transactions, Part 2 (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Jonathan Amsterdam, Publisher OnJava). Virtual Banking? Tips: [Article continues implementation of a framework for atomic file transactions].

If a transaction creates a file and then performs several other actions on it, there is Place Essay no need to undo the actions -- it is virtual banking enough to delete the file. Anorexia Memoir? If a backup copy of a file is made, then it is unnecessary to roll back all subsequent actions on banking, the file: recovery can simply restore the backup. MIDP memory tuning (Page last updated June 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Jonathan Knudsen, Publisher Sun). Tips: Use an obfuscator to minimize the size of classes. The Hp Way? Minimize resource sizes by using as few images as possible, and using fewer colors in the images you do use.

Use as few objects as possible. Virtual? Dereference objects (set them to null) when they're no longer useful so they will be garbage-collected. Catch OutOfMemoryErrors on all allocations, or at least the large ones. Don't let an OutOfMemoryError take your application by surprise. MIDlets use three types of memory: program memory, heap, and persistent storage. Each of these may be scarce and they should all be treated with respect. Design patterns catalog (Page last updated 2001, Added 2002-01-25, Author ?, Publisher Sun). Tips: [Page lists some patterns with summaries and links to detailed info.

Patterns are: Data Access Object; Fast-Lane Reader; Front Controller; Page-by-Page Iterator; Session Facade; Value Object]. Action Pros? Use the Data Access Object pattern to banking decouple business logic from data access logic, allowing for optimizations to be made in action pros how data is managed. Virtual? Use the Fast-Lane Reader pattern to accelerate read-only data access by not using enterprise beans. Use the Front Controller pattern to centralize incoming client requests, allowing optimizations to be made in aggregating the resulting view. Use the Page-by-Page Iterator pattern to efficiently access a large, remote list by retrieving its elements one sublist of value objects at a time. Use the Session Facade pattern to anorexia memoir provide a unified, workflow-oriented interface to virtual banking a set of The Kitchen as a, enterprise beans, thus minimizing client calls to server EJBs. Use the Value Object pattern to efficiently transfer remote, fine-grained data by sending a coarse-grained view of the data. EJB design (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Boris Lublinsky, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Some application server implementations (e.g., WebSphere) automatically convert remote communications to local communications to make them faster. Low granularity (i.e. Banking? fine-grained) methods in an EJB typically leads to poor performance of the action pros overall system. Local interfaces in virtual EJB 2.0 is one attempt to improve overall performance: local interfaces provide for beans in the same container to vendetta interact locally without involving RMI.

The most effective way to improve the overall performance of EJB-based applications is to minimize the banking amount of method invocations, making the communications overhead negligible compared with the Robotics and Automation in Construction Roles, and Uses. execution time. Virtual Banking? This can be achieved by the hp way, implementing coarse-grained methods. Entity beans should not be simply mapped to virtual banking database tables. Treating entity beans as such fine-grained objects which are effectively wrappers on table rows leads to increased network communications and heavier database communications than if entity beans are treated as coarse-grained components. For optimal performance, entity beans should be designed to: have large granularity, which usually means they should contain multiple Java classes and support multiple database tables; be associated with a certain amount of the hp way, persistent data, typically multiple database tables, one of which should define the virtual banking primary key for the whole bean; support meaningful business methods and encapsulate business rules to access the The Kitchen Essay data. Don't use client transactions in the EJB environment since long-running transactions that can cause database lockup. Entity beans are transactional resources due to their stateful nature, but application server vendors often rely on the underlying database to lock and resolve access appropriately. Although this approach greatly improves performance, it provides the potential for database lockup. Design Patterns (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Vijay Ramachandran, Publisher Sun). Tips: [Article discusses several design patterns: Model-View-Controller, Front Controller, Session Facade, Data Access Object].

Use the Front Controller pattern to channel all client requests through a single decision point, which allows the virtual banking application to be balanced at runtime. Use a Session Facade to provide a simple interface to a complex subsystem of enterprise beans, and to reduce network communication requirements. Use Data Access Objects to decouple the the hp way business logic from the banking data access logic, allowing data access optimizations to be decoupled from other types of optimizations. J2EE Design Patterns for the presentation tier (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Sue Spielman, Publisher OnJava). Tips: [Article discusses several design patterns: Intercepting Filter, Front Controller, View Helper, Composite View, Service To Worker, Dispatch View. Action Pros? Performance is not explicitly covered, but at least a couple are relevant to getting good performance]. Thread programming (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Karthik Rangaraju, Publisher DevX).

Tips: Use Djikstra semaphores (synchronized acquire()/release()) to control access to a finite pool of resources. Banking? Conditional events provide a more sophisticated version of the v for vendetta review wait()/notify() mechanism which avoids some potential problems of that mechanism. Blocking queues provides a mechanism for reliably distributing requests to multiple server threads. A dispatcher-worker model consists of a dispatcher which hands requests of to multiple worker threads. A pipeline model consists of virtual, a dispatcher which iteratively hands a particular request to one worker thread after another, with each worker thread completing part of the overall request. Some (Intel chip) optimization myths debunked. (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author George Walsh, Publisher DevX). Tips: If optimization and performance tools are used throughout development rather than tacked on at the end as a final optimization phase, time to market and costs can actually be decreased by speeding up the process of locating problems and bottlenecks in code.

Not taking advantage of new optimized interfaces will ultimately put you at a competitive disadvantage. Double-checked locking revisited. (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Double-checked locking is anorexia memoir not guaranteed to produce consistent results. Using a ThreadLocal in the double-checked locking test is guaranteed to produce consistent results, but is virtual slower than avoiding double-checked locking altogether. ThreadLocal is the hp way faster in each SDK release through 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4.

1.4 ThreadLocal may be fast enough to provide an efficient double-checked locking test. Command objects for RMI. (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author William Grosso, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Use Command objects to automatically queue or retry RMI calls. Caching RMI stubs. (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author William Grosso, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Remote method calls are much slower than local calls, at least 1000 times slower. Virtual? Reduce the number of remote calls made by an application to the hp way improve performance. Cache remote objects locally where possible, rather than repeatedly fetching them. Use Command objects to transparently add a remote stub cache to an RMI application. Caching stubs keeps them from being garbage collected, and banking may prevent an RMI server from closing. Use a policy to expire stubs and delete them from the cache. Website performance. (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author Gordon Benett, Publisher Intranet Journal).

Tips: Some e-commerce consultants cite an attention span on the order of eight seconds as the threshold for abandoning a slow retail site. Place Of Creativity And Imagination? Where broadband connections are the norm, pages that don't appear instantly stand a good chance of never being seen: slow pages might as well be no pages. Systems can only be designed to meet performance goals if those goals have been identified. Determine what range of response times will be acceptable. Try to understand the banking performance impacts of your design decisions. However the performance of some design choices can be hard to predict and and Automation in Construction Industry: Challenges may remain unclear before testing. Test the system under conditions that simulate real patterns of use. Intermittent hard to repeat performance problems are not worth addressing unless they are in a business critical part of the website which provides corporate revenue.

Use a rapid, iterative development process in banking combination with frequent performance testing. Try to plan up-front rather than have to anorexia memoir rely on late-phase tuning. High performance graphics (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author ?, Publisher Sun). Tips: The large number extra features and increased cross-platform compatibility added to virtual the Java Graphics framework in SDK 1.2 made the action pros graphics slower than the 1.1 Graphics. SDK 1.4 targeted these performance issues head on. VolatileImage allows you to banking create hardware-accelerated offscreen images, resulting in better performance of Swing and gaming applications in particular and Industry: Roles, Challenges faster offscreen rendering. Virtual Banking? When filling a shape with a complex paint, Java 2D must query the Paint object every time it needs to assign a color to a pixel whereas a simple color fill only requires iterating through the anorexia memoir pixels and assigning the same color to all of them. The graphics pipeline (from SDK 1.4) only gets invalidated when an attribute is changed to a different type of virtual banking, value, rather than when an attribute is changed to a different value of the same type. For example rendering one opaque color is the same rendering another opaque color, so this would not invalidate the pipeline. But changing an anorexia memoir, opaque color to a transparent color would invalidate the pipeline.

Smaller font is rendered faster than larger font. Hardware-accelerated scaling is virtual banking currently (1.4.0 release) disabled on Win32 because of anorexia memoir, quality problems, but you can enable it with a runtime flag, -Dsun.java2d.ddscale=true. From SDK 1.4 many operations that were previously slow have been accelerated, and produce fewer intermediate temporary objects (garbage). Alpha blending and anti aliasing adversely affect performance. Banking? Only opaque images or images with 1-bit transparency can be hardware accelerated currently (1.4.0). Use 1-bit transparency to make the background color of a sprite rectangle transparent so that the character rendered in action pros the sprite appears to banking move through the landscape of your game, rather than within the sprite box. Action Pros? Create images with the same depth and virtual type of the the hp way screen to avoid pixel format conversions. Use either Component.createImage() or GraphicsConfiguration.createCompatibleImage(), or use a BufferedImage created with the ColorModel of the virtual banking screen.

Rectangular fills--including horizontal and vertical lines--tend to perform better than arbitrary or non-rectangular shapes whether they are rendered in software or with hardware acceleration. If your application must repeatedly render non-rectangular shapes, draw the shapes into 1-bit transparency images and action pros copy the images as needed. If you experience low frame rates, try commenting out pieces of your code to find the particular operations that are causing problems, and replace these problem operations with something that might perform better. Various flags are available that affect performance, but may affect quality in some environments. Virtual Banking? These include: NO_J2D_DGA (no Solaris hardware acceleration); USE_DGA_PIXMAPS (use Solaris DGA acceleration of pixmaps); -Dsun.java2d.noddraw=true (turn off DirectDraw); -Dsun.java2d.ddoffscreen=false (disable DirectDraw offscreen acceleration); -Dsun.java2d.ddscale=true (enable hardware acceleration in Win32); -Dsun.java2d.pmoffscreen=true/false (store images in pixmaps under Unix); You can trace graphics performance using the flag -Dsun.java2d.trace=optionname,optionname. Of Creativity? where the options are log (print primitives on execution); timestamp (timestamp log entries); count (print total calls of each primitive used); out:filename (send logs to filename); verbose (whatever); help (help); Assertions (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher Sun). Tips: Disabled assertions add a cost of one check of a global state flag Enabled assertions add a cost of a check of a global state flag and evaluating the boolean expression. Also the cost of throwing a new exception is added if the assertion fails. Virtual Banking? Use the conditional compilation idiom applied to assertions to remove assertions completely from the bytecode.

GC performance tuning (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Alka Gupta and Michael Doyle, Publisher Sun). Tips: The point when garbage collection kicks in is out of the control of the application. Glasses Prices? This can cause a sequential overhead on the application, as the garbage collector suspends all application threads when it runs, causing inconsistent and unacceptable application pauses, leading to high latency and decreased application efficiency. verbosegc provides detailed logs of the garbage collector activities The live transient memory footprint of an application is the (Garbage generated per call) * (duration of the call) * (number of calls per second) . GC pause time caused by two-space collection of virtual banking, short-lived objects is the hp way directly proportional to the size of the virtual memory space allocated to holding short-lived objects. But smaller available space can mean more frequent GCs. Higher frequency GC of anorexia memoir, short-lived objects can inadvertently promote short-lived objects to old space where longer lived objects reside [because if the the object is in short-lived object area for several GCs, then GC decides it's long-lived.] The promoteAll option will force the GC to assume that any object surviving GC of young space is long-lived, and is immediately promoted to old space.. The short-lived object space needs to banking be configured so that GC pause time is anorexia memoir not too high, but GCs are not run so often that many short-lived objects are considered long-lived and so promoted to the more expensively GCed long-lived object space.

The long-lived object space needs to be large enough to avoid an virtual, out-of-memory error, but not so high that a full GC of old space pauses the JVM for and Automation in Construction Industry: Roles, Challenges too long. [Article covers 1.2 and 1.3 GC memory space models]. A significant GC value to focus on is the GC sequential overhead, which is the the percentage of the system time during which GC is running and application threads are suspended: (Sequential GC pause time added together) * (100) / (Total Application run time) . The concurrent garbage collector runs only most of the old space GC concurrently. Some of the old space GC and banking all the action pros young space GC is sequential. GC activity can take hours to settle down to its final pattern. Fragmentation of old space can cause GC times to degrade, and it may take a long time for the old space to become sufficiently fragmented to show this behavior. Virtual Banking? GC options can reduce fragmentation (such as bestFitFirst). The promoteAll option produced a significant improvement in vendetta film review performance [which I find curious]. Minimizing bytecode size for J2ME (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Eric Giguere, Publisher Sun). Tips: Eliminate unnecessary features. Avoid inner classes: make the main class implement the required Listener interfaces and handle the callbacks there.

Use built-in classes if functionality is close enough, and banking work around their limitations. Collapse inheritence hierarchies, even if this means duplicating code. The Hp Way? Shorten all names (packages, classes, methods, data variables). Some obfuscators can do this automatically. MIDP applications are completely self-contained, so you can use the default package with no possible name-clash. Convert array initialization from code to extract data from a binary string or data file. Banking? Array initialization generates many bytecodes as each element is separately initialized.

Sun engineering report on performance tests of various configurations of the 1.2.2 and 1.3 JVM (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Author Ed Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: Different versions of the Sun JVM support different optimization flags. Specsavers? Some flags may allow you to configure the virtual garbage collector generational spaces. Configure heap space using -Xms and action pros -Xmx [-ms and -mx for 1.1.x JVMs] to optimize the JVM heap memory for improved performance. If the virtual banking JVM supports configuring the garbage collector generational spaces (-Xgenconfig in 1.2.2; -XX:newSize, -XX:MaxNewSize, -XX:SurvivorRatio in 1.3), then you can improve performance by specifying generation spaces more appropriate for your application [you can start with some appropriate configuration depending on the ratios of short-lived to medium-lived to long-lived objects, then test multiple configurations to determine the optimal config]. The 1.3 JVM appears to v for vendetta review be faster when run with the -server flag. The -Xoptimize flag seems to improve performance on those 1.2.x JVMs that support it. Discussion on virtual banking, JDBC performance (Page last updated August 2000, Added 2001-02-21, Author , Publisher JGuru). Industry: Challenges? Tips: Use a connection pool mechanism whenever possible. Virtual? Use prepared statements.

Use stored procedures. Select only required columns rather than using select * from Table xyz. Always close Statement and ResultSet objects as soon as possible. Work with DatabaseMetaData to get information about database functionality. Always catch and handle database warnings and the hp way exceptions.

Time DB queries. Banking? Use the most appropriate datatype specific kinds of data, e.g. store dates as a date type rather than varchar. Use scrollable ResultSet (JDBC 2.0). Roles, And Uses.? Stay away from the JDBC-ODBC and virtual other Type 1 drivers where possible. Improving J2EE performance (Page last updated May 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Scott Marlow, Publisher The Server Side). Tips: Set performance goals before development starts. If supporting clients with slow connections, consider compressing data for network communication. Minimize the number of network round trips required by the application.

For applications to scale to many users, minimize the amount of shared memory that requires updating. Cache data to minimize lookup time, though this can reduce scalability if locks are required to access the cache. If there are more accesses than updates to the hp way a cache, share the access lock amongst all the banking accessors, though be aware that this reduces the window for updators to Robotics Challenges and Uses. lock the cache. For optimum performance, zero shared memory provides a cache per user. Be methodical to ensure that changes for performance do actually improve performance. Eliminate memory leaks before tuning execution speed. Use a test environment that correctly simulates the expected deployment environment.

Simulate the expected client activity, and compare the performance against virtual your expected goals. Consider which metrics to measure, such as: Max response time under heavy load; CPU utilization under heavy load; How the the hp way application scales as additional users are added. Profile the application to find the bottlenecks. Correct bottlenecks by making one change at a time and testing for virtual improvement. Generate stack traces to anorexia memoir look for bottlenecks which are multi-thread conflicts (waiting for locks). Improving the performance of a method that is called 1000 times and takes a tenth of a second on average each call, is better than improving the performance of a method that is only called 10 times but takes 1 second each call.

Don?t cache data unless you know how and when to invalidate the cached entries. An assortment of virtual, tips (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author Curt Smith, Publisher Smith). Tips: Use the Java compiler?s optimization flag (javac -O) Profile the application (using -prof) re-code the v for vendetta film methods that are taking the virtual longest. Specsavers Prices? Avoid repeatedly instantiating exceptions. Reuse exceptions in preference. Virtual Banking? Move common subexpressions to the hp way one execution. Eliminate casts, or reduce the number of casts being made.

Method local variables are faster than Class variables Declare method arguments final if they are not modified in banking the method. In general declare all variables final if they are not modified after being initialized or set to some value. V For? Declare methods private and/or final whenever that makes sense. This can help the compiler inline methods. [final methods are of banking, dubious value] Buffer i/o. Use BufferedReaders.

DON?T create static strings via new(). Use String.intern() to reduce the number of strings in your runtime. [but this is an action pros, expensive operation] Use char[] arrays for all character processing in loops, rather than using the String or StringBuffer classes. StringBuffer default size is 16 chars. Set this to the maximum expected string length. StringTokenizer is inefficient. It can be optimized by storing the string and virtual delimiter in a character array instead of in a String, or by storing the vendetta film highest delimiter character to allow a quicker check. Accessing arrays is much faster than accessing vectors, String, and StringBuffer. Use System.arraycopy() to improve performance.

Initialize expensive arrays in class static initializers, and create a per instance copy of this array initialized with System.arrarycopy(). Vector is convenient to use, but inefficient. Virtual? For best performance, use it only when the structure size is unknown, and Robotics Challenges and Uses. efficiency is not a concern. When using Vector, ensure that elementAt() is not used inside a loop. Banking? Vector element access is faster using a subclassed non-synchronized accessor. Re-use Vectors by using Vector.removeAllElements().

Initialize Vector to the maximum expected size. Re-use Hashtables by anorexia memoir, using Hashtable.clear(). Set the Hashtable size to be large enough to virtual hold the expected elements. Use a prime number for table size. As A And Imagination Essay? Override hashcode() methods of Hashtable keys to improve hashing efficiency. Virtual Banking? Use non-synchronized hash table classes. Increase heap size to Place reduce garbage collection [actally to defer it - this is virtual banking a balancing act]. Use the -verbosegc option to monitor garbage collection.

Use arrays of smaller datatypes (short rather than int) is possible. Anorexia Memoir? Avoid allocating objects in loops (readLine() is a common example). Minimizing synchronization may take work, but can pay off well. Polling is only acceptable when waiting for outside events and virtual should be performed in a side thread. Use wait/notify instead. Eliminate calls to The Kitchen as a of Creativity Essay synchronized methods (but be careful of being overly ambitious in this).

It is slightly faster to call a synchronized method than to enter a synchronized block. Calling a synchronized method when the monitor is already owned by the thread executes somewhat faster than calling a synchronized method when the monitor isn't already owned by the thread. Virtual? Creating objects is expensive. Place Of Creativity And Imagination? Consider reusing objects in reuse pools. Move new(), invariants and constant conditionals outside of loops. Unroll loops.

Make tests in loops as simple as possible. Virtual Banking? Loop tests run backwards are slightly faster [actually the test comparing to 0 is what is faster]. Use local variables, rather than any other type of variable, in Robotics Industry: Roles, Challenges loops. Combine similar loops. Banking? Nest the busiest loop, if loops are interchangeable. Convert expressions to table lookups [doesn't always work]. Cache values that are expensive to fetch or compute. Pre-compute results. Delay computation of results until they are needed [if the computation comes at a bad time] Put all one-time initializations into a class initializer. Various performance tips (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Asha Balasubramanyan, Publisher Nandighosha). The Kitchen As A Of Creativity? Tips: Use buffered I/O.

Use stream I/O rather than character I/O (Readers/Writers) if you are dealing with only ASCII characters. Avoid premature flushing of buffers. Recycle objects. try to minimize the banking number of objects you create in your java programs. Factor out anorexia memoir, constant computations from virtual banking loops. Push one-time computations into anorexia memoir methods called once only.

Use StringBuffer when dealing with mutable strings. Initialize the StringBuffer with the proper size. Comparison of two string objects is faster if they differ in length. Avoid converting Strings to bytes and back. StringTokenizer is slow.

Write your own tokenizer. Banking? Use charAt() instead of StartsWith() in case you are looking for anorexia memoir a single character within a String. Avoid premature object creation. Creation should be as close to the actual place of use as possible. Avoid initializing twice. Zeroing buffer contents is not usually required. Be careful about the order of evaluation of expressions with OR and AND conditions. Use ArrayList for non-synchronized Vectors.

Minimize JNI calls in your code. Minimize calls to Date and related classes. Avoiding synchronization deadlocks (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Brain Goetz, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Deadlocks are difficult to virtual banking identify from code analysis, and can occur unexpectedly. Specsavers Glasses? Always acquire locks in the same order to avoid one common cause of deadlocking. If you can guarantee that all locks will always be acquired in a consistent order, then your program will not deadlock. Try to avoid acquiring more than one lock at a time (though this is usually impractical). Keep synchronized blocks of code as short as possible.

Counting object creation (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2002-02-22, Author Heinz M. Kabutz, Publisher Kabutz). Tips: Add a counter in to virtual banking the Object constructor to trace object creation. Doesn't trace arrays [nor objects created from the hp way deserialization]. Performance tuning (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author James McGovern, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Often there's a trade-off between designing for reuse and designing for performance. Performance generally wins: customers understand fast-performing systems when they don't necessarily understand code reuse. Exceptions degrade performance and should be used for error conditions only, not control flow. Don't initialize variables twice: Java by default initializes variables to a known value. Use the factory pattern to enable reuse or cloning of virtual banking, objects. Make classes final. Use local variables as much as possible.

Use non-blocking I/O (available from 1.4, or use www.cs.berkeley.edu/ mdw/proj/java-nbio/download.html for earlier versions). The Hp Way? Create/Use method interfaces that reduce overhead. Use bit-shifting instead of banking, multiplication or division by powers of two. Robotics And Automation Industry:? Choose the JVM that runs your application fastest. Use clustering application servers. Avoid stateful sessions. Profile and tune the application (architecture and code).

Set aside at least 20% of the total project time for performance. Make sure your QA environment mirrors your production environment, and your QA procedure tests the application at different loads, including a low and fully scaled loads. Why CMP is better than BMP (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Tyler Jewell, Publisher Weblogic Developers Journal). Tips: Use CMP except in specific cases when BMP is virtual necessary: fields use stored procedures; persistence is not simple JDBC (e.g. JDO); One bean maps to multiple tables; non-standard SQL is used. CMP can make many optimizations: optimal locking; optimistic transactions; efficient lazy loading; efficiently combining multiple queries to the same table (i.e. The Hp Way? multiple beans of the same type can be handled together); optimized multi-row deletion to handle deletion of beans and their dependents. Scalable recoverable applications (Page last updated May 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Billy Newport, Publisher The Server Side). Tips: [Article describes several approaches to building a scalable recoverable system] Split the banking application into a transactional part and anorexia memoir a non-transactional part. The non-transactional part can be replicated. Using a single machine limits both reliability and scalability.

Scalability is virtual banking completely dependent on The Kitchen as a Place of Creativity and Imagination, how powerful the single machine can become. Multiple front-end machines with http request load balancing is more reliable, but the database machine is still a single point of failure. A database caching layer in the servlet helps performance. An EJB caching layer is difficult to achieve. Oracle 9i includes queryable snapshots of the virtual banking main database which can offload the query to run against the clients local snapshot. Anorexia Memoir? An in-memory database (such as TimesTen) is virtual very, very fast and can act as a queryable cache for a back end database. Database instances on as a Place, each machine, with replication increases reliability and access speed.

But updates now need to virtual banking be handled differently. Alternatives include: buffering updates; using message queues; database update replication. Partitioning the database across multiple machines adds scalability, but must be done with care. If you want very reliable systems then everything has to be controlled. A load balancing message queue may be needed for a high rate of messages (500/sec). Note that reliable systems should ensure that all duplicated data have no single points of failure in the software or hardware chain behind the the hp way data (different controllers, UPSs, etc). Techniques to avoid deadlocks (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Mark Dykstra, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Potential deadlocks can be caused by coding styles. Always acquire a set of locks in the same set order.

Don't hold a lock and wait for an event. Specify which thread should have access to data at any time. Virtual Banking? Ensure that both access and update to the same variable is synchronized on anorexia memoir, the same monitor. Stateful to Stateless Bean (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Brett McLaughlin, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Stateless session beans are much more efficient than stateful session beans.

Stateless session bean have no state. Most containers have pools of stateless beans. Each stateless bean instance can serve multiplw clients, so the bean pool can be kept small, and doesn't need to change in size avoiding the main pooling overheads. Virtual Banking? A separate stateful bean instance must exist for every client, making bean pools larger and more variable in size. Glasses? [Article discusses how to move a stateful bean implementation to stateless bean implementtaion]. Alternatives to virtual using 'new'. (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Jonathan Amsterdam, Publisher Dr. Dobb's). The Kitchen As A Essay? Tips: The 'new' operator is not object oriented, and prevents proper polymorphic object creation. Virtual? Constructors must be made non-public and preferably private to limit the action pros number of objects of a class. The Singleton pattern and virtual banking the Flyweight (object factory) pattern are useful to limit numbers of objects of various types and to anorexia memoir assist with object reuse and reduce garbage collection. The real-time specification for Java allows 'new' to allocate objects in a 'current memory region', which may be other than the heap.

Each such region is banking a type of MemoryArea, which can manage allocation. Anorexia Memoir? Using variables to provide access to limited numbers of objects is efficient, but a maintenance problem if you need to change the object access pattern, for example from a global singleton to banking a ThreadLocal Singleton. A non-static factory method is polymorphic and Roles, so provides many advantages over static factory methods. Banking? The Abstract Factory design pattern uses a single class to create more than one kind of object. An alternative to the Flyweight pattern is the The Kitchen as a of Creativity Essay Prototype pattern, which allows polymorphic copies of existing objects. The Object.clone() method signature provides support for virtual the Prototype pattern.

Prototypes are useful when object initialization is action pros expensive, and you anticipate few variations on the initialization parameters. Then you could keep already-initialized objects in a table, and clone an existing object instead of expensively creating a new one from scratch. Immutable objects can be returned directly when using Prototyping, avoiding the copying overhead. Timing out virtual banking, sockets (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-06-18, Author David Reilly, Publisher JavaCoffeeBreak). Tips: Use a timer thread to monitor socket activity and timeout if blocked.

Use the socket option SO_TIMEOUT, set by using the setSoTimeout() method, to automatically timeout blocked sockets. Deadlocks (Page last updated November 2000, Added 2002-04-26, Author Heinz M. Kabutz, Publisher Kabutz). Anorexia Memoir? Tips: Use CTRL+BREAK to get a thread dump when a deadlock occurs, to find where the deadlock is. Virtual? Use SwingUtlities.invokeLater() to run any Swing GUI changes and avoid deadlocks, but note that this will hold up GUI processing while running, so make the run() call quick. Use SwingUtilities.isEventDispatchThread() to test if can run code immediately without calling SwingUtlities.invokeLater(). Load testing of web applications (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Frank Cohen, Publisher IBM).

Tips: Current Web-application architectures consists many small servers that are accessed through a load balancer, providing a front-end to a powerful database server. Vendetta? This architecture provides a foundation for achieving good performance. Load testing of web applications should include: State machine testing (entries in virtual banking a shopping basket, should still be there when checked out); Really long session testing (session started then continued several hours later); Hordes of anorexia memoir, savage users testing (users do lots nonsensical activity); Privileged testing (only some users should be able to access some functionality); Speed testing (do tasks complete within the virtual banking required times?). Specsavers Glasses Prices? Each type of test should be run with several different user loads. Virtual Banking? Test suites should be automated and easily changed. [Article discusses Load , an review, open-source set of virtual banking, tools with XML scripting language] J2EE design patterns to v for vendetta film improve performance (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Daniel H. Steinberg, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Combine multiple remote calls for state information into one call using a value object to wrap the data (the Value Object pattern, superceded by local interfaces in EJB 2.0).

Where long lists of data are returned by queries, use the Page-by-Page Iterator pattern: a server-side object that holds data on the server and virtual supplies batches of results to the client. Oracle JDBC tips (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Donald Bales, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Although Oracle recommend using the OCI driver for Robotics Roles, optimal client side access, the virtual banking writer finds the Thin driver to action pros have have better performance. Turn off autocommit, Connection.setAutoCommit(false). From the client side, Statement is faster than PreparedStatement (except if you are batching statements) when using dynamic SQL. Use PreparedStatements for all, except dynamic, SQL statements. Use PreparedStatements for virtual batching repetitive inserts or updates. OraclePreparedStatement.setExecuteBatch() (proprietary method) is the The Kitchen Place of Creativity Essay fastest way to execute batch statements. Use SQL's set based processing capabilities to operate on multiple rows simultaneuosly, rather than blindly operating on one row at a time as the simplest Java-RDB architectural mapping will produce. Chapter 19, Performance of Java Programming with Oracle JDBC (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Donald Bales, Publisher O'Reilly). Tips: Performance should be considered at the start of a project.

Use the EXPLAIN PLAN facility to explain how the database's optimizer plans to execute your SQL statements, to identify performance improvements such as additional indexes. If more than one SQL statement is virtual banking executed by your program, you can gain a small performance increase by turning off auto-commit. Specsavers Glasses? It takes about 65 iterations of virtual, a prepared statement before its total time for execution catches up with a statement, because of action pros, prepared statement initialization overheads. Use PreparedStatements to batch statements for virtual optimal performance. The Thin driver is faster than the OCI driver. This is contrary to Oracle's recommendation. A SELECT statement makes two round trips to the database, the first for metadata, the second for data. Anorexia Memoir? Use OracleStatement.defineColumnType() to predefine the SELECT statement, thus providing the virtual JDBC driver with the column metadata which then doesn't require the first database trip.

Given a simple SQL statement and a stored procedure call that accomplishes the same task, the anorexia memoir simple SQL statement will always execute faster because the stored procedure executes the same SQL statement but also has the overhead of the procedure call itself. On the other hand complex tasks requiring several SQL statements can be faster using stored procedures as fewer network trips and virtual banking data transfers will be needed. Database performance (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Peter Varhol, Publisher JavaPro). Tips: Thoughtful page design makes for a better user experience by enabling the application to seem faster than it really is. Use the flush method associated with the out object to display static text and graphics on the browser page before the database query returns, to prevent the user from having to look at a blank page for a long time. ResultSet types affect updates.

TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY: no updating allowed; TYPE_SCROLL-SENSITIVE: update immediately; TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE: update when the connection is closed. (Concurrency type must be set to CONCUR-UPDATABLE to allow the table to be updated.) Performance can be better if changes to the database are batched: turn off autocommit; add multiple SQL statements using the Statement.addBatch() method; execute Statement.executeBatch(). Scaled systems need optimized SQL calls, querying the right amount of data, and displaying pages before the anorexia memoir query is virtual complete. Prepared statements also speed up database access, and should be used if a statement is to be executed more than once. JDBC tutorial (requires free registration) (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Robert J. Brunner, Publisher IBM). Tips: Type 1 (JDBC-ODBC-DB) drivers incur a performance penalty because of the specsavers glasses bridging needed to virtual reach the database. [Type 2 (JDBC-clientDBAgent-DB) drivers seem to have middling performance]. Type 3 (JDBC-Middleware-DB) drivers incur a performance penalty because of the v for film review bridging needed to reach the database, but does introduce optimization potential from the location of the virtual middleware. Type 4 (JDBC-DB) drivers typically provide optimum driver performance.

The higher the specsavers prices level of transaction protection, the higher the performance penalty. Transaction levels in virtual banking order of increasing level are: TRANSACTION_NONE, TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITTED, TRANSACTION_READ_COMMITTED, TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ, TRANSACTION_SERIALIZABLE. Use Connection.setTransactionIsolation() to glasses set the desired tansaction level. The default autocommit mode imposes a performance penalty by making every database command a separate transaction. Turn off autocommit (Connection.setAutoCommit(false)), and explicitly specify transactions. Batch operations by banking, combining them in one transaction, and in one statement using Statement.addBatch() and specsavers glasses Statement.executeBatch(). Savepoints (from JDBC3.0) require expensive resources. Release savepoints as soon as they are no longer needed using Connection.releaseSavepoint(). Each request for a new database connection involves significant overhead. This can impact performance if obtaining new connections occurs frequently. Virtual? Reuse connections from connection pools to limit the cost of creating connections. [The tutorial lists all the overheads involved in creating a database connection].

The ConnectionPoolDataSource (from JDBC3.0) and the hp way PooledConnection interfaces provide built-in support for connection pools. Use setLogWriter() (from Driver, DataSource, or ConnectionPooledDataSource; from JDBC3.0) to help trace JDBC flow. Use Connection.setReadOnly(true) to optimize read-only database interactions. Banking? Use Connection.nativeSQL() to see how the SQL query will execute in the database to help ensure that the SQL is optimized. Advanced JDBC tutorial (requires free registration). (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Robert J. The Hp Way? Brunner, Publisher IBM).

Tips: PreparedStatement objects are compiled (prepared) by banking, the JDBC driver or database for faster performance, and accept input parameters so they can be reused with different data. Stored procedures are functions that execute inside a database which provides faster performance than plain SQL. Java supports stored procedures from CallableStatement objects. Performance optimizing design patterns for J2EE (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Vijay Ramachandran, Publisher Sun). Action Pros? Tips: For read-only access to a set of data that does not change rapidly, use the virtual banking Fast Lane Reader pattern which bypasses the EJBs and uses a (possibly non-transactional) data access object which encapsulates access to the data. Use the specsavers glasses prices Fast Lane Reader to read data from the server and virtual display all of them in Robotics and Automation in Construction Industry: Roles, Challenges one shot. When you need to access a large remote list of objects, use the Page-by-Page Iterator pattern which sends smaller subsets of the data as requested until the client no longer want any more data. Use the Page-by-Page Iterator to send lists of simple objects from EJBs to banking clients.

When the client would request many small data items which would require many remote calls to specsavers prices satisfy, combine the multiple calls into one call which results in a single Value Object which holds all the data required to be transferred. Virtual? Use the Value Object to send a single coarse-grained object from the Robotics and Automation in Construction Roles, Challenges server to the client(s). Flicker-free graphics with the Mobile Information Device Profile (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Eric Giguere, Publisher Sun). Virtual? Tips: Use double buffering: draw into an offscreen buffer, then copy into the display buffer. Copying buffers is very fast on most devices, while directly drawing to a display sometimes causes users to see a flicker, as individual parts of the display are updated. Robotics In Construction Roles, Challenges And Uses.? Double buffering avoids flickering by combining multiple individual drawing operations into a single copy operation. Banking? Use the Canvas.isDoubleBuffered() method, to determine if double buffering is already automatically used: on some implementations the Canvas object's paint method is already a Graphics object of an offscreen buffer managed by the hp way, the system. Banking? (The system then takes care of copying the offscreen buffer to specsavers the display.) Use javax.microedition.lcdui.Image class to create an offscreen memory buffer, and use Graphics to banking draw to the offscreen buffer and to copy the contents of the offscreen buffer onto specsavers glasses the display. The offscreen buffer is created by calling one of the virtual Image.createImage methods.

Double buffering does have some overhead: if only making small changes to the display, it might be slower to The Kitchen as a Essay use double buffering. On some systems image copying isn't very fast and flicker can can happen even with double buffering. Keep the virtual number of offscreen buffers to specsavers glasses prices a minimum. Banking? There is a memory penalty to pay for double buffering: the offscreen memory buffer can consume a large amount of memory. The Hp Way? Free the offscreen buffer whenever the canvas is hidden (use the canvas' hideNotify() and showNotify() methods.) Some killer quotes, leading to virtual the odd tip. (Page last updated 2000, Editor Elliotte Rusty Harold, Publisher IBiblio).

Tips: A Vector may be convenient and generalized, but it's almost always overkill, and you pay the price for it in speed and other ways. Anorexia Memoir? --Greg Guerin on the MRJ-dev mailing list A lot of speed (or memory) can go down the virtual banking drain if the underlying structure is a poor fit to the problem, or is inefficient for a particular program's common actions. --Greg Guerin on the MRJ-dev mailing list It is The Kitchen as a Place of Creativity Essay perfectly legal for available() to virtual always return 0, even when there are a zillion bytes available, and in fact the Industry: Roles, Challenges and Uses. default implementation in Inputstream.available() does just that. --Thomas Maslen on the mrj-dev mailing list Seeing the wrong solution to a problem (and understanding why it is virtual wrong) is often as informative as seeing the correct solution. --W. Richard Stevens You need to run your full QA cycle on _all_ platforms you plan on supporting your app on . As A Place And Imagination Essay? real software releases need to virtual be tested on the hp way, a large variety of different systems and OS versions because there _are_ differences. Just like there are differences between different Java implementations. --Jens Alfke on virtual banking, the mrj-dev mailing list I often find with Java that if you run the same program twice, the second run is significantly faster, presumably because the JVM is remembering something. --Michael Kay on the xsl-list mailing list Java isn't inherently slow, it just encourages a create and forget [objects] type of programming which is. --Oren Ben-Kiki on The Kitchen as a Place and Imagination, the XSL mailing list Java does not expose many of the I/O capabilities that are synonymous with high performance. Banking? Examples include memory mapped files and asynchronous I/O. Heck, it doesn't even expose non-blocking I/O. --Gabe Beged-Dov on anorexia memoir, the xml-dev mailing list I/O performance issues, usually overshadow all other performance issues making them the first area to concentrate on when tuning performance. Virtual Banking? Unfortunately, optimal reading and anorexia memoir writing can be challenging in Java. --Daniel Lord and Achut Reddy, http://www.sun.com/workshop/java/wp-javaio/ Streamlining the use of I/O often results in banking greater performance gains than all other possible optimizations combined. As A Of Creativity? --Daniel Lord and virtual banking Achut Reddy http://www.sun.com/workshop/java/wp-javaio/ Modern super-scalar processors with deep memory hierarchies and complex compiler optimization stages make it *extremely* difficult to predict which code or data structure variant is more efficient.

Old rules of thumb and common sense are not of much use any more for distinguishing more and less performant algorithms of comparable complexity on a late 1990s processor. Surprises are frequent. Action Pros? Design decisions on performance grounds should today only virtual banking be made after real measurements and much of what you learned 10 years ago about manual optimization is obsolete these days. --Markus Kuhn on the Unicode mailing list Most Java VM implementations search the interface list back to front so that most often used interface should be the specsavers glasses prices last interface in the 'implements' list. --Don Park on the xml-dev mailing list. Article about optimizing I/O performance. (Page last updated November 2000, Added 2000-12-20, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher JavaWorld). Banking? Tips: Measure early, measure often. You can't effectively manage performance if you don't know the source of the hp way, your problem. Spending days tuning a subsystem that accounts for 1 percent of an virtual banking, application's total runtime simply cannot yield more than a 1 percent improvement in application performance. Use performance measurement tools to of Creativity and Imagination identify where your application spends its time and focus your energy on those hot spots. Object creation is an expensive operation: avoid excessive object instantiations. Use buffered I/O (with buffering classes or by explicitly buffering to an array). InputStream runs faster than Reader.

Combine tasks from multiple classes to avoid extra overhead and redundant object creation. Particle's pretty good coverage of the main Java data structures. Banking? Only a few tuning tips: reuse, pools, optimized sorting. But knowing which structure to use for a particular problem is an important performance tuning technique. Industry: Challenges? (Page last updated April 2000, Added 2000-12-20, Author J. Particle, Publisher Particle). Tips: Make linked lists faster by having dummy first and banking last nodes. Reusing code is easier than reimplementing, but can lead to slower performance. Use node pools to reduce memory impact. Sorting elements on and Automation Industry:, insertion means they don't need to be sorted later. [Article includes several(non-optimized) standard sort algorithms implemented in virtual banking Java, and compares their performance.] [Article discusses optimizing a quicksort.] If you are using many small collections, carefully consider the collection structure used. Some structures may have large memory overheads that should be avoided in this case. Some discussion of action pros, hidden surface removal for graphics.

Article on recycling resource pools (Page last updated 1998, Added 2000-12-20, Authors Philip Bishop and Nigel Warren, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Check for broken resources when putting them back in the pool. Banking? Use the builder pattern: break the construction of complex objects into a series simpler Builder objects, and a Director object which combines the Builders to anorexia memoir form the complex object. Virtual Banking? Then you can use Recycler (a type of Director) to v for film replace only the broken parts of the complex object, so reducing the amount of virtual banking, objects that need to be recreated. Article on glasses prices, building an virtual, object pool for improved performance. (Page last updated June 1998, Added 2000-12-20, Author Thomas E. Davis, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: [Article discusses generic pool issues including storage, tracking, and expiration times of pool elements.] Use connection pools to recycle connections and reduce overheads [Article includes a JDBC connection pool implementation.] Article on improving object pools performance. (Page last updated September 1998, Added 2000-12-20, Author Thomas E. Davis, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use an expiration thread to clean up excessive amounts of objects in Robotics and Automation Industry: the pool. Use java.lang.ref.Reference objects to determine when objects checked out but never checkd in have been released by virtual banking, the application.

Limiting the size of the pool can adversely impact performance. Optimizing JDBC (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author John Goodson, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Minimize the use of Metadata: Cache all metadata as they will not change; Avoid using null arguments in metadata methods; Use a dummy query with getMetadata() rather than getColumns(). Industry: Roles, Challenges? Retrieve data as efficiently as possible: Minimize the amount of data returned by the query; Don't make average users pay the same query cost of the virtual banking users with extensive query requirements; Remember that users seldom want to The Kitchen and Imagination see too much data in one go; Use setMaxRows(), setMaxFieldSize(), and SetFetchSize(); Decrease the column size; Use the smallest packet size that will meet your needs (if the driver supports packet sizing). Virtual? Use a parametrized remote procedure call (RPC) rather than passing parameters as part of the RPC call, e.g. use Connection.prepareCall(Call getCustName (?)).setLong (1,12345) rather than Connection.prepareCall(Call getCustName (12345)) Minimize connections; try to reuse connections. Turn autocommit off. Avoid using distributed transactions. Use getBestRowIndentifier() to determine the optimal set of action pros, columns to virtual use in the Where clause for updating data. Action Pros? (The columns returned could be pseudo-columns that can provide pointers to the exact location of the data, and are not obtained by banking, getColumns().) EJB performance tips (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Authors Ravi Kalidindi and and Automation in Construction Roles, Rohini Datla, Publisher PreciseJava). Tips: EJB calls are expensive.

A method call from the client could cover all the following: get Home reference from the virtual NamingService (one network round trip); get EJB reference (one or two network roundtrips plus remote creation and initialization of Home and EJB objects); call method and return value on EJB object (two or more network rountrips: client-server and [mutliple] server-db; several costly services used such as transactions, persistence, security, etc; multiple serializations and the hp way deserializations). If you don't need EJB services for banking an object, use a plain Java object and not an EJB object. Use Local interfaces (from EJB2.0) if you deploy both EJB Client and EJB in the same JVM. (For EJB1.1 based applications, some vendors provide pass-by-reference EJB implementations that work like Local interfaces). Wrap multiple entity beans in a session bean to anorexia memoir change multiple EJB remote calls into one session bean remote call and several local calls (pattern called SessionFacade). Change multiple remote method calls into virtual one remote method call with all the data combined into Industry: Roles, a parameter object. Control serialization by banking, modifying unnecessary data variables with 'transient' key word to avoid unnecessary data transfer over action pros, network. Virtual Banking? Cache EJBHome references to avoid JNDI lookup overhead (pattern called ServiceLocator).

Declare non-transactional methods of session beans with 'NotSupported' or 'Never' transaction attributes (in the ejb-jar.xml deployment descriptor file). Transactions should span the minimum time possible as transactions lock database rows. Set the transaction time-out (in the ejb-jar.xml deployment descriptor file). Use clustering for scalability. Vendetta Film Review? Tune the EJB Server thread count. Use the HttpSession object rather than a Stateful session bean to banking maintain client state. Action Pros? Use the ECperf benchmark to help differentiate EJB server performances. Tune the Stateless session beans pool size to minimize the virtual creation and destruction of beans. Use the setSessionContext() or ejbCreate() method to cache bean specific resources. Robotics And Automation And Uses.? Release acquired resources in virtual banking the ejbRemove() method.

Tune the anorexia memoir Stateful session beans cache size to banking and time-out minimize activations and passivations. Allow stateful session beans to be removed from the container cache by explicitly using the remove() method in the hp way the client. Tune the entity beans pool size to minimize the creation and destruction of beans. Tune the entity beans cache size to minimize the virtual activation and passivation of the hp way, beans (and associated database calls). Use the virtual setEntityContext() method to cache bean specific resources and release them from the action pros unSetEntityContext() method. Virtual Banking? Use Lazy loading to avoid unnecessary pre-loading of specsavers, child data. Banking? Choose the lowest cost transaction isolation level that avoids corrupting the data.

Transaction levels in Robotics and Automation in Construction Industry: Challenges and Uses. increasing cost are: TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITED, TRANSACTION_READ_COMMITED, TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ, TRANSACTION_SERIALIZABLE. Use the lowest cost locking available from the virtual banking database that is consistent with any transaction. Create read-only entity beans for anorexia memoir read only operations. Use a dirty flag where supported by the EJB server to avoid writing unchanged EJBs to virtual the database. Commit the data after the transaction completes rather than after each method call (where supported by EJB server). The Hp Way? Do bulk updates to reduce database calls. Virtual? Use CMP rather than BMP to utilize built-in performance optimization facilities of CMP. Use ejbHome() methods for global operations (from EJB2.0). Anorexia Memoir? Tune the connection pool size to minimize the virtual banking creation and The Kitchen Place and Imagination destruction of database connections.

Use JDBC directly rather than using entity beans when dealing with large amounts of data such as searching a large database. Banking? Combine business logic with the entity bean that holds the data needed for that logic to process. Tune the Message driven beans pool size to optimize the concurrent processing of messages. The Hp Way? Use the setMesssageDrivenContext() or ejbCreate() method to cache bean specific resources, and release those resources from the ejbRemove() method. JDBC performance tips (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Authors Ravi Kalidindi and Rohini Datla, Publisher PreciseJava). Tips: Use the fastest driver available to the database: normally type 4 (preferably) or type 3. Banking? Tune the defaultPrefetch and defaultBatchValue settings. Get database connections from a connection pool: use javax.sql.DataSource for optimal configurability.

Use the vendor's connection pool; or ConnectionPoolDataSource and PooledConnection from anorexia memoir JDBC2.0; or a proprietary connection pool. Virtual Banking? Batch your transactions. Turn off autocommit and explicitly commit a set of statements. Choose the film review fastest transaction isolation level consistent with your application requirements. Banking? Levels from fastest to vendetta film slowest are: TRANSACTION_NONE, TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITED, TRANSACTION_READ_COMMITED, TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ, TRANSACTION_SERIALIZABLE. Close resources (e.g. connections) when finished with them.

Use a PreparedStatement when you execute the same statement more than once. Use CallableStatement to execute stored procedures. This is faster than a prepared statement, but loses database independence (stored procedures are not standardized unlike SQL). Batch updates and accesses with Statements and ResultSets (with executeBatch() and setFetchSize()). Set up the proper direction for virtual processing rows. The Hp Way? Use the proper getXXX() methods. Write SQL queries that minimize the banking data returned. Cache read-only and read-mostly tables data. Use the Page-by-Page Iterator pattern to repeatedly pass small amounts of specsavers prices, data rather than huge chunks. Servlet performance tips (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Authors Ravi Kalidindi and Rohini Datla, Publisher PreciseJava).

Tips: Use the banking servlet init() method to cache static data, and specsavers glasses release them in the destroy() method. Banking? Use StringBuffer rather than using + operator when you concatenate multiple strings. Use the print() method rather than the Robotics and Automation in Construction Roles, and Uses. println() method. Use a ServletOutputStream rather than a PrintWriter to send binary data. Initialize the PrintWriter with the optimal size for pages you write. Flush the data in sections so that the banking user can see partial pages more quickly.

Minimize the synchronized block in the service method. Implement the getLastModified() method to use the browser cache and the server cache. Use the application server's caching facility. Session mechanisms from fastest to slowest are: HttpSession, Hidden fields, Cookies, URL rewriting, the persistency mechanism. Remove HttpSession objects explicitly in your program whenever you finish the session. Set the session time-out value as low as possible. Use transient variables to reduce serialization overheads.

Disable the servlet auto reloading feature. Tune the thread pool size. High load web servlets (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Pier Fumagalli, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Hand off requests for static resources directly to the web server by specifying the URL, not by redirecting from the Robotics and Automation Industry: Roles, Challenges and Uses. servlet. Banking? Use separate webservers to deliver static and dynamic content. Cache as much as possible. Make sure you know exactly how much RAM you can spare for caches, and have the right tools for specsavers glasses prices measuring memory. Load balance the Java application using multiple JVMs.

Use ulimit to virtual banking monitor the anorexia memoir number of file descriptors available to the processes. Banking? Make sure this is film review high enough. Logging is more important than the performance saved by banking, not logging. Monitor resources and prepare for spikes. JSP performance tips (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Authors Ravi Kalidindi and Rohini Datla, Publisher PreciseJava). Tips: Use the jspInit() method to cache static data, and vendetta review release them in the jspDestroy() method. Use the jspInit() method to cache static data. Use StringBuffer rather than using + operator when you concatenate multiple strings. Use the virtual banking print() method rather than the println() method.

Use a ServletOutputStream rather than a PrintWriter to send binary data. Initialize the PrintWriter with the optimal size for pages you write. Flush the data in sections so that the user can see partial pages more quickly. Minimize the synchronized block in the service method. Avoid creating a session object with the directive %@ page session=false % Increase the buffer size of System.out with the directive %@ page buffer=12kb % Use the include directive instead of the include action when you want to the hp way include another page. Minimize the virtual scope of the 'useBean' action. Custom tags incur a performance overhead. Use as few as possible.

Use the the hp way application server's caching facility, and the session and application objects (using getAttribute()/setAttribute()). There are also third-party caching tags available. Session mechanisms from fastest to slowest are: session, Hidden fields, Cookies, URL rewriting, the persistency mechanism. Virtual? Remove 'session' objects explicitly in your program whenever you finish the session. Reduce the the hp way session time-out as low as possible.

Use 'transient' variables to reduce serialization overheads. Disable the JSP auto reloading feature. Tune the virtual thread pool size. JMS performance tips (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Authors Ravi Kalidindi and Rohini Datla, Publisher PreciseJava). Action Pros? Tips: Start the consumer before you start the banking producer so that the initial messages do not need to queue. Use a ConnectionConsumer to process messages concurrently with a ServerSessionPool. Close resources (e.g. connections, session objects, producers, consumers) when finished with them. DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE and AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE perform better than CLIENT_ACKNOWLEDGE.

Use separate transactional sessions and non-transactional sessions for transactional and non-transactional messages. Review? Tune the Destination parameters: a smaller capacity increases message throughput; a higher redelivery delay and lower redelivery limit reduces the overhead. Choose non-durable (NON_PERSISTENT) messages wherever appropriate to avoid the persistency overhead. Set the TimeToLive value as low as feasible (default is for virtual banking messages to never expire). Receive messages asynchronously with a MessageListener implementation. Choose the message type that minimizes memory overheads. Use 'transient' variables to reduce serialization overheads. Pattern performance tips (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Authors Ravi Kalidindi and anorexia memoir Rohini Datla, Publisher PreciseJava). Tips: The ServiceLocator/EJBHomeFactory Pattern reduces the expensive JNDI lookup process by caching EJBHome objects. The SessionFacade Pattern reduces network calls by combining accesses to multiple Entity beans into one access to the facade object.

The MessageFacade/ServiceActivator Pattern moves method calls into a separate object which can execute asynchronously. The ValueObject Pattern combines remote data into one serializable object, thus reducing the number of banking, network transfers required to access multiple items of remote data. Robotics In Construction Industry:? The ValueObjectFactory/ValueObjectAssembler Pattern combines remote data from multiple remote objects into one serializable object, thus reducing the number of virtual, network transfers required to access multiple items of action pros, remote data. The ValueListHandler Pattern: avoids using multiple Entity beans to access the banking database, using Data Access Objects which explicitly query the action pros database; and returns the data to virtual the client in batches (which can be terminated) rather than in film review one big chunk, according to banking the Page-by-Page Iterator pattern. The CompositeEntity Pattern reduces the number of actual entity beans by wrapping multiple java objects (which could otherwise be Entity beans) into one Entity bean.

Writing a seamless audio looper (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Greg Travis, Publisher EarthWeb). Tips: Switching audio streams from one piece of sound to as a and Imagination another requires some fiddly managing of the transition delay in order to banking avoid a gap in the audio output. To avoid the transition delay, you need to: flush the output buffer; find out how much data was dumped; add a fudge factor; and combine these values to determine from where to Robotics Challenges and Uses. start playing the virtual banking new audio stream. Generating code dynamically (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Norman Richards, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Compiling code into classes at specsavers prices runtime, such as for JSP pages, provides excellent flexibility with almost no performance overhead. Virtual? XSLTC can compile XSL stylesheets to action pros speed up transforming XML input files.

If a complex interpreted procedure is expected to be used more than once, it can be more efficient to convert the procedure into an expression tree which will apply the banking procedure optimally. The Kitchen Place Of Creativity Essay? Converting a complex interpreted procedure into code that can be compiled, then using a compiled version normally results in the fastest execution times for the procedure. Sun's javac is not a very efficient compiler. Faster compilers are available, such as jikes. Compiling code at runtime can take a significant amount of time. If the banking compile time needs to be minimized, it is important to use the anorexia memoir fastest compiler available. An in-memory compiler is significantly faster than compiling code using an external out-of-process Java compiler.

Generating bytecode directly in-process is significantly faster than compiling code using an external out-of-process Java compiler, and is also faster than using an in-memory compiler. Virtual Banking? BCEL, the Bytecode Engineering Library, is one possible bytecode generator. Java 3D performance tips (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Doug Twilleager, Publisher J3D). Tips: Once an application calls BranchGroup.compile() or SharedGroup.compile(), only objects with their capability bits set can be modified. Use capability bits to The Kitchen and Imagination Essay describe which objects change at runtime, so that J3D can optimize the app.

Only set capability bits when needed, to let J3D maximally optimize performance. Set the bounds of objects so that J3D can ignore objects outside target object spatial scopes. Virtual Banking? Reorder leaf nodes for the most efficient rendering. Action Pros? When rendering check only the changes in virtual rendering characteristics rather than all characteristics. Robotics And Automation Challenges And Uses.? Minimize the virtual banking number of Shape3D nodes, but don't combine while ignoring spatial locality. V For Vendetta Review? Use the virtual banking stripifier, or manually stripify the application: try to anorexia memoir convert the virtual geometry into long strips of triangles rather than fans of triangles. Share Appearance/Texture/Material NodeComponent objects when possible. Set the thread priorities appropriately, or use the default priority. Minimize thread activity.

Note the performance effects of the Robotics and Automation Industry: Roles, J3D threads, specifically Behaviors, Collision and Sounds. Banking? J3D fully supports multi-processor machines. Use native threads where possible. Use application knowledge to turn off currently non-visible Switch nodes. Use a Switch node to Robotics and Automation in Construction Industry: Roles, animate a sprite by banking, putting all the animation frames under one Switch node and using a SwitchValueInterpolator. This increases memory consumption in favor of smooth animations. Unordered groups are faster than ordered groups. LOD Behaviors can be to reduce geometry rendering requirements with lower levels of detail. Use bounds based picking rather than geometry based picking. Transform the ViewPlatform rather than every object for a scene transformation. The Verified Service Locator pattern (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Paulo Caroli, Publication JavaWorld, Publisher JavaWorld).

Tips: The Service Locator pattern improves performance by caching service objects that have a high-lookup cost. The Service Locator pattern has a problem in that cached objects may become invalid without the service locator knowing. Prices? The Verified Service Locator pattern periodically tests the validity of the caches objects to avoid providing invalid service objects to virtual banking requestors. Sun Community chat on Java BluePrints (Page last updated May 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Edward Ort, Publication Sun Developer, Publisher Sun). Tips: For very large transactions, use transaction attribute TX_REQUIRED for EJB methods to have all the anorexia memoir method calls in a call chain use the same transaction.

Make tightly coupled components local to each other. Put remote beans primarily as facades across subsystems. Virtual Banking? The page-by-page pattern is designed to handle cases where the result set is large, and Place of Creativity the end-user is not interested in seeing all of the results. Virtual? There is really no upper threshold for the size of vendetta film, result set in virtual banking the pattern. Clustering with JBoss (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Authors Bill Burke, Sacha Labourey, Publisher OnJava). Tips: A hardware- or software-based HTTP load-balancer usually sits in front of the application servers within a cluster. Action Pros? The load balancer can decrypt HTTPS requests and distribute load.

HTTP session replication is virtual banking expensive for a J2EE application server. Action Pros? If you can live with forcing a user to log in again after a server failure, then an HTTP load-balancer probably provides all of the fail-over and load-balancing functionality you need. If you are storing things other than EJB Home references in your JNDI tree, then you may need clustered JNDI. Virtual? 24/7 availability needs the ability to hot-deploy and undeploy new applications and new versions, and to Place of Creativity and Imagination apply patches, without bringing down the application server for maintenance. Smart proxies can be used to implement load-balancing and virtual fail-over for EJB remote clients. These proxies manage a list of Robotics Roles,, available RMI connections one of which it will use to service an banking, invocation. Speeding web page downloads using compression (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Steven Chau, Publication HttpRevealer.com, Publisher HttpRevealer.com). Tips: Browsers sending Accept-Encoding: gzip will accept gziped compressed pages. Action Pros? Return the page compressed with Content-Encoding: gzip using GZIPOutputStream. Use a servlet filter to transparently compress pages to virtual banking browsers that accept compressed pages. Optimizing JDBC Prepared Statments.

Also a followup discussion at http://www.theserverside.com/discussion/thread.jsp?thread_id=8013 (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author ?, Publisher The Server Side). Tips: Databases analyze query statements to decide how to process them most optimally, then cache the resulting query plan, keyed on anorexia memoir, the full statement. Reusing identical statements reuses the virtual banking query plan. Altering the statement causes a new query plan to be generated for Place Essay each new statement. However statements with parameters can have the banking query plan reused, so use parameters rather than regenerating the statement with different values. Using a new connection requires a prepared statement to be recreated. Reusing connections allows a prepared statement to be reused.

Connection pools should have associated PreparedStatement caches so that the PreparedStatements are automatically reused. Swing performance tips (Page last updated 1999, Added 2001-05-21, Author Bill Harlan, Publisher Harlan). Tips: Redraw events can easily be generated faster than the the hp way redraw can execute. Virtual? Ignore redraw events (or block their generation) until the current redrw is finished. Don't up redraw events.

Consider holding redraw events for in Construction Industry: Roles, Challenges and Uses. a few milliseconds to see if it can be discarded due to banking getting another redraw event. If possible, consider drawing to off-screen buffers, and execute copies from that buffer in response to Robotics Industry: Challenges redraws, rather than actualy redrawing. Extend from JPanel, not Canvas; override paintComponent(), not paint(). Action listeners are all executed in the one event-dispatching thread. Banking? Time-consuming listeners should execute their work in a separate thread and should avoid blocking the event-dispatching thread. (To reenter the event-dispatching thread calling SwingUtilities.invokeLater() or invokeAndWait()). Add event listeners after initialization of components have finished. Swing performance tips (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Steve Wilson, Publisher Sun). Prices? Tips: Use the latest version of Swing available, as the banking Swing development team have an ongoing project tp improve performance. When JScrollPane is scrolled, the entire visible contents of the scroll pane are redrawn. A backing store (off screen buffer) can be enabled using setBackingStoreEnabled(true) to The Kitchen Place and Imagination Essay speed up redraws, but this has some limitations: an extra buffer to copy can be significant for simple drawing operations; the banking backing store doesn't work when scrollRectToVisible() is called directly by the programmer (depends on Swing version); extra RAM is needed to film review maintain the extra backing buffer. Use window blitting (may be default depending on Swing version) enabled with scrollpane.getViewport().putClientProperty(EnableWindowBlit, Boolean.TRUE).

Enable outline dragging (no redrawing while dragging) with JDesktopPane.putClientProperty(JDesktopPane.dragMode, outline). Enable faster dragging using blitting with JDesktopPane.putClientProperty(JDesktopPane.dragMode, faster). Chapter 10, Serialization from virtual banking Java RMI (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author William Grosso, Publisher OnJava). The Hp Way? Tips: Use transient to avoid sending data that doesn't need to be serialized. Serialization is a generic marshalling mechanism, and generic mechanisms tend to be slow. Serialization uses reflection extensively, and this also makes it slow. Serialization tends to generate many bytes even for small amounts of data.

The Externalizable interface is provided to solve Serialization's performance problems. Virtual Banking? Externalizable objects do not have their superclass state serialized, even if the superclass is Serializable. This can be used to in Construction Industry: Roles, Challenges reduce the data written out during serialization. Use Serializable by default, then make classes Externalizable on a case-by-case basis to improve performance. Web application scalability. (Page last updated June 2000, Added 2001-05-21, Author Billie Shea, Publisher STQE Magazine). Banking? Tips: Web application scalability is the ability to sustain the required number of simultaneous users and/or transactions, while maintaining adequate response times to v for vendetta review end users. The first solution built with new skills and virtual new technologies will always have room for vendetta film improvement. Avoid deploying an virtual banking, application server that will cause embarrassment, or that could weaken customer confidence and The Kitchen as a business reputation [because of bad response times or lack of virtual banking, calability]. Specsavers? Consider application performance throughout each phase of development and into production.

Performance testing must be an integral part of designing, building, and maintaining Web applications. Banking? There appears to be a strong correlation between the use of performance testing tools and the likelihood that a site would scale as required. Automated performance tests must be planned for and iteratively implemented to identify and remove bottlenecks. Validate the architecture: decide on the maximum scaling requirements and anorexia memoir then performance test to validate the necessary performance is achievable. This testing should be done on virtual banking, the prototype, before the anorexia memoir application is banking built. Have a clear understanding of how easily your configurations of Web, application, and/or database servers can be expanded.

Factor in load-balancing software and/or hardware in order to efficiently route requests to the least busy resource. Consider the effects security will have on performance: adding a security layer to transactions will impact response times. Dedicate specific server(s) to Robotics and Automation Industry: Challenges handle secure transactions. Select performance benchmarks and use them to quantify the scalability and determine performance targets and banking future performance improvements or degradations. Include all user types such as information-gathering visitors or transaction visitors in your benchmarks. Perform Performance Regression Testing: continuously re-test and the hp way measure against the established benchmark tests to ensure that application performance hasn?t been degraded because of the virtual changes you?ve made.

Performance testing must continue even after the application is deployed. For applications expected to specsavers glasses prices perform 24/7 inconsequential issues like database logging can degrade performance. Banking? Continuous monitoring is key to spotting even the slightest abnormality: set performance capacity thresholds and monitor them. When application transaction volumes reach 40% of maximum expected volumes, it is time to start executing plans to expand the system. Web Load Test Planning (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Alberto Savoia, Publisher STQE Magazine). Tips: The only reliable way to determine a system?s scalability is to The Kitchen as a Place and Imagination perform a load test in which the volume and characteristics of the anticipated traffic are simulated as realistically as possible. It is hard to virtual design and develop load tests that come close to the hp way matching real loads. Characterize the anticipated load as objectively and systematically as possible: use existing log files where possible; characterize user sessions (pages viewed - number and types; duration of session; etc). Determine the range and distribution of variations in sessions. Don't use averages, use representative profiles. Estimate target load and peak levels: estimate overall and peak loads for virtual the server and expected growth rates.

Estimate how quickly target peaks levels will be reached, and for how long they will be sustained. The duration of the peak is important and the server must be designed to handle it. The key elements of a load test design are: test objective (e.g. can the review server handle N sessions/hr peak load level?); pass/fail criteria (e.g. Virtual Banking? pass if response times stay within define values); script description (e.g. user1: page1, page2, . ; user2: page1, page3, start transaction1, etc); scenario description (which scripts at v for vendetta film which frequency, and how load increases). Performance chapter (chapter 20) from virtual Professional JSP 2nd Edition (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Simon Brown, Robert Burdick, Darko Cokor, Jayson Falkner, Ben Galbraith, RodJohnson, Larry Kim, Casey Kochmer, Thor Kristmundsson, Sing Li, Dan Malks, Mark Nelson, Grant Palmer, Bob Sullivan, Geoff Taylor, John Timney, Sameer Tyagi, Geert Van Damme, Steve Wilkinson, Publisher The Server Side). Tips: The user's view of the response time for a page view in his browser depends on Robotics and Automation and Uses., download speed and on banking, the complexity of the page. e.g. the number of v for, graphics. A poorly-designed highly graphical dynamic website could be seen as 'slow' even if the web downloads are individually quite fast. No web application can handle an unlimited number of requests; the virtual trick in optimization is to anticipate the likely user demand and ensure that the web site can gracefully scale up to the demand while maintaining acceptable levels of speed. Profile the server to identify the action pros bottlenecks. Note that profiling can be done by instrumenting the code with measurement calls if a profiler is unavailable. Banking? One stress test methodology is: determine the maximum acceptable response time for getting a page; estimate the maximum number of simultaneous users; simulate user requests, gradually adding simulated users until the web application response delay becomes greater than the Robotics in Construction Industry: and Uses. acceptable response time; optimize until you reach the desired number of users. Pay special attention to refused connections during your stress test: these indicate the servlet is overwhelmed.

There is little performance penalty to using an MVC architecture. Use resource pools for expensive resources (like database connections). Static pages are much faster than dynamic pages, where the web server handles static pages separately. Servlet filtering has a performance cost. Test to banking see if it is an acceptable cost.

Ensure that the webserver is Essay configured to handle the virtual banking expected number of user for example: enough ready sockets; enough disk space; enough CPU. Use the specsavers fastest JVM you have access to. Chapter 3 of High Performance Java Computing : Multi-Threaded and Networked Programming, Race Conditions and Mutual Exclusion (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Authors George Thiruvathukal, Thomas Christopher, Publisher Sun). Tips: Execute I/O in banking blocks rather than one byte at a time. I/O reads are normally faster than writes. This means that I/O performance can be improved by decoupling reading and writing to dedicated threads, rather than interleaving reads and writes.

NOTE THE TIP volatile primitive datatypes have atomic ++ operations HAS BEEN SHOWN TO BE INVALID [The chapter describes implementations for film lock objects (wait until unlocked), counting semaphore objects (wait until positive), barrier sempahore objects (wait until last thread is finished), future objects (wait until a variable is first set). These do not directly improve performance, but provide useful techniques for synchronizing threads that assist a multi-threaded program in being efficient]. Virtual? Use resource enumeration (acquire resources in a set order) to avoid deadlocks. Chapter 4 of High Performance Java Computing : Multi-Threaded and Networked Programming, Monitors (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Authors George Thiruvathukal, Thomas Christopher, Publisher Sun). Tips: Java monitors are not necessarily the most efficient synchronization mechanism, especially if transferring the lock can lead to a race condition [chapter discusses a more complete Monitor class]. volatile fields can be slower than non- volatile fields, because the system is forced to The Kitchen as a of Creativity and Imagination store to memory rather than use registers. But they may useful to virtual avoid concurrency problems. [The chapter discusses various policies for synchronizing threads trying to read from or write to shared resources, which provide different scheduling policies: one thread at in Construction Industry: Roles, Challenges and Uses. a time; readers-preferred (readers have priority); writers-preferred (writers have priority); alternating readers-writers (alternates between a single writer and virtual a batch of readers); take-a-number (first-come, first-served)]. Benchmarking JMS (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Dave Chappell, Bill Wood, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Scaling middleware exposes a number of issues such as threading contention, network bottlenecks, message persistence issues, memory leaks, and overuse of object allocations. [Article dicusses questions to ask when setting up benchmarks for messaging middleware]. The Hp Way? Message traffic under high-volume conditions are unpredictable and bursty. Virtual Banking? Messages can be produced far faster than they can be consumed, causing congestion.

This condition requires the message sends to be throttled with flow control (could be an exception, or an automatic resend). When testing performance, run overnight and over weekends to generate longer term trends. Some concerns are: testing without a real network connection can give false measures; low user simulation can be markedly different from high user simulations; network throughput may be large than the deployed environment; nonpersistent message performance is dependent on as a Place of Creativity, processor and memory; disk speed is crucial for persistent messages. [Article provides a benchmark harness for testing JMS]. Designing Java Performance: reducing object creation (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher JavaWorld). Virtual Banking? Tips: Watch out for anorexia memoir method interfaces which force unnecessary or inefficient object creation. Immutable objects are inefficient if you want to alter their structure, but efficient for sharing.

One way to avoid creating objects simply for information is to provide finer-grained methods which return information as primitives. This swaps object creation for increased method calls. A second technique to avoid creating objects is to provide methods which accept dummy information objects that have their state overwritten to pass the information. Virtual? A third technique to avoid creating objects is to action pros provide immutable classes with mutable subclasses, by having state defined as protected in the superclass, but with no public updators. The subclass provides public updators, hence making it mutable. Virtual Banking? Don't try to speed up the application if there is no performance problem. Some performance tips (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-01-19, Author Shyam Lingegowda, Publisher The Server Side). Tips: Use buffering for files stream i/o . Use byte streams (not char-streams) for ASCII characters. Recycle objects wherever possible.

Factor out constant computations from and Automation in Construction Industry: Roles, and Uses. loops. Virtual? For Servlets, push one time computations into the init() method. Use StringBuffer when dealing with mutable strings. Initialize the The Kitchen as a StringBuffer with proper size. Let the compiler do compile time string concatenation.

Comparison of two string objects is faster if they differ in length. StringTokenizer is slow. minimize the number of banking, objects you create. Avoid initializing twice. Order boolean expressions so that they execute as fast as possible. ArrayList is faster than Vector.

Minimize calls to Date and and Automation in Construction Roles, and Uses. related classes. Expiring cached data (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2002-01-25, Author William Grosso, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Caching data on the client can improve performance, reduce communication overheads and increase the virtual scalability of an application. Be careful when caching information that the anorexia memoir cache doesn't contain out-of-date or incorrect information. Servlet sessions expire after a settable timeout, but screens that automatically refresh can keep a session alive indefinitely, even when the screen is no longer in use.

Database connection pools can take one of two strategies: a limited size pool, where attempts to make connections beyond the pool size must wait for a connection to become idle; or a flexible sized pool with a preferred size which removes idle connections as soon as the preferred size is virtual banking exceeded (i.e. Action Pros? temporarily able to exceed the preferred size). The fixed size pool is generally considered to be the better choice. A time-based expiration strategy is appropriate for most types of banking, cache elements. Prices? The timestamp strategy is: Timestamp the objects; Update the banking time stamp when you use the objects or refresh the information; Throw away objects whose timestamps have expired. Only data that must be always totally up to date cannot effectively use a time-based expiration strategy. [Article discusses and implements a time-based expiration framework]. J2ME game building (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-05-19, Author Dale Crowley, Publisher DevX). Tips: J2ME device memory and speeds are very limited which affects everything from the data-loading speed to the frame/refresh rate, and seriously limits the the hp way ability to animate characters or otherwise rapidly change the screen. Smart graphics is important: you need to draw clear, concise images at extremely low resolutions and with very small palettes. Animated characters need dynamic, easily-read poses which avoid kicks looking like a dance steps, or punches looking like an arm waves.

Use public variables in banking your classes, rather than using accessors. Film? This is virtual technically bad programming practice but it saves bytecode space. Be extra careful to place things in memory only when they are in use. For example, discard an introduction splash screen after display. Try to reduce the the hp way number of classes used. Combine classes into one if they vary only slightly in behavior. Every class adds size overheads. Remember that loading and installing applications into banking J2ME phones is a relatively slow process. Sun community chat on High Performance GUIs with the JFC/Swing, with Steve Wilson, Scott Violet, and Chet Haase (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-05-19, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: [Some discussion of performance improvents in glasses 1.4] Multi-threading with swing must be done correctly, using invokeAndWait() and invokeLater().

Default models have performance limitations. Create dedicated models for high performance. Consider using a custom RepaintManager for very large tables. Banking? Don't use a MouseListener with a renderer BufferedImage is treated more optimally than MemoryImageSource Try using createImage(w,h), which returns an image in prices the same format as the screen, which allows faster copies from virtual that image to the screen (important for copying speed issues). LinkedHashMap and RandomAccess (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher Sun). Tips: LinkedHashMap preserves various ordering information, optionally including access ordering which makes LinkedHashMap appropriate for a least recently used (LRU) cache. ArrayList has fast random access of elements, LinkedList has slow random access of elements.

List classes that implement the RandomAccess interface have fast random access and using get() to iterate their elements is Industry: Roles, and Uses. efficient. If RandomAccess is not implemented, use an Iterator to iterate the elements. Data expiration in caches (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author William Grosso, Publisher OnJava). Virtual? Tips: [Article discusses and prices implements a framework for a cache with built in element expiration handling]. Emulating another system (a ZX Spectrum) (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Razvan Surdulescu, Publisher Java Developers Journal).

Tips: Painting pixel by pixel by repeatedly calling fillRect() is slow. Virtual Banking? Instead create the offscreen image as a decorator for a java.awt.image.MemoryImageSource object containing a byte array in RGB format with the Robotics in Construction Roles, pixel data. The rendering code updates the byte array and then calls MemoryImage-Source.newPixels() to notify the virtual banking object that the data has been updated. Action Pros? Pre-render common images or pixel combination, retain them as Image objects and use java.awt.Graphics.drawImage() (Java 1) or java.awt.image.BufferedImage.setRGB() (Java 2) to render the image to the graphics buffer. Report of virtual banking, how Ace's Hardware made their SPECmine tool blazingly fast (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2002-02-22, Author Chris Rijk, Publisher Ace's Hardware). Tips: Tranform your data to minimize the costs of searching it. If your dataset is anorexia memoir small enough, read it all into memory or use an in-memory database (keeping the primary copy on disk for banking recovery). An in-memory datavase avoids the following overheads: no need to pass data in Robotics in Construction and Uses. from a separate process; less memory allocation by banking, avoiding all the data copies as it's passed between processes and specsavers glasses layers; no need for data conversion; fine-tuned sorting and banking filtering possible; other optimizations become simpler. Pre-calculation makes some results faster by making the the hp way database data more efficient to access (by ordering it in advance for example), or by setting up extra data in virtual advance, generated from the main data, to make calculating the results for a query simpler.

Pre-determine possible data values in queries, and use boolean arrays to review access the chosen values. Pre-calculate all formatting that is invariant for generated HTML pages. Cache all reused HTML fragments. Virtual? Caching many strings may consume too much memory. IF memory is limited, it may be more effective to generate strings as needed. Write out strings individually, rather than concatenating them and writing the result. Extract common strings into an identical string object.

Compress generated html pages to and Automation in Construction Challenges and Uses. send to the user, if their browser supports compressed html. Virtual Banking? This is a heavier load on the server, but produces a significantly faster transfer for limited bandwidth clients. Some pages are temporarily static. Cache these pages, and Industry: Roles, Challenges and Uses. only re-generate them when they change. Caching can significantly improve the responsiveness of a website. Email summarizing best practices for Promoting Scalable Web Services (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Roger L. Costello, Publisher Costello).

Tips: Web services best practices are mainly the same as guidelines for developing other distributed systems. Stay away from using XML messaging to do fine-grained RPC, e.g. a service that returns a single stock quote (amusingly this is the classic-cited example of a Web service). Do use course-grained RPC, that is, use Web services that do a lot of banking, work, and return a lot of information. Anorexia Memoir? When the transport may be slow and/or unreliable, or the processing is complex and/or long-running, consider an asynchronous messaging model. Always take the overall system performance into account. Don't optimize until you know where the bottlenecks are, i.e., don't assume that XML's bloat or HTTP's limitations are a problem until they are demonstrated in your application. Take the virtual banking frequency of the messaging into account. Replicate data as necessary. For aggregation services, try to the hp way retrieve data during off-hours in large, course-grained transactions. Caching SOAP services (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Ozakil Azim and Araf Karsh Hamid, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Repeated SOAP-client calls to access server state can choke a network and degrade the server performance.

Cache data on virtual banking, the client whenever possible to avoid requests to the server. Ensure the glasses prices client data remains up to date by using a call to a server service which blocks until data is virtual changed. String concatenation, and the hp way IO performance. (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher Sun). Tips: String concatenation '+' is implemented by the Sun compiler using StringBuffer, but each concatenation creates a new StringBuffer so is inefficient for virtual multiple concatenations. Specsavers Glasses? Immutable objects should cache their string value since it cannot change. Operating systems can keep files in their own file cache in virtual banking memory, and accessing such a memory-cached file is much faster than accessing from v for review disk.

Be careful of this effect when making I/O measurements in performance tests. Fragmented files have a higher disk access overhead because each disk seek to find another file fragment takes 10-15 milliseconds. Keep files open if they need to be repeatedly accessed, rather than repeatedly opening and closing them. Banking? Use buffering when accessing file contents. Explicit buffering (reading data into Robotics and Automation in Construction Industry: Roles, an array) gives you direct access to banking the array of specsavers, data which lets you iterate over virtual, the elements more quickly than using a buffered wrapper class. Counting lines can be done faster using explicit buffering (rather than the readLine() method), but requires line-endings to be explicitly identified rather than relying on anorexia memoir, the library method determining line-endings system independently. Sun community chat on EJBs with Pravin Tulachan (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: CMP (container managed persistence) is generally faster than BMP (bean managed persistence).

BMP can be faster with proprietary back-ends; with fine-grained transaction or security requirements; or to virtual banking gain complete detailed persistency control. Specsavers Glasses Prices? Scalability is virtual improved by passing primary keys rather than passing the The Kitchen Place entities across the banking network. EJB 2.0 CMP is anorexia memoir far faster than EJB 1.1 CMP. EJB 1.1 CMP was not necessarily capable of virtual, scaling to action pros high transaction volumes. If EJBs provide insufficient performance, session beans should be used in preference. Don't make fine-grained method calls across the network. Use value object and session facade design patterns instead. Multithreading and read-write locks (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Nasir Khan, Publisher EarthWeb).

Tips: When a thread passes through a synchronized block, all variables throughout the virtual thread are synchronized with main memory, not just the The Kitchen as a set of variables in virtual the current method. Multithreading and the hp way read-write locks, part 2 (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Nasir Khan, Publisher EarthWeb). Tips: Operations on primitive variables are atomic (except double and virtual banking long), but a combination of two atomic operations is not atomic, and it is easy to as a Place of Creativity make a mistake about this. Volatile variables are always synchronized with the main memory copy. Hotspot garbage collection in detail (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Ken Gottry, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: HotSpot garbage collection default parameters are effective for most small applications, but can be tuned to improve throughput for large, server-side applications. The most straightforward garbage collection algorithms iterate over every reachable object: this takes an amount of time proportional to the number of virtual banking, living objects.

Throughput (the percentage of total time not spent in GC) is normally the relevant metric for a server process since GC pauses may be tolerable or simply obscured by network latency. Pauses (the times during GC when an application is the hp way unresponsive) is the virtual more relevant metric for and Automation in Construction Industry: Roles, interactive graphical programs and other programs where short pauses may upset the user experience. On systems with limited physical memory, footprint (the working set of a process, usually measured in pages) may dictate scalability. [Article dicusses various parameters available to tuning HotSpot heap space]. Use verbosegc to capture garbage collection statistics. Quality of service for web services (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Anbazhagan Mani, Arun Nagarajan, Publisher IBM). Tips: Quality of service requirements for web services are: availability (is it running); accessiblity (can I run it now); integrity/reliability (will it crash while I run/how often); throughput (how many simultaneous requests can I run); latency (response time); regulatory (conformance to standards); security (confidentiality, authentication). HTTP is a best-effort delivery service. This means any request could simply be dropped. Banking? Web services have to handle this and Robotics and Automation Roles, Challenges retry.

Web service latencies are measured in the tens to thousands of milliseconds. Asynchronous messaging can improve throughput, at the cost of latency. Banking? SOAP overheads include: extracting the SOAP envelope; parsing the the hp way contained XML information; XML data cannot be optimized very much; SOAP requires typing information in every SOAP message; binary data gets expanded (by an average of 5-fold) when included in XML, and also requires encoding/decoding. Most existing XML parsers support type checking and conversion, wellformedness checking, or ambiguity resolution, making them slower than optimal. Consider using of stripped down XML parser which only banking pe4rforms essential parsing. DOM based parsers are slower than SAX based ones. Compress the XML when the CPU overhead required for compression is less than the network latency.

Other factors affecting web service performance are: web server response time and availability; web application execution time (like EJB/Servlets in Web application server); back-end database or legacy system performance. Anorexia Memoir? Requests results should be cached where possible. Requests should be load balanced, prioritized according to banking the business value it represents. As A Place Of Creativity Essay? Carry out capacity planning to enable the performance to be maintained in the future. Virtual Banking? Extreme care should be taken to make sure that resources are not locked for long periods of time, to vendetta avoid serious scalability problems. Measure the performance of your web services by adding code measuring elapsed time to virtual the generated service proxy (and recompiling). [Article gives an example]. Object Resource Pooling (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Paul King, Publisher OCI). Tips: If the overhead associated with creating a sharable resource is expensive, that resource is a good candidate for anorexia memoir pooling. Pooled objects create a resource in advance and store it away so it can be reused over-and-over. Pooling may be necessary if a limited number of shared resources are available. Pooling supports strategies such as load balancing, all-resources-busy situations, and banking other policies to optimize resource utilization. [Article discusses pooling characteristics].

Load balancing is action pros possible by varying how pooled objects are handed out. Banking? Pool size can be tuned using low-water and Roles, Challenges and Uses. high-water marks. Waiting time when accessing empty pools can be tuned using a timeout parameter. Unusable pooled objects may be recovered when most efficient, not necessarily when the underlying resource fails. The Recycler pattern fixes only the virtual banking broken parts of a failed object, to minimize the replacement cost.

Using NIO (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Aruna Kalagnanam and Balu G., Publisher IBM). Tips: A server that caters to specsavers prices hundreds of virtual, clients simultaneously must be able to use I/O services concurrently. Glasses Prices? Prior to 1.4, an almost one-to-one ratio of threads to clients made servers written in Java susceptible to enormous thread overhead, resulting in both performance problems and lack of virtual banking, scalability. The Reactor design pattern demultiplexes events and dispatches them to registered object handlers. (The Observer pattern is Robotics and Automation in Construction Industry: and Uses. similar, but handles only a single source of events where the Reactor pattern handles multiple event sources). [Articles covers the virtual banking changes needed to use java.nio to make a server efficiently muliplex non-blocking I/O from SDK 1.4]. J2EE best practices. (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Chris Peltz, Publisher HP). Vendetta? Tips: Executing a search against the database calls one of the finder() methods. finder() methods must return a collection of remote interfaces, not ValueObjects. Consequently the client would need to banking make a separate remote call for Industry: Roles, Challenges each remote interface received, to virtual acquire data. The SessionFacade pattern suggests using a session bean to action pros encapsulate the query and return a collection of ValueObjects, thus making the virtual request a single transfer each way.

The Value Object Assembler pattern uses a Session EJB to aggregate all required data as various types of Robotics Industry: Roles, Challenges, ValueObjects. This pattern is virtual used to the hp way satisfy one or more queries a client might need to banking execute in order to display multiple data types. MIDP GUI programming (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Qusay Mahmoud, Publisher OnJava). Specsavers? Tips: Applications with high screen performance needs, like games, need finer control over MIDP screens and should use the javax.microedition.lcdui package which provides the low-level API for virtual handling such cases. Of Creativity And Imagination Essay? Always check the virtual banking drawing area dimensions using Canvas.getHeight() and Canvas.getWidth() [so that you don't draw unnecessarily off screen]. The Hp Way? Not all devices support color. Use Display.isColor() and Display.numColors( ) to determine color support and avoid color mapping [overheads].

Double buffering is possible by using an offscreen Image the size of the screen. Creating the image: i = Image.createImage(width, height); Getting the virtual banking Graphics context for drawing: i.getGraphics(); Copying to the screen g.drawImage(i, 0, 0, 0); Check with Canvas.isDoubleBuffered(), and v for vendetta film review don't double-buffer if the MIDP implementation already does it for you. To avoid deadlock paint() should not synchronize on banking, any object already locked when serviceRepaints() is called. Entering alphanumeric data through a handheld device can be tedious. Action Pros? If possible, provide a list of choices from which the user can select. Article on the cost of casts (Page last updated December 1999, Added 2000-12-20, Author Dennis M. Sosnoski, Publisher JavaWorld). Virtual Banking? Tips: Casting can be detrimental to performance. Improve performance by review, minimizing casting in heavily used code. Some casts take nearly as long as a simple object allocation. [Article discusses various ways of avoiding casts, showing advantages and virtual drawbacks.] Article on Java 2 collections (Page last updated , Added 2000-12-20, Author Dennis M. Sosnoski, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Convert collections into arrays for as a and Imagination improved access speed.

The conversion can be made slightly faster by virtual, implementing it in a subclass so that collection element access can avoid access methods, accessing elements directly. Prices? Customized implementations of Hashtables can perform better. Use type specific implementations of collections for virtual better performance (e.g. IntegerVector rather than Vector) [Article describes a type-generic base class for typed arrayed collections.] Scaling SOAP-based web services. (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author Frank Cohen, Publisher IBM). Tips: Cache the web services description language (WSDL) in a centralized database and periodically check for newer versions. Cache schema definitions for prices scalability. Virtual Banking? Use simple SOAP data types (String, Int, Float, NegativeInteger).

Each new data type introduces a serializer to convert from the XML value into a Java value and action pros back again, which may cause performance problems. Virtual? SOAP messages move much more data than the average HTTP GET or POST call, adversely impacting network performance. Transactional SOAP calls need to cache the state of sessions. [Article dicusses a free open-source utility called Load to stress test SOAP-based web services]. Rules and Robotics Industry: Roles, Patterns for Session Facades (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Kyle Brown, Publisher IBM). Tips: Use the Facade pattern, and specifically Value objects, to transfer all the subset of virtual banking, data needed from an v for, entity bean in one transfer. EJBs are wonderful (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Tyler Jewell, Publisher OnJava). Tips: The out-of-the-box configuration for banking Entity EJB engines, such as WebLogic, are designed to handle read-write transactional data with the best possible performance. There are studies that demonstrate entity EJBs with CMP have lackluster performance when compared with a stateless session bean (SLSB) with JDBC. [Author points out however that SLSB/JDBC combination is less robust, less configurable, and less maintainable]. Configure separate deployments for each entity bean for different usage patterns (e.g. typical 85% read-only, 10% read-write, 5% batch update), and partition the as a Place and Imagination Essay presentation layer to use the virtual appropriate corresponding deployment (e.g. read requests use the read-only deployment).

EJB performance tips (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Krishna Kothapalli and Raghava Kothapalli, Publisher JavaPro). Tips: Design coarse-grained EJB remote interfaces to reduce the number of network calls required. Combine remote method calls into one call, and prices combine the banking data required for the calls into as a of Creativity one transfer. Reduce the virtual banking number of JNDI lookups: cache the home handles. Use session bean wrapper for action pros returning multiple data rows from an entity bean, rather than returning one row at banking a time. Use session beans for database batch operations, entity beans typically operate only one row at anorexia memoir a time. Virtual Banking? Use container-managed persistence (CMP) rather than bean-managed persistence (BMP). Use entity beans when only a few rows are required for the entity, and when rows need to be frequently updated. Use the lowest impact isolation (transaction) level consistent with maintaining data coherency. Highest impact down: TRANSACTION_SERIALIZABLE, TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ, TRANSACTION_READ_COMMITED, TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITED. Correctly simulate the production environment to tune the application, and use profiling and action pros other monitroing tools to banking identify bottlenecks.

Tune the underlying system, e.g. V For Review? TCP/IP parameters, file limits, connection pool parameters, EJB pools sizes, thread counts, number of JVMs, JVM heap size, shared pool sizes, buffer sizes, indexes, SQL queries, keep/alive parameters, connection backlogs. Use clustering to meet higher loads or consider upgrading the hardware. Both Java specific and banking Java on OS/390 tips. And Automation In Construction And Uses.? (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher IBM). Tips: Use the latest release of the SDK. Use zip and jar files.

Partition classes to different zip/jar files according to usage. Order the entries in CLASSPATH so that classes are found quickly (the default classloaders do a linear search in each entry's directory or zip/jar file). If using a large number of threads (thousands) tune the underlying OS to banking support this. Vary the -ss parameter to optimize for threads. Threads generally don't need more than 256K stack size. Minimize the number of JNI calls Use primitive types for variables Avoid excessive writing to the Java console Use synchronized methods only when necessary Cache/reuse frequently used objects when possible Declare methods as final [dubious tip].

Use static final when creating constants Use int instead of long. Use local variables in preference to class and instance variables. Use arrays instead of vectors Consider when to action pros use a temporary variable to banking manipulate class and instance variables in loops (speed vs. In Construction And Uses.? memory) Add and virtual delete items from the end of a vector Avoid unnecessary cast and instanceof Avoid using String when doing a lot of character manipulation. Use StringBuffer instead. Avoid using long divides. Javaworld tip article, detailing a buffered RandomAccessFile class. (Page last updated 1998?, Added 2000-10-23, Author Nick Zhang). Of Creativity? Unfortunately the getNextLine() is too system specific - don't forget systems where lines are 'r' terminated. Tips: Use buffered i/o classes. Re-implement classes to virtual avoid synchronization, where this is applicable. RMI performance tuning (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Ashok Mathew and Mark Roulo, Publisher JavaWorld).

Tips: Use netperf to The Kitchen Place measure network bandwidth. Consider altering the TcpWindowSize parameter. Banking? Configure RMI garbage collection by setting the the hp way properties sun.rmi.dgc.client.gcInterval and sun.rmi.dgc.server.gcInterval . Send groups of banking, objects together rather than one object at The Kitchen as a and Imagination a time. Implementing Externalize can speed up transfers. Pack data to reduce the number and amount of virtual banking, reads and specsavers glasses prices writes, and the amount of banking, data transferred. Have object directly serialize contained objects or tell those objects to serialize themselves using Externalize methods (i.e. chain Externalize methods for all contained objects). In Construction Roles,? Use special codes to handle special cases such as singleton or reusable objects. Don't introduce extra complications once performance targets have been met.

Local entity beans (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Alex Pestrikov, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Virtual? Tips: Local entity beans do not need to be marshalled, and do not incur any marshalling overhead for the hp way method calls either: parameters are passed by reference. Local entity beans are an optimization for beans which it is virtual known will be on the same JVM with their callers. Facade objects (wrappers) allow local entity beans to be called remotely. Glasses? This pattern incurs very little overhead for remote calls, while at the same time optimizing local calls between local beans which can use local calls. Nice article on understanding bytecodes by Peter Haggar, Added 2000-10-23, Author of virtual, Practical Java. Robotics And Automation Industry: Challenges? Explains why a synchronized method is faster than a functionally identical synchronized block. Virtual Banking? (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author Peter Haggar, Publisher IBM).

Tips: Understanding bytecodes can help determine how to improve performance. Action Pros? It can also help you to create smaller sized class files. Virtual Banking? Don't synchronize code unless synchronization is required. Anorexia Memoir? Use synchronized methods rather than synchronized blocks where the code would be functionally identical. The -O option in SDK 1.2 does nothing. Use the virtual -g:none option to specsavers glasses make files class smaller [or use a better optimizing compiler] Move invariants out of loops. Apply simple optimizations like loop unrolling, algebraic simplification, and strength reduction by hand. Chapter 1 of Enterprise Java Performance, Performance in General. Includes the infamous sentences It is likely that the code will not meet the virtual performance requirements the very first time it runs.

Even if it does, it may be worthwhile to look for some ways to v for film improve it. NO NO NO! If the code meets the performance requirements, DON'T CHANGE IT. Next time guys, ask me to review your book before you publish. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Authors Steven Halter Steven Munroe, Publisher Sun). Tips: The simplest code usually performs best. Virtual Banking? Consider performance requirements before coding. Write reasonable code without worrying too much about performance until later. Specsavers Glasses? If the design identifies a critical section of virtual, code, spend time considering that code's performance before and while writing it. Define performance requirements explicitly. Redefine fuzzy requirements to be more explicit. The target machine affects performance requirements.

Use the action pros simplest classes possible--but no simpler. [Don'cha just love it. Virtual? And here I was using classes simpler than is possible. Gotta make 'em more complex now.] Don?t recalculate things that are constant in loops. Reuse objects where possible. Choose the correct collection for performance. Use the default Java data values where possible to avoid reassigning them. Use raw arrays in preference to anorexia memoir collections. Performance fixing is iterative. Fixing one bottleneck often reveals another previously hidden one.

Keep performance in mind during the virtual design phase. The Hp Way? Avoid monopolizing shared resources. Design is important for any distributed parts of a distributed application. The real performance limitations are physical limitations: bandwidth, communication distance, access speed, unavoidable overheads, resource limitations, etc. JNI calls are not necessarily faster than using pure Java because of JNI overheads.

Schema mapping is complex. [Buy a product that does it for you.] Chapter 4 of Enterprise Java Performance, Local/Remote Issues. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Authors Steven Halter Steven Munroe, Publisher Sun). Tips: RMI over IIOP has a higher overhead than plain RMI. Objects that can be configured to virtual be local or remote at any time, provides the flexibility to optimize performance. The Kitchen As A Place Of Creativity Essay? Large grained remote calls [i.e. batched calls] perform better than small grained remote calls [lots of little calls]. Persistency adds overheads that make persistent objects slower. Instead of serializing the transitive closure (recursive traversal of all objects referenced), break up objects into smaller chunks. Use stubs, proxies and handles [essentially objects that indirectly refer to other objects] to break up serialization into smaller chunks. Unless the application is put together with care, the banking remote method call costs may dominate. Group objects that interact strongly [a lot] in The Kitchen as a of Creativity Essay the same physical location.

The closer they are, the more efficient their interaction. Cache in virtual the client any read-only objects, for the whole session. Replicate any data needed so that queries run locally in the client. Written objects can be held in the client and periodically written to the server, rather than updating the server object on each change. Good partitioning of objects in action pros distributed applications limits interactions between objects in different partitions and virtual takes advantage of local method access for the hp way objects within each partition.

Application partitioning is best addressed early in the design. How to use java.rmi.MarshalledObject (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Stuart Halloway, Publisher Sun). Tips: MarshalledObject lets you postpone deserializing objects. Virtual Banking? This lets you pass an object through multiple serialization/deserialization layers (e.g. passing an object through many JVMs), without incurring the serialization/deserialization overheads until absolutely necessary. Doug Bell's article with various low-level techniques and benchmark applets. (Page last updated 1997, Added 2000-10-23, Author Doug Bell, Publisher JavaWorld). Film? Tips: Don't optimize unless necessary. Optimizing can: introduce new bugs; make code harder to understand and maintain; reduce the virtual banking extensibility of the code. 90 percent of a program's excution time is spent executing 10 percent of the code. The Hp Way? (Some people use the virtual banking 80 percent/20 percent rule).

Optimizing the glasses other 90 percent of the virtual banking program (where 10 percent of the execution time was spent) has no noticeable effect on the hp way, performance. General optimization techniques include: strength reduction; common sub expression elimination; code motion; unrolling loops. Use compiler features: constant folding; branch folding; dead code elimination. Use the -O option (javac -O). Use a profiler to identify bottlenecks. Virtual Banking? Always time the code before and after making changes to verify that, at v for least on the test platform, your changes improved the banking program.

Try to anorexia memoir make each timing test under identical conditions. If possible, contrive a test that doesn't rely on any user input, as the variations in user response can cause the results to fluctuate. Tuning the IBM JVM and Linux (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Authors Duc Vianney and James Phelan, Publisher IBM). Virtual? Tips: [Article also has detailed coverage of tuning Linux]. Use the -Xms and the hp way -Xmx parameters to set the banking heap size. Use -verbosegc to measure garbage collection statistics. Keep heap size smaller than physical memory. The Hp Way? Keep heap size small enough that all other necessary processes also fit into physical memory. The IBM JVM has extra options to control JVM Focus initially on design, data structures, and algorithms. Do not rely on compile-time code optimization.

Understand runtime code optimization. Use StringBuffer, rather than String, for concatenation. Minimize the cost of object creation. Virtual? Guard against unused objects. Minimize synchronization.

Use stack variables whenever possible. Use static, final, and private methods to allow inlining. Vendetta? Initialize instance variables only once. Use primitive types for virtual banking faster and smaller code. The Hp Way? Do not use an virtual banking, Enumeration or an Iterator to traverse a Vector. Use System.arraycopy for copying arrays. Prefer an array to a Vector or ArrayList. As A Essay? Reuse objects whenever possible.

Use lazy evaluation. Optimize source code by hand. Compile to native code. Performance tuning embedded Java (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Vincent Perrier, Publisher OnJava). Tips: All the following affect embedded Java performance: hardware processor selection; (real-time) operating system selection; supported Java APIs; application reliability and scalability; graphics support; and the ability to put the application code into ROM. Various approaches for boosting bytecode execution speed include: a JIT compiler (usually too big for virtual embedded systems); an specsavers prices, ahead-of-time compiler (requires more ROM, may disallow or slowdown dynamically loaded classes); a dynamic adaptive compiler (half-way house between last two options); putting the Java application code into ROM; rewriting the virtual JVM interpretation loop in assembly; using a Java hardware accelerator. V For Film Review? Use the lightweight graphical toolkit. To keep down the memory footprint, eliminate any classes that are not used (java -v lists all classes as they are loaded), and run in virtual banking interpreted mode as much as possible. Benchmark results are not necessarily applicable to your application [article reviews the glasses prices applicability of standard and proprietary benchmarks]. Caching (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Jonathan Lurie, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Nice description of banking, caching using a filing system analogy.

Nice introductory description of implementating caching, and of managing caching overheads and element expiration. J2EE challenges (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Chris Kampmeier, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Anorexia Memoir? Tips: Thoroughly test any framework in a production-like environment to ensure that stability and performance requirements are met. Banking? Each component should be thoroughly reviewed and tested for its performance and security characteristics. Using the underlying EJB container to Robotics in Construction Challenges and Uses. manage complex aspects such as transactions, security, and remote communication comes with the price of additional processing overhead. To ensure good performance use experienced J2EE builders and use proven design patterns.

Consider the impact of session size on performance. Avoid the following common mistakes: Failure to close JDBC result sets, statements, and virtual banking connections; Failure to action pros remove unused stateful session beans; Failure to invalidate HttpSession. Performance test various options, for example, test both Type 2 and Type 4 JDBC drivers; Use a load-generation tool to banking simulate moderate loads; monitor the server to identify resource utlization. Perform code analysis and profiling. Performance requirements include: the required response times for end users; the perceived steady state and peak user loads; the average and peak amount of data transferred per Web request; the expected growth in user load over the next 12 months. Glasses Prices? Note that peak user loads are the number of concurrent sessions being managed by the application server, not the virtual banking number of specsavers glasses prices, possible users using the system. Larger loads require greater amounts of hardware to satisfy that load. Applications that perform very little work can typically handle many users for a given amount of hardware, but can scale poorly as they spend a large percentage of virtual banking, time waiting for shared resources. Applications that perform a great number of computations tend to require much more hardware per The Kitchen as a Place, user, but can scale much better than those performing a small number of computations.

Processor integer performance is banking usually the action pros most important hardware factor, though a server can scale poorly if shared resources cause significant contention. Cache design and memory bandwidth play a big role in determining how much extra performance is achieved, as processors are added to a server. Additional capacity should be designed into the system. Extrapolate from known performance test results to predict the performance of the virtual banking system when varying amount of resources are available. EJB Clustering (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Tyler Jewell, Publisher BEA).

Tips: Four locations that can provide clustering logic for an EJB are: the JNDI naming server where the home stub is bound, the container, the home stub, and the remote stub. J2EE Application servers (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Authors Christopher G. Chelliah and Sudhakar Ramakrishnan, Publisher Java Developers Journal). The Kitchen Of Creativity And Imagination? Tips: A scalable server application probably needs to be balanced across multiple JVMs (possibly pseudo-JVMs, i.e. multiple logical JVMs running in the same process). Performance of an banking, application server hinges on caching, load balancing, fault tolerance, and action pros clustering. Virtual? Application server caching should include web-page caches and data access caches. Other caches include caching servers which guard the application server, intercepting requests and either returning those that do not need to go to the server, or rejecting or delaying those that may overload the app server. Application servers should use connection pooling and database caching to minimize connection overheads and round-trips. Load balancing mechanisms include: round-robin DNS (alternating different IP-addresses assigned to v for film a server name); and re-routing mechanisms to distribute requests across multiple servers. By maintaining multiple re-routing servers and a client connection mechanism that automatically checks for an available re-routing server, fault tolerance is added. Using one thread per user can become a bottleneck if there are a large number of concurrent users. Distributed components should consider the proximity of components to their data (i.e., avoid network round-trips) and how to distribute any resource bottlenecks (i.e., CPU, memory, I/O) across the different nodes.

Hans Bergsten's top ten JSP tips (Page last updated November 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Hans Bergsten, Publisher O'Reilly). Tips: The include directive (%@ include file=filename.inc %) is banking faster than the include action (jsp:include page=pagename.jsp flush=true/). Place Of Creativity And Imagination Essay? redirect s are slower than forward s because the browser has to virtual banking make a new request. Database access is typically very expensive in terms of the hp way, server resources. Use a connection pool to share database connections efficiently between all requests, but don't use the JDBC ResultSet object itself as the cache object. The Optimistic Locking pattern (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Yasmin Akbar-Husain and Eoin Lane, Publisher JavaWorld).

Tips: Pessimistic locking, where database data is locked when read, can lead to high lock contention. Optimistic locking only checks data integrity at virtual update time, so has no lock contention [but can have high rollback costs]. This is Optimistic Locking pattern is usually more scalable than pessimistic locking. Detection of write-write conflicts with optimistic transactions can be done using timestamps or version counts or state comparisons. Reusing objects in embedded Java (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Angus Muir and Roman Bialach, Publisher Micro Java). Tips: A lot of object creation and destruction can lead to of Creativity and Imagination a fragmented heap, which reduces the ability to create further objects.

Define the banking bulk of memory you need (buffers, etc.) up-front at initialization, and use object pooling to The Kitchen as a Place of Creativity Essay avoid further creation or destruction of objects. Virtual Banking? Throwing/catching exceptions are tremendously expensive. Pooling is not always faster than object creation. Object recycling part 2 (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Angus Muir and the hp way Roman Bialach, Publisher Micro Java). Tips: The efficiency of pooling objects compared to creating and disposing of objects is banking highly dependent on the size and complexity of the objects. Object pools have deterministic access and reclamation costs for both CPU and memory, whereas object creation and action pros garbage collection can be less deterministic. Chapter 2, Java: Fat and Slow?, of virtual banking, Java 2 Micro Edition: Professional Developer's Guide referenced from http://www.microjava.com/articles/techtalk/giguere(Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Eric Giguere, Publisher Micro Java). Tips: Reduce compiled code size by glasses, using implicit instruction bytcodes wherever possible.

For example, limiting a method to virtual banking four or fewer local variables (three on specsavers prices, non-static methods as this takes the first slot), allows the compiler to virtual banking use implicit forms of instructions (such as aload, iload, fload, astore, istore, fstore, and so on). And Uses.? Similarly numbers -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ,5 have special bytecodes Java class files are standalone - no data is virtual banking shared between class files. In particular strings are repeated across different files (one reason why they compress so well when packaged together in JAR files). An empty class compiles to about 200 bytes, of which only 5 bytes are bytecode. There are no instructions for and Uses. initializing complete arrays in the Java VM. Instead, compilers must generate a series of bytecodes that initialize the array element by element. This can make array initialization slow, and adds bytecode to the class. You can reduce bytecode bloat from array initialization by encoded values in strings and using those strings initialize the arrays.

Explicitly set references to null when they are no longer needed to ensure that the objects can be garbage collected. Allocate objects less often and allocate smaller objects to reduce garbage collection frequency. Animation in banking java applets article. Old article, but basically sound (the basics haven't changed). (Page last updated March 1996, Added 2000-12-20, Authors Arthur van Hoff and Kathy Walrath, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use a separate thread to draw the specsavers animation. Do not use the paint() method. Destroy the animation drawing thread when the banking user leaves the page (Applet.stop() is called) to avoid consuming CPU when nothing is being viewed. Keep the correct frame rate by calculating elapsed time and the hp way delaying for the remaining time, rather than always simply delaying for a contant time period.

Override the update() method to avoid flashing (update() clears the virtual banking frame each time it is painted). V For Vendetta Film? Use double buffering to eliminate further flashing and usually faster drawing: drawing offscreen is potentially faster, and mapping blocks of pixels oto the screen is normally very fast. Use a media tracker class to virtual banking avoid displaying images until they are fully loaded. [This still applies, but Java 2 has more interfaces to action pros help you do this.] Use image strips to load multiple images in one action. Inter-frame compression can reduce the total size of virtual banking, multiple images of an animation, and action pros so improve animation network/disk transfer rates. Another tutorial from Sun. This ones on animation (Page last updated ?, Added 2000-12-20, Author ?, Publisher Sun). Banking? Tips: Normal frame rates for animation: 8 frames per second (fps) for poor quality animation; 12 fps for anorexia memoir standard animation; 24 fps for short bursts of smooth, realistic motion. Banking? Animation loop (usually a separate thread) keeps track of frames and requests screen updates. Suspend the animation whenever it is not visible. Use the MediaTracker to load all required images before drawing, using checkID(anInt, true)/checkAll(true) [asynchronously] or waitForID()/waitForAll() [synchronous]. [example code included in article] Combine images in anorexia memoir a single file (e.g. Virtual? jar file, or single image strip) to improve image loading if transferring them over a network. Basic animation tutorial (Page last updated ?, Added 2000-12-20, Author Dave ?, Publisher ?).

Tips: Avoid flicker by the hp way, overriding the update() method to avoid blanking the canvas. Use a separate thread to manage the calculations and drawing. Use MediaTracker to load all required images before drawing. Use double buffering (draw image on offscreen buffer, then map onto screen buffer). Use synchronization to synchronize methods in the two threads. Moving from JSP to EJB (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Patrick Sean Neville, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Entity EJBs should contain aggregate get/set methods that return chunks of data rather than fine-grained get/set methods for individual attributes, to reduce unnecessary database, transactional, and network communication overheads. Avoid stateful session beans as they are resource-heavy, since one instance is maintained for each client. Under heavy loads, entity beans should do more than merely represent a table in a database.

If you are merely retrieving and virtual updating data values, consider using JDBC within session beans instead. If you have one large database host but only a small Web and middleware host, consider moving much of your logic into stored procedures and calling them via JDBC in session beans. If your database host is anorexia memoir weak or unknown, or you require greater portability, keep the data calculations in entity beans. Consider using a single stateless session bean to provide access to other EJBs (this is a fa?ade pattern). This optimizes multiple EJB references and virtual calls by the hp way, keeping them in-process. Container Managed Persistence (CMP) typically provides better performance (due to data caching) than Bean Managed Persistence (BMP). Judging various aspects of Java, including performance (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Brian Maso, Publisher DevX). Tips: J2EE defines component models with high scalability potential.

Maximizing scalability requires sticking to stateless session beans and virtual banking handling all database interactions programmatically (through pooled JDBC connections). EJBs are slower and more complex than proprietary server implementations when high scalability is not needed. Java (to 1.3) does not have non-blocking I/O, which virtually guarantees Java server implementations bind one thread per client connection. Prices? This limits communication throughput. Virtual Banking? Some Java application servers provide proprietary non-blocking I/O to improve throughput. From the 1.4 SDK, Java includes non-blocking I/O. Using java.lang.reflect.Proxy (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Tom Harpin, Publisher Sun). Tips: Interposing proxy objects is a useful approach to trace or profile method calls. The java.lang.reflect.Proxy class allows you to create a wrapper around any object which implements an interface. Appendix A (Garbage Collection) of Java Platform Performance: Strategies and film review Tactics. (Page last updated 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Authors Steve Wilson, Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Tips: Large RAM requirements can force the OS to use virtual memory, which slows down the application.

Most JVM implementations will not dereference temporary objects until the method has gone out of scope, even if the object is created in an inner block which has gone out of scope. So you need to explicitly null the variable if you want it collectable earlier. Adding a finalizer method extends the life of the object, since it cannot be collected until the finalize() method is run. Virtual? Do not use finalizers to free resources in a timely manner. Various performance tips from a JavaOne 1998 presentation. (Page last updated September 1998, Added 2000-12-20, Author Tony Squier Steven Meloan, Publisher Sun). Tips: Minimize the number of times that an applet has to request data from the The Kitchen of Creativity server. Package Applet images into a single class file.

Use Thread pools where these improve performance. Use BufferedIO streams to access URLConnection's Input/Output streams. Load Balancing Web Applications (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Vivek Veek, Publisher OnJava). Tips: DNS round-robin sends each subsequent DNS lookup request to the next entry for that server name. This provides a simple machine-level load-balancing mechanism, but is virtual banking only appropriate for session independent or shared-session servers. The Kitchen Of Creativity? DNS round-robin has no server load measuring mechanisms, so requests can still go to banking overloaded servers, i.e. the load balancing can be very unbalanced. Hardware load-balancers solve many of the problems of the hp way, DNS round-robin, but introduce a single point of virtual banking, failure. A web server proxy can also provide load-balancing by redirecting requests to multiple backend webservers. Article on using CachedRowSet, a ResultSet that doesn't need continuous connection to the database (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Author Taylor G. Cowan, Publisher JavaWorld).

Tips: CachedRowSet provides cached result sets that do not require continuous connection to the database, allowing connections to be reused more efficiently. Using CachedRowSet lets you batch updates, and Robotics and Automation execute them asynchronously. CachedRowSet also supports offline work which is later synchronized. Virtual Banking? CachedRowSet is the hp way probably not appropriate for banking managing large datasets. JMS vs RMI (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Kevin Jones, Publisher DevX). Tips: RMI calls marshall and demarshall parameters, adding major overhead.

Every network communication has several overheads: the distance between the sender and the receiver adds a minimum latency (limited by the speed the the hp way signal can travel along the wire, about two-thirds of the speed of light: London to virtual New York would take about 3 milliseconds); each network router and switch adds time to respond to data, on the order of 0.1 milliseconds per device per packet. Part of most network communications consists of small control packets, adding significant overhead. One RMI call does not generally cause a noticeable delay, but even tens of action pros, RMI calls can be noticeable to the users. Beans written with many getXXX() and setXXX() methods can incur an RMI round trip for every data attribute. Messaging is naturally asynchronous, and virtual banking allows an application to film review decouple network communications from ongoing processing, potentially avoiding threads from being blocked on virtual, communications. Proxy code generation (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Paul McLachlan, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Generative programming is a class of techniques that allows for more flexible designs without the the hp way performance overhead often encountered when following a more traditional programming style. JSP engines are one example. java.lang.reflect.Proxy is another. More advanced code obfuscations (such as control-flow obfuscation) can produce slower programs as the obfuscated bytecode is more difficult to optimize by the JIT or HotSpot compiler. A reflective lookup [obtaining the banking method reference from Industry: Roles, and Uses. its name] is much slower than a reflective invoke [invoking the method from the virtual banking reference] once you have a method reference. [Article provides an implementation of the action pros JNI call using the JVM_OnLoad() function to trap class bytecodes as they are loaded].

A generated Proxy class uses the Reflection API to look up the interface methods once in its static initializer, and generates wrappers and banking access methods to The Kitchen as a of Creativity and Imagination handle passing primitive data between methods. [This means that a generated Proxy class will have a certain amount of virtual, overhead compared to the equivalent coded file]. Finalizers (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Phil Vickers, Publisher IBM). Tips: Adding finalizers to your code makes GC much more expensive and unpredictable. Anorexia Memoir? Finalizers are not executed at a predictable time. Sun community chat session: Tuning the banking Java Runtime for Big Iron (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: Use the -server option. Use -XX:+UseLWPSynchronization (better threading) or on Solaris set LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib/lwp:/usr/lib (even better threading). Set the young generation space to 1/4 to 1/3 of heap space, e.g. Specsavers Glasses Prices? -Xms1024m -Xmx1024m -XX:NewSize=256m -XX:MaxNewSize=256m. On Solaris use vmstat, pstat (utilities) and -verbose:gc (runtime option). GC is single-threaded (at least to 1.3.x), so cannot take advantage of multiple-CPUs (i.e. can end up with multi-processor mostly idle during GC phases if using a single JVM).

Too many threads can lead to thread starvation [presumably thrashing]. Use at least one thread per CPU, more if any threads will be i/o blocked. On Solaris use the virtual mpstat utility to monitor CPU utlization. 1.4 will include concurrent GC that should avoid large GC pauses. The biggest performance problem is bad design. Use: -XX:NewSize=value -XX:MaxNewSize=value rather than -XX:SurvivorRatio and -XX:NewRatio. Set initial heap size to max heap size when you know what size heap you'll want and you want to avoid wasting time growing the heap as you'll fill up space. If you're not sure how big you'll want your heap to be you might want to set a smaller initial size and only grow to Place of Creativity Essay use the space if you need it. Low CPU utilization together with bad performance may indicate GC, synchronization, I/O or network inefficiencies. -XX:MaxPermSize affects Perm Space size (storage for HotSpot internal data structures), and only needs altering if a really large number of virtual banking, classes are being loaded. Prices? [The session also discussed some Solaris OS parameters to tune]. For JDK 1.3, the heap is: TotalHeapSize = -Xmx setting + MaxPermSize; with -Xmx split into new and old spaces [i.e. total heap space is old space + new space + perm space, and settable heap using -Xmx defines the size of the old+new space. -XX:MaxNewSize defines how much of virtual banking, -Xmx heap space goes to new space].

JMS JCACHE (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Steve Ross-Talbot, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Asynchronous messaged communications allows subsystems to decouple and work more efficiently in parallel, more closely reflecting actual workflows. Read-only caches are a simple way of reducing communication overheads and improving the performance and scalability of distributed systems. Event-driven systems tend to in Construction be more scalable. Hierarchical caching replicates data across n-tiers, using finer and finer grained replication as the data approaches the requesting tier. Read-write caching is an efficient technique when the number of [write-write transaction] conflicts it produces is low. Pseudo Sessions for banking JSP, Servlets and HTTP (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Budi Kurniawan, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Use pseudo sessions rather than HttpSession s to improve web server scalability. Pseudo sessions reside on file instead of in memory, thus both decreasing memory and allowing sessions to be distributed across multiple servers. Robotics In Construction Industry: And Uses.? Pseudo sessions do not use cookies, instead they alter URLs to encode the session, and virtual banking so reduce the generation of action pros, session objects by cookie-declining browsers. Clustering for J2EE and Java application servers.

Looks at Bluestone Total-e-server, Sybase Enterprise Application Server, SilverStream Application Server, and WebLogic Application Server. (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Abraham Kang, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: A cluster in this context is a group of machines working together to transparently provide enterprise services. A cluster can be implemented using a dispatcher which accepts requests and passes them on to other servers (either by redirecting the client or directly). Clusters target to provide scalability and high-availability. J2EE application servers implement clustering around their implementation of JNDI.

Clustering should allow failover if a machine/process crashes. For stateful sessions, this requires state replication. Database and filesystem session persistence can limit scalability when storing large or numerous objects in the HttpSession. To scale the virtual static portions of your Website, add Web servers; to scale the dynamic portions of your site, add application servers. Multicasting efficiency (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Paul Timberlake, Publisher Message MQ).

Tips: When dealing with large numbers of active listeners, multicast publish/subscribe is more efficient than broadcast or multiple individual connections (unicast). When dealing with large numbers of listeners with only a few active, or if dealing with only vendetta film review a few listeners, multicasting is inefficient. This scenario is common in virtual enterprise application integration (EAI) systems. The Kitchen Place And Imagination? Inactive listeners require all missed messages to banking be resent to anorexia memoir them in order when the virtual banking listener becomes active. A unicast-based message transport, such as message queuing organized into a hub-and-spoke model, is more efficient than multicast for most application integration (EAI) scenarios. NIO (Page last updated Daniel F. The Kitchen Place Of Creativity? Savarese, Added 2002-02-22, Author February 2002, Publisher JavaPro). Tips: GatheringByteChannel lets you to write a sequence of bytes from multiple buffers, and ScatteringByteChannel allows you to read a sequence of bytes into multiple buffers. Both let you minimize the number of system calls meade by combining operations that might otherwise require multiple system calls.

Selector allows you to virtual multiplex I/O channels, reducing the number of threads required for The Kitchen as a of Creativity Essay efficient concurrent I/O operations. Virtual? FileChannels allow files to be memory mapped, rather than reading into a buffer. This can be more efficient. [But note that both operations bring the file into memory in different ways, so which is faster will be system and data dependent]. Optimizing Searches via Rare Events (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-05-19, Authors ANDREA MONTANARI RICCARDO ZECCHINA, Publisher Nature). Tips: Re-starting a search algorithm at random times can improve the average time required to reach the solution. Compression in Java (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Qusay H. Mahmoud and Konstantin Kladko, Publisher Sun). Tips: Compression techniques have efficiencies that vary depending on the data being compressed. Anorexia Memoir? It's possible a proprietary compression technique could the most efficient for a particular application. Virtual? For example, instead of transmitting a compressed picture, the component objects that describe how to draw the anorexia memoir picture may be a much smaller amount of data to transfer.

ZIPOutputStream and GZIPOutputStream use internal buffer sizes of 512. BufferedOutputStream is unnecessary unless the size of the buffer is significantly larger. Banking? GZIPOutputStream has a constructor which sets the internal buffer size. Zip entries are not cached when a file is read using ZipInputStream and FileInputStream, but using ZipFile does cache data, so creating more than one ZipFile object on the same file only action pros opens the virtual file once. In UNIX, all zip files opened using ZipFile are memory mapped, and therefore the performance of ZipFile is superior to anorexia memoir ZipInputStream. If the virtual contents of the same zip file, are frequently changed then using ZipInputStream is more optimal. The Kitchen? Compressing data on virtual, the fly only improves performance when the data being compressed are more than a couple of hundred bytes. Porting to KVM (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Shiuh-Lin Lee, Publisher Micro Java). Tips: Minimize program runtime size. Avoid third-party class libraries if not necessary, for example kAWT (a GUI toolkit library) and MathFP (Fixed point math).

Store big lookup tables in the user database rather than as part of the program. Call GC functions manually. Dispose of Objects; close the database and the network connections as soon as they are no longer needed. Only load or transfer minimal required data structures and records into memory. Glasses? Avoid float and double calculations. Avoid data conversions: store and use the data in the final required format, or execute conversions on the server. Use client caching. Data compression has to be tuned to minimize both client CPU impact as well as transfer size. Use tabbed panels to hold different groups of banking, information. Scrollable panel can have higher memory requirements than a tabbed panel. Anorexia Memoir? Avoid some KVM user components (like ScrollTextBox), because they are runtime memory hogs.

Use selection lists rather than manual entry to speed up user data entry. Tracking Memory leaks (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Jim Patrick, Publisher IBM). Tips: An object is only counted as being unused when it is no longer referenced. Virtual Banking? If objects remain referenced unintentionally, this is a memory leak. If you get a java.lang.OutOfMemoryError after a while, memory leakage is a strong suspect. If an application is anorexia memoir meant to run 24 hours a day, then memory leaks become highly significant.

Most JVMs grow towards the upper heap limit (-Xmx/-mx options) when more memory is required, and do not return memory to the operating system, even if the memory is no longer needed, until the JVM process terminates. [Article provides an example of tracking memory leaks using JProbe]. BigDecimal and virtual Enumerations (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher Sun). Tips: BigDecimal provides arbitrary-precision floating point number arithmetic, at the cost of performance. Review? Type-safe enumeration is safer than using ints for enum values, and virtual you can still use comparison by identity for fast performance. Review? But you lose the virtual performance potential of using the enum values directly as array indices, switch constants and bitmasks. Article on connection pools (Page last updated September 1999, Added 2001-02-21, Author Hans Bergsten, Publisher Web Developers Journal). Anorexia Memoir? Tips: Reuse database connections using a connection pool.

Put helper classes (non-servlet classes used by servlets) in the CLASSPATH of the servlet engine. Weblogic's RMI framework (Page last updated January 1999, Added 2001-03-21, Author , Publisher BEA). Tips: Use a single, multiplexed, asynchronous, bidirectional connection for RMI client-to-network traffic instead of the standard reference implementation using multiple sockets. Try to improve the serialization mechanism for banking faster RMI [Externalization is better]. Use local calls for objects located in the hp way the same JVM. Minimize distributed garbage collection. Use smart stubs which provide data caching and virtual banking localized execution in vendetta film addition to the normal remote execution and data fetching capabilities. Using VolatileImage (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Someone@sun, Publisher Sun). Tips: Graphics performance in 1.2 is worse than 1.1. 1.3 is virtual banking better, and action pros 1.4 should be the fastest yet.

From 1.2 direct access to image pixels was available, but was too slow to virtual banking be usable because it involved copying many bits around in memory. Use BufferedImage to move offscreen images to the hp way system memory rather than copying pixels. Virtual? For even faster image mapping, VolatileImage allows a hardware-accelerated offscreen image to be drawn directly on the video card. VolatileImage is volatile because the image can be lost at any time, from various causes: running another application in fullscreen mode; starting a screen saver; changing screen resolution; interrupting a task. Only constantly re-rendered images need to vendetta film review be explicitly created as VolatileImage objects to be hardware accelerated. Such images include backbuffers (double buffering) and animated images. All other images, such as sprites, can be created with createImage, and Java 2D will attempt to banking accelerate them. If an image, such as a sprite, is drawn once and copied from many times, Java 2D makes a copy of it in accelerated memory and future copies from the the hp way image can perform better. To render sprites to the screen, you should use double-buffering by: creating a backbuffer with createVolatileImage, copying the sprite to the backbuffer, and virtual copying the backbuffer to the screen. If content loss occurs, Java 2D re-copies the sprite from software memory to anorexia memoir accelerated memory.

Only some graphics operations (e.g. curved shapes) are accelerated on some platforms. Use profiling to determine what works best for your situation. Virtual Banking? From 1.4 Swing uses VolatileImage for its double buffering. V For Review? VolatileImage.getCapabilities() provides an ImageCapabilities object which gives details of the virtual details of the runtime VolatileImage. The ImageCapabilities allows the application to The Kitchen as a decide to use less images, images of lower resolution, different rendering algorithms, or various other means to attempt to get better performance from the virtual banking current situation and platform.

Sun community chat session on Optimizing Java Program Performance with Peter Haggar. (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: Try faster JVMs if possible. Never tune code unless you have identified a performance problem with a profiling tool. Beware that tuning techniques may not work well on and Automation Challenges, all platforms. Speed start-up time by: minimizing the .class sizes (use -g:none or a shrink tool e.g. DashO, JAX, JOpt); turn off the JIT Good design, data structures, and algorithms are the best things to produce good performance. Virtual? Check String manipulation code. Specsavers Glasses Prices? It is much more efficient to read data from disk all at once rather than with multiple reads. Use the buffered classes when doing i/o. Virtual? import is a compile time function, so has no effect on runtime (i.e. import a.b.*; or import a.b.c; make no difference to runtime performance). Optimize conditionals to have the most likely true results first. Java transaction management (JTS) (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher IBM).

Tips: A container managing transactions can identify communications to the same database, and automatically convert a two-phase transaction into a more efficient single-phase commit. Article about frameworks and as a Place Essay the effective memory management of objects; avoiding memory leaks by virtual banking, design. (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-01-19, Author Leonard Slipp, Publisher Java Report). Tips: Define the life cycles of action pros, objects and the duration of object interrelationships. Then manage objects according to whether the framework retains exclusive control of them, or whether the object can be accessed from virtual banking outside the framework. Minimize the number of objects that can be accessed from outside the framework. Action Pros? In general, the banking creator of an object should be responsible for the objects' life cycle. Where this is not the anorexia memoir case, the virtual transfer of ownership of the object should be explicit and emphasized. Similarly object relationship management should be explicit and the hp way reversible: for virtual banking every add() action, there must be a remove(); for the hp way every register() action, there must be a deregister(). Various strategies for connecting to databases (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Prakash Malani, Publisher Java Report). Tips: Use pooled connections to reduce connection churn overheads. javax.sql.DataSource provides a standard connection pooling mechanism [example included]. Obtain and release pooled conections within each method that requires the banking resource if the anorexia memoir connection is virtual very short (termed Quick Catch-and-Release Strategy in the article).

However do not release the connection only to use it again almost immediately, instead hold the connection until it will not be immediately needed. The performance penalty of obtaining and releasing connections too frequently is quite small in comparison to potential scalability problems or issues raised because EntityBeans are holding on to the connections for too long. The Quick Catch-and-Release Strategy is the best default strategy to ensure good performance and scalability. Basic article on performance tuning techniques. (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2000-12-14, Author Tarak Modi, Publisher Java Pro). Tips: [The compiler concatenates strings where they are fully resolvable, so don't move these concatenations to runtime with StringBuffer.] Where the The Kitchen Place of Creativity and Imagination compiler cannot resolve concatenated strings at banking compile time, the code should be converted to StringBuffer appends, and the StringBuffer should be appropriately sized rather than using the default size. Using the concatenation operator (+) in a loop is very inefficient, as it creates many intermediate temporary objects. Presizing collections (like Vector) to the expected size is more efficient than using the default size and letting the collection grow. Removing elements from a Vector will necessitate copying within the Vector if the element is removed from anywhere other than the and Automation Roles, end of the collection.

Cache the size of the collection in virtual banking a local variable to Robotics and Automation Roles, and Uses. use in a loop instead of repeatedly calling collection.size(). Unsynchronized methods are faster than synchronized ones. [Article discusses applying these optimzations to a thread pool implementation.] Object creation tuning (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-07-20, Author Daniel F. Virtual? Savarese, Publisher Numega). The Hp Way? Tips: Creating and dereferencing too many objects can adversely impact performance. Avoid holding on to objects for too long by explicit dereference (setting variables to null) and by using weak references. Use a profiler to determine which objects may be created too often, or may not be being dereferenced. When looking for virtual memory problems, look at methods that are called the most times or use the most memory.

Frequently called methods may unnecessarily allocate objects on each call. Methods that use a lot of memory may not need to use as much memory or they may be a source of the hp way, memory leaks. Try to use mutable objects like StringBuffers or a char array instead of immutable objects like String. Don't restrict object state initialization to the arguments passed to a constructor. Provide a zero-argument constructor that creates reasonable default values and include setter methods or an virtual, init method to allow objects of that class to be reused. If you have to wrap primitive types, such as an int, define your own wrapper class which can be reused instead of using java.lang.Integer. If you need to create many instances of a wrapper class like Integer, consider writing your algorithm to accept primitive types. Use a factory class instead of directly calling the new operator, to allow easier reuse of objects. Object pooling and database connection pooling are two techniques for reducing object creation overheads. Object pools can be sources or memory leaks and can themselves be inefficient. The java.nio packages (updated) (Page last updated December, 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author John Zukowski, Publisher Sun).

Tips: Direct buffers have a higher creation cost than non-direct buffers because they use native system operations rather than JVM operations. Direct buffers optimize access operations by using the system's native I/O operations. In Construction Challenges? Reduce threads by multiplexing I/O using selectors: The new I/O capabilities, allow you to create a Web server that does not require one thread per banking, connection. How to Climb a B-tree (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Rick Grehan, Publisher JavaPro). Tips: A B-tree outperforms a binary tree when used for external sorting (for example, when the index is stored out on disk) because searching a binary tree cuts the The Kitchen as a of Creativity and Imagination number of keys that need searching in virtual banking half for every node searched, whereas B-tree searching cuts the anorexia memoir number of keys that have to be searched by virtual, approximately 1/n, where n is the number of keys on a node. B-tree variants provide faster searching at Place of Creativity the cost of slower insertions and deletions. Two such variants are the B-tree with rotation (more densely packed nodes) and the B+tree (optimized for sequential key traversing). [Article discusses building a B-tree class, and persisting it to provide a disk-based searchable index].

Database comparison (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Timothy Dyck, Publisher E-Week). Tips: SQLServer has driver problems that slow access to it. Connection memory requirements vary dramatically between databases, and affect how much memory can be allocated to other resources. In-memory query result caches (such as with mySQL) improves performance significantly. (Works by retrieving cached results of virtual, byte-for-byte identical queries, with no query compilation required). Add extra indexes. Arrange the stored order of rows to Robotics in Construction Roles, and Uses. best satisfy the queries. Some drivers store the entire result set in memory when using bidirectional cursors - which does not scale. File Channels, StackTraceElements, (Page last updated May 2002, Added 2002-05-19, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher Sun). Tips: File Channels (from the virtual banking 1.4+ nio package) provide optimized mapping and a transferTo() method which is the fastest way to the hp way copy files. StackTraceElement provides access to virtual banking the stack from excception objects, useful for glasses analyzing stack elements.

Article about garbage collection and finalization. (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Jeff Friesen, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: [No specific performance tips, but its always helpful to know about GC]. Java Transaction Service (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher IBM). Tips: Writing every data block to virtual banking disk when any part of it changes would be bad for system performance. And Automation In Construction Challenges And Uses.? Deferring disk writes to a more opportune time can greatly improve application throughput.

Transactional systems achieve durability with acceptable performance by summarizing the results of multiple transactions in banking a single transaction log. The transaction log is stored as a sequential disk file and will generally only be written to, not read from, except in the case of rollback or recovery. Writing an update record to a transaction log requires less total data to anorexia memoir be written to disk (only the data that has changed needs to virtual banking be written) and fewer disk seeks. Changes associated with multiple concurrent transactions can be combined into the hp way a single write to the transaction log, so multiple transactions per disk write can be processed, instead of banking, requiring several disk writes per transaction. HTTP sessions vs. stateful EJB (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Peter Zadrozny, Publisher Weblogic Developers Journal). Action Pros? Tips: The comparative costs of banking, storing data in an HTTP session object are roughly the same as storing the action pros same data in a stateful session bean. Failure to remove an virtual banking, EJB that should have been removed (from the HTTP session) carries a very high performance price: the EJB will be passivated which is action pros a very expensive operation. Chapter 1, What Is Performance? of Java Platform Performance. Virtual? (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-11-27, Author Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Tips: Design your software with the target configuration (e.g. RAM) in mind. Robotics And Automation In Construction Roles,? If your program consumes all of your user's memory resources, they probably won't be happy.

Measure performance under loads comparable to expected deployed loads. Virtual? Perceived performance is a highly important aspect of performance. The Kitchen As A Essay? How fast a program feels is more important than how fast it really is. Chapter 2, The Performance Process of Java Platform Performance. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-11-27, Author Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Tips: It's nearly impossible to achieve good performance through optimizations alone, without considering performance in analysis and design stages. Creating clear system and performance requirements is the virtual key to evaluating the success of your project.

Use cases provide excellent specifications for building benchmarks. Specify the limitations of the application: well-defined boundaries on the application scope can provide big optimization opportunities. Specifications should include system and performance requirements, including all supported hardware configurations (RAM/CPU/Disk/Network) and Robotics in Construction Industry: other software that normally executes concurrently. You should specify quantifiable performance requirements, for example a response time of two seconds or less. Banking? Scalability is more dependent on action pros, good design decisions than optimal coding techniques. Banking? Encapsulation leads to action pros slowdowns from virtual increased levels of indirection, but is and Automation Industry: Roles, and Uses. essential in virtual large, scalable, high-performance systems. For example, using a java.util.List object may be slower than using a raw array, but allows you to Robotics in Construction change very easily from ArrayList to LinkedList when that is faster. Meeting or exceeding your performance requirements should be part of the shipping criteria for your product.

Once you've determined that a performance problem exists, you need to virtual banking begin profiling. Profilers are most useful for anorexia memoir identifying computational performance and RAM footprint issues. Performance tuning is an iterative process. Data gathered during profiling needs to be fed back into the development process. Chapter 3, Measurement Is Everything of Java Platform Performance. Virtual Banking? (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-11-27, Author Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Tips: Benchmarks are typically time-related, but can also measure quantities such as how much memory is used. A stopwatch is the hp way a versatile benchmarking tool. Virtual Banking? System.currentTimeMillis() provides millisecond timing for benchmarking [A Stopwatch class based on using System.currentTimeMillis() is presented]. Use benchmarks to: Compare the The Kitchen Essay performance of alternative solutions; Profile performance; Track performance changes. Banking? Micro-benchmarks (repeatable sections of code) can be useful but may not represent real-world behavior.

Factors that can skew micro-benchmark performance include Java virtual machine warm-up time, and film global code interactions. Macro-benchmarks (repeatable test sequences from the banking user point of view) test your system as actual end users will see it. Extract minima, maxima and action pros averages from virtual repeated benchmark data for analysis. Use these to compare progress of benchmarks during tuning. [I like to add the 90th-centile value too]. Profilers help you find bottlenecks in in Construction Industry: Roles, applications, and should show: the methods called most often; the virtual banking methods using the largest percentage of time; the anorexia memoir methods calling the most-used methods; and the methods allocating a lot of memory. The Sun JVM comes with the hprof profiler. Bottlenecks can be tuned by making often-used methods faster; and by calling slow methods less often.

Backtrace methods to understand the context of the virtual bottleneck. And Automation In Construction And Uses.? For example, caching a value may be a better optimization than speeding up the virtual banking repeated calculation of that value. Memory usage is action pros often of virtual, critical importance to the overall application performance. Excessive memory allocation is often one of the The Kitchen as a of Creativity and Imagination Essay first things that an experienced developer looks for banking when tuning a Java program. Examine bottlenecks for vendetta review memory allocation. For example you may be able to replace a repeated object allocation in a loop with a reusable object allocated once outside the loop.

Memory leaks (not releasing objects for the garbage collector to banking reclaim) can lead to a large memory footprint. The Hp Way? You identify memory leaks by: determining that there is a leak; then identifying the objects that are not being garbage colleted; then tracing the references to those leaking objects to determine what is holding them in memory. If your program continues to use more and more memory then it has a memory leak. Virtual Banking? This determination should happen after all initializations have completed. Identify memory leak objects by marking/listing the objects in some known state, then cycling through other states and back to that known state and film review seeing which extra objects are now present. Virtual Banking? When there are obvious bottlenecks, the method profile should show these. A flat method profile is one where there are no obvious bottlenecks, no methods taking vastly more time than others. Glasses? In this case you should look at cumulative method profiles, which show the relative times taken by a method and virtual banking all the methods it calls (the call tree ). This should identify methods which are worthwhile targets for optimization. Chapter 4, I/O Performance of Java Platform Performance: Strategies and Tactics. Review? (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-12-27, Author Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun).

Tips: Buffer i/o operations. Custom buffering (using your own array of bytes/chars) is quicker than using a Buffered class. Application specific i/o can be tuned, e.g. caching in memory frequently served pages of a HTTP server. Banking? Default Serialization is slow. Use the the hp way transient keyword to define fields to avoid having those fields serialized. Virtual Banking? Examine serialized objects to determine which fields do not need to be serialized for the application to Robotics Industry: Roles, and Uses. work. Chapter 5, RAM Footprint of Java Platform Performance: Strategies and virtual Tactics. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-12-27, Author Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Tips: Virtual memory is many times slower than RAM: try to fit the application into available RAM on the target platform.

Runtime.totalMemory() and Runtime.freeMemory() measure available heap memory, but not the RAM footprint of the application. Use operating system monitoring tools to determine the anorexia memoir RAM footprint of the application: e.g. Banking? task manager on Windows NT, pmap -x and ps on Solaris. Small GUI apps need several hundred classes to be loaded just to Industry: start the app. Small GUI apps need to reduce the number of virtual, classes loaded to improve startup time. You can approximate sizes of objects based on the number of fields and v for vendetta film review their types: byte-1 byte; char-2 bytes; short-2 bytes; int-4 bytes; float-4 bytes; long-8 bytes; double-8 bytes; references-4 bytes. JVMs will impose additional overheads. You can determine actual object sizes for a particular JVM by measuring the heap space taken by multiple instances of a class. Use profiling to determine the overal size cost of a class of virtual, objects, to determine whether it is and Automation in Construction Roles, worth reducing the size cost of the banking class.

Some JVM/OS combinations can impose a significant memory overhead on each thread. Use 'java -verbose MyMainClass' to identify all classes that are loaded. Chapter 6, Controlling Class Loading of Java Platform Performance: Strategies and specsavers Tactics. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-12-27, Author Steve Wilson and banking Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Tips: To avoid loading unnecessary classes (e.g. As A And Imagination? when the JIT compiles methods which refer to unused classes), use Class.forName() instead of directly naming the class in virtual source. This tactic is useful if large classes or a large number of classes are being loaded when you don't think they need to and Automation in Construction Industry: Roles, Challenges be. Combine listener functionality into one class to avoid an explosion of generated inner classes. This technique increases maintenance costs.

Use a Generic ActionListener which maps instances to method calls to avoid any extra listener classes. This has the drawback of banking, losing compile-time checks. java.lang.reflect.Proxy objects can be used to generalize this technique to multiple interfaces. Run multiple applications in the same JVM. [Chapter discusses how to do this, but see Multiprocess JVMs and Echidna for more comprehensive solutions]. Chapter 7, Object Mutability: Strings and other things of anorexia memoir, Java Platform Performance: Strategies and Tactics. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2002-02-22, Author Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Tips: The allocation, initialization, and collection of virtual, many short-lived useless objects can cause major inefficiencies in your software, even when running on an advanced runtime such as the HotSpot VM. Be cautious when the number of specsavers glasses prices, objects you're allocating becomes very high-for example, when allocating objects inside loops.

For heavy-duty text processing, however, some uses of the String class can become major performance bottlenecks. StringBuffer can be used to virtual banking improve the performance of common text processing operations. Avoid creating new strings in compute intensive parts of code. Be careful of the concatenation operators '+' and '+=' when used with strings. To avoid spurious object creation, create methods which return primitive data for multiple data items, rather than one method returning an object holding multiple data items.

Use immutable objects to prevent the need to copy objects to anorexia memoir pass information between methods. Object pooling small objects is virtual banking often counterproductive. The overhead of managing the object pool is glasses prices often greater than the small object penalty. Pooling can also increase a program's memory footprint. Pooling large objects (e.g. Virtual? large bitmaps or arrays) or objects that work with native resources (e.g. Threads or Graphics) can be efficient.

Chapter 8, Algorithms and data structures of The Kitchen Place of Creativity and Imagination Essay, Java Platform Performance: Strategies and banking Tactics. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2002-02-22, Author Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Tips: Choosing the best algorithm or data structure for a particular task is one of the keys to film writing high-performance software. The optimal algorithm for a task is highly dependent on the data and virtual data size. Special-purpose algorithms usually run faster than general-purpose algorithms. As A? Testing for easy-to-solve subcases, and using a faster algorithm for those cases, is a mainstay of high-performance programming. Collection features such as ordering and duplicate elimination have a performance cost, so you should select the collection type with the fewest features that still meets your needs.

Most of the time ArrayList is the best List choice, but for some tasks LinkedList is more efficient. Banking? HashSet is much faster than TreeSet. Choosing a capacity for HashSet that's too high can waste space as well as time. Set the initial capacity to about twice the size that you expect the Robotics and Automation Set to grow to. The default hash load factor (.75) offers a good trade-off between time and virtual banking space costs. Higher values decrease the space overhead, but increase the time it takes to look up an entry. Robotics And Automation Industry: Roles, And Uses.? (When the number of virtual banking, entries exceeds the product of the the hp way load factor and the current capacity, the capacity is doubled). Programs pay the costs associated with thread synchronization even when they're used in a single-threaded environment. The Collections.sort() method uses a merge sort that provides good performance across a wide variety of situations. When dealing with collections of banking, primitives, the overhead of allocating a wrapper for each primitive and glasses prices then extracting the primitive value from the wrapper each time it's used is quite high.

In performance-critical situations, a better solution is to virtual work with plain array structures when you're dealing with collections of primitive types. Random number generation can take time. If possible you can pre-generate the The Kitchen and Imagination Essay random number sequence into banking an array, and use the elements when required. Chapter 10 (Swing models and renderers) of Java Platform Performance: Strategies and Tactics. The Kitchen Of Creativity And Imagination? (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Authors Steve Wilson, Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Tips: Swing?s model-view architecture is critical for building scalable programs. Virtual? When changing data stored in models, perform the operations in bulk whenever possible. Anorexia Memoir? E.g. use the banking interface that adds an prices, array of elements rather than one element at a time. Use custom models to virtual handle large datasets.

The default models provided with Swing are generic and designed for light-duty use [i.e. Glasses? are slow]. Custom renderers can sometimes be used to improve performance. But watch out as it is easy to badly construct a custom renderer, making performance worse. A custom model and a custom renderer can be used together in the same Component. Virtual Banking? When initializing or totally replacing the contents of a model, consider constructing a new one instead of reusing the existing one, as this avoid posting notifications to any listeners. [Or reuse the object but deregister the anorexia memoir listeners first]. Improving socket transfer rates (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Rama Roberts, Publisher Sun). Virtual? Tips: The usual StringBuffer better than String tip applies to socket communications too. Industry: Roles,? PrintWriters are not suitable for socket communications because they flush at each newline. Socket.setTcpNoDelay(true) may help speed if you have many small packets sent frequently across the connection. Server performance testing (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-05-21, Author Floyd Marinescu, Publisher The Server Side). Tips: Test response times against average current data/user volumes, then repeat the banking same test against action pros four times as much volume as you expect in 3 years time.

This defines your long term target - getting the response times the same for that latter test. Response time increasing too much when database is over populated probably indicates lack of or inappropriate indexing on the database. Response time increasing exponentially as load increases, you need to improve scalability by optimizing the virtual application or adding resources. Use SQL clause with EXPLAIN or similar (e.g. Explain select * from table where tablefield = somevalue) to ensure that the database is doing an indexed search rather than a linear searches of v for film review, large datasets. Virtual? Use a profiler to determine object usage, garbage collection behaviour and method bottlenecks in the application. Minimize network calls, especially database calls: make one large database call rather than many small ones; make sure ejbStore isn?t storing anything for read only operations; use Details Objects to get entity bean state rather than making many trips for anorexia memoir each aspect of state. Banking? Use caching where possible. Use session beans as a fa?ade to your entity beans to encapsulate the workflow of one entire usecase in one network call to one method on a session bean (and one transaction). Optimizing entity beans (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Akara Sucharitakul, Publisher Sun). Tips: Use container-managed persistence when you can.

An efficient container can avoid database writes when no state has changed, and reduce reads by retrieving records at the same time as find() is Robotics and Automation in Construction Industry: called. Minimize database access in virtual ejbStores. Use a dirty flag to action pros avoid writing tee bean unless it has been changed. Virtual Banking? Always cache references obtained from lookups and find calls. Always define these references as instance variables and look them up in the setEntityContext (method setSessionContext for session beans). Vendetta? Always prepare your SQL statements. Close all database access/update statements properly. Banking? Avoid deadlocks.

Note that the sequence of ejbStore calls is not defined, so the developer has no control over the access/locking sequence to database records. EJB best practices (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Sandra L. Emerson, Michael Girdley, Rob Woollen, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: To avoid resources being held unnecessarily for long periods, a transaction should never encompass user input or user think time. Glasses? Container managed transactions are preferred for consistency, and should provide extra optimization options. Don't model a shared cache or any shared resource as a stateful session bean. Stateless session beans are easier to scale than stateful session beans. With stateful session beans, every client will need its own session bean instance, reducing scalability. Always call remove after finishing with a stateful session bean instance, otherwise the EJB container will eventually passivate the bean, incurring extra unnecessary disk writes. J2EE clustering (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Abraham Kang, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Consider cluster-related and load balancing programming issues from the beginning of the development process. Load balancing has two non-application options: DNS (Domain Name Service) round robin or hardware load balancers. Virtual Banking? [Article discusses the pros and Roles, and Uses. cons].

To support distributed sessions, make sure: all session referenced objects are serializable; store session state changes in a central repository. Try to virtual keep multiple copies of objects to a minimum. SoftReference-based HashMap (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Heinz Kabutz, Publisher Kabutz). Tips: WeakHashMaps are not ideal if you want the values to be weakly referenced rather than the action pros keys. SoftReferences may be better for memory sensitive caches since they are supposed to virtual banking be collected in the reverse order to which they were last referenced. Adding the capability to strongly reference some of the values ensures those objects will be retained through a garbage collection. Avoiding memory leaks in EJBs (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Govind Seshadri, Publisher IT World). Tips: Make sure that any beans which have session scope implement the HttpSessionBindingListener interface Explicitly release any resources that may be used within the bean by implementing the valueUnbound() callback. Explicitly release the user's session by invoking invalidate() when they log out.

Try setting the session invalidation interval to a smaller value than the default 30 minutes. Make sure that you are not placing any large grained objects into the servlet context (application scope) as that can also prove problematic sometimes. Parallel clustering of machines using Java (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Aashish N. Patil, Publisher IBM). Tips: [Article describes an implemented architecture for specsavers glasses distributing Runnable threads across multiple computer nodes]. The Javap disassembler (Page last updated August 2000, Added 2001-04-20, Author Stuart Halloway, Publisher Sun). Tips: [Article describes using the javap disassembler, useful for banking identifying exactly what the code has been compiled into]. Robotics In Construction Industry: Roles, Challenges? Use the virtual banking javap disassembler to determine the efficiency of generated bytecodes. javap is anorexia memoir not sufficient to determine code efficiency, because JIT compilers can apply additional optimizations. Speeding up file searching in JFileChooser (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Slav Boleslawski, Publisher JavaWorld).

Tips: [Article discusses JFileChooser's operation in banking detail, including multi-threading, filename caching and v for vendetta film batched delivery. Article discusses how to add type-ahead lookup functionality to choosing files]. Various tips. (Page last updated 1999?, Added 2000-10-23, Author Nate Sammons, Publisher Sammons). Tips: Use StringBuffer for String concatenations, rather than the '+' operator. Use static strings, String.intern() or a static Hashtable to virtual reduce the number of occurrances of identical string objects. Modify java.lang.String to cache the hashCode if you are using many string keys in vendetta hash tables [note Sun added this optimization to the String class in banking SDK 1.3] String.getBytes() is action pros very inefficient with a method call for every character.

Use getBytes(int, int, byte[] int) instead, or some other mecahnism. Use non-synchronized Vector, Hashtable, etc. where possible. Size Vector, Hashtable, etc. appropriately. Object creation is banking expensive. The Kitchen Place Of Creativity Essay? Pool your objects where possible. Inner class object creation is even more expensive than normal. Use non-public concrete support classes instead. Method call times: static 220ns; final 300ns; instance 550ns; interface methods 750ns; synchronized methods 1,500ns. [But times vary enormously depending on the VM and context]. Use static final methods where possible. [And do functional programming too ;-)] Rewrite loops so that the virtual termination test compares against 0. Anorexia Memoir? Use exception terminated infinite loops for virtual long loops. Use System.arraycopy() to copy arrays. Use temporary local variables to manipulate instance variables.

EJB2 clustering with application servers (Page last updated December 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Tyler Jewell, Publisher OnJava). Tips: [Article discusses multiple independent ways to load balance EJBs] Sun community chat session with Steve Wilson and anorexia memoir Jeff Kesselman on Java Performance (Page last updated August 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: HotSpot JVMs can return heap memory to the OS while running. HotSpot Client VM (JVM 1.3) is optimized for quick startup time and banking low-memory footprint. Anorexia Memoir? The server VM (HotSpot 1.0/2.0) is designed for peak performance (may take a little longer to get up-to-speed but it will go faster in the end). Virtual? Always use System.arraycopy to copy arrays.

Sticky applets available with the 1.3 plugin speeds startup (persistently caches classes on clients). Also put resources together into glasses prices jar file to reduce download requests. SwingSet2 (demo in banking SDK distribution) provides a good example of large numbers of Swing components in a window, created asynchronously. Don't use use finalizers for anything that must be done in a timely manner. Use primitives and transients to speed up serialization. Use a concentrator object to limit the repaint events to once every 100 milliseconds in heavily loaded systems and in multi-threaded swing environments. There is some overhead for context switching (using invokeLater) into the AWT-event thread, which you want to Robotics and Automation Industry: minimize. The key to high performance code is organization and banking process.

Write clean, well encapsulated code, then use a Profiler to Robotics Industry: find your true bottlenecks and tune those. Experiences building a servlet (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Asif Habibullah, Jimmy Xu, Publisher Java Pro). Virtual Banking? Tips: Keep the v for vendetta film review size of the virtual banking client tier small so that downloads are fast. Use the Robotics in Construction Roles, servlet init() and virtual destroy() methods to and Imagination Essay start and virtual stop limited and expensive resources, such as database connections. Make the servlets thread-safe and use connection pooling. Use PreparedStatements rather than plain Statement objects. Use database stored procedures.

Typesafe Enumeration gotchas (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Vladimir Roubtsov, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Implement readResolve() for the hp way Serializable Enumeration classes to maintain object identity. Banking? Ensure that the same Classloader always loads the Industry: Roles, Enumeration class to banking maintain object identity. Reference objects (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Jeff Friesen, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Cache objects such as images in memory for quicker presentation after the first display request. Use Reference objects to hold cached objects so that the garbage collector can free space when required. Vendetta Film? [Article discusses in detail the various Reference object types]. Optimizing Java for intensive numeric calculations (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author James W. Cooper, Publisher DevX). Tips: Allocating on the heap (as with object creation) is banking much slower than allocating on the stack.

Making numbers into first-class objects imposes a significant overhead on calculations. Hand applied optimizations may be superceded by the hp way, future compiler optimizations. Use specialized subtypes to reduce dynamic dispatching. Replace objects with their data held and passed as local variables. OS Signal handling in Java (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Chris White, Publisher IBM). Tips: [Article describes how to handle operating system signals from within Java. Useful if you want your application to be able to respond to the full gamut of system and user actions].

Natively compiled code from Java source (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Martyn Honeyford, Publisher IBM). Tips: Natively compiled code generated from Java source might be faster and might require less memory and disk resources. Virtual Banking? [But this articles show some JVMs can be faster]. When you include the disk size of the JVM libraries, a natively compiled Java application is significantly smaller in the hp way disk size. When considering compiling Java applications to native code determine exactly what problem (or problems) you are hoping to solve with native compilation, and try all the available native compilers. RMI arguments (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2002-02-22, Author Scott Oaks, Publisher Java Report). Tips: Some application servers can automatically pass parameters by reference if the communicating EJBs are in the same JVM.

To ensure that this does not break the application, write EJB methods so that they don't modify the parameters passed to them. Choosing an application server (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Sue Spielman, Publisher JavaPro). Tips: A large-scale server with lots of traffic should make performance its top priority. Virtual Banking? Performance factors to consider include: connection pooling; types of JDBC drivers; caching features, and their configurability; CMP support. Inability to film scale with reliable performance means lost customers. Scaling features to consider include failover support, clustering capabilities, and load balancing. Notated keys to access elements of nested Maps. (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Matt Liotta, Publisher DevX). Tips: Use dot separated, concatenated strings to optimize access to elements of nested Maps by caching elements in the top level Map. The Garbage Collector (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Phil Vickers, Publisher IBM).

Tips: In most current JVMs (prior to 1.4) GC starts off by locking out all other threads in the JVM. GC is virtual banking a stop-the-world, synchronous operation. V For Film Review? Non-generationl GC requires scanning the stacks of every thread and virtual banking the entire Java heap. Calling System.gc() explicitly is not good for performance, as it can be called when GC is not necessary, but will still result in a long pause of specsavers prices, all JVM operations. Object management (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Mark Bluemel, Publisher IBM). Virtual? Tips: Avoid retaining objects accidentally, by holding references beyond an appropriate time for their release.

Use profiling tools to identify unintentionally retained objects. Garbage collection is not free; other processing will be paused during GC. Try to reuse objects in preference to discarding and re-creating them. JViewport scrolling performance (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Heather Brailsford, Publisher IBM). Tips: JViewport.BLIT_SCROLL_MODE is the default scrolling mode for JViewport in SDK 1.3 (available since 1.2.2). V For Vendetta Review? This mode paints directly to the screen instead of being buffered offscreen. This normally provides optimal performance and minimum memory requirements. Virtual? However complex images may display some intermediate paint operations if the vendetta painting is virtual banking not fast enough, giving jerky or flashing images. If this is unacceptable, try the alternate modes: setScrollMode(BACKINGSTORE_SCROLL_MODE) (intermediate performance, higher memory requirements); or setScrollMode(JViewport.SIMPLE_SCROLL_MODE) (slowest). Using JNI Get* calls (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Mark Bluemel, Publisher IBM).

Tips: If you use JNI Get* calls (for example, GetStringCritical), you must always use the corresponding Release* call (for example, ReleaseStringCritical) when you have finished with the data, even if the isCopy parameter indicates that no copy was taken. Servlet 2.3 events (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Budi Kurniawan, Publisher DevX). Tips: The Servlet 2.3 specification adds application and session events. [Event driven applications can often be scaled more easily than process driven applications]. Sun presentation on J2SE performance strategies (originally accessed from Reginald Hutcherson's page) (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Reginald Hutcherson, Publisher Sun). Tips: The Sun 1.3 JVM has a significantly faster startup time compared to film any earlier Sun release. Improve bytecode (method) execution by: using JITs; reducing (byte-)code size; profiling code to eliminate bottlenecks. Reduce garbage collection overheads by: reducing the number of virtual banking, objects generated; reusing objects; caching objects. Action Pros? Reduce multithreading overheads by virtual, targeting the granularity of locks, and action pros managing synchronization correctly.

Other operations which improve performance include: using JAR files; using arrays rather than collections; using primitive types rather than objects. If the CPU is the virtual bottleneck, target: code; method profiler identified bottlenecks; algorithms; and object creation. If system memory is the bottleneck, try to avoid paging by targeting: large objects; arrays; the application design. Film? If disk I/O is the bottleneck, identify the problem and eliminate it. Ensure that you have benchmarks and targets, and virtual run reproducible benchmark tests. Action Pros? Target the banking easiest of the top 5 methods, or the top method, identified by method profiling. Repeat profile, fix, benchmark iterative process. Avoid runtime String concatenation. Use StringBuffer instead.

Local variables (method arguments and tempoararies) remain on the stack and Robotics Industry: Challenges and Uses. are much faster than heap variables (static, instance new objects). Virtual? Use strength reduction: x = x + 5 - x += 5; y = x/2 - y = x 1; z = x * 4 - z = x Always profile the code to find where the bottlenecks are. equalsIgnoreCase() is anorexia memoir faster than equals() in most cases (except where string sizes are the virtual banking same). Loop backwards rather than forwards [actually its the specsavers glasses comparison to 0 that matters]. Reduce code size by: obfuscating code; compression in jar files; excluding the manifest in jar files; reordering variable declarations; eliminating dead code; using protected methods. Manipulate data that requires parsing into a format that is easier to banking parse. Use bitshift instead of multiplying or dividing by powers of 2. Of Creativity Essay? Use binary-And (on N-1) instead of modulus (on N). Use Thread.sleep() instead of banking, a for specsavers loop for virtual measured delays.

Use the update() method to draw things, not the paint() method. Use double-buffering. Apply faster algorithms and data structures. Use StringBuffer for String concatenations, rather than the '+' operator. Use static [pre-created] exceptions. Use final classes. Javabean component architecture (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Authors David Hardin and Mike Frerking, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Reusing events reduce object creation and garbage collection overheads. Robotics In Construction Challenges And Uses.? Passing primitive data types directly to event handlers is the fastest way to pass event information. Virtual? Generic events reduce the number of (inner) classes required to handle the v for vendetta review events. The logging APIs (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Tom Harpin, Publisher Sun).

Tips: [Article gives a high level view of the logging APIs introduced in SDK 1.4. Virtual Banking? No application is action pros adequately deployed unless it has some performance logging in banking place]. The performance of games on J2ME (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Jason R. Briggs, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Target performance for processors that you will run on Robotics in Construction Industry: Roles, Challenges, when the project is deployed. Implementing the ImageProducer interface and setting an image's pixels directly eliminates one or two steps in the MemoryImageSource option and seems to be about 10 percent to 20 percent faster on average. Raw frame rate display, without taking account of the time taken to draw an image, runs from 2 frames per second (fps) to virtual 400 fps, depending on Robotics and Automation in Construction Industry: and Uses., processor and banking JVM. The PersonalJava runtime has no JIT, and The Kitchen of Creativity and Imagination provides the worst performance. Banking? With a JIT it might be usable. [Article includes references to a number of hardware based Java implementations, i.e.

Java enabled CPUs.] Introductory level article on threading applets (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Monica Pawlan, Publisher Sun). Tips: Multi-threaded programs can allow multiple activities to specsavers continue without blocking the user. Spawning additional threads carries extra memory and processor overhead, but can easily be worth the overheads. Applets need a separate timer thread to execute any non-short tasks so that the applet remains responsive to the browser.

The volatile modifier requests the Java VM to always access the shared copy of the variable so the its most current value is always read. If two or more threads access a member variable, AND one or more threads might change that variable's value, AND ALL of the threads do not use synchronization (methods or blocks) to read and/or write the value, then that member variable must be declared volatile to ensure all threads see the changed value. Cute tip on unblocking a blocked socket by sending it data from a timer thread. (Page last updated 1997, Added 2000-10-23, Author Albert Lopez, Publisher JavaWorld). Virtual Banking? Tips: Use a separate timer thread to timeout socket operations Instead of killing the blocked socket, send it some data to unblock it. J2EE design optimizations (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Vijay S. The Kitchen Of Creativity And Imagination Essay? Ramachandran, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: For data that changes infrequently (i.e. rarely enough that a user session will not need that data updating during the session lifetime), avoid transactional access by using a cached Data Access Object rather than the transactional EJB (this is called the Fast Lane Reader pattern). Virtual? Don't transfer long lists of data to the user, transfer a page at a time (this is called the Page-by-Page Iterator pattern). Instead of making lots of the hp way, remote requests for data attributes of an object, combine the attributes into virtual banking another object and send the object to the client. Then the attributes can be queried efficiently locally (this is called the Value Object pattern). Consider caching the value objects where appropriate. Choosing a J2EE application server, emphasizing the importance of specsavers glasses, performance issues (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Author Steve Franklin, Publisher DevX).

Tips: Application server performance is affected by: the JDK version; connection pooling availability; JDBC version and optimized driver support; caching support; transactional efficiency; EJB component pooling mechanisms; efficiency of webserver-appserver connection; efficiency of persistence mechanisms. Your application server needs to virtual banking be load tested with scaling, to determine suitability. Always validate the Roles, Challenges performance of the app server on the target hardware with peak expected user numbers. Decide on virtual banking, what is acceptable downtime for your application, and ensure the app server can deliver the Industry: Challenges and Uses. required robustness. High availability may require: transparent fail-over; clustering; load balancing; efficient connection pooling; caching; duplicated servers; scalable CPU support. Servlet Filters (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Jason Hunter, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Servlet Filters provide a standardized technique for wrapping servlet calls. You can use a Servlet Filter to log servlet execution times [example provided].

You can use a Servlet Filter to compress the webserver output stream [example provided]. Implementing clustering on a J2EE web server (JBoss+Jetty) (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Bill Burke, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Clustering includes synchronization, load-balancing, fail-over, and distributed transactions. Virtual Banking? [article discusses implementing clustering in an environment where clustering was not previously present]. The different EJB commit options affect database traffic and performance. Option 'A' (read-only local caching) has the smallest overhead. Hardware load balancers are a simple and fast solution to distributing HTTP requests to action pros clustered servers. Making HTTP connections using background threads. (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Eric Giguere, Publisher Sun). Tips: The user interface must always be responsive to the user's interaction. The application should respond to banking input no later than a tenth of a second after it occurs: longer delays are noticed by the user, and Robotics and Automation in Construction Roles, Challenges make the user interface seem unresponsive.

So don't do more than about a tenth of a second's worth of work in virtual banking the user-service thread in response to any user interface event. Use separate threads to perform operations that will last longer than one tenth of The Kitchen of Creativity and Imagination Essay, a second. Provide the virtual banking user with the option to cancel the operation at any time. [Article provides an example of making an HTTP connection following these suggestions]. Article by Frederic Boulanger with tuning tips. (Page last updated June 1998, Added 2000-10-23, Author Frederic Boulanger, Publisher Macadamian). Tips: Choose the best algorithm or data structure. Whatever can be calculated outside of a loop should be calculated outside of the specsavers prices loop.

Try to banking minimize method calls within a loop. Reduce the number of references to an array in loops. Store the v for vendetta film value of array or array elements in temporary variables and use these in virtual banking the loop. Anorexia Memoir? For multidimensional arrays store a reference for the currently accessed row in a variable. Store member variables in a local temporary variable in loops. IBM's list of Java performance tuning tips (same page, two URLs). (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher IBM). Tips: Group native operations to reduce the number of virtual banking, JNI calls. Primitive types are faster than classes encapsulating types. Avoid excessive writing to the java console. Reorder CLASSPATH so that the most used libraries occur first. Don't overuse synchronized methods.

Use int instead of long when possible. When possible, declare methods as final. If needed, only in Construction Challenges call the garbage collector explicitly at an appropriate time (when things are quiet). Prudent use of zip and jar formats can improve load time. Compile java files with the virtual optimizer on. Cache frequently used objects when possible. Use static final when creating constants. Use StringBuffer when doing excessive string manipulations. Consider when to the hp way use local variables in loops (speed vs. memory?).

Vectors are more flexible than arrays, but much slower. Virtual? It is faster to add/delete items from the vendetta film review end of the vector. Avoid unnecessary casts and instanceof. Virtual Banking? Scope of variables can impact performance. EJB2.0 Container-Managed Persistence (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Beth Stearns, Publisher Sun).

Tips: EJB 2.0 Container-Managed Persistence provides local interfaces which can avoid the performance overheads of remote interfaces. FAQ site with a couple of glasses, basic performance tips. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author Martin Webb, Publisher IRT). Tips: FAQ 4002: Use an ImageObserver (method listed in FAQ) to control how and when images are painted during loading. FAQ 4003: Minimise flicker in animations by overriding update() to simply call paint() (default action is to clear the image first), and use double buffering. FAQ 4063 4066: Use jar files to reduce the amount of time that it takes to download an applet. Anonymous inner classes (Page last updated December 2000, Added 2002-04-26, Author Heinz M. Kabutz, Publisher Kabutz).

Tips: Accessing private data members of an outer class, is banking done using a generated method, which is slower than normal field access. Glasses Prices? Though HotSpot can inline the access. Minimizing space taken by HTTP downloads (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Authors Gary Adams and Eric Giguere, Publisher Sun). Tips: Use HttpConnection.getLength() to determine the number of bytes needed to to hold the data from virtual banking a download. V For Vendetta Review? Use a ByteArrayOutputStream to accumulate results if the virtual content length is indeterminate. The best performance is obtained from anorexia memoir a 1.1 compliant webserver using persistent connections. Double-if on multi-CPU (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Phil Vickers, Publisher IBM). Tips: Double-if logic fails on multiple CPU machines. You need to synchronize around double-if logic for consistent results, though this may be inefficient.

Faster JSP with caching (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Serge Knystautas, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: The (open source) OSCache tag library provides fast in-memory caching. Cache pages or page sections for a set length of time, rather than update the virtual banking page (section) with each request. Caching can give a trade-off between memory usage and CPU usage, especially if done per-session. This trade-off must be balanced correctly for glasses prices optimal performance. Scaling web services (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Simeon Simeonov, Publisher XML Developers Journal). Tips: Use bigger, better, faster hardware, but there is a limit to the scalability of a single server: most application performance does not scale linearly with increases in the hardware power. Use more than one server in a cluster that services requests as if it were a single server using: OS-level clustering (OS level built in failover mechanisms); Software load balancing (using a loda-balancing front-end dispatcher); Hardware load balancing (e.g.

DNS round-robin to banking different servers). A basic load-balancing scheme is achievable by sending documents with different binding addresses (differnent URL hosts) Use faster communication protocols (e.g. plain sockets) Support asynchronous request processing message based interactions. Multithreaded Swing Applications (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Monica Pawlan, Publisher Sun). Tips: Use the SwingUtilities.invokeAndWait() and SwingUtilities.invokeLater() methods to the hp way put code on the GUI eventr queue. Spawn threads for long operations so that the user does not get a blocked GUI.

Timers and banking low-level GUI display effects (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Roman Bialach, Publisher Micro Java). Tips: You need a scheduling mechanism to perform animation, scrolling, updating the display, etc. The paint() method on the Canvas is called by the system only if it thinks that it needs to repaint it. So we need another timer to repaint the action pros screen on banking, a regular basis. Use a timer to periodically call repaint(). Architecting and Designing Scalable, Multitier Systems (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Michael Minh Nguyen, Publisher Java Report).

Tips: Separate the prices UI controller logic from the servlet business logic, and let the controllers be mobile so they can execute on the client if possible. Validate data as close to the data entry point as possible, preferably on the client. This reduces the network and server load. Business workflow rules should be on the server (or further back than the front-end). Virtual? You can use invisible applets in a browser to validate data on the client. Sun community discussion on v for vendetta review, Optimizing Entity Beans with Akara Sucharitakul (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun).

Tips: Prepared SQL statements get compiled in the database only banking once, future invocations do not recompile them. The result of this is a decrease in the database load, and an increase in performance of up to 5x. Container Managed Persistence (CMP) can provide 2-3x better performance than Bean Managed Persistence (BMP). Optimizing dynamic web pages (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Helen Thomas, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Dynamic generation of web pages is more resource intensive than delivering static web pages, and anorexia memoir can cause serious performance problems. Dynamic web page generation incurs overheads from: accessing persistent and/or remote resources/storage; data formatting; resource contention; JVM garbage collection; and script execution overheads. Dynamic content caching tries to mitigate Dynamic web page generation overheads by reusing content that has already been generated to service a request. JSP cache tagging solutions allow page and fragment level JSP output to be automatically cached.

On highly personalized sites page-level caching results in low cache hit rates since each page instance is virtual banking unique to a user. Component-level caching applies more extensively when components are reused in many pages, but requires manual identification of bottleneck components. J2ME apps, with a discussion of the Robotics and Automation Roles, Challenges and Uses. needs to balance performance (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Glenn Coates, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: J2ME devices have limited processing power, so performance is important and virtual banking must be considered for the target device. JIT compiled or natively compiled code is preferred, but may be unobtainable because of action pros, memory resource or deployment considerations.

JVM Interpreters have a significantly lower memory overhead compared to JIT/HotSpot JVMs, but are much slower. Selectively compiled code might provide a good compromise of speed and memory if deployment considerations allow. The application does not need to be lightning fast in banking order to have a responsive user interface. The perception of speed is the hp way important, for virtual banking example, the user interface should give immediate feedback. JVM slection for the J2ME device is pivotal to achieving the required performance. Compared to the hp way desktop environments, embedded systems typically have: lower memory availability; less processing power; user Interface restrictions; reduced communication bandwidth or unreliable connections; battery power; higher reliability requirements; lack of a file system. Tuning JVMs for servers. (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Timothy Dyck, Publisher E-Week).

Tips: Multiple JVMs are often available for a particular platform. Choose the JVM that best suits your needs. Banking? The test here found setting min and max heaps to the same value provided the best performance. Limiting each Sun 1.3 JVM to using two CPUs (test used multiple JVMs and 6 CPUs) provided a 30% reduction in CPU usage. IBM JVMs did not require (or benefit from) this optimization. Data compression (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Tony Sintes, Publisher JavaWorld).

Tips: [Article covers how to action pros add zip compression to virtual banking RMI communications]. Creating Web-based, interactive graphics. (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Steve Lloyd, Publisher DevX). Tips: If an applet parameter's [tags in the webpage] length is too long, the Web page's responsiveness begins to bog down. Move all but the essential parameters from the APPLET tag to a dedicated HTTP link between the applet and the servlet. This allows page loading and applet initialization to occur at the same time over anorexia memoir, separate connections. Close java.sql.Statements when finished with. Inverting booleans (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Heinz M. Virtual Banking? Kabutz, Publisher Kabutz). Tips: The fastest way to invert a boolean is to XOR it (bool ^= true). Be careful when making performance measurements with HotSpot because the optimizing compiler can kick in to adjust results. The Proxy design pattern. (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author David Geary, Publisher JavaWorld).

Tips: Creating images is expensive. ImageIcon instances create their images when they are constructed. If an application creates many large images at once, it could cause a significant performance hit. Robotics And Automation In Construction Roles,? If the banking application does not use all of its images, it's wasteful to specsavers glasses create them upfront. Using a proxy, you can delay image loading until the image is required. Virtual? The Proxy pattern often instantiates its real object, the Decorator pattern (which can also use proxy objects) rarely does. The java.lang.reflect package provides three classes to support the Proxy and Decorator patterns: Proxy, Method, and InvocationHandler. Stateful vs Stateless EJBs (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Chuck Caveness, Doug Pardee, Publisher IT World). Tips: Stateless session beans can support multiple clients, thus increasing scalability.

Webservices SOAP communications overheads (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Leigh Dodds, Publisher XML). Tips: Generating XML produces a large amount of data during communications, but this does not mean that the v for film communication will be the bottleneck. Webservices have all the virtual same limitations of every other remote procedure calling (RPC) methodology. Requiring synchronous communications across a WAN is The Kitchen as a of Creativity a heavy overhead regardless of the protocol. If Web services tend to virtual banking be chatty, with lots of little round trips and a subtle statefulness between individual communications, they will be slow. That's a function of failing to glasses prices realize that the API call model isn't well-suited to building communicating applications where caller and virtual callee are separated by a medium (networks!) with variable and anorexia memoir unconstrained performance characteristics/latency. Virtual? Asynchronous messaging may be required for efficient webservices.

Sun community chat session on Threading and Concurrency in v for vendetta review the Java Platform with Thomas Christopher and George Thiruvathukal (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: If memory is at a premium, the cost of allocating a Thread object and banking allocating a stack can be expensive. If there are real-time considerations, you do not have any scheduling and as a of Creativity performance guarantees for threads. Be careful about the number of virtual banking, threads you create: too many and v for vendetta review you can exhaust your memory: too few and you don't get the advantages of parallelism. Virtual Banking? Use javax.swing.SwingUtilities.invokeLater() [java.awt.EventQueue.invokeLater()] to the hp way schedule work onto virtual banking the awt thread. Basic article on a minimal ArrayList implementation, from a micro-Java slant (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Lee Miles, Publisher Micro Java).

Tips: ArrayLists are the action pros fastest SDK collection class. System.arraycopy provides an virtual, efficient method for copying arrays. You should request garbage collection whenever elements are dereferenced (e.g. the list is cleared). Precompiling JSPs (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Steve Mueller, Scot Weber, Publisher Weblogic Developers Journal). Tips: Precompile your JSPs one way or another to avoid the first user having a slow experience. High performance inserts with DB2 and JDBC (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Krishnakumar Pooloth, Publisher IBM). Tips: Use SQLJ to get the use of buffered inserts, and modify the and Automation Roles, and Uses. code generated from SQLJ to reuse the RTStatement object. Optimizing StringBuffer usage (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher Sun). Tips: Pre-size the banking StringBuffer to the expected result String size where possible. Customized high-speed, fine-grained access control (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Wally Flint, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: [Article discusses an Access control pattern which has no performance penalty].

Connection Pooling with JRun (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Karl Moss, Publisher Allaire). Tips: Establishing an glasses, initial connection is one of the most expensive database operations. Use a pool of connections that are ready and waiting for use to minimize the banking connection overhead. Prices? Connection pooling is one of the virtual largest performance improvements available for anorexia memoir applications which are database intensive. Connections should timeout if not used within a certain time period, to reduce unnecessary overheads. Virtual Banking? Initial and maximum pool sizes provide further mechanisms for fine-tuning the pool. Specsavers Glasses Prices? JDBC 2.0 supports connection pooling, though a particular driver may or may not use the support. If pooling is virtual supported by action pros, the driver, it is virtual probably more efficient than a proprietary pooling mechanism since it can leverage database specific features. Some IBM Java performance tips. Although intended for AS/400 Java, many tips are generally applicable (Page last updated ?, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher IBM).

Tips: Minimize the use of synchronized methods. Use the -O javac option. Minimize object creation, reuse objects. Use StringBuffers or char[] arrays to minimize the number of String objects created. Use faster accesses. Accesses from fastest to slowest: local variable; instance variable: accessor method in-lined; accessor method; synchronized accessor method.

Minimize the the hp way use of virtual banking, created exceptions. Use static final when creating constants. Action Pros? Use Prepared Statements. Banking? Store character data in DB2 as Unicode, numeric data as float. Monitoring Networked Applications (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Russ Currie, Publisher Message MQ). Tips: Use network probes to break down how the network is the hp way being used by the various networked applications on it.

Deciding whether EJB is virtual banking appropriate. (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Ed Roman, Publisher The Server Side). Tips: An HTTP layer is not always necessary. Vendetta? Connecting directly to EJBs is virtual faster and provides automatic load balancing. Tips on using XSLT (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Eric M. Burke, Publisher O'Reilly). Tips: XSLT transformations are CPU memory intensive, so cache results wherever possible.

Examples include stylesheets; mainly static XML data (cache the vendetta transformation result). Rambling discussion of building J.Crew website, in Chapter 3 of J2EE Technology in Practice (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Authors Dao Ren, Dr. Rick Cattell and Jim Inscore, Publisher Sun). Tips: Use database connection pooling Cache Database Requests [Statistics useful for comparison if you are building a business enterprise site: The architecture can handle 8,000 concurrent user sessions; 85 dynamic page views a second; 250,000 unique daily visitors; 8 million hits a day; 1 to 2 second average response time]. Converting booleans to strings. (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author Tony Sintes, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use String.valueOf(bool) to convert booleans to strings. Generating integer random numbers (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author John Zukowski, Publisher Sun). Tips: [Article explains why ways of generating random integers produces skewed results. Virtual? Important for correctly simulating a variety of things].

Tuning tips intended for Sun's Web Server product, but actually generally applicable. (Page last updated 1999, Added 2000-10-23, Author ? - a Sun document, Publisher Aikido). Prices? Tips: Use more server threads if multiple connections have high latency. Use keep-alive sockets for higher throughput. Increase server listen queues for high load or high latency servers. Avoid or reduce logging. Banking? Buffer logging output: use less than one real output per log. Avoid reverse DNS lookups. Write time stamps rather than formatted date-times. Glasses? Separate paging and virtual banking application files. A high VM heap size may result in paging, but could avoid some garbage collections. Occasional very long GCs makes the VM hang for that time, leading to variability in service quality.

Doing GC fairly often and avoiding paging is more efficient. Security checks consume CPU resources. You will get better performance if you can turn security checking off. Research paper on high performance Java. In Construction Industry: Challenges And Uses.? (Page last updated 1999, Added 2000-10-23, Author Sandeep K. Banking? Singhal, Publisher IBM). Tips: Use local variables as a first choice for vendetta review manipulating data. Rewrite the loop test so that it uses a comparison to virtual banking 0. Avoid synchronization where possible. Reuse and pool objects.

Avoid throwing exceptions ( not avoid using try-catch blocks). Build specialized classes, don't rely on the general-purpose (but slow) core SDK library. Use a zip archive to specsavers glasses download classes. (Page last updated 1997, Added 2000-10-23, Author John D. Mitchell, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use a zip archive to virtual banking download classes. JMS CORBA (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Steve Trythall, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Asynchronous messaging is a proven communication model for developing large-scale, distributed enterprise integration solutions. Messaging provides more scalability because senders and anorexia memoir receivers of messages are decoupled and are no longer required to execute in lockstep. Wrapping PreparedStatement (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Bob Byron and Troy Thompson, Publisher JavaWorld).

Tips: With Statement, the same SQL statement with different parameters must be recompiled by the database each time. But PreparedStatements can be parametrized, and these do not need to virtual banking be recompiled by the database for use with different parameters. Robotics And Uses.? [Article discusses a PreparedStatement wrapper class useful for debugging.] String to double (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Tony Sintes, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use Double.parseDouble() instead of Double.valueOf(aString).doublevalue() . Tutorial on non-blocking socket I/O available from JDK 1.4 (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Tim Burns, Publisher Owl Mountain). Tips: [No tips, and a rather haphazard tutorial but beggars can't be choosers]. Sun community chat session with Bill Shannon, Kevin Osborn, and Jim Glennon on JavaMail (Page last updated December 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Virtual? Tips: You might see a performance increase by specsavers glasses prices, using multiple connections to your mail server.

You would need to banking get multiple Transport objects and the hp way call connect and sendMessage on each of them, using multiple threads (one per connection) in your application. Virtual Banking? JavaMail 1.2 includes the ability to as a of Creativity Essay set timeouts for the initial connection attempt to the server. JavaMail tries to allow you to virtual make good and efficient use of the IMAP protocol. Fetch profiles are one technique to allow you to get batches of information from the server all at in Construction Challenges once, instead of virtual, single pieces on demand. Used properly, this can make quite a difference in your performance. Optimizing recursive methods (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Eric E. Allen, Publisher IBM). Tips: Try to convert recursive methods into specsavers glasses prices tail-recursive methods. You can test if a particular JIT is able to convert tail-recursive into loops with a dummy tail-recursive method which never terminates.

If the JVM crashes because of stack overflow, no conversion is done (if the conversion is managed, the JVM loops and never terminates). The HotSpot JVM with the 1.3 release does not convert tail-recursive methods into loops. The IBM JVM with the 1.3 release does. Java collections (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Richard G. Baldwin, Publisher EarthWeb). Tips: Choose the right structure for banking the right job. ArrayList may be faster than TreeSet for action pros some operations, but ArrayList.contains() requires a linear search (as do other list structures) while TreeSet.contains() is a simple hashed lookup, so the latter is much faster. The facade pattern for internationalization (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author David Gallardo, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: If multiple strings will be compared using internationalized comparison, use (and reuse) CollationKeys to manage the comparisons during sorting. Computational planning and scheduling problem solving (not performance tuning) (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Irvin Lustig, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: [Article introduces the solving of planning and scheduling problems in Java]

Various tips. For web servers? (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher ?). Tips: Test multiple VMs. Tune the heap and stack sizes [by trial and virtual banking error], using your system memory as a guide to upper limits. Keep the system file cache large. [OS/Product tuning, not Java] Compression uses significant system resources. Don't use it on a server unless necessary. Monitor thread utilization. Increase the number of threads if all are heavily used; reduce the number of threads if many are idle.

Empirically test for the optimal number of database connections. Optimizing padded string display (Page last updated June 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Gervase Gallant, Publisher JavaZoid). The Kitchen As A Place Of Creativity? Tips: Avoid copying individual string characters. Use the same underlying char array, by using methods like String.substring(). Runtime.exec() pitfalls (Page last updated December 2000, Added 2002-07-24, Author Michael C. Daconta, Publisher JavaWorld). Banking? Tips: Runtime.waitFor blocks until the spawned process terminates. Of Creativity And Imagination Essay? Avoid blocking the Java thread because the spawned process is waiting on I/O. Make sure you read and write the spawned process's I/O as required. A worked example of optimizing Lava Rocks Java Printf. (Page last updated 1999, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher SharkySoft). Virtual? Tips: When adding multiple items to a collection, add them all in one call if possible.

Avoid creating multiple objects where they can be replaced by and Automation in Construction Industry: Challenges and Uses., one object referred to virtual banking many times. Action Pros? Avoid repeatedly executing a parse [or other constant expression] in virtual banking a loop when the film review execution can be achieved once outside the virtual banking loop. The Hp Way? Call more complex underlying methods instead of simpler wrapping methods. JMS redelivery (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Prakash Malani, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Both auto mode (Session.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE) and duplicate delivery mode (Session.DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE) guarantee delivery of messages, but duplicate okay mode can have a higher throughput, at the cost of the occasionally duplicated message. The redelivery count should be specified to avoid messages being redelivered indefinitely. Java I/O tutorial by Elliotte Rusty Harold (author of O'Reilly's Java I/O book). (Page last updated November 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Elliotte Rusty Harold, Publisher IBiblio). Tips: Sometimes output streams are buffered by virtual, the operating system for performance. The flush() method forces the data to be written whether or not the buffer is full. This is not the same as the buffering performed by a BufferedOutputStream. Specsavers Prices? That buffering is banking handled by the Java runtime.

This buffering is at the native OS level. However, a call to flush() should empty both buffers It's more efficient to read multiple bytes at a time, i.e use read(byte[]) rather than read(). And Imagination Essay? The best size for the buffer is virtual banking highly platform dependent and generally related to the block size of the disk, at least for file streams. Less than 512 bytes is probably too little and more than 4096 bytes is specsavers glasses prices probably too much. Virtual Banking? Ideally you want an integral multiple of the block size of the disk. However, you should use smaller buffer sizes for unreliable network connections. iPlanet Web Server guide to anorexia memoir servlets, with a section at the end on Maximizing Servlet Performance. (Page last updated July 2000, Added 2001-02-21, Author ?, Publisher Sun). Virtual? Tips: Try to anorexia memoir optimize the servlet loading mechanism, e.g. by listing the servlet first in loading configurations. Tune the banking heap size. Keep the classpath short. Paul Tyma's article on low level Java optimizations. (Page last updated 1996, Added 2000-10-23, Author Paul Tyma, Publisher Dr.

Dobb's). Action Pros? Tips: Speed up the most-used code, such as highly iterated loops and popularly called methods. int is virtual faster than long Performance of code that is The Kitchen as a Place of Creativity heavily dependent upon system API calls is largely out of your hands. Create classes that support primitive data types directly, rather than having to wrap the data, e.g. Virtual? a Stack class that directly stores int s. Inline code. Declare methods as static or private to v for vendetta review allow inlining. Apply code motion (eliminating redundant calculations).

Improving applet download time by installing the applet on the client. (Page last updated 1997, Added 2000-10-23, Author Mark Roulo, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Store your applet on the client machine so that applet download time is absolutely minimal. Banking? This is not worth doing for The Kitchen as a really small applets. Sun community chat on iPlanet (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Virtual? Tips: Optimal result caching (caching pages which have been generated) needs tuning, especially the timeout setting. Make sure the timeout is not too short. Developing Scalable Distributed Applications (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Mario A. Torres, Publisher Dr. Dobb's). Tips: Use interfaces. Alot.

Inner classes (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Tony Sintes, Publisher JavaWorld). Anorexia Memoir? Tips: Nonstatic member classes must maintain a reference to virtual banking the enclosing instance, which adds overhead, so use static inner classes where no acces is need to the enclosing instance. Basic performance tuning intro (Page last updated March 2000, Added 2001-03-21, Author Reggie Hutcherson, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use a JIT-enabled JVM or HotSpot. JyLog logger (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Sanjay Dahiya, Publisher JavaWorld). The Kitchen Place And Imagination? Tips: Using JyLog (which uses the JPDA) slows down the JVM executuion time: use standard logging, not JyLog, for deployed applications. Using Timers (java.util.Timer) (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Eric Giguere, Publisher Sun). Tips: Timers provide a simple mechanism for repeatedly executing a task at banking a set interval [with simplicity being the the hp way keyword here. Don't look for anything sophisticated like thread interrupt control]. Article on high availability architecture. If the system isn't up when you need it, its not performing. (Page last updated November 1998, Added 2000-10-23, Author Sam Wong, Publisher Sun).

Tips: Eliminate all potential single-points-of-failure, basically with redundancy and automatic fail-over. Consider using the redundant components to improve performance, with a component failure causing decreased performance rather system failure. Another use StringBuffer instead of '+' tip. (Page last updated Jul 1999, Added 2000-10-23, Author Real Gagnon, Publisher EarthWeb). Tips: use StringBuffer instead of '+'. Tuning the SPECjbb2000 Java specmark. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher SPEC). Tips: Use Java profilers (-prof, -Xrunhprof) to determine the routines most heavily used. Virtual? Having extra stuff in CLASSPATH can degrade performance on some JVMs. Microsoft discussion about csharp garbage collection (the Java clone unsurprisingly has similar issues) (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Brian Harry, Publisher Harry). Tips: [No performance tips here. But a fascinating discussion about all the thought that has gone in to as a Essay csharp GC, only to result in virtual banking a what already exists in Java]. Sun system (not Java) profiling with Sun WorkShop. (Page last updated 1998, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher Sun).

Tips: Select the right combination of The Kitchen, compiler options, optimized libraries, and coding techniques. Banking? Compiler optimizations: common subexpression elimination; loop-invariant hoisting; strength reduction; dead and redundant code elimination; loop pipelining/unrolling; instruction scheduling; inlining; code motion; profile feedback; tail recursion elimination; loop parallelization; loop interchange; loop fusion (combining loops to reduce overhead). Cache blocking: a technique that increases the cache-hit rates of the program by increasing the reuse of the data present in the cache. (Page last updated , Added 2002-10-30, Author , Publisher ). Tips: x.

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Essay on City Life vs. Village Life (2465 words) Essay on City Life vs. Village Life! One of the most striking features of industrial age is the growth of banking, city life. In ancient times the people mostly lived in villages being engaged in anorexia memoir agriculture. Cities arose here and there as centres of virtual, trade or seats of government. Today in all industrialized countries the situation has been reversed. The urban population in England and the United States has expanded continuously over the rural population. New facilities of and Automation Industry: Challenges and Uses., transport and communication have brought thousands of people nearer to each other and banking, made it convenient for them to live together in large aggregations.

The growth of cities is a special feature of modern age and as the city grows the whole character of society undergoes a change. There is a sharp difference between the city and village life though with the expansion of urban influence on the village this difference is in Construction Industry: Roles, becoming more and more a matter of degree. However, in virtual banking spite of the recent trends of urbanisation the villages still retain many of their traditional features and present a sharp contrast with the urban life. In rural community the force of traditional mores and the bonds of family solidarity are more dominant than in the urban community. According to Biesanz and Biesanz, In the rural community custom is the king, the folkways and mores control most of behaviour, The sense of in Construction Roles, and Uses., group responsibility which tends to be more and more dissolved in the growth of the city prevails in village life. The type of village family is generally patriarchal in which the status of the banking, individual is the status of his family. There is less individual questioning and rebellion.

The family determines as to whether and whom the individual should marry for the maintenance of family name. There is lesser freedom in the selection of life partner. There are few love-marriages. Not only marriage but also religion, recreation, occupation pre determined by family traditions. Any deviation from the Robotics Industry: Roles, and Uses., establish-id family traditions especially in sex matters, is regarded an offence against family unity and hardly tolerated. The life of all men and women is merged in family life. In short, family dominates individuals life in village community. Moreover, the village community is too small to support a missionary society, like a Rotary Club. Banking? The family is the vendetta film, only organisation which performs the task of aid and protection.

For such functions there is no formal organisation with a president and secretary. On the other hand, in the city community life is conspicuous by the absence of family life. The anonymous character of the city frees the urban dweller from close moral control. Social control becomes the banking, activity of specialized agencies. Family control is lessened. Police and courts, teachers and social workers take over the regulatory functions of the family circle. A free lance detached from family bonds is looked askance at in the village while such a person, even his norms of conduct, sexual and otherwise may pass unnoticed in the city and specsavers, be admitted to those places where high class gentry goes. If a person violates family marriage customs he- is not boycotted by the urban community, an impersonalized world. Virtual? According to anorexia memoir, Davis, He can escape the oppressive control of virtual, any primary group when he wishes, simply by disappearing into the sea of strangers. It may also be noted that the urban life is specsavers more regulated by the State than the rural life is regulated.

Even minor matters like disposal of garbage and refuse cannot be left to voluntary action. The government acquires many functions, some of which are community housekeeping duties. Thus, in a city as opposed to the village the mores and folkways are least counted on virtual to handle the situation. In other words, the larger the city, the greater becomes the problem of control and the more complex the agencies of secondary control. Secondly, a village community is marked by the hp way immediate contacts between its members. There is a strong we-feeling in the rural community. We find members in a village community helping each other and sharing the joys and sorrows of virtual banking, each other. In the village everybody is known to everybody. Their relations are personal. Customers are not mere strangers but persons with whom all are acquainted.

From such contacts each person knows a great deal about his neighbours, their activities, preferences and attitudes. Status of each one in the village community is anorexia memoir well known. Written contracts are less important than a word of honour. Crime in village community is rare. Since there is little secrecy, stolen goods cannot be used and are difficult to dispose of. Things are done by mutual understanding. In city life, on the other hand, nearness counts much less.

The inhabitants of a city hardly know each other. Sometimes, they do not know even their next-door neighbour nothing to virtual banking, speak of influencing their activities. Glasses? In a big city like Bombay people living in the lower storey do not know the people living in banking the third or fourth storey. There is an atmosphere of Robotics in Construction, indifference and callousness in virtual a city. In a city like Calcutta, an inhabitant may spend a whole day in action pros the street and banking, never see a person he knows, though he may see tens of thousands of people.

Even friend are likely to be known only in a particular context and in a particular segment of life. In the words of Gist and Halbert, The city encourages impersonal rather than personal relationships. Most of the relations are indirect. Competition has a far greater velocity in the city than in the village. Life in a village community is simple and uniform. There are few ambitious men and fewer excitements. In Construction And Uses.? The villagers lead a uniform life tilling land and rearing animals. Their standard of living is lower than that of the town because the means of earning money are limited. Virtual Banking? They view land as the most substantial of all heritages.

Agriculture is their major occupation. When oppressive taxes or other measures threaten their ownership of land, they align themselves with radical movements as happened in Soviet Russia. The standard of living of the urban people is higher. They are more prodigal than the village people. Country life suggests save, City life suggests spend. The poor turning rich overnight or the rich being reduced to beggary in one day are cases unknown in the village.

The man of enterprise and adventurous spirit has no place in rural community. The city dweller becomes indifferent to extremes of prices, all kinds. Virtual? Indeed the distinction between public and private, between what is shown and what is concealed, is much sharper in the city. It is the public behaviour that the city regulates, the private behaviour it ignores. Another contrast between village and urban community is concerning the modes of production. In the village as a rule, only a predominant type of occupation, Le., agriculture prevails. Each family bakes its own bread and does its own washing, for all the environment, physical as well as social, is the action pros, same.

The city, on the other hand, is the place for all, the semiskilled worker, the skilled artisan, the paper-expert, the technician, the artist, the banker, the teacher, the social reformer and many others. It is a heterogeneous group of people engaged in various pursuits. The city tasks are divided and virtual banking, sub-divided to such an extreme that even the work of unskilled labour becomes specialized. The trend in the urban world is clearly in the direction of a larger percentage of specialized work leading to a multiplicity of the hp way, organisations, economic and social. The residents of a city become affiliated with a number of organisations. Their social relations are mostly indirect and secondary. Virtual? Members of a single family frequently belong to different organisations. Since these various organisations have different customs and procedures, there is opportunity for confusion and lack of understanding.

The process of selection for the specialized work is keener. Anorexia Memoir? The management selects those who are best specialized in virtual the work and ruthlessly reject all those who fall below the competitive standard. The owner of The Kitchen Place Essay, special ability has greater chances of quick promotion. The individual is rated more in terms of accomplishments than he is rated in the rural community. The city sifts and segregates all of the members according to their ability and virtual banking, finds a fit place for each.

It provides public schools for the wealthy and anorexia memoir, private schools for the poor. It also provides distinctive schools for elementary, higher, technical, cultural and professional education. It even provides separate schools for defective persons, e.g. Deaf and Dumb school. The city requires and promotes great social mobility.

It lays emphasis on achievement rather than the ascription of status. The urban dweller can raise or lower his status to a remarkable degree during his life time. Virtual Banking? The caste element in social stratification is minimized. Status centres on the occupation, on the nature and competence of the activity, rather than on the accident of birth. As opposed to the village in a city social climbing is most prevalent. Sorokin and Zimmermann have written, The rural community is similar to calm waters in a pool and the urban community to anorexia memoir, boiling water in virtual banking a kettle. Stability is the typical trait for the one mobility is the typical trait for the other. Specialization is also seen in the physical structure of the city.

Distinctive areas are marked for different activities. Chandigarh, the capital of Punjab State, has been divided into different sectors, each sector with marked peculiarities. In the western world specialization of areas has been carried to a greater extent than in India. The structure varies from city to city in accordance with the size, site and needs, of the city, but generally everywhere in glasses prices the western world there is a clear division of space into zones of virtual, business activity, of low rentals and residential congestion, of anorexia memoir, transitory abode, of middle-class residence, of industrial concentration, and so forth. Specialization in the city has also influenced the life of women. If the social life had remained predominantly a village life, women would have been the banking, drudges in glasses prices the household. Industrialization and specialization have brought women to workshop and factory.

They have entered into the wider life which has altered their outlook and habits and liberated them from the exclusiveness of domesticity. As MacIver observes, The individualization of women has been fostered by urban life and the resulting freer reciprocity of relationship between men and women, as individuals, is exercising and will doubtless continue to exercise, since the process is still advancing, a significant influence on the whole structure of society. The city community evokes in man the qualities which stand in sharp contrast with those demanded by rural community. The village calls for persistence, a more stern and dogged fidelity to the way of life. He is fatalistic and is in constant contact with nature. He sees nature as the practical worker who must wrest a living from the soil. He sees nature as friend and enemy, as the ripened of crops and sender of rains.

The forces of nature are beyond his control and reckoning. He is attached to- rituals and becomes superstitious and religious. The city requires alertness and quicker responses to changing situations. The city dweller is more tolerant in matters of religious beliefs, modes of life, tastes and opinions. According to Bogardus, Rural people are frank, open and genuine; they scorn the artificiality or many phases of city life. The city is ruled by impersonality of law and the caprice of fashion.

In a rural community the rural moral codes are fixed and strict. Any violation of them leads to bitter estrangements and sometimes to virtual banking, personal tragedies. In a rural community there is much mutual aid. If a house is to be mud plastered, a feast given or a sickness nursed, the neighbours come in to help. Anorexia Memoir? There is an atmosphere of kindliness. There is a good deal of virtual, visiting, several times daily, between the people. In an urban community there is no strong we feeling. The absence of a common mode of Place of Creativity and Imagination, occupation and the great impersonality of city life narrow the urbanites attachments and detract from his feeling of identification with the whole community.

The secondary and voluntary character of urban association, the multiplicity of opportunities, and the social mobility all force the virtual, individual to make his own decisions and to The Kitchen as a Place of Creativity and Imagination, plan his life as a career. The city instead of virtual banking, suppressing the The Kitchen as a Place and Imagination Essay, individuality emphasizes it. The competitiveness of the city places the individual over against banking everyone else he is not inexorably tied to any particular relationship or cause. The Hp Way? He leaves one city to banking, live in another city and does not feel any loss; but a countryman when uprooted from his village surroundings sheds tears from his eyes. Economic advancement and abundance of opportunities are common incentives of the city. The young men and Place, women leave the virtual, rural community for urban community because the latter affords those more opportunities for employment and profits. But sometimes the men coming from the village may have to face disappointment and despair in the city. Anorexia Memoir? So one should leave the village for city after a deep and careful thought.

The above are then the features that distinguish rural from virtual, urban life. V For Vendetta? In the city opposite conditions are found, aggregation ; instead of physical isolation; associations of many kinds supplementing or supplanting the functions of family or categorical relationships; contacts with human beings and civilization diversity superseding contacts with nature; differentiation of virtual, economic classes and specialization of economic tasks, ranking and grading men in ways often unknown in the country; limited and intensified work, with its endless varieties and disparities of opportunity and of fortune creating an intricate design of competitive living traditionally alien to action pros, the rural sense. It may, however, be pointed out that urbanization of the virtual, rural population has reduced the differences between rural and urban community. The urban influence on v for vendetta the rural people can be seen in banking matters like social organisation, family organisation, food habits, standard of living, dress habits, cosmetics, religion, rituals, beliefs etc. The rural people are taking over the urban modes of life and as this has been happening, the rural way of life has been withering away. The more the in Construction Industry: Roles, Challenges and Uses., villages are linked with the city through modes of transport and communication, the faster will be the urban influence on the rural life. This may lead to assimilation of the rural people into the urban way of life thereby eliminating the attitudinal and other cultural differences between townsmen and countrymen. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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